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Health disparity in gender

Jyoti Savla, L Rebecca Bivens, Karen A Roberto, Rosemary Blieszner
OBJECTIVE: Despite overall improvements in the U.S. health care, older adults living in rural counties, such as Appalachian Virginia, continue to be underserved. METHOD: Multinomial regression models, including both individual and county data from 503 older adults aged 65+, were used to examine factors associated with informal and formal care use. RESULTS: Older adults with stronger filial beliefs and less positive attitudes toward community services preferred informal help...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Aging and Health
Nicolas Aguilar-Farias, Pia Martino-Fuentealba, Jaime Carcamo-Oyarzun, Andrea Cortinez-O'Ryan, Carlos Cristi-Montero, Astrid Von Oetinger, Kabir P Sadarangani
Background: Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) countries, have been historically under-represented due to the lack of surveillance of physical behaviours in young populations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe and compare overall physical activity (PA), active transportation to and from school (i.e. walking or cycling), physical education (PE) participation, and sedentary behaviour (SB) in adolescents from 26 countries in LAC. Methods: Data were collected in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (2007-13)...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Jenny Olofsson, Mojgan Padyab, Gunnar Malmberg
BACKGROUND: Previous research suggests that the social network may play very different roles in relation to health in countries with differing welfare regimes. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to assess the interplay between social network, socioeconomic position, and self-rated health (SRH) in European countries. METHODS: The study used cross-sectional data on individuals aged 50+ from the fourth wave of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) and includes data from 16 countries...
2018: Global Health Action
Lisa Carter-Harris, James E Slaven, Patrick O Monahan, Rivienne Shedd-Steele, Nasser Hanna, Susan M Rawl
Lung cancer screening is a relatively new screening option. Inequalities related to screening behavior have been documented in other types of cancer screening. Because stage at presentation drives mortality in lung cancer, it is critical to understand factors that influence screening behavior in lung cancer screening in order to intervene. However, we must first understand where disparities exist in lung cancer screening participation in order to effectively guide intervention efforts. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the association of sociodemographic (including key disparity-related variables) and knowledge with lung cancer screening behavior...
June 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Elizabeth A McConnell, Patrick Janulis, Gregory Phillips, Roky Truong, Michelle Birkett
Minority stress theory has widespread research support in explaining health disparities experienced by sexual and gender minorities. However, less is known about how minority stress impacts multiply marginalized groups, such as lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people of color (LGBT POC). Also, although research has documented resilience in the face of minority stress at the individual level, research is needed that examines macro-level processes such as community resilience (Meyer, 2015). In the current study, we integrate minority stress theory and intersectionality theory to examine multiple minority stress (i...
March 2018: Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity
Pooja Tripathi, Ramachandra Kamath, Rajnarayan Tiwari
Background: Fisherwomen are informal sector workers involved in post-harvest operations and are mostly engaged in peeling, trading, and processing of fish. High degree of wage disparity and gender inequalities results in different socioeconomic status of fisherwomen and fishermen. This study aimed to identify gender issues and their effect on the health status of fisherwomen. Materials and Methods: The present cross-sectional included 171 fishermen and fisherwomen...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Cynthia Khamala Wangamati, Johanne Sundby, Ruth Jane Prince
Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a major global health concern. Although it is prevalent in Kenya, scant literature on factors contributing to CSA vulnerability exists. Using qualitative data from 28 focus groups and ethnographic field notes, we explored and assessed community perceptions of factors contributing to CSA vulnerability in Homa Bay County, Western Kenya. Findings suggest that people living in these communities perceived CSA as being influenced by multiple factors: developmental stage, peer pressure, huge gender disparities exacerbated by negative social norms and cultural practices, the HIV epidemic and social media platforms that circulate sexualised images...
March 13, 2018: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Jennifer L Glick, Katherine Theall, Katherine Andrinopoulos, Carl Kendall
Gender-minority health disparity research is limited by binary gender measurement practices. This study seeks to broaden current discourse on gender identity measurement in the USA, including measurement adoption challenges and mitigation strategies, thereby allowing for better data collection to understand and address health disparities for people of all genders. Three data sources were used to triangulate findings: expert interviews with gender and sexuality research leaders; key-informant interviews with gender minorities in New Orleans, LA; and document analysis of relevant surveys, guides and commentaries...
March 13, 2018: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Carmen H Logie, Candice L Lys, Nicole Schott, Lisa Dias, Makenzie R Zouboules, Kayley Mackay
Scant research has addressed health and well-being among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) persons in the Arctic. The Northwest Territories (NWT) has among Canada's highest rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). LGBTQ persons in NWT are at the nexus of LGBTQ and Arctic health disparities. Yet little is known of their sexual health needs. This qualitative study explored the sexual health needs of LGBTQ persons in the NWT. We conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 51 participants, including 16 LGBTQ youth aged 15-24, 21 LGBTQ adults aged 25 and above, and 14 key informants who worked with LGBTQ persons...
March 13, 2018: Global Public Health
Yuka Minagawa, Yasuhiko Saito
Compared to the large volume of research focused on mortality differentials within Japan, relatively little is known about regional variations in health expectancy, particularly among older people. This article has two interrelated objectives. The first objective is to estimate prefecture-specific disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) at 65 years of age in 2010. DFLE at 65 by gender and prefecture was computed using the Sullivan method, which was applied to prefecture-specific life tables and prevalence of disability from Kokumin Seikatsu Kiso Chosa (Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions) of 2010...
March 2018: European Journal of Ageing
Pisit Suntaravitun, Amornrat Dokmaikaw
Intestinal parasitic infections remain a major public health problem in many parts of Thailand, particularly in rural areas. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and associated risk factors among the people living in Huai Sai sub-district, Bang Khla district, Chachoengsao Province, central Thailand. A cross-sectional survey was carried out from June 2017 to August 2017 which included a total of 224 participants. Stool samples were examined using a simple direct smear and formalin ethyl acetate concentration technique...
February 2018: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Niodita Gupta, Marko Vujicic, Cassandra Yarbrough, Brittany Harrison
BACKGROUND: The Affordable Care Act of 2010 increased dental coverage for children in the United States, (U.S.) but not for adults. Few studies in current scholarship make use of up-to-date, nationally representative data to examine oral health disparities in the U.S. POPULATION: The purpose of this study is to use nationally representative data to determine the prevalence of untreated caries among children and adults of different socioeconomic and racial/ethnic groups and to examine the factors associated with untreated caries among children and adults...
March 6, 2018: BMC Oral Health
Andrew H Rogers, Nicole A Short, Zuzuky Robles, Jafar Bakhshaie, Andres Viana, Norman B Schmidt, Monica Garza, Melissa Ochoa-Perez, Chad Lemaire, Daniel Bogiaizian, Angela Medvedeva, Michael J Zvolensky
Rates of suicide and major depressive disorder (MDD) are currently at the highest point in the history of the United States (US). However, these rates are not distributed evenly among the population and Latinos show disproportionately high rates of both suicide and MDD. Yet, past research has infrequently explored factors related to suicide and MDD in primary care settings that serve as the major community portal for mental health among the Latino population. Thus, the current study investigated sociodemographic variables (marital status, nativity, education, employment, primary language, age, and gender) in terms of their relations with suicidal ideation, suicide risk, MDD, and MDD symptom severity among Latino primary care patients in a Federally Qualified Health Center (N = 634, Mage  = 39...
March 6, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Jarron M Saint Onge, Natalie A Jansen, Erin Ice
Objectives Social trust and access to social capital serve as important mechanisms to offset gender disparities in health in low-middle-income countries (LMICs) such as Indonesia. Indonesian women may have fewer opportunities to create strong social ties outside her social sphere and thus may benefit particularly from individual-level thin trust because generalized trust lowers barriers to gaining social support. We examined the role of thin trust and thick trust, two unique forms of social trust, to better understand the links between individual- and community-level trust and maternal health...
March 5, 2018: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Wanli Lin, Lina Gong, Miaojuan Xia, Wenjie Dai
BACKGROUND: Involvement in road traffic accidents (RTAs) may put individuals at increased risk for a wide range of psychiatric disorders, among which posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) presents a public health issue. However, a great disparity was observed among studies exploring the prevalence of PTSD among RTA survivors. This meta-analysis aimed to explore the pooled prevalence of PTSD among RTA survivors. METHODS: Electronic databases of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, PsycARTICLES, PsycINFO, and CINAHL were searched to identify relevant studies...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Anne-Sophie Homøe, Sine Berntsen, Michael Lynge Pedersen
For decades the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) has been a health concern in Greenland, especially within the age group of 15-34 year olds. However, no overview exists of the potential differences in regional incidence and management of STIs. This study investigates the age, gender and region specific diagnostic activity and incidence of gonorrhoea in Greenland in 2015. The study design was an observational cross sectional register study with inclusion of patients tested for gonorrhoea in 2015...
December 2018: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
Dori Pekmezi, Cole Ainsworth, Taylor Holly, Victoria Williams, Tanya Benitez, Kaiying Wang, Laura Q Rogers, Bess Marcus, Wendy Demark-Wahnefried
Telephone-delivered interventions do not require frequent clinic visits, literacy, or costly technology and thus may represent promising approaches to promoting physical activity in the Deep South, a largely rural U.S. region, with generally lower physical activity, income, and education levels. Building on past Interactive Voice Response (IVR) system-based HIV studies and extensive formative research (11 focus groups on physical activity intervention needs/preferences in the Deep South), the resulting IVR-supported physical activity intervention is now being tested in a randomized controlled trial with a waitlist control...
December 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
Caroline M Parker, Richard G Parker, Morgan M Philbin, Jennifer S Hirsch
This paper advances research on racism and health by presenting a conceptual model that delineates pathways linking policing practices to HIV vulnerability among Black men who have sex with men in the urban USA. Pathways include perceived discrimination based on race, sexuality and gender performance, mental health, and condom-carrying behaviors. The model, intended to stimulate future empirical work, is based on a review of the literature and on ethnographic data collected in 2014 in New York City. This paper contributes to a growing body of work that examines policing practices as drivers of racial health disparities extending far beyond violence-related deaths...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
Scott C Brown, Tatiana Perrino, Joanna Lombard, Kefeng Wang, Matthew Toro, Tatjana Rundek, Carolina Marinovic Gutierrez, Chuanhui Dong, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, Maria I Nardi, Jack Kardys, José Szapocznik
Prior studies suggest that exposure to the natural environment may be important for optimal mental health. The present study examines the association between block-level greenness (vegetative presence) and mental health outcomes, in a population-based sample of 249,405 U.S. Medicare beneficiaries aged ≥65 years living in Miami-Dade County, Florida, USA, whose location did not change from 2010 to 2011. Multilevel analyses examined relationships between greenness, as measured by mean Normalized Difference Vegetation Index from satellite imagery at the Census block level, and each of two mental health outcomes; Alzheimer's disease and depression, respectively, after statistically adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and neighborhood income level of the individuals...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Stephanie Brooks Holliday, Tamara Dubowitz, Ann Haas, Bonnie Ghosh-Dastidar, Amy DeSantis, Wendy M Troxel
BACKGROUND: Research has demonstrated the adverse impact that discrimination has on physical and mental health. However, few studies have examined the association between discrimination and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). There is evidence that African Americans experience higher rates of PTSD and are more likely to develop PTSD following trauma exposure than Whites, and discrimination may be one reason for this disparity. PURPOSE: To examine the association between discrimination and PTSD among a cross-sectional sample largely comprising African American women, controlling for other psychosocial stressors (psychological distress, neighborhood safety, crime)...
February 28, 2018: Ethnicity & Health
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