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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154714/improving-measures-of-sexual-and-gender-identity-in-english-and-spanish-to-identify-lgbt-older-adults-in-surveys
#1
Stuart Michaels, Carolina Milesi, Michael Stern, Melissa Heim Viox, Heather Morrison, Paul Guerino, Christina Dragon, Samuel C Haffer
PURPOSE: The goal of this research is to advance the study of health disparities faced by older sexual and gender minorities by assessing comprehension of and improving measures of sexual and gender identity in surveys. METHODS: Cognitive interviews were conducted by expert interviewers with 48 non-lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (non-LGBT) and 9 LGBT older English and Spanish speakers. RESULTS: All respondents were able to answer questions about their sex assigned at birth and current gender identity successfully despite some cisgender respondents' lack of clear understanding of the transgender response option...
November 20, 2017: LGBT Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153870/factors-associated-with-use-of-disease-modifying-agents-for-rheumatoid-arthritis-in-the-national-hospital-and-ambulatory-medical-care-survey
#2
Priyanka Gaitonde, Laura M Bozzi, Fadia T Shaya
OBJECTIVE: We examined the treatment patterns among adults with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and identified factors influencing access to traditional and biological disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). METHODS: We analyzed visits recorded in the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey from 2005 to 2014 with a RA diagnosis. The primary outcome was DMARD use (traditional and/or biological). We included prescriptions of all RA-related treatments such as traditional and biological DMARDs, glucocorticoids, gold preparations, immunosuppressants, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs...
October 18, 2017: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152601/a-novel-approach-to-analyzing-lung-cancer-mortality-disparities-using-the-exposome-and-a-graph-theoretical-toolchain
#3
Paul D Juarez, Darryl B Hood, Gary L Rogers, Suzanne H Baktash, Arnold M Saxton, Patricia Matthews-Juarez, Wansoo Im, Myriam Patricia Cifuentes, Charles A Phillips, Maureen Y Lichtveld, Michael A Langston
Objectives: The aim is to identify exposures associated with lung cancer mortality and mortality disparities by race and gender using an exposome database coupled to a graph theoretical toolchain. Methods: Graph theoretical algorithms were employed to extract paracliques from correlation graphs using associations between 2162 environmental exposures and lung cancer mortality rates in 2067 counties, with clique doubling applied to compute an absolute threshold of significance...
April 2017: Environmental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146711/ethics-health-policy-and-zika-from-emergency-to-global-epidemic
#4
Euzebiusz Jamrozik, Michael J Selgelid
Zika virus was recognised in 2016 as an important vector-borne cause of congenital malformations and Guillain-Barré syndrome, during a major epidemic in Latin America, centred in Northeastern Brazil. The WHO and Pan American Health Organisation (PAHO), with partner agencies, initiated a coordinated global response including public health intervention and urgent scientific research, as well as ethical analysis as a vital element of policy design. In this paper, we summarise the major ethical issues raised during the Zika epidemic, highlighting the PAHO ethics guidance and the role of ethics in emergency responses, before turning to ethical issues that are yet to be resolved...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140916/gender-disparities-in-medical-student-research-awards-a-thirteen-year-study-from-the-yale-school-of-medicine
#5
Joseph T King, Nancy R Angoff, John N Forrest, Amy C Justice
PURPOSE: Instruction in research conduct is currently required, and many U.S. medical schools require students to complete a research project. Each year all Yale School of Medicine (YSM) graduating students submit a research thesis, and ~5% are awarded highest honors. Gender disparities exist in areas related to physician research productivity, including academic rank, research funding, and publications. The authors asked whether gender disparities exist for medical student research. METHOD: The authors conducted a retrospective review of 1,120 theses submitted by graduating medical students from 2003-2015 at YSM and collected data on gender, mentoring, research type, sponsoring department, and other characteristics...
November 14, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135623/patient-ethnicity-predicts-poor-health-access-and-gaps-in-perception-of-personal-cardiovascular-risk-factors
#6
Yeunjung Kim, Kathryn Hogan, Gail D'Onofrio, Sharon Chekijian, Basmah Safdar
BACKGROUND: Focus of health literacy campaigns has centered around raising awareness. It is unknown whether awareness of coronary artery disease risk factors accurately reflects personalization of one's own cardiovascular risk. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was performed in consecutive patients presenting with chest pain admitted to an observation unit of a tertiary care hospital. A 32-item questionnaire in English or Spanish examined knowledge of coronary artery disease risk factors...
December 2017: Critical Pathways in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132627/examining-health-disparities-by-gender-a-multimorbidity-network-analysis-of-electronic-medical-record
#7
Pankush Kalgotra, Ramesh Sharda, Julie M Croff
PROBLEM: Multimorbidity health disparities have not been well examined by gender. Co-occurring diseases may be mutually deleterious, co-occurring independently, or co-occurring from a common antecedent. Diseases linked by a common antecedent may be caused by biological, behavioral, social, or environmental factors. This paper aims to address the co-occurrences of diseases using network analysis. METHODS: In this study, we identify these multi-morbidities from a large electronic medical record (EMR) containing diagnoses, symptoms and treatment data on more than 22...
December 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127850/-it-s-gym-like-g-y-m-not-j-i-m-exploring-the-role-of-place-in-the-gendering-of-physical-activity
#8
Stephanie E Coen, Mark W Rosenberg, Joyce Davidson
Physical activity is a highly gendered health behaviour, with women less likely than men to meet internationally accepted physical activity guidelines. In this article, we take up recent arguments on the potential of indoor spaces to illuminate processes shaping health, together with social theories of gender, to conceptualize the place of the gym as a window into understanding and intervening in wider gender disparities in physical activity. Using a triangulated strategy of qualitative methods, including semi-structured interviews, drawing, and journaling with men and women in a mid-sized Canadian city, we examine how gender influences exercise practices and mobilities in gym environments...
November 2, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125908/transgender-medicare-beneficiaries-and-chronic-conditions-exploring-fee-for-service-claims-data
#9
Christina N Dragon, Paul Guerino, Erin Ewald, Alison M Laffan
PURPOSE: Data on the health and well-being of the transgender population are limited. However, using claims data we can identify transgender Medicare beneficiaries (TMBs) with high confidence. We seek to describe the TMB population and provide comparisons of chronic disease burden between TMBs and cisgender Medicare beneficiaries (CMBs), thus laying a foundation for national level TMB health disparity research. METHODS: Using a previously validated claims algorithm based on ICD-9-CM codes relating to transsexualism and gender identity disorder, we identified a cohort of TMBs using Medicare Fee-for-Service (FFS) claims data...
November 10, 2017: LGBT Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122082/the-relationship-between-social-determinants-of-health-and-utilization-of-tertiary-rhinology-care
#10
Madeleine B Samuelson, Rakesh K Chandra, Justin H Turner, Paul T Russell, David O Francis
BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) has a high prevalence and significant cost and quality of life implications. Many types of practitioners care for patients with rhinosinusitis; however, patients with chronic or complicated conditions are often referred for tertiary rhinology services. It is unclear how social determinants of health affect access and utilization of these services. A better understanding of social barriers to tertiary rhinology care is needed to reduce health care disparities and improve health outcomes...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116968/antiemetic-prophylaxis-as-a-marker-of-health-care-disparities-in-the-national-anesthesia-clinical-outcomes-registry
#11
Michael H Andreae, Jonah S Gabry, Ben Goodrich, Robert S White, Charles Hall
BACKGROUND: US health care disparities persist despite repeated countermeasures. Research identified race, ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status as factors, mediated through individual provider and/or systemic biases; little research exists in anesthesiology. We investigated antiemetic prophylaxis as a surrogate marker for anesthesia quality by individual providers because antiemetics are universally available, indicated contingent on patient characteristics (gender, age, etc), but independent of comorbidities and not yet impacted by regulatory or financial constraints...
November 7, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104254/gender-and-weight-influence-quality-of-life-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#12
LeeAnne B Sherwin, Onyinyechi M Ozoji, Christina M Boulineaux, Paule V Joseph, Nicolaas H Fourie, Sarah K Abey, Xuemin Zhang, Wendy A Henderson
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain and bowel dysfunction in the absence of structural abnormality. Diagnosis can be challenging and often leads to extensive medical tests, non-effective therapeutic modalities, and reduced quality of life (QOL). Identifying factors associated with dysfunction have the potential to enhance outcomes. Participants with IBS (n = 41) and healthy volunteers (n = 74) were recruited into this cross-sectional, descriptive, natural history protocol at the National Institute of Health, Clinical Center...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103861/public-and-private-hospital-care-disparities-of-ischemic-stroke-in-mexico-results-from-the-primer-registro-mexicano-de-isquemia-cerebral-premier-study
#13
José Luis Ruiz-Sandoval, María Eugenia Briseño-Godínez, Erwin Chiquete-Anaya, Antonio Arauz-Góngora, Rogelio Troyo-Sanromán, Juan Didier Parada-Garza, Alma Ramos-Moreno, Fernando Barinagarrementería, Luis Manuel Murillo-Bonilla, Carlos Cantú-Brito
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Mortality and bad outcome by stroke are higher in developing countries than in industrialized countries. Health-care system efficiency could explain these disparities. Our objective was to identify the impact on short- and middle-term outcomes of patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) among public and private Mexican medical care. METHODS: We analyzed data from patients with AIS included in the Primer Registro Mexicano de Isquemia Cerebral (PREMIER) study...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102607/prevalence-of-vision-impairment-in-older-adults-in-rural-china-in-2014-and-comparisons-with-the-2006-china-nine-province-survey
#14
Jialiang Zhao, Xiao Xu, Leon B Ellwein, Ning Cai, Huaijin Guan, Mingguang He, Ping Liu, Jianhua Lv, Xunlun Sheng, Peizeng Yang, Jinglin Yi, Mei Yang, Rui Zhang, Xiaohu Ding, Liping Du, Fengrong Li, Hong Lu, Wenqiang Shao, Junwei Wang, Yuansheng Yuan, Rui Zhou, Wenjuan Zhuang, Lei An
PURPOSE: Estimate the prevalence of vision impairment and blindness in 2014 among older adults in rural China with comparisons with the 2006 Nine-Province Survey. DESIGN: Population-based, cross-sectional study. METHODS: Geographical cluster sampling was used in randomly selecting residents from a rural county or semi-rural district within nine provinces: Beijing, Jiangsu, Guangdong, Heilongjiang, Jiangxi, Hebei, Ningxia, Chongqing and Yunnan...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101688/racial-disparities-and-factors-affecting-michigan-colorectal-cancer-screening
#15
Vincent Grzywacz, Nasir Hussain, Neli Ragina
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to investigate the various factors that influence colorectal cancer screening in Michigan using 6091 participants in the Michigan Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System representing adults ≥ 50 years old. METHODS: Screening for colorectal cancer was assessed as fecal occult blood testing or colonoscopy/sigmoidoscopy. Full models simultaneously adjusted for alcohol use, angina/coronary heart disease, stroke, heart attack, gender, income, marital status, race, age, diabetes, disability, exercise, health care coverage, health care access, smoking, and mental health...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098204/sexual-orientation-gender-and-environmental-injustice-unequal-carcinogenic-air-pollution-risks-in-greater-houston
#16
Timothy W Collins, Sara E Grineski, Danielle X Morales
Disparate residential hazard exposures based on disadvantaged gender status (e.g., among female-headed households) have been documented in the distributive environmental justice literature, yet no published studies have examined whether disproportionate environmental risks exist based on minority sexual orientation. To address this gap, we use data from the US Census, American Community Survey and the Environmental Protection Agency at the 2010 census tract level to examine the spatial relationships between same-sex partner households and cumulative cancer risk from exposure to hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) emitted by all ambient emission sources in Greater Houston (Texas)...
2017: Annals of the American Association of Geographers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091709/bi-cultural-dynamics-for-risk-and-protective-factors-for-cardiometabolic-health-in-an-alaska-native-yup-ik-population
#17
Jacques Philip, Tove K Ryman, Scarlett E Hopkins, Diane M O'Brien, Andrea Bersamin, Jeremy Pomeroy, Kenneth E Thummel, Melissa A Austin, Bert B Boyer, Kirk Dombrowski
Alaska Native people experience disparities in mortality from heart disease and stroke. This work attempts to better understand the relationships between socioeconomic, behavioral, and cardiometabolic risk factors among Yup'ik people of southwestern Alaska, with a focus on the role of the socioeconomic, and cultural components. Using a cross-sectional sample of 486 Yup'ik adults, we fitted a Partial Least Squares Path Model (PLS-PM) to assess the associations between components, including demographic factors [age and gender], socioeconomic factors [education, economic status, Yup'ik culture, and Western culture], behavioral factors [diet, cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use, and physical activity], and cardiometabolic risk factors [adiposity, triglyceride-HDL and LDL lipids, glycemia, and blood pressure]...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056842/forecasting-disparities-with-early-substance-use-milestones
#18
Megan E Roberts, Nichea S Spillane, Suzanne M Colby, Kristina M Jackson
Substance use contributes to health disparities across race/ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status (SES). Although adolescent research indicates group-based differences in regular use, few studies have examined patterns when initiation is just beginning. Using a sample of 917 Rhode Island middle schools students (54% female, 26% non-Hispanic White), we collected demographic information at baseline (M age 12.2); we then examined ever-puff (cigarettes), ever-sip (alcohol), and ever-use (marijuana) behaviors three years later...
2017: Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056801/life-course-changes-in-smoking-by-gender-and-education-a-cohort-comparison-across-france-and-the-united-states
#19
Fred C Pampel, Damien Bricard, Myriam Khlat, Stéphane Legleye
Widening of educational disparities and a narrowing female advantage in mortality stem in good part from disparities in smoking. The changes in smoking and mortality disparities across cohorts and countries have been explained by an epidemic model of cigarette use but are also related to life course changes. To better describe and understand changing disparities over the life course, we compare age patterns of smoking in three cohorts and two nations (France and the United States) using smoking history measures from the 2010 French Health Barometer (N = 20,940) and the 2010 U...
June 2017: Population Research and Policy Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056032/decomposing-gender-disparity-in-total-physical-activity-among-iranian-adults
#20
Ebrahim Rahimi, Seyed Saeed Hashemi-Nazari, Koorosh Etemad, Hamid Soori
OBJECTIVES: While gender differences in physical activity (PA) have been reported, their origin is not well understood. The present study aimed to identify factors contributing to this disparity. METHODS: This was a population-based cross-sectional study based on the 2011 surveillance of risk factors of non-communicable diseases that was conducted among Iranian adults. Multi-staged sampling was performed to obtain the required study sample. The primary outcome was gender differences in the prevalence of sufficient physical activity (SPA)...
2017: Epidemiology and Health
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