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Health disparity in gender

Susan Sawning, Stacie Steinbock, Rachel Croley, Ryan Combs, Ann Shaw, Toni Ganzel
BACKGROUND: Individuals who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT), gender nonconforming, and/or born with differences of sex development have specific health needs and significant health disparities exacerbated by a lack of training among health professionals. The University of Louisville LGBT Health Certificate Program used an interdisciplinary approach to increase training, potentially enabling future physicians to provide quality healthcare to LGBT patients. METHODS: A pretest-post-test design was used to investigate medical students' (n = 39) attitude and knowledge outcomes after program participation...
May 2017: Education for Health: Change in Training & Practice
D Sun, T Wang, Y Heianza, T Huang, X Shang, J Lv, S Li, E Harville, W Chen, V Fonseca, L Qi
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Prenatal growth, which is widely marked by birthweight, may have a pivotal role in affecting the lifelong risk of cardiometabolic disorders; however, comprehensive evaluation of its relations with childhood cardiometabolic risk patterns and the ethnic and gender disparities in national representative populations is still lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between birthweight and comprehensive patterns of cardiometabolic risk in a nationally representative sample of children and adolescents...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Daniel Terry, Shalley Robins, Samantha Gardiner, Ruby Wyett, Md Rafiqul Islam
BACKGROUND: Asthma remains a leading cause of illness, where primary care can assist to reduce hospitalisations through prevention, controlling acute episodes, and overall management of asthma. In Victoria, Asthma hospitalisations were as high as 3.1 hospitalisations per 1000 population in 1993-94. The primary aims of this study are to: determine if changes in asthma hospitalisations have occurred between 2010 and 2015; determine the key factors that impact asthma hospitalisation over time; and verify whether rural and urban asthma hospitalisations are disparate...
September 18, 2017: BMC Public Health
Cathleen E Willging, Audrey Harkness, Tania Israel, David Ley, Patricia S Hokanson, Catherine DeMaria, Aaron Joplin, Verida Smiley
Mental health disparities affect lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) people in rural America. There are few empirically-based mental health interventions for this population. This exploratory study uses a mixed-method approach to assess implementation issues related to the feasibility, acceptability, appropriateness, and preliminary impacts of a novel peer-based intervention designed to enhance support and treatment engagement among rural LGBTQ people with mental distress and/or addiction issues...
September 16, 2017: Community Mental Health Journal
Roy H Lan, Atul F Kamath
BACKGROUND: Understanding the socioeconomic factors that influence hospitalization and post-discharge metrics after joint replacement is important for identifying key areas of improvement in the delivery of orthopaedic care. METHODS: An institutional administrative data set of 2869 patients from an academic arthroplasty referral center was analyzed to quantify the relationship between socioeconomic factors and post-acute rehabilitation care received, length of stay, and cost of care...
September 2017: Arthroplasty Today
Lori E Ross, Melissa H Manley, Abbie E Goldberg, Alia Januwalla, Keisha Williams, Corey E Flanders
OBJECTIVES: Non-monosexual women - those who report attraction to or sexual relationships with individuals of more than one gender - have elevated risk for poor mental health outcomes. We aimed to examine which elements of non-monosexual experience are associated with this elevated risk. METHODS: We conducted a sequential exploratory mixed methods analysis of qualitative interview and survey data from 39 non-monosexual women recruited consecutively through prenatal care providers...
September 14, 2017: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Cha-Nam Shin, Colleen Keller, Jeongha Sim
To eliminate health disparities in the United States, identifying cultural contexts salient to the target populations in an intervention study is critical; however, little research has been conducted on the identification of cultural contexts among Korean Americans who have significant risk factors for chronic diseases. This systematic review identifies critical cultural contexts central to the literature discussed in health research on Korean Americans. We examined 14 research reports of 801 potentially eligible articles published between 2000 and 2016 and analyzed their contribution to cultural contexts among Korean Americans based on the PEN-3 model...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Community Health
G Young-Southward, E Rydzewska, C Philo, S-A Cooper
BACKGROUND: Transition to adulthood may be a period of vulnerability for health for individuals with intellectual disabilities. No large-scale studies have compared the health of individuals with and without intellectual disabilities undergoing transition. The aims of this study were (1) to compare health during transition for individuals with and without intellectual disabilities across a whole country population and (2) to establish whether transition is associated with health in the population with intellectual disabilities...
October 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
Regan W Bergmark, Ahmad R Sedaghat
OBJECTIVES: Social determinants of health include social and demographic factors such as poverty, education status, race and ethnicity, gender, insurance status, and other factors that influence (1) development of illness, (2) ability to obtain and utilize healthcare, and (3) health and healthcare outcomes. In otolaryngology, as in other subspecialty surgical fields, we are constantly confronted by patients' social and demographic circumstances including poverty, language barriers, and lack of health insurance and yet there is limited research on how these factors impact health equity in our field, or how attention to these patient characteristics may improve health equity...
August 2017: Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology
Michael J Rovito, Brandon Leonard, Ramon Llamas, James E Leone, Walker Talton, Ana Fadich, Peter Baker
The WHO's "Global Strategy for Women's, Children's, and Adolescents' Health 2016-2030" (GS-WCAH 2016-2030) is a comprehensive plan developed to improve the lives of women, children, and adolescents. Due to the success in the creation, ratification, and advocacy of the GS-WCAH 2016-2030, the clear health outcome disparities between males and females, and the general absence of male health from existing policies and sponsored programs, it is time now to develop a global strategy specifically drafted to improve the lives of men and boys...
September 1, 2017: American Journal of Men's Health
Shannon McMorrow, Jyotika Saksena
Refugees have recently been thrust into the spotlight worldwide. The strikingly negative rhetoric currently surrounding refugees calls for increased action from public health educators. In 2016, the largest proportion of refugees to the United States came from the Democratic Republic of Congo. This presents the opportunity to explore health needs as Congolese refugees resettle in the United States, with women taking priority due to health disparities linked to gender-based discrimination, trauma, sexual and gender-based violence, lower literacy rates, and less access to learning English...
September 1, 2017: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
Eun Jin Lee, Hee Yun Lee, Soondool Chung
The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of health literacy of adults living in South Korea and identify factors associated with health literacy in different age groups. Using a quota sampling method, authors recruited 1,000 Korean adults age 20 years and older. Health literacy was measured by using three items selected from a 16-question self-report health literacy measure. In accordance with Andersen's behavioral model, predisposing, enabling, and need factors were included in the multiple regression model...
August 1, 2017: Health & Social Work
Tomi Akinyemiju, Howard Wiener, Maria Pisu
BACKGROUND: Racial disparities in the incidence of major cancers may be attributed to differences in the prevalence of established, modifiable risk factors such as obesity, smoking, physical activity and diet. METHODS: Data from a prospective cohort of 566,398 adults aged 50-71 years, 19,677 African-American and 450,623 Whites, was analyzed. Baseline data on cancer-related risk factors such as smoking, alcohol, physical activity and dietary patterns were used to create an individual adherence score...
August 30, 2017: BMC Cancer
Eric Adjei Boakye, Betelihem B Tobo, Rebecca P Rojek, Kahee A Mohammed, Christian J Geneus, Nosayaba Osazuwa-Peters
PURPOSE: Gaps remain in the public's knowledge of the human papillomavirus (HPV). We assessed racial/ethnic and gender disparities in knowledge and awareness of HPV and the HPV vaccine among US adults. METHODS: Data from the Health Information National Trends Survey 4 Cycle 3 (September - December 2013) and Cycle 4 (August - November 2014) were analyzed for 6,862 respondents aged 18 years and older. Weighted multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate racial/ethnic and gender disparities in HPV knowledge and HPV vaccination awareness...
August 30, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Victoria Grace Price
BACKGROUND: Although leprosy can affect both sexes equally, it is globally reported that men are affected, or simply report, more often than females at the average ratio of 2:1. If cases are simply not being reported, women may be suffering in silence more often than men, and, therefore, understanding the social reasons for this in a number of countries could support the prevention of long-term disabilities caused as a result of leprosy. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review is to recognise the current academic literature surrounding the potential factors for late diagnosis of women affected by leprosy, giving possible explanations for the 2:1 gender disparity observed in case detection globally...
January 2017: Global Health Action
Mark Rohit Francis, Hanna Nohynek, Heidi Larson, Vinohar Balraj, Venkata Raghava Mohan, Gagandeep Kang, J Pekka Nuorti
BACKGROUND: Despite almost three decades of the Universal Immunization Program in India, a little more than half the children aged 12-23months receive the full schedule of routine vaccinations. We examined socio-demographic factors associated with partial-vaccination and non-vaccination and the reasons for non-vaccination among Indian children during 1998 and 2008. METHODS: Data from three consecutive, nationally-representative, District Level Household and Facility Surveys (1998-99, 2002-04 and 2007-08) were pooled...
August 24, 2017: Vaccine
Thomas R Campi, Sharon George, Diego Villacís, Melissa Ward-Peterson, Noël C Barengo, Juan C Zevallos
Patients with mental illness carry risk factors that predispose them to excess cardiovascular mortality from an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) compared to the general population. The aim of this study was to determine if patients with AMI and charted mental illness (CMI) received less reperfusion therapy following an AMI, compared to AMI patients without CMI in a recent sample population from Florida.A secondary analysis of data was conducted using the Florida Agency for Health Care Administration (FL-AHCA) hospital discharge registry...
August 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
E Sdona, D Papamichail, E Ragkou, E Kakalou, D D Briana, T Panagiotopoulos, A Malamitsi-Puchner
BACKGROUND: Although socioeconomic disparities adversely affect health, studies referring to the "healthy immigrant effect" imply more favorable health outcomes in immigrants than natives. We aimed to investigate the impact of immigration on several perinatal parameters. METHODS: Birth records (01/01/2010 - 31/12/2014) from a public maternity hospital in Athens, Greece were reviewed for maternal (ethnicity, age, delivery mode) and neonatal (gender, birthweight, gestational age) variables...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Natalie D Hernandez, Ellen M Daley, Lauren Young, Stephanie K Kolar, Christopher Wheldon, Cheryl A Vamos, Dexter Cooper
OBJECTIVES: There are disparities in the uptake of HPV vaccine among racial/ethnic minority women. The strongest predictor of HPV vaccine uptake among adult women is health care provider (HCP) recommendation; however, it is unclear how issues relating to race/ethnicity may mitigate these recommendations. Research shows that racial/ethnic and gender concordance between a patient and HCP can improve patient satisfaction, access and quality of care. If concordance contributes to improved patient-provider interactions, then it may be a factor in patient decisions regarding HPV vaccination...
August 22, 2017: Ethnicity & Health
Jong In Kim, Gukbin Kim
BACKGROUND: Population is aging rapidly in Europe. Older age life expectancy (OLE) can be influenced by country-level depth of credit information (DCI) as an indicator of financial crisis, gross national income (GNI) per capita, and gender inequality index (GII). These factors are key indicators of socio-ecological inequality. They can be used to develop strategies to reduce country-level health disparity. The objective of this study was to confirm the relationship between socio-ecological factors and OLE in Europe...
August 18, 2017: Globalization and Health
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