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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351752/prevalence-of-gingivitis-and-calculus-in-12-year-old-puerto-ricans-a-cross-sectional-study
#1
Augusto R Elias-Boneta, Karol Ramirez, Sona Rivas-Tumanyan, Margarita Murillo, Milagros J Toro
BACKGROUND: Gingivitis is a common oral health problem. Untreated gingivitis may progress to periodontitis, a common cause of tooth loss. The prevalence of gingivitis and calculus among Puerto Rican children is unknown. Understanding this prevalence can support early public health preventative strategies. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of gingivitis and calculus among 12-year-old Puerto Ricans by health region and to explore differences in distribution by school type (proxy for socio-economic status) and gender...
January 19, 2018: BMC Oral Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349270/breaking-down-the-monolith-understanding-flu-vaccine-uptake-among-african-americans
#2
Sandra Crouse Quinn, Amelia Jamison, Ji An, Vicki S Freimuth, Gregory R Hancock, Donald Musa
Black adults are significantly less likely to be immunized for seasonal influenza when compared to Whites. This persistent disparity contributes to increased influenza-related morbidity and mortality in the African American population. Most scholarship on vaccine disparities has compared Whites and Blacks. Employing Public Health Critical Race Praxis, this study seeks to shift the focus to explore differences within the Black population. Utilizing a nationally-representative 2015 survey of US Black adults (n = 806), we explore differences by gender, age, income, and education across vaccine-related measures (e...
April 2018: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349225/intergenerational-differences-in-smoking-among-west-indian-haitian-latin-american-and-african-blacks-in-the-united-states
#3
Tod G Hamilton, Tiffany L Green
Due in large part to increased migration from Africa and the Caribbean, black immigrants and their descendants are drastically changing the contours of health disparities among blacks in the United States. While prior studies have examined health variation among black immigrants by region of birth, few have explored the degree of variation in health behaviors, particularly smoking patterns, among first- and second- generation black immigrants by ancestral heritage. Using data from the 1995-2011 waves of the Tobacco Use Supplements of the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS), we examine variation in current smoking status among first-, second-, and third/higher- generation black immigrants...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339114/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-cardiorespiratory-fitness-among-indigenous-populations-in-north-america-and-circumpolar-inuit-populations
#4
REVIEW
Lila M A Hedayat, Claire C Murchison, Heather J A Foulds
Indigenous populations experience health disparities including increased obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease rates. Cardiorespiratory fitness is beneficial for maintaining positive health outcomes. The objective of this systematic review is to evaluate cardiorespiratory fitness among Indigenous populations including comparisons across genders, Indigenous identities, age groups, decades, socio-demographic variables and in comparison to non-Indigenous groups. Included articles reported various cardiorespiratory fitness measures using maximal treadmill or cycle ergometer tests, 20 m shuttle run, 1 mile run/walk test and 6 min walk test...
January 12, 2018: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338956/gender-identity-disparities-in-cancer-screening-behaviors
#5
Ariella R Tabaac, Megan E Sutter, Catherine S J Wall, Kellan E Baker
INTRODUCTION: Transgender (trans) and gender-nonconforming adults have reported reduced access to health care because of discrimination and lack of knowledgeable care. This study aimed to contribute to the nascent cancer prevention literature among trans and gender-nonconforming individuals by ascertaining rates of breast, cervical, prostate, and colorectal cancer screening behaviors by gender identity. METHODS: Publicly available de-identified data from the 2014-2016 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys were utilized to evaluate rates of cancer screenings by gender identity, while controlling for healthcare access, sociodemographics, and survey year...
January 12, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334983/an-individually-tailored-family-centered-intervention-for-pediatric-obesity-in-primary-care-study-protocol-of-a-randomized-type-ii-hybrid-effectiveness-implementation-trial-raising-healthy-children-study
#6
Justin D Smith, Cady Berkel, Neil Jordan, David C Atkins, Shrikanth S Narayanan, Carlos Gallo, Kevin J Grimm, Thomas J Dishion, Anne M Mauricio, Jenna Rudo-Stern, Mariah K Meachum, Emily Winslow, Meg M Bruening
BACKGROUND: Pediatric obesity is a multi-faceted public health concern that can lead to cardiovascular diseases, cancers, and early mortality. Small changes in diet, physical activity, or BMI can significantly reduce the possibility of developing cardiometabolic risk factors. Family-based behavioral interventions are an underutilized, evidence-based approach that have been found to significantly prevent excess weight gain and obesity in children and adolescents. Poor program availability, low participation rates, and non-adherence are noted barriers to positive outcomes...
January 15, 2018: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326961/trends-in-suicidality-among-sexual-minority-and-heterosexual-students-in-a-canadian-population-based-cohort-study
#7
Tracey Peter, Tamara Edkins, Ryan Watson, Jones Adjei, Yuko Homma, Elizabeth Saewyc
Objectives: Despite evidence from numerous studies that document disparities in suicidality for sexual minorities, few have investigated whether or not these trends have improved over time, which is the objective of the current study. Methods: Using school-based population data over a 15-year period (1998 to 2013), multivariate logistic regressions were used to calculate age-adjusted odds ratios separately by gender. Interactions were included to test widening or narrowing disparities within orientation groups, which makes this one of the first studies to test whether gaps in disparities between heterosexual and sexual minorities have widened or narrowed over time...
March 2017: Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317809/best-strategies-to-recruit-and-enroll-elderly-blacks-into-clinical-and-biomedical-research
#8
Lennox A Graham, Julius Ngwa, Oyonumo Ntekim, Oludolapo Ogunlana, Saba Wolday, Steven Johnson, Megan Johnson, Chimene Castor, Thomas V Fungwe, Thomas O Obisesan
Background: Historically, Blacks have been disproportionately underrepresented in clinical trials. Outcomes associated with low Blacks' participation in research include poor understanding of the predictors and treatment of the disease, increasing health disparities, poor health equity, and suboptimal wellness of the nation as a whole. To address this gap in research participation, we analyzed our recruitment data to identify the most effective strategies for enrolling older Blacks in clinical trials...
2018: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316901/dialysis-facility-staff-perceptions-of-racial-gender-and-age-disparities-in-access-to-renal-transplantation
#9
Kristie J Lipford, Laura McPherson, Reem Hamoda, Teri Browne, Jennifer C Gander, Stephen O Pastan, Rachel E Patzer
BACKGROUND: Racial/ethnic, gender, and age disparities in access to renal transplantation among end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients have been well documented, but few studies have explored health care staff attitudes towards these inequalities. Staff perceptions can influence patient care and outcomes, and identifying staff perceptions on disparities could aid in the development of potential interventions to address these health inequities. The objective of this study was to investigate dialysis staff (n = 509), primarily social workers and nurse managers, perceptions of renal transplant disparities in the Southeastern United States...
January 10, 2018: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313192/interventions-that-address-intimate-partner-violence-and-hiv-among-women-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Khiya J Marshall, Dawnovise N Fowler, Mikel L Walters, Amanda B Doreson
Recognizing the high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive women and girls who are either at risk for or suffer from intimate partner violence (IPV) and the overlapping challenges posed by both public health issues, the White House established an Interagency Federal Working Group to address the intersection of both public health issues in 2012. We conducted this systematic review in response to the Working Group's charge to identify and describe interventions that address both IPV and HIV among women...
January 8, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303429/violence-as-mediating-variable-in-mental-health-disparities-associated-to-sexual-orientation-among-mexican-youths
#11
Mendoza-Pérez Juan Carlos, Luis Ortiz Hernández
In this study, we explored the role of sex as an effect-modifying variable in the association between sexual orientation and mental health in Mexican youth. In addition, we tested if violent experiences in the family and the school and attitudes towards homosexuality could act as mediating variables in such association. Data from three representative surveys performed in 2007, 2009, and 2013 among Mexican high school students were analyzed. Two dimensions of sexual orientation were evaluated: romantic partnership and sexual behavior...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301286/application-of-scm-with-bayesian-b-spline-to-spatio-temporal-analysis-of-hypertension-in-china
#12
Zirong Ye, Li Xu, Zi Zhou, Yafei Wu, Ya Fang
Most previous research on the disparities of hypertension risk has neither simultaneously explored the spatio-temporal disparities nor considered the spatial information contained in the samples, thus the estimated results may be unreliable. Our study was based on the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS), including residents over 12 years old in seven provinces from 1991 to 2011. Bayesian B-spline was used in the extended shared component model (SCM) for fitting temporal-related variation to explore spatio-temporal distribution in the odds ratio (OR) of hypertension, reveal gender variation, and explore latent risk factors...
January 2, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297774/unraveling-health-disparities-among-sexual-and-gender-minorities-a-commentary-on-the-persistent-impact-of-stigma
#13
Ronald O Valdiserri, David R Holtgrave, Tonia C Poteat, Chris Beyrer
LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender) populations experience disparities in health outcomes, both physical and mental, compared to their heterosexual and cis-gender peers. This commentary confronts the view held by some researchers that the disparate rates of mental health problems reported among LGBT populations are the consequences of pursuing a particular life trajectory, rather than resulting from the corrosive and persistent impact of stigma. Suggesting that mental health disparities among LGBT populations arise internally, de novo, when individuals express non-heterosexual and non-conforming gender identities ignores the vast body of evidence documenting the destructive impact of socially-mediated stigma and systemic discrimination on health outcomes for a number of minorities, including sexual and gender minorities...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294854/disclosing-gender-based-violence-during-health-care-visits-a-patient-centered-approach
#14
Jessica R Williams, Rosa M Gonzalez-Guarda, Valerie Halstead, Jacob Martinez, Laly Joseph
The purpose of this study was to better understand victims' perspectives regarding decisions to disclose gender-based violence, namely, intimate partner violence (IPV) and human trafficking, to health care providers and what outcomes matter to them when discussing these issues with their provider. Twenty-five participants from racially/ethnically diverse backgrounds were recruited from a family justice center located in the southeastern United States. Two fifths had experienced human trafficking, and the remaining had experienced IPV...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289802/epidemiological-profile-of-snake-bite-cases-from-haryana-a-five-year-2011-2015-retrospective-study
#15
Saurabh Bhargava, Ramanjeet Kaur, Rajvinder Singh
Varieties of venomous snakes inhabit in the world which accidentally take thousands of human lives every year. This severe medical emergency constantly persuades national and international health agencies to look at efficient epidemiological profiling of snake-bite cases for the proper management of this sympathetic problem. Establishing the accurate database of snake-bite in humans from different localities of India may perhaps lack certainty due to few inevitable reasons such as consideration of this problem as less emergent problem in disparity to pesticide poisoning, difficulty in the accessibility to rural and tribal areas where chances of snake-bite remain ceiling, lack of inspiring models of snake-bite management training, reduced reporting system, and pitiable maintenance of hospital data in India...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281895/underreporting-of-gender-and-race-ethnicity-differences-in-nih-funded-dementia-caregiver-support-interventions
#16
Andrea Gilmore-Bykovskyi, Rachel Johnson, Lily Walljasper, Laura Block, Nicole Werner
Women and racial/ethnic minority dementia caregivers have unique caregiving experiences and support needs. To ensure the identification of potentially important differences in outcomes within these groups, the amended National Institutes of Health (NIH) Policy on Inclusion of Women and Minorities mandates reporting by gender and race/ethnicity. The objective of this study was to determine the inclusion and reporting rates among NIH-funded dementia caregiver support interventions. A focused systematic literature review of studies published from 1994 to 2015 located 48 articles meeting inclusion criteria...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280986/disparities-in-non-fatal-health-outcomes-in-pediatric-general-trauma-studies
#17
REVIEW
Shanthi Ameratunga, Jacqueline Ramke, Nicki Jackson, Sandar Tin Tin, Belinda Gabbe
When prevention efforts fail, injured children require high-quality health services to support their recovery. Disparities in non-fatal injury outcomes, an indicator of health-care quality, have received minimal attention. We evaluated the extent to which general trauma follow-up studies published in the peer-reviewed scientific literature provide evidence of socially patterned inequities in health, functional or disability outcomes ≥4 weeks after childhood injuries. Using a systematic search, we identified 27 eligible cohort studies from 13 high-income countries...
December 27, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275016/lesbian-gay-bisexual-and-transgender-lgbt-survivorship
#18
REVIEW
Charles Kamen
OBJECTIVE: To discuss lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT)-specific survivorship issues including: integrating sexual and gender minority identities with cancer survivor identities; coordinating medical care and disclosing identities to health care providers; dealing with late effects of treatment; and addressing LGBT family and relationship issues. DATA SOURCES: Published articles, quotes from an online survey of 311 LGBT survivors. CONCLUSION: The transition from active cancer treatment to survivorship presents challenges, and LGBT cancer survivors may face additional challenges as they enter the survivorship phase...
December 20, 2017: Seminars in Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258470/health-and-healthcare-disparities-among-u-s-women-and-men-at-the-intersection-of-sexual-orientation-and-race-ethnicity-a-nationally-representative-cross-sectional-study
#19
Mai-Han Trinh, Madina Agénor, S Bryn Austin, Chandra L Jackson
BACKGROUND: Research has shown that sexual minorities (SMs) (e.g. lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals), compared to their heterosexual counterparts, may engage in riskier health behaviors, are at higher risk of some adverse health outcomes, and are more likely to experience reduced health care access and utilization. However, few studies have examined how the interplay between race and sexual orientation impacts a range of health measures in a nationally representative sample of the U...
December 19, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247528/prevalence-and-predictors-of-elevated-high-sensitivity-c-reactive-protein-in-post-myocardial-infarction-patients-insights-from-the-virgo-and-triumph-registries
#20
Mohammed Qintar, Puza P Sharma, Yashashwi Pokharel, Yuanyuan Tang, Yuan Lu, Philip Jones, Rachel P Dreyer, John A Spertus
Elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) is associated with worse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), but little is known about the distribution of hs-CRP levels and predictors of elevated hs-CRP after AMI in the real world. Translational Research Investigating Underlying Disparities in Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients' Health Status (TRIUMPH) and Variation in Recovery: Role of Gender on Outcomes of Young AMI Patients (VIRGO) are prospective AMI registries in the United States that assessed hs-CRP levels 30 days after AMI...
December 16, 2017: Clinical Cardiology
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