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Gene expression microbiome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767727/effects-of-long-term-intake-of-a-yogurt-fermented-with-lactobacillus-delbrueckii-subsp-bulgaricus-2038-and-streptococcus-thermophilus-1131-on-mice
#1
Yuki Usui, Yasumasa Kimura, Takeshi Satoh, Naoki Takemura, Yasuo Ouchi, Hiroko Ohmiya, Kyosuke Kobayashi, Hiromi Suzuki, Satomi Koyama, Satoko Hagiwara, Hirotoshi Tanaka, Seiya Imoto, Gérard Eberl, Yukio Asami, Kosuke Fujimoto, Satoshi Uematsu
The gut is an extremely complicated ecosystem where microorganisms, nutrients and host cells interact vigorously. Although the function of the intestine and its barrier system weakens with age, some probiotics can potentially prevent age-related intestinal dysfunction. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 2038 and Streptococcus thermophilus 1131, which are the constituents of LB81 yogurt, are representative probiotics. However, it is unclear whether their long-term intake has a beneficial influence on systemic function...
May 15, 2018: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761785/discovery-and-characterization-of-a-prevalent-human-gut-bacterial-enzyme-sufficient-for-the-inactivation-of-a-family-of-plant-toxins
#2
Nitzan Koppel, Jordan E Bisanz, Maria-Eirini Pandelia, Peter J Turnbaugh, Emily P Balskus
Although the human gut microbiome plays a prominent role in xenobiotic transformation, most of the genes and enzymes responsible for this metabolism are unknown. Recently, we linked the two-gene 'cardiac glycoside reductase' ( cgr ) operon encoded by the gut Actinobacterium Eggerthella lenta to inactivation of the cardiac medication and plant natural product digoxin. Here, we compared the genomes of 25 E. lenta strains and close relatives, revealing an expanded 8-gene cgr -associated gene cluster present in all digoxin metabolizers and absent in non-metabolizers...
May 15, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758151/clinical-effects-of-stabilized-stannous-fluoride-dentifrice-in-reducing-plaque-microbial-virulence-ii-metabonomic-changes
#3
Michael Cannon, Deepa Khambe, Malgorzata Klukowska, David L Ramsey, Melanie Miner, Tom Huggins, Donald J White
OBJECTIVES: The clinical effects of stannous fluoride (SnF2) dentifrice in reducing symptoms of gingivitis and reducing the virulence of subgingival plaque through suppression of activation of gene expression in toll receptor based reporter cells were previously reported. This study expanded analysis of the clinical study to include evaluation of dentifrice effects on salivary metabolites using 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR) systems biology-based metabonomics. METHODS: The clinical design was reported previously (J Clin Dent2017;28:16-26)...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755982/clinical-genetics-in-interstitial-lung-disease
#4
REVIEW
Chad A Newton, Philip L Molyneaux, Justin M Oldham
Interstitial lung disease (ILD) comprises a heterogeneous group of diffuse parenchymal lung processes with overlapping clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic features. Among the most common and deadly ILDs are idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (CHP). As the name implies, the cause of IPF remains elusive, but a variety of genetic and infectious risk factors have been identified. CHP results from chronic inhalation of an organic antigen, usually of avian or mold origin, and may occur in patients with a genetic predisposition...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753324/the-effect-of-the-timing-of-exposure-to-campylobacter-jejuni-on-the-gut-microbiome-and-inflammatory-responses-of-broiler-chickens
#5
Phillippa L Connerton, Philip J Richards, Geraldine M Lafontaine, Peter M O'Kane, Nacheervan Ghaffar, Nicola J Cummings, Darren L Smith, Neville M Fish, Ian F Connerton
BACKGROUND: Campylobacters are an unwelcome member of the poultry gut microbiota in terms of food safety. The objective of this study was to compare the microbiota, inflammatory responses, and zootechnical parameters of broiler chickens not exposed to Campylobacter jejuni with those exposed either early at 6 days old or at the age commercial broiler chicken flocks are frequently observed to become colonized at 20 days old. RESULTS: Birds infected with Campylobacter at 20 days became cecal colonized within 2 days of exposure, whereas birds infected at 6 days of age did not show complete colonization of the sample cohort until 9 days post-infection...
May 12, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750518/altered-microbiome-leads-to-significant-phenotypic-and-transcriptomic-differences-in-a-lipid-accumulating-chlorophyte
#6
Lubna Richter, Cresten B Mansfeldt, Michael M Kuan, Alexandra Cesare, Stephen T Menefee, Ruth E Richardson, Beth A Ahner
Given the challenges facing the economically favorable production of products from microalgae, understanding factors that might impact productivity rates including growth rates and accumulation of desired products, e.g., triacylglycerols (TAG) for biodiesel feedstock, remains critical. Although operational parameters such as media composition and reactor design can clearly effect growth rates, the role of microbe-microbe interactions is just beginning to be elucidated. In this study an oleaginous marine algae Chlorella spp...
May 11, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739901/compositional-and-functional-differences-in-the-human-gut-microbiome-correlate-with-clinical-outcome-following-infection-with-wild-type-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhi
#7
Yan Zhang, Arthur Brady, Cheron Jones, Yang Song, Thomas C Darton, Claire Jones, Christoph J Blohmke, Andrew J Pollard, Laurence S Magder, Alessio Fasano, Marcelo B Sztein, Claire M Fraser
Insights into disease susceptibility as well as the efficacy of vaccines against typhoid and other enteric pathogens may be informed by better understanding the relationship between the effector immune response and the gut microbiota. In the present study, we characterized the composition (16S rRNA gene profiling) and function (RNA sequencing [RNA-seq]) of the gut microbiota following immunization and subsequent exposure to wild-type Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi in a human challenge model to further investigate the central hypothesis that clinical outcomes may be linked to the gut microbiota...
May 8, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713061/shared-strategies-for-%C3%AE-lactam-catabolism-in-the-soil-microbiome
#8
Terence S Crofts, Bin Wang, Aaron Spivak, Tara A Gianoulis, Kevin J Forsberg, Molly K Gibson, Lauren A Johnsky, Stacey M Broomall, C Nicole Rosenzweig, Evan W Skowronski, Henry S Gibbons, Morten O A Sommer, Gautam Dantas
The soil microbiome can produce, resist, or degrade antibiotics and even catabolize them. While resistance genes are widely distributed in the soil, there is a dearth of knowledge concerning antibiotic catabolism. Here we describe a pathway for penicillin catabolism in four isolates. Genomic and transcriptomic sequencing revealed β-lactamase, amidase, and phenylacetic acid catabolon upregulation. Knocking out part of the phenylacetic acid catabolon or an apparent penicillin utilization operon (put) resulted in loss of penicillin catabolism in one isolate...
April 30, 2018: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710571/the-effects-of-sewage-treatment-plant-effluents-on-hepatic-and-intestinal-biomarkers-in-common-carp-cyprinus-carpio
#9
Sidika Sakalli, Pham Thai Giang, Viktoriia Burkina, Galia Zamaratskaia, Martin Krøyer Rasmussen, Tomas Bakal, Sarvenaz Khalili Tilami, Sabine Sampels, Jitka Kolarova, Roman Grabic, Jan Turek, Tomas Randak, Vladimir Zlabek
Sewage treatment plants (STPs) are one of the major source of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the aquatic environment. Generally, the effects of individual chemicals on fish are studied under laboratory conditions, which leads to results that are potentially not realistic regarding the effects of these chemicals under environmental conditions. Therefore, in this study, common carps were held in exposed pond that receive water from STP effluents for 360 days under natural conditions. Elimination of xenobiotics starts in the fish intestine, in which the microbial community strongly influences its function...
April 21, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706947/circadian-disruption-changes-gut-microbiome-taxa-and-functional-gene-composition
#10
Jessica A Deaver, Sung Y Eum, Michal Toborek
Disrupted circadian rhythms and alterations of the gut microbiome composition were proposed to affect host health. Therefore, the aim of this research was to identify whether these events are connected and if circadian rhythm disruption by abnormal light-dark (LD) cycles affects microbial community gene expression and host vulnerability to intestinal dysfunction. Mice were subjected to either a 4-week period of constant 24-h light or of normal 12-h LD cycles. Stool samples were collected at the beginning and after the circadian rhythm disruption...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704662/functional-microbiomics-evaluation-of-gut-microbiota-bile-acid-metabolism-interactions-in-health-and-disease
#11
Benjamin H Mullish, Alexandros Pechlivanis, Grace F Barker, Mark R Thursz, Julian R Marchesi, Julie A K McDonald
There is an ever-increasing recognition that bile acids are not purely simple surfactant molecules that aid in lipid digestion, but are a family of molecules contributing to a diverse range of key systemic functions in the host. It is now also understood that the specific composition of the bile acid milieu within the host is related to the expression and activity of bacterially-derived enzymes within the gastrointestinal tract, as such creating a direct link between the physiology of the host and the gut microbiota...
April 25, 2018: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701793/conservation-tillage-and-organic-farming-induce-minor-variations-in-pseudomonas-abundance-their-antimicrobial-function-and-soil-disease-resistance
#12
Francesca Dennert, Nicola Imperiali, Cornelia Staub, Jana Schneider, Titouan Laessle, Tao Zhang, Raphaël Wittwer, Marcel G A van der Heijden, Theo H M Smits, Klaus Schlaeppi, Christoph Keel, Monika Maurhofer
Conservation tillage and organic farming are strategies used worldwide to preserve the stability and fertility of soils. While positive effects on soil structure have been extensively reported, the effects on specific root- and soil-associated microorganisms are less known. The aim of this study was to investigate how conservation tillage and organic farming influence the frequency and activity of plant-beneficial pseudomonads. Amplicon sequencing using the 16S rRNA gene revealed that Pseudomonas is among the most abundant bacterial taxa in the root microbiome of field-grown wheat, independent of agronomical practices...
April 25, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686603/indole-a-signaling-molecule-produced-by-the-gut-microbiota-negatively-impacts-emotional-behaviors-in-rats
#13
Mathilde Jaglin, Moez Rhimi, Catherine Philippe, Nicolas Pons, Aurélia Bruneau, Bénédicte Goustard, Valérie Daugé, Emmanuelle Maguin, Laurent Naudon, Sylvie Rabot
Gut microbiota produces a wide and diverse array of metabolites that are an integral part of the host metabolome. The emergence of the gut microbiome-brain axis concept has prompted investigations on the role of gut microbiota dysbioses in the pathophysiology of brain diseases. Specifically, the search for microbe-related metabolomic signatures in human patients and animal models of psychiatric disorders has pointed out the importance of the microbial metabolism of aromatic amino acids. Here, we investigated the effect of indole on brain and behavior in rats...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685968/impact-of-dietary-gut-microbial-metabolites-on-the-epigenome
#14
REVIEW
Clarissa Gerhauser
Within the past decade, epigenetic mechanisms and their modulation by natural products have gained increasing interest. Dietary bioactive compounds from various sources, including green tea, soya, fruit and berries, cruciferous vegetables, whole grain foods, fish and others, have been shown to target enzymes involved in epigenetic gene regulation, including DNA methyltransferases, histone acetyltransferases, deacetylases and demethylases in vitro and in cell culture. Also, many dietary agents were shown to alter miRNA expression...
June 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679417/a-probiotic-modulates-the-microbiome-and-immunity-in-multiple-sclerosis
#15
Stephanie K Tankou, Keren Regev, Brian C Healy, Emily Tjon, Luca Laghi, Laura M Cox, Pia Kivisäkk, Isabelle V Pierre, Hrishikesh Lokhande, Roopali Gandhi, Sandra Cook, Bonnie Glanz, James Stankiewicz, Howard L Weiner
OBJECTIVE: Effect of a probiotic on the gut microbiome and peripheral immune function in healthy controls and relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients. METHODS: MS patients (N=9) and controls (N=13) were orally administered a probiotic containing Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Streptococcus twice daily for two months. Blood and stool specimens were collected at baseline, after completion of the 2-month treatment, and 3 months after discontinuation of therapy...
April 20, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668076/comparative-analyses-of-the-gut-microbiota-among-three-different-wild-geese-species-in-the-genus-anser
#16
Wen Wang, Yingbao Liu, Yongsheng Yang, Aizhen Wang, Kirill Sharshov, Yao Li, Mengyao Cao, Puzhen Mao, Laixing Li
In this study, we characterized for the first time the gut microbiota of Greylag geese (Anser anser) using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing technology. The results showed that the phyla Firmicutes (78.55%), Fusobacteria (9.38%), Proteobacteria (7.55%), Bacteroidetes (1.82%), Cyanobacteria (1.44%), and Actinobacteria (0.61%) dominated the gut microbial communities in the Greylag geese. Then, the variations of gut microbial community structures and functions among the three geese species, Greylag geese, Bar-headed geese (Anser indicus), and Swan geese (Anser cygnoides), were explored...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662547/pd-l1-expression-testing-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Cristina Teixidó, Noelia Vilariño, Roxana Reyes, Noemí Reguart
In recent years, immunotherapy has revolutionized and changed the standard of care in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Immune checkpoint inhibitors, fundamentally those that act by blocking the programmed cell death receptor-1 (PD-1) and its ligand the programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) have emerged as novel treatment strategies in NSCLC, demonstrating undoubted superiority over chemotherapy in terms of efficacy. Several of these immune checkpoint modulators have recently gained regulatory approval for the treatment of advanced NSCLC, such as nivolumab, atezolizumab and pembrolizumab in first-line (only the latter) and second-line settings, and more recently, durvalumab as maintenance after chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced disease...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662485/our-environment-shapes-us-the-importance-of-environment-and-sex-differences-in-regulation-of-autoantibody-production
#18
REVIEW
Michael Edwards, Rujuan Dai, S Ansar Ahmed
Consequential differences exist between the male and female immune systems' ability to respond to pathogens, environmental insults or self-antigens, and subsequent effects on immunoregulation. In general, females when compared with their male counterparts, respond to pathogenic stimuli and vaccines more robustly, with heightened production of antibodies, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and chemokines. While the precise reasons for sex differences in immune response to different stimuli are not yet well understood, females are more resistant to infectious diseases and much more likely to develop autoimmune diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650970/crosstalk-between-gut-microbiota-and-sirtuin-3-in-colonic-inflammation-and-tumorigenesis
#19
Yong Zhang, Xiao-Lan Wang, Min Zhou, Chao Kang, He-Dong Lang, Meng-Ting Chen, Suo-Cheng Hui, Bin Wang, Man-Tian Mi
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a disease involving a variety of genetic and environmental factors. Sirtuin-3 (Sirt3) is expressed at a low level in cancer tissues of CRC, but it is unclear how Sirt3 modulates colonic tumorigenesis. In this study, we found that gut microbiota play a central role in the resistance to CRC tumor formation in wild-type (WT) mice through APC (Adenomatous Polyposis Coli)-mutant mouse microbiota transfer via Wnt signaling. We also found that Sirt3-deficient mice were hypersusceptible to colonic inflammation and tumor development through altered intestinal integrity and p38 signaling, respectively...
April 13, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624747/fecal-microbiome-signatures-are-different-in-food-allergic-children-compared-to-siblings-and-healthy-children
#20
Atoosa Kourosh, Ruth Ann Luna, Miriam Balderas, Christina Nance, Aikaterini Anagnostou, Sridevi Devaraj, Carla M Davis
BACKGROUND: Intestinal microbes have been shown to influence predisposition to atopic disease, including food allergy. The intestinal microbiome of food allergic children may differ in significant ways from genetically similar non-allergic children and age matched controls. The aim was to characterize fecal microbiomes to identify taxa that may influence the expression of food allergy. METHODS: Stool samples were collected from children with IgE mediated food allergies, siblings without food allergy, and non-allergic controls...
April 6, 2018: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
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