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Health disparity in gender

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225661/lgbtq-youth-part-1
#1
Tracy Perron, Connie Kartoz, Chaya Himelfarb
In order to provide holistic care, school nurses must be culturally competent by being sensitive to health disparities experienced by students in at-risk populations. Despite the growing acceptance toward gender and sexual minorities, LGBTQ youth remain an at-risk population in our communities and our schools. School nurses as well as school counselors, social workers, and psychologists can increase their cultural competence in caring for this group of students by increasing their understanding of appropriate terminology and risks associated with this vulnerable group...
March 2017: NASN School Nurse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225658/lgbtq-part-2
#2
Tracy Perron, Connie Kartoz, Chaya Himelfarb
In addition to dealing with the normal challenges of being a teenager, many times LGBTQ youth have to deal with harassment, intimidation, and bullying on a daily basis as they disproportionately experience verbal and physical harassment while in school as a result of their sexual orientation and/or gender identity. This violence adversely affects these students' health and well-being as reflected in the depression and suicide rate among LGBTQ youth. As Part 2 of a series in articles on caring for LGBTQ youth in a school setting, this article reviews specific health risks in this group of students...
March 2017: NASN School Nurse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221820/risks-benefits-and-importance-of-collecting-sexual-orientation-and-gender-identity-data-in-healthcare-settings-a-multi-method-analysis-of-patient-and-provider-perspectives
#3
Allysha C Maragh-Bass, Maya Torain, Rachel Adler, Eric Schneider, Anju Ranjit, Lisa M Kodadek, Ryan Shields, Danielle German, Claire Snyder, Susan Peterson, Jeremiah Schuur, Brandyn Lau, Adil H Haider
PURPOSE: Research suggests that LGBT populations experience barriers to healthcare. Organizations such as the Institute of Medicine recommend routine documentation of sexual orientation (SO) and gender identity (GI) in healthcare, to reduce LGBT disparities. We explore patient views regarding the importance of SO/GI collection, and patient and provider views on risks and benefits of routine SO/GI collection in various settings. METHODS: We surveyed LGBT/non-LGBT patients and providers on their views on SO/GI collection...
February 21, 2017: LGBT Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209289/depression-among-current-former-and-never-smokers-from-2005-to-2013-the-hidden-role-of-disparities-in-depression-in-the-ongoing-tobacco-epidemic
#4
Renee D Goodwin, Melanie M Wall, Lorra Garey, Michael J Zvolensky, Lisa Dierker, Sandro Galea, Misato Gbedemah, Andrea H Weinberger, Jill M Williams, Mei-Chen Hu, Deborah S Hasin
BACKGROUND: After declining sharply for many years, the prevalence of smoking has remained fairly stable over the past decade. One possible explanation is that there has been an increase in the prevalence of barriers to cessation, like depression, among remaining smokers. OBJECTIVES: To estimate changes in the prevalence of depression among current, former and never smokers in the United States (U.S.) population from 2005 to 2013 overall and by age, gender, and income...
January 11, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192012/impact-of-gender-on-satisfaction-and-confidence-in-cholesterol-control-among-veterans-at-risk-for-cardiovascular-disease
#5
Karen M Goldstein, Karen M Stechuchak, Leah L Zullig, Eugene Z Oddone, Maren K Olsen, Felicia A McCant, Lori A Bastian, Bryan C Batch, Hayden B Bosworth
BACKGROUND: Compared with men, women have poorer lipid control. Although potential causes of this disparity have been explored, it is unknown whether patient-centered factors such as satisfaction and confidence contribute. We evaluated (1) whether satisfaction with lipid control and confidence in ability to improve it vary by gender and (2) whether sociodemographic characteristics modify the association. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated baseline survey responses from the Cardiovascular Intervention Improvement Telemedicine Study, including self-rated satisfaction with cholesterol levels and confidence in controlling cholesterol...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190951/allostatic-load-as-a-complex-clinical-construct-a-case-based-computational-modeling-approach
#6
J Galen Buckwalter, Brian Castellani, Bruce McEwen, Arun S Karlamangla, Albert A Rizzo, Bruce John, Kyle O'Donnell, Teresa Seeman
Allostatic load (AL) is a complex clinical construct, providing a unique window into the cumulative impact of stress. However, due to its inherent complexity, AL presents two major measurement challenges to conventional statistical modeling (the field's dominant methodology): it is comprised of a complex causal network of bioallostatic systems, represented by an even larger set of dynamic biomarkers; and, it is situated within a web of antecedent socioecological systems, linking AL to differences in health outcomes and disparities...
September 2016: Complexity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187101/how-nurse-gender-influences-patient-priority-assignments-in-us-emergency-departments
#7
Jacob Miguel Vigil, Patrick Coulombe, Joe Alcock, Sarah See Stith, Eric Kruger, Sara Cichowski
The goals of this study were to compare whether emergency department (ED) patients' pain intensity (PI) is measured differently by male and female nurses and to determine whether PI, heart rate (HR), and respiratory rate (RR) were used to prioritize patient urgency differently by male and female nurses. The associations between patients' PI|HR|RR and the Emergency Severity Index (ESI) scores they were assigned by attending nurses were analyzed using a national database of electronic medical records of US Veterans Affairs ED patients from 2008 to 2012...
March 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161899/weight-gender-and-depressive-symptoms-in-south-korea
#8
A A Brewis, S Y Han, C L SturtzSreetharan
OBJECTIVES: Obesity consistently predicts depression risk, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Body concerns are proposed as key. South Korean society is characterized by extremely high levels of explicit weight stigma, possibly the highest globally. Using cross-sectional Korean 2014 National Health Examination Survey (KNHANES) data, we test this proposition in a nationally representative sample of South Korean adults (N = 5,632). METHODS: Depressive symptoms (outcome variable), was based on the PHQ-9...
February 5, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161645/trends-and-disparities-in-the-prevalence-of-physicians-counseling-on-exercise-among-the-u-s-adult-population-2000-2010
#9
Nasar U Ahmed, Michael Delgado, Anshul Saxena
Recognizing the undisputed health benefits of exercise, physicians' counseling has been included in the Healthy People Objectives since 2000. To address the paucity of data on such counseling at the national level, we examined changing trends and disparities in receiving physicians' counseling on exercise among the physically-able, non-institutionalized U.S. adult population. Data from the 2000, 2005, and 2010 National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS) were examined using logistic regression that included race/ethnicity, age, gender, education, insurance status, number of physician visits in the past year, and body mass index...
February 2, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156577/use-of-an-emr-online-portal-for-communication-with-cancer-patients
#10
Vicky Spies, Miriam B Rodin, Yifan Tu
: 147 Background: Communication with patients about their health care is vital to the physician-patient relationship. This is especially true in oncology where patients receive frequent diagnostic evaluations and their diseases are often active and evolving. In 2009, as part of "meaningful use", Congress mandated the need to establish an electronic portal for patient communication. We studied factors associated with the use of our online patient portal. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of the use of our EMR online portal, MyChart...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154759/diarrhea-no-more-does-zinc-help-the-poor-evidence-on-the-effectiveness-of-programmatic-efforts-to-reach-poorest-in-delivering-zinc-and-ors-at-scale-in-up-and-gujarat-india
#11
Amnesty E LeFevre, Diwakar Mohan, Sarmila Mazumder, Laura L Lamberti, Sunita Taneja, Robert E Black, Christa L Fischer-Walker
BACKGROUND: India has the greatest burden of diarrhea in children under 5 years globally. The Diarrhea Alleviation through zinc and oral rehydration salts (ORS) Therapy program (2010-2014) sought to improve access to and utilization of zinc and ORS among children 2-59 months in Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh (UP), India, through public and private sector delivery channels. In this analysis, we present findings on program's effect in reducing child-health inequities. METHODS: Data from cross-sectional baseline and endline surveys were used to assess disparities in key outcomes across six dimensions: socioeconomic strata, gender, caregiver education, ethnicity and geography...
December 2016: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153741/differences-in-health-and-social-support-between-homeless-men-and-women-entering-permanent-supportive-housing
#12
Hailey Winetrobe, Suzanne Wenzel, Harmony Rhoades, Benjamin Henwood, Eric Rice, Taylor Harris
BACKGROUND: Permanent supportive housing (PSH) is the leading intervention to end chronic homelessness. Little is known, however, about gender differences, including potential disparities in physical and mental health and social support, that might inform services available through PSH. METHODS: This study included 421 homeless adults, at least 39 years old, English- or Spanish-speaking, who were moving into PSH through 26 different agencies in the Los Angeles area participated...
January 30, 2017: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152983/a-systematic-review-of-geographical-differences-in-management-and-outcomes-for-colorectal-cancer-in-australia
#13
Michael J Ireland, Sonja March, Fiona Crawford-Williams, Mandy Cassimatis, Joanne F Aitken, Melissa K Hyde, Suzanne K Chambers, Jiandong Sun, Jeff Dunn
BACKGROUND: Australia and New Zealand have the highest incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in the world, presenting considerable health, economic, and societal burden. Over a third of the Australian population live in regional areas and research has shown they experience a range of health disadvantages that result in a higher disease burden and lower life expectancy. The extent to which geographical disparities exist in CRC management and outcomes has not been systematically explored...
February 2, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151567/first-molecular-epidemiology-of-entamoeba-histolytica-e-dispar-and-e-moshkovskii-infections-in-yemen-different-species-specific-associated-risk-factors
#14
Mona A Al-Areeqi, Hany Sady, Hesham M Al-Mekhlafi, Tengku Shahrul Anuar, Abdulelah H Al-Adhroey, Wahib M Atroosh, Salwa Dawaki, Fatin Nur Elyana, Nabil A Nasr, Init Ithoi, Yee-Ling Lau, Johari Surin
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the molecular epidemiology of Entamoeba histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii infections among rural communities in Yemen. METHODS: In a community-based study, faecal samples were collected from 605 participants and examined by wet mount, formalin-ether sedimentation, trichrome staining and nested multiplex PCR techniques. Demographic, socioeconomic and environmental information was collected by using a pre-tested questionnaire. RESULTS: Overall, 324 (53...
February 2, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143461/what-explains-the-socioeconomic-status-gap-in-activity-educational-differences-in-determinants-of-physical-activity-and-screentime
#15
Nelli Hankonen, Matti T J Heino, Emilia Kujala, Sini-Tuuli Hynynen, Pilvikki Absetz, Vera Araújo-Soares, Katja Borodulin, Ari Haukkala
BACKGROUND: Designing evidence-based interventions to address socioeconomic disparities in health and health behaviours requires a better understanding of the specific explanatory mechanisms. We aimed to investigate a comprehensive range of potential theoretical mediators of physical activity (PA) and screen time in different socioeconomic status (SES) groups: a high SES group of high school students, and a low SES group of vocational school students. The COM-B system, including the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF), was used as a heuristic framework to synthesise different theoretical determinants in this exploratory study...
February 1, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139727/cortisol-awakening-response-and-acute-stress-reactivity-in-first-nations-people
#16
Maximus Berger, Anthony Leicht, Angela Slatcher, Ann Katrin Kraeuter, Sarangan Ketheesan, Sarah Larkins, Zoltán Sarnyai
First Nations people globally have a higher incidence of mental disorders and non-communicable diseases. These health inequalities are partially attributed to a complex network of social and environmental factors which likely converge on chronic psychosocial stress. We hypothesized that alterations in stress processing and the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis might underlie health disparities in First Nations people. We assessed the cortisol awakening response and the dynamic response to a laboratory induced psychosocial stress of young Indigenous tertiary students (n = 11, mean age 23...
January 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138394/gender-specific-determinants-of-asthma-among-u-s-adults
#17
Rebecca Greenblatt, Omar Mansour, Edward Zhao, Michelle Ross, Blanca E Himes
BACKGROUND: Asthma, a chronic respiratory disease affecting over 18.7 million American adults, has marked disparities by gender, race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. Our goal was to identify gender-specific demographic and socioeconomic determinants of asthma prevalence among U.S. adults using data from the Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance System (BRFSS) and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). METHODS: Gender-specific regression analyses were performed to model the relationship between asthma prevalence with age, race/ethnicity, income, education level, smoking status, and body mass index (BMI), while taking into account the study designs...
2017: Asthma research and practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125059/racial-differences-in-perceptions-of-air-pollution-health-risk-does-environmental-exposure-matter
#18
Jayajit Chakraborty, Timothy W Collins, Sara E Grineski, Alejandra Maldonado
This article extends environmental risk perception research by exploring how potential health risk from exposure to industrial and vehicular air pollutants, as well as other contextual and socio-demographic factors, influence racial/ethnic differences in air pollution health risk perception. Our study site is the Greater Houston metropolitan area, Texas, USA-a racially/ethnically diverse area facing high levels of exposure to pollutants from both industrial and transportation sources. We integrate primary household-level survey data with estimates of excess cancer risk from ambient exposure to industrial and on-road mobile source emissions of air toxics obtained from the U...
January 25, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122139/gender-disparities-in-the-functional-significance-of-anemia-among-apparently-healthy-adults
#19
Roni Shouval, Sharon Katz, Arnon Nagler, Drorit Merkel, Ilan Ben-Zvi, Shlomo Segev, Yechezkel Sidi, Ilan Goldenberg, Shaye Kivity, Elad Maor
BACKGROUND: Data on the functional impact of anemia on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and survival in healthy individuals are limited. Our aim was to evaluate the association between anemia thresholds, low CRF and survival in an otherwise healthy adults. METHODS: Study population included 16,334 apparently healthy subjects attending annual periodic health screening examinations (71,200 annual visits), including exercise stress testing (EST). Anemia was defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) or Beutler and Waalens' (BW) criteria...
January 25, 2017: European Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119195/sleep-duration-and-smoking-are-associated-with-coronary-heart-disease-among-us-adults-with-type-2-diabetes-gender-differences
#20
Lixin Li, Shaoqing Gong, Chun Xu, Joseph Yi Zhou, Ke-Sheng Wang
AIMS: The associations of moderate alcohol consumption, sleep duration, and tobacco smoking with coronary heart disease (CHD) among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) are not clearly clarified. The aims of the study were to evaluate the associations of lifestyle factors, hypertension, obesity, depression and sleep duration with CHD development among patients with T2D, and particularly, to examine the gender differences in risk factors for CHD. METHODS: A total of 2335 T2D adults were selected from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey...
December 27, 2016: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
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