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LCA life Cycle Assessment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343863/emerging-role-of-geographical-information-system-gis-life-cycle-assessment-lca-and-spatial-lca-gis-lca-in-sustainable-bioenergy-planning
#1
REVIEW
Moonmoon Hiloidhari, D C Baruah, Anoop Singh, Sampriti Kataki, Kristina Medhi, Shilpi Kumari, T V Ramachandra, B M Jenkins, Indu Shekhar Thakur
Sustainability of a bioenergy project depends on precise assessment of biomass resource, planning of cost-effective logistics and evaluation of possible environmental implications. In this context, this paper reviews the role and applications of geo-spatial tool such as Geographical Information System (GIS) for precise agro-residue resource assessment, biomass logistic and power plant design. Further, application of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in understanding the potential impact of agro-residue bioenergy generation on different ecosystem services has also been reviewed and limitations associated with LCA variability and uncertainty were discussed...
March 15, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342419/incorporating-denitrification-decomposition-method-to-estimate-field-emissions-for-life-cycle-assessment
#2
Yelin Deng, Dimos Paraskevas, Shi-Jie Cao
This study focuses on a detailed Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for flax cultivation in Northern France. Nitrogen related field emissions are derived both from a process-oriented DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) method and the generic Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) method. Since the IPCC method is synthesised from field measurements at sites with various soil types, climate conditions, and crops, it contains significant uncertainties. In contrast, the outputs from the DNDC method are considered as more site specific as it is built according to complex models of soil science...
March 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325596/the-influence-of-fertiliser-and-pesticide-emissions-model-on-life-cycle-assessment-of-agricultural-products-the-case-of-danish-and-italian-barley
#3
Ximena C Schmidt Rivera, Jacopo Bacenetti, Alessandra Fusi, Monia Niero
Barley is an ancient crop and a great source of nutrients. It is the third largest agricultural commodity produced in Denmark and represents a relevant crop in Italy too. Due to the increasing customers awareness of sustainability issues, it has become essential to evaluate the environmental impact and the use of resources in food production and distribution systems. However, especially in agriculture, difficulties are encountered when emissions from fertilisers and pesticides need to be modelled, due to a variety of modelling options and their dependency on the availability of site-specific information...
March 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290316/food-losses-shelf-life-extension-and-environmental-impact-of-a-packaged-cheesecake-a-life-cycle-assessment
#4
Michele Mario Gutierrez, Marta Meleddu, Antonio Piga
Packaging is associated with a high environmental impact. This is also the case in the food industry despite packaging being necessary for maintaining food quality, safety assurance and preventing food waste. The aim of the present study was to identify improvements in food packaging solutions able to minimize environmental externalities while maximizing the economic sustainability. To this end, the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology was applied to evaluate the environmental performance of new packaging solutions...
January 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288358/life-cycle-ghg-evaluation-of-organic-rice-production-in-northern-thailand
#5
Sanwasan Yodkhum, Shabbir H Gheewala, Sate Sampattagul
Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission is one of the serious international environmental issues that can lead to severe damages such as climate change, sea level rise, emerging disease and many other impacts. Rice cultivation is associated with emissions of potent GHGs such as methane and nitrous oxide. Thai rice has been massively exported worldwide however the markets are becoming more competitive than ever since the green market has been hugely promoted. In order to maintain the same level or enhance of competitiveness, Thai rice needs to be considered for environmentally conscious products to meet the international environmental standards...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288179/effect-of-production-quotas-on-economic-and-environmental-values-of-growth-rate-and-feed-efficiency-in-sea-cage-fish-farming
#6
M Besson, I J M de Boer, M Vandeputte, J A M van Arendonk, E Quillet, H Komen, J Aubin
In sea cage fish farming, production quotas aim to constrain the impact of fish farming on the surrounding ecosystem. It is unknown how these quotas affect economic profitability and environmental impact of genetic improvement. We combined bioeconomic modelling with life cycle assessment (LCA) to calculate the economic (EV) and environmental (ENV) values of thermal growth coefficient (TGC) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of sea bass reared in sea cages, given four types of quota commonly used in Europe: annual production (Qprod), annual feed distributed (Qannual_feed), standing stock (Qstock), and daily feed distributed (Qdaily_feed)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283289/combined-use-of-vuv-and-uvc-photoreactors-for-the-treatment-of-hospital-laundry-wastewaters-reduction-of-load-parameters-detoxification-and-life-cycle-assessment-of-different-configurations
#7
Rômulo de Oliveira Schwaickhardt, Ênio Leandro Machado, Carlos Alexandre Lutterbeck
The present research investigated the treatment of hospital laundry wastewaters by the combined use of photochemical VUV and UVC reactors. Seven different configurations were tested and the performances of each of them were evaluated based on the removal of the load parameters, detoxification and life cycle assessment (LCA). The characterization of studied wastewaters included analysis of the following parameters: COD, BOD5, TKN, total P, pH, turbidity and conductivity. Acute ecotoxicity was evaluated using Daphnia magna...
March 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276548/the-challenges-of-solar-hydrogen-in-chemical-industry-how-to-provide-and-how-to-apply
#8
Tohru Setoyama, Takahiko Takewaki, Kazunari Domen, Takashi Tatsumi
Curbing anthropogenic CO2 emissions is one of the most important issues in the 21st century in order to mitigate climate change. Although the installation of solar cells for energy supply is in progress and these are becoming popular as an efficient use of sunlight, they are mostly used by energy-related industrial sectors. In the common chemical industry, various fossil resources are used to emit a huge amount of CO2. We believe that the chemical industry can make an effort to curb CO2 emissions by changing its resources to more environmentally benign ones...
March 9, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272033/sewage-sludge-as-fertiliser-environmental-assessment-of-storage-and-land-application-options
#9
A Willén, C Junestedt, L Rodhe, M Pell, H Jönsson
Sewage sludge (SS) contains beneficial plant nutrients and organic matter, and therefore application of SS on agricultural land helps close nutrient loops. However, spreading operations are restricted to certain seasons and hence the SS needs to be stored. Storage and land application of SS are both potential sources of greenhouse gases and ammonia, leading to global warming, acidification and eutrophication. Covering the stored SS, treating it with urea and choosing the correct time for land application all have the potential to reduce emissions from the system...
March 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267926/development-of-comparative-toxicity-potentials-of-tio2-nanoparticles-for-use-in-life-cycle-assessment
#10
Kim Ettrup, Anna Kounina, Steffen Foss Hansen, Johannes A J Meesters, Eldbjørg B Vea, Alexis Laurent
Studies have shown that releases of nanoparticles may take place through the life cycle of products embedding nanomaterials, thus resulting in potential impacts on ecosystems and human health. While several life cycle assessment (LCA) studies have assessed such products, only a few of them have quantitatively addressed the toxic impacts caused by released nanoparticles, thus leading to potential biases in their conclusions. Here, we address this gap and aim to provide a framework for calculating characterization factors or comparative toxicity potentials (CTP) for nanoparticles and derive CTP values for TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2-NP) for use in LCA...
March 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248299/the-environmental-impact-of-fertilizer-embodied-in-a-wheat-to-bread-supply-chain
#11
Liam Goucher, Richard Bruce, Duncan D Cameron, S C Lenny Koh, Peter Horton
Food production and consumption cause approximately one-third of total greenhouse gas emissions(1-3), and therefore delivering food security challenges not only the capacity of our agricultural system, but also its environmental sustainability(4-7). Knowing where and at what level environmental impacts occur within particular food supply chains is necessary if farmers, agri-food industries and consumers are to share responsibility to mitigate these impacts(7,8). Here we present an analysis of a complete supply chain for a staple of the global diet, a loaf of bread...
March 1, 2017: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212024/environmental-multiobjective-optimization-of-the-use-of-biomass-resources-for-energy
#12
Carl Vadenbo, Davide Tonini, Thomas Fruergaard Astrup
Bioenergy is often considered an important component, alongside other renewables, to mitigate global warming and to reduce fossil fuel dependency. Determining sustainable strategies for utilizing biomass resources, however, requires a holistic perspective to reflect a wider range of potential environmental consequences. To circumvent the limitations of scenario-based life cycle assessment (LCA), we develop a multiobjective optimization model to systematically identify the environmentally optimal use of biomass for energy under given system constraints...
March 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209407/life-cycle-assessment-of-facile-microwave-assisted-zinc-oxide-zno-nanostructures
#13
D Papadaki, S Foteinis, G H Mhlongo, S S Nkosi, D E Motaung, S S Ray, T Tsoutsos, G Kiriakidis
The life cycle assessment of several zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures, fabricated by a facile microwave technique, is presented. Key synthesis parameters such as annealing temperature, varied from 90°C to 220°C, and microwave power, varied from 110W to 710W, are assessed. The effect of these parameters on both the structural characteristics and the environmental sustainability of the nanostructures is examined. The nanostructures were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Photoluminescence (PL) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis...
May 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207856/biodiesel-production-potential-from-fat-fraction-of-municipal-waste-in-makkah
#14
K Shahzad, A S Nizami, M Sagir, M Rehan, S Maier, M Z Khan, O K M Ouda, I M I Ismail, A O BaFail
In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), millions of Muslims come to perform Pilgrimage every year. Around one million ton of municipal solid waste (MSW) is generated in Makkah city annually. The collected MSW is disposed of in the landfills without any treatment or energy recovery. As a result, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and contamination of the soil and water bodies along with leachate and odors are occurring in waste disposal vicinities. The composition of MSW shows that food waste is the largest waste stream (up to 51%) of the total generated MSW...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185853/sustainable-management-and-utilisation-of-concrete-slurry-waste-a-case-study-in-hong-kong
#15
Md Uzzal Hossain, Dongxing Xuan, Chi Sun Poon
With the promotion of environmental protection in the construction industry, the mission to achieve more sustainable use of resources during the production process of concrete is also becoming important. This study was conducted to assess the environmental sustainability of concrete slurry waste (CSW) management by life cycle assessment (LCA) techniques, with the aim of identifying a resource-efficient solution for utilisation of CSW in the production of partition wall blocks. CSW is the dewatered solid residues deposited in the sedimentation tank after washing out over-ordered/rejected fresh concrete and concrete trucks in concrete batching plants...
February 6, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183378/relative-emissions-intensity-of-dairy-production-systems-employing-different-functional-units-in-life-cycle-assessment
#16
S A Ross, C F E Topp, R A Ennos, M G G Chagunda
This study aimed to assess the merit and suitability of individual functional units (FU) in expressing greenhouse gas emissions intensity in different dairy production systems. An FU provides a clearly defined and measurable reference to which input and output data are normalised. This enables the results from life-cycle assessment (LCA) of different systems to be treated as functionally equivalent. Although the methodological framework of LCA has been standardised, selection of an appropriate FU remains ultimately at the discretion of the individual study...
February 10, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157562/life-cycle-assessment-and-nutrient-analysis-of-various-processing-pathways-in-algal-biofuel-production
#17
Dongyan Mu, Roger Ruan, Min Addy, Sarah Mack, Paul Chen, Yong Zhou
This study focuses on analyzing nutrient distributions and environmental impacts of nutrient recycling, reusing, and discharging in algal biofuels production. The three biomass conversion pathways compared in this study were: hydrothermal liquefaction technology (HTL), hydrothermal hydrolysis pretreatment +HTL (HTP), and wet lipid extraction (WLE). Carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorous (C, N, P) flows were described in each pathway. A primary cost analysis was conducted to evaluate the economic performance. The LCA results show that the HTP reduced life cycle NOx emissions by 10% from HTL, but increased fossil fuel use, greenhouse gas emissions, and eutrophication potential by 14%, 5%, and 28% respectively...
January 6, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132194/a-global-prospective-of-income-distribution-and-its-effect-on-life-cycle-assessment-of-municipal-solid-waste-management-a-review
#18
Pooja Yadav, S R Samadder
This study reviewed the municipal solid waste (MSW) composition, the management practices, and the use of life cycle assessment (LCA) tool for MSW management (MSWM) options in the various income group countries. LCA studies require inventory data, which is difficult to procure for any country including higher income group countries, and this issue gets compounded in low-income and lower middle-income group countries, which limits the implementation of LCA. This paper compared the use of LCA for MSWM between high-income and low-income group countries and also highlights the gap in using LCA for MSWM...
January 29, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117158/life-cycle-assessment-of-constructed-wetland-systems-for-wastewater-treatment-coupled-with-microbial-fuel-cells
#19
Clara Corbella, Jaume Puigagut, Marianna Garfí
The aim of this study was to assess the environmental impact of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) implemented in constructed wetlands (CWs). To this aim a life cycle assessment (LCA) was carried out comparing three scenarios: 1) a conventional CW system (without MFC implementation); 2) a CW system coupled with a gravel-based anode MFC, and 3) a CW system coupled with a graphite-based anode MFC. All systems served a population equivalent of 1500 p.e. They were designed to meet the same effluent quality. Since MFCs implemented in CWs improve treatment efficiency, the CWs coupled with MFCs had lower specific area requirement compared to the conventional CW system...
April 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112484/a-step-toward-regionalized-scale-consistent-agricultural-life-cycle-assessment-inventories
#20
Tiago G Morais, Ricardo Fm Teixeira, Tiago Domingos
Life cycle inventory (LCI) regionalization (i.e., the determination of input and output flows from production processes at a subcountry scale) is a priority in life cycle assessment (LCA) studies, particularly in the agri-food sector. Many regionalized LCAs fail to ensure that microlevel inventories are consistent with country-level aggregated data-or "scale consistent." They also fail to construct LCIs using international reference guidelines and trustworthy standardized data sources. This failure generates inaccuracies and biases in inventories and can compromise comparability among international LCA studies...
January 23, 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
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