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LCA life Cycle Assessment

Govinda Chilkoor, Venkata K K Upadhyayula, Venkataramana Gadhamshetty, Nikhil Koratkar, Mats Tysklind
Biodiesel is a widely used fuel that meets the renewable fuel standards developed under the Energy Policy Act of 2005. However, biodiesel is known to pose a series of abiotic and biotic corrosion risks to storage tanks. A typical practice (incumbent system) used to protect the tanks from these risks include (i) coating the interior surface of the tank with a solvent-free epoxy (SFE) liner, and (ii) adding a biocide to the tank. Herein, we present a screening-level life-cycle assessment study to compare the environmental performance of a graphene oxide (GO)-epoxy (GOE) liner with the incumbent system...
January 16, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Andrew D Henderson, Anne Claire Asselin-Balençon, Martin C Heller, Lindsay Lessard, Samuel Vionnet, Olivier Jolliet
This paper addresses water use impacts of agriculture, developing a spatially-explicit approach tracing the location of water use and water scarcity related to feed production, transport, and livestock, tracking uncertainties and illustrating the approach with a case study on dairy production in the United States. This approach was developed as a step to bring spatially-variable production and impacts into a process-based Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) context. As water resources and demands are spatially variable, it is critical to take into account the location of activities to properly understand the impacts of water use, accounting for each of the main feeds for milk production...
January 9, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Jara Laso, María Margallo, Pére Fullana, Alba Bala, Cristina Gazulla, Ángel Irabien, Rubén Aldaco
The anchovy canning industry is one of the most important economic resources of the Cantabria region in Spain. However, environmental, economic and social problems over the past years have forced companies to apply marketing strategies, develop product diversification, create new products and introduce them in new "green markets". Launching Cantabrian canned anchovies into more sustainable markets requires measuring the environmental performance using Product Category Rules (PCRs) and Environmental Product Declarations (EPDs)...
January 3, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Shveta Soam, Pal Borjesson, Pankaj K Sharma, Ravi P Gupta, Deepak K Tuli, Ravindra Kumar
The aim of this study is to find potential utilization practice of rice straw in India from an environmental perspective. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is conducted for four most realistic utilization practices of straw including: (1) incorporation into the field as fertilizer (2) animal fodder (3) electricity (4) biogas. The results show that processing of 1 ton straw to electricity and biogas resulted in net reduction of 1471 and 1023kg CO2 eq., 15.0 and 3.4kg SO2 eq. and 6.7 and 7.1kg C2H6 eq. emissions in global warming, acidification and photochemical oxidation creation potential respectively...
December 24, 2016: Bioresource Technology
Ramy Salemdeeb, Erasmus K H J Zu Ermgassen, Mi Hyung Kim, Andrew Balmford, Abir Al-Tabbaa
The disposal of food waste is a large environmental problem. In the United Kingdom (UK), approximately 15 million tonnes of food are wasted each year, mostly disposed of in landfill, via composting, or anaerobic digestion (AD). European Union (EU) guidelines state that food waste should preferentially be used as animal feed though for most food waste this practice is currently illegal, because of disease control concerns. Interest in the potential diversion of food waste for animal feed is however growing, with a number of East Asian states offering working examples of safe food waste recycling - based on tight regulation and rendering food waste safe through heat treatment...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cleaner Production
Ilias Giannenas, Eleftherios Bonos, Vasileios Anestis, Georgios Filioussis, Dimitrios K Papanastasiou, Thomas Bartzanas, Nikolaos Papaioannou, Athina Tzora, Ioannis Skoufos
An experimental study was conducted to examine the combined effects of adding a dietary protease, reducing the levels of soybean meal (SBM) and introducing corn gluten meal (CGM) in the ration of a group of broilers reared on a commercial Greek farm. Five hundred forty chicks were divided into three dietary treatments with six replicates of thirty birds each. The first group (Control) was fed a conventional diet based on corn and soybean meal, containing 21% w/w crude protein (CP). The second group (Soy-Prot) was supplied a corn and SBM-based diet containing a lower level of CP (20% w/w) and 200 mg of the protease RONOZYME® Proact per kg of feed...
2017: PloS One
Weiguo Liu, Zhonghui Zhang, Xinfeng Xie, Zhen Yu, Klaus von Gadow, Junming Xu, Shanshan Zhao, Yuchun Yang
Biomass is generally believed to be carbon neutral. However, recent studies have challenged the carbon neutrality hypothesis by introducing metric indicators to assess the global warming potential of biogenic CO2 (GWPbio). In this study we calculated the GWPbio factors using a forest growth model and radiative forcing effects with a time horizon of 100 years and applied the factors to five life cycle assessment (LCA) case studies of bioproducts. The forest carbon change was also accounted for in the LCA studies...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
Kuntal Jana, Sudipta De
Multi-generation or polygeneration is considered to be a potential sustainable energy solution. To assess environmental sustainability of multi-generation, life cycle assessment (LCA) is a useful tool. In this paper, environmental impact of polygeneration using an agro waste (rice straw) is assessed by LCA. Then it is compared with stand alone conventional plants with same utility outputs. Power, ethanol, heating and cooling are utility outputs of the polygeneration plant. System boundary for this polygeneration is defined for surplus biomass only...
March 2017: Bioresource Technology
Tomohiro Tabata, Yohei Wakabayashi, Peii Tsai, Takashi Saeki
Although it is important that disaster waste be demolished and removed as soon as possible after a natural disaster, it is also important that its treatment is environmentally friendly and economic. Local municipalities do not conduct environmental and economic feasibility studies of pre-disaster waste management; nevertheless, pre-disaster waste management is extremely important to promote treatment of waste after natural disasters. One of the reasons that they cannot conduct such evaluations is that the methods and inventory data required for the environmental and economic evaluation does not exist...
December 24, 2016: Waste Management
Catherine E Raptis, Justin M Boucher, Stephan Pfister
Freshwater heat emissions from power plants with once-through cooling systems constitute one of many environmental pressures related to the thermoelectric power industry. The objective of this work was to obtain high resolution, operational characterization factors (CF) for the impact of heat emissions on ecosystem quality, and carry out a comprehensive, spatially, temporally and technologically differentiated damage-based environmental assessment of global freshwater thermal pollution. The aggregation of CFs on a watershed level results in 12...
December 23, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Vaclav Hasik, Naomi E Anderson, William O Collinge, Cassandra L Thiel, Vikas Khanna, Jason Wirick, Richard V Piacentini, Amy E Landis, Melissa M Bilec
Aging water infrastructure and increased water scarcity have resulted in higher interest in water reuse and decentralization. Rating systems for high-performance buildings implicitly promote the use of building-scale, decentralized water supply and treatment technologies. It is important to recognize the potential benefits and tradeoffs of decentralized and centralized water systems in the context of high-performance buildings. For this reason and to fill a gap in the current literature, we completed a life cycle assessment (LCA) of the decentralized water system of a high-performance, net-zero energy, net-zero water building (NZB) that received multiple green building certifications, and compared the results with two modeled buildings (conventional and water efficient) using centralized water systems...
December 21, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
David A Turner, Richard P Beaven, Nick D Woodman
This study investigates the potential impacts caused by the loss of active environmental control measures during the aftercare period of landfill management. A combined mechanistic solute flow model and life cycle assessment (LCA) approach was used to evaluate the potential impacts of leachate emissions over a 10,000year time horizon. A continuum of control loss possibilities occurring at different times and for different durations were investigated for four different basic aftercare scenarios, including a typical aftercare scenario involving a low permeability cap and three accelerated aftercare scenarios involving higher initial infiltration rates...
December 15, 2016: Waste Management
Clara Tromson, Cécile Bulle, Louise Deschênes
In life cycle assessment (LCA), the potential terrestrial ecotoxicity effect of metals, calculated as the effect factor (EF), is usually extrapolated from aquatic ecotoxicological data using the equilibrium partitioning method (EqP) as it is more readily available than terrestrial data. However, when following the AMI recommendations (i.e. with at least enough species that represents three different phyla), there are not enough terrestrial data for which soil properties or metal speciation during ecotoxicological testing are specified to account for the influence of soil property variations on metal speciation when using this approach...
December 14, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Anna Petit-Boix, Ana Arahuetes, Alejandro Josa, Joan Rieradevall, Xavier Gabarrell
Flood damage results in economic and environmental losses in the society, but flood prevention also entails an initial investment in infrastructure. This study presents an integrated eco-efficiency approach for assessing flood prevention and avoided damage. We focused on ephemeral streams in the Maresme region (Catalonia, Spain), which is an urbanized area affected by damaging torrential events. Our goal was to determine the feasibility of post-disaster emergency actions implemented after a major event through an integrated hydrologic, environmental and economic approach...
December 13, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Marie Trydeman Knudsen, John E Hermansen, Christel Cederberg, Felix Herzog, Jim Vale, Philippe Jeanneret, Jean-Pierre Sarthou, Jürgen K Friedel, Katalin Balázs, Wendy Fjellstad, Max Kainz, Sebastian Wolfrum, Peter Dennis
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a widely used tool to assess environmental sustainability of products. The LCA should optimally cover the most important environmental impact categories such as climate change, eutrophication and biodiversity. However, impacts on biodiversity are seldom included in LCAs due to methodological limitations and lack of appropriate characterization factors. When assessing organic agricultural products the omission of biodiversity in LCA is problematic, because organic systems are characterized by higher species richness at field level compared to the conventional systems...
December 12, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Isabel Garcia-Herrero, María Margallo, Raquel Onandía, Rubén Aldaco, Angel Irabien
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been used to assess the environmental sustainability of the chlor-alkali production in Europe. The three current technologies applied nowadays are mercury, diaphragm, and membrane cell technology. Despite, having achieved higher energy efficiencies since the introduction of membrane technology, energy consumption is still one of the most important issues in this sector. An emerging technology namely oxygen-depolarised cathodes (ODC) is suggested as a promising approach for reducing the electrolysis energy demand...
December 9, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Betzabet Morero, Rocio Vicentin, Enrique A Campanella
In Argentina, there is an important potential to utilize organic waste to generate bioenergy. This work analyzes the environmental impacts and the energetic and economic requirements of the biogas produced by digesting the sewage sludge (SS) produced in a wastewater treatment plant in a medium city in Argentina. The SS is co-digested with the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), and the basis of this study is the life cycle assessment (LCA). The LCA is performed according to ISO 14040-44 using the SimaPro simulator...
December 7, 2016: Waste Management
Chein-Chi Chang, Kimberly DiGiovanni, Ying Mei, Li Wei
This review on Sustainability covers selected 2015 publications on the focus of Sustainability. It is divided into the following sections : Sustainable water and wastewater utilities Sustainable water resources management Stormwater and green infrastructure Sustainability in wastewater treatment Life cycle assessment (LCA) applications Sustainability and energy in wastewater industry, Sustainability and asset management.
October 2016: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
Aurélie Wilfart, Sandrine Espagnol, Sylvie Dauguet, Aurélie Tailleur, Armelle Gac, Florence Garcia-Launay
Feeds contribute highly to environmental impacts of livestock products. Therefore, formulating low-impact feeds requires data on environmental impacts of feed ingredients with consistent perimeters and methodology for life cycle assessment (LCA). We created the ECOALIM dataset of life cycle inventories (LCIs) and associated impacts of feed ingredients used in animal production in France. It provides several perimeters for LCIs (field gate, storage agency gate, plant gate and harbour gate) with homogeneously collected data from French R&D institutes covering the 2005-2012 period...
2016: PloS One
Lawton Nalley, Francis Tsiboe, Alvaro Durand-Morat, Aaron Shew, Greg Thoma
Rice blast (Magnaporthe oryzae) is a key concern in combating global food insecurity given the disease is responsible for approximately 30% of rice production losses globally-the equivalent of feeding 60 million people. These losses increase the global rice price and reduce consumer welfare and food security. Rice is the staple crop for more than half the world's population so any reduction in rice blast would have substantial beneficial effects on consumer livelihoods. In 2012, researchers in the US began analyzing the feasibility of creating blast-resistant rice through cisgenic breeding...
2016: PloS One
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