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LCA life Cycle Assessment

Francesca Pierobon, Ivan L Eastin, Indroneil Ganguly
Background: Bio-jet fuels are emerging as a valuable alternative to petroleum-based fuels for their potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel dependence. In this study, residual woody biomass from slash piles in the U.S. Pacific Northwest is used as a feedstock to produce iso-paraffinic kerosene, through the production of sugar and subsequent patented proprietary fermentation and upgrading. To enhance the economic viability and reduce the environmental impacts of iso-paraffinic kerosene, two co-products, activated carbon and lignosulfonate, are simultaneously produced within the same bio-refinery...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Marisa D Scherer, Fernando J C Magalhães Filho, Amanda C Oliveira, Nelson F H Selesu, Cássia M L Ugaya, André B Mariano, José V C Vargas
In this paper the environmental evaluation of the separation process of the microalgal biomass Scenedesmus sp. from full-scale photobioreactors was carried out at the Research and Development Nucleus for Sustainable Energy (NPDEAS), with different flocculants (iron sulfate - FeCl3 , sodium hydroxide - NaOH, calcium hydroxide - Ca(OH)2 and aluminum sulphate Al2 (SO4 )3 , by means of the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, using the SimaPro 7.3 software. Furthermore, the flocculation efficiency by means of optical density (OD) was also evaluated...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Eduardo Cancino-Espinoza, Ian Vázquez-Rowe, Isabel Quispe
Quinoa is a plant that is cultivated in the Andean highlands across Peru and Bolivia. It is increasingly popular due to its high nutritive value and protein content. In particular, the cultivation of organic quinoa has grown substantially in recent years since it is the most demanded type of quinoa in the foreign market. Nevertheless, despite the interest that quinoa has generated in terms of its nutritional properties, little is known regarding the environmental profile of its production and processing. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to analyze the environmental impacts that are linked to the production and distribution of organic quinoa to the main export destinations through the application of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology...
May 8, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Pooja Sharma, James Humphreys, Nicholas M Holden
Abolition of the milk quota in the European Union and favourable market conditions have stimulated the expansion of the dairy sector in Ireland, causing more milk to be produced from poorly drained land. This work evaluated the environmental impacts of alternative agricultural uses for poorly drained farm land in Ireland using life cycle assessment (LCA). The avoided burden of the displaced product was used to calculate the net environmental consequences in the context of regional or global markets. The impact categories evaluated were climate change, eutrophication and acidification, all expressed per hectare of land for the alternative land uses, which were pasture-based milk, suckler beef and lowland sheep production and coniferous forestry...
May 7, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Shiyuan Liu, Can Wang, Lei Shi, Wenjia Cai, Lixiao Zhang
Low-carbon transition in the non-electric energy sector, which includes transport and heating energy, is necessary for achieving the 2 °C target. Meanwhile, as non-electric energy accounts for over 60% of total water consumption in the energy supply sector, it is vital to understand future water trends in the context of decarbonization. However, few studies have focused on life-cycle water impacts for non-electric energy; besides, applying conventional LCA methodology to assess non-electric energy has limitations...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Dwarakanath Ravikumar, Thomas P Seager, Stefano Cucurachi, Valentina Prado, Christopher L Mutel
It is now common practice in environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) to conduct sensitivity analyses to identify critical parameters and prioritize further research. Typical approaches include variation of input parameters one at a time to determine the corresponding variation in characterized midpoints or normalized and weighted endpoints. Generally, those input parameters that cause the greatest variations in output criteria are accepted as the most important subjects of further investigation. However, in comparative LCA of emerging technologies, the typical approach to sensitivity analysis may misdirect research and development (R&D) towards addressing uncertainties that are inconsequential or counterproductive...
May 7, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Adarsh Bafana, Shishir V Kumar, Sila Temizel-Sekeryan, Si Amar Dahoumane, Liv Haselbach, Clayton S Jeffryes
Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs) are well known for applications in electronics and as antimicrobial agents because of their unique optical, electrical, cytotoxic and thermal properties. These nanoparticles can be synthesized via a wide variety of techniques; however, they require the use of hazardous solvents which have very high environmental impacts. Nanoscience researchers have attempted novel synthesis routes that reduce resource requirements and use benign chemicals, while maintaining control over their unique properties...
May 2, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Ashkan Nabavi-Pelesaraei, Shahin Rafiee, Seyed Saeid Mohtasebi, Homa Hosseinzadeh-Bandbafha, Kwok-Wing Chau
Prediction of agricultural energy output and environmental impacts play important role in energy management and conservation of environment as it can help us to evaluate agricultural energy efficiency, conduct crops production system commissioning, and detect and diagnose faults of crop production system. Agricultural energy output and environmental impacts can be readily predicted by artificial intelligence (AI), owing to the ease of use and adaptability to seek optimal solutions in a rapid manner as well as the use of historical data to predict future agricultural energy use pattern under constraints...
August 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Ashley Edelen, Wesley W Ingwersen
Purpose: Despite growing access to data, questions of "best fit" data and the appropriate use of results in supporting decision making still plague the life cycle assessment (LCA) community. This discussion paper addresses revisions to assessing data quality captured in a new US Environmental Protection Agency guidance document as well as additional recommendations on data quality creation, management, and use in LCA databases and studies. Approach: Existing data quality systems and approaches in LCA were reviewed and tested...
April 1, 2018: International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment
Morten W Ryberg, Mikołaj Owsianiak, Julie Clavreul, Carina Mueller, Sarah Sim, Henry King, Michael Z Hauschild
The Planetary Boundaries concept has emerged as a framework for articulating environmental limits, gaining traction as a basis for considering sustainability in business settings, government policy and international guidelines. There is emerging interest in using the Planetary Boundaries concept as part of life cycle assessment (LCA) for gauging absolute environmental sustainability. We tested the applicability of a novel Planetary Boundaries-based life cycle impact assessment methodology on a hypothetical laundry washing case study at the EU level...
April 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Vhahangwele Masindi, Efthalia Chatzisymeon, Ioannis Kortidis, Spyros Foteinis
The environmental sustainability of acid mine drainage (AMD) treatment at semi-industrial scale is examined by means of the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. An integrated process which includes magnesite, lime, soda ash and CO2 bubbling treatment was employed to effectively treat, at semi-industrial scale, AMD originating from a coal mine in South Africa. Economic aspects are also discussed. AMD is a growing problem of emerging concern that cause detrimental effects to the environment and living organisms, including humans, and impose on development, health, access to clean water, thus also affect economic growth and cause social instability...
April 20, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Alenka Mauko Pranjić, Primož Oprčkal, Ana Mladenovič, Peter Zapušek, Marjan Urleb, Janez Turk
This study reports on the assessment of the environmental sustainability of different management practices for an environmentally degraded site in Slovenia: the Old Zinc-Works in the town of Celje. Life Cycle Assessments (LCAs) were applied in order to evaluate possible trade-offs by comparing a proposed in situ remediation scenario with two other reclamation scenarios (scenario 2: incineration, metal extraction, underground disposal and reclamation of the site by refilling it with replacement material, and scenario 3: underground disposal and reclamation of the site by refilling it with replacement material) and with a no-action scenario...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Ardavan Yazdanbakhsh
Several pioneering life cycle assessment (LCA) studies have been conducted in the past to assess the environmental impact of specific methods for managing mineral construction and demolition waste (MCDW), such as recycling the waste for use in concrete. Those studies focus on comparing the use of recycled MCDW and that of virgin components to produce materials or systems that serve specified functions. Often, the approaches adopted by the studies do not account for the potential environmental consequence of avoiding the existing or alternative waste management practices...
April 27, 2018: Waste Management
Robert Phillips, Harish Kumar Jeswani, Adisa Azapagic, Defne Apul
Current life cycle assessment (LCA) models do not explicitly incorporate the impacts from urban stormwater pollution. To address this issue, a framework to estimate the impacts from urban stormwater pollution over the lifetime of a system has been developed, laying the groundwork for subsequent improvements in life cycle databases and LCA modelling. The proposed framework incorporates urban stormwater event mean concentration (EMC) data into existing LCA impact categories to account for the environmental impacts associated with urban land occupation across the whole life cycle of a system...
April 25, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
O Horodytska, F J Valdés, A Fullana
Plastic flexible films are increasingly used in many applications due to their lightness and versatility. In 2014, the amount of plastic films represented 34% of total plastic packaging produced in UK. The flexible film waste generation rises according to the increase in number of applications. Currently, in developed countries, about 50% of plastics in domestic waste are films. Moreover, about 615,000 tonnes of agricultural flexible waste are generated in the EU every year. A review of plastic films recycling has been conducted in order to detect the shortcomings and establish guidelines for future research...
April 21, 2018: Waste Management
Sanwasan Yodkhum, Sate Sampattagul, Shabbir H Gheewala
Rice cultivation and energy use for rice production can produce the environmental impacts, especially related to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Also, rice straw open burning by farmers generally practiced after harvesting stage in Thailand for removing the residues in the rice field is associated with emissions of air pollutants, especially particulate matter formation that affects human health and global climate. This study assessed the environmental burdens, consisting of GHG emissions, energy use, and particulate matter formation (PM10), from rice cultivation in Thailand by life cycle assessment (LCA) and compared the environmental burdens of rice straw management scenarios: open burning, incorporation into soil, and direct combustion for electricity generation...
April 17, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Zhencheng Xing, Jigan Wang, Jie Zhang
Due to the increasing environmental burdens caused by dramatic economic expansion, eco-efficiency indicating how efficient the economic activity is with respect to its environmental impacts has become a topic of considerable interest in China. In this context, Economic Input-output Life Cycle Assessment (EIO-LCA) and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) are combined to assess the environmental impacts and eco-efficiency of China's 26 economic sectors. The EIO-LCA results indicate that Electricity Production and Supply sector is the largest net exporter in energy usage, CO2 emission and exhaust emission categories, while Construction sector is the largest net importer for five impact categories except for water withdrawal...
April 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Fernando Canellada, Amanda Laca, Adriana Laca, Mario Díaz
The environmental performance of a small-scale cheese factory sited in a NW Spanish region has been analysed by Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) as representative of numerous cheese traditional factories that are scattered through the European Union, especially in the southern countries. Inventory data were directly obtained from this facility corresponding to one-year operation, and the main subsystems involved in cheese production were included, i.e. raw materials, water, electricity, energy, cleaning products, packaging materials, transports, solid and liquid wastes and gas emissions...
April 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Andrea Corona, Morten Ambye-Jensen, Giovanna Croxatto Vega, Michael Zwicky Hauschild, Morten Birkved
The Green biorefinery (GBR) is a biorefinery concept that converts fresh biomass into value-added products. The present study combines a Process Flowsheet Simulation (PFS) and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to evaluate the technical and environmental performance of different GBR configurations and the cascading utilization of the GBR output. The GBR configurations considered in this study, test alternatives in the three main steps of green-biorefining: fractionation, precipitation, and protein separation. The different cascade utilization alternatives analyse different options for press-pulp utilization, and the LCA results show that the environmental profile of the GBR is highly affected by the utilization of the press-pulp and thus by the choice of conventional product replaced by the press-pulp...
April 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Huijun Wu, Shun Wang, Liangmin Gao, Ling Zhang, Zengwei Yuan, Tingyu Fan, Kaiping Wei, Li Huang
Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) play a critical role in agricultural production and cause many environmental disturbances. By combing life cycle assessment (LCA) method with the mass balance principle of substance flow analysis (SFA), this study establishes a nutrient-derived environmental impact assessment (NEIA) model to analyze the environmental impacts caused by nutrient-containing substances of agricultural production in China during 1978-2015. The agricultural production system is composed of crop farming and livestock breeding, and the environmental impacts include energy consumption, global warming, acidification, and eutrophication...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
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