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Endocannabinoid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921757/the-neurobiological-bases-of-autism-spectrum-disorders-the-r451c-neuroligin-3-mutation-hampers-the-expression-of-long-term-synaptic-depression-in-the-dorsal-striatum
#1
Giuseppina Martella, Maria Meringolo, Laura Trobiani, Antonella De Jaco, Antonio Pisani, Paola Bonsi
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) comprise a heterogeneous group of disorders with a complex genetic etiology. Current theories on the pathogenesis of ASDs suggest that they might arise from an aberrant synaptic transmission affecting specific brain circuits and synapses. The striatum, which is part of the basal ganglia circuit, is one of the brain regions involved in ASDs. Mouse models of ASDs have provided evidence for an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission. Here we investigated the expression of long-term synaptic plasticity at corticostriatal glutamatergic synapses in the dorsal striatum of the R451C-NL3 phenotypic mouse model of autism...
September 16, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921125/exogenous-cannabinoid-efficacy-merely-a-pharmacokinetic-interaction
#2
Jennifer H Martin, Jennifer Schneider, Catherine J Lucas, Peter Galettis
Endocannabinoid pharmacology is now relatively well understood with a number of endocannabinoids and endogenous cannabinoid neurotransmitters identified and the pharmacokinetics relatively well ascertained. Further, the cannabinoid receptors are now molecularly and pharmacologically characterised and the cell processes involved in endocannabinoid transcription, synthesis, post-translational modification and protein expression are reported. Endogenous cannabinoids have been shown to have key roles in immune and pain pathways and neuro-behavioural signalling including appetite regulation...
September 18, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917977/the-role-of-the-endocannabinoid-system-in-the-antihyperalgesic-effect-of-cedrus-atlantica-essential-oil-inhalation-in-a-mouse-model-of-postoperative-pain
#3
Aline Armiliato Emer, Nathalia Nahas Donatello, Ana Paula Batisti, Luiz Augusto de Oliveira Belmonte, Adair R S Santos, Daniel F Martins
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cedar is part of the phylum of conifers, and it´s essential oil has been used for therapeutic purposes since ancient times. In our previous study, we have demonstrated that the inhalation of the Cedrus atlantica essential oil (CaEO) induces an antihyperalgesic effect in a model of postoperative pain. But the mechanism that underlies this effect is not yet fully known. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study investigates the involvement of the endocannabinoid system in the antihyperalgesic effect produced by the inhalation of CaEO in a post operative pain model...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916833/inhibition-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-and-histone-acetyltransferase-activity-by-rimonabant-a-therapeutic-target-for-colon-cancer
#4
Maria Chiara Proto, Donatella Fiore, Chiara Piscopo, Silvia Franceschelli, Valentina Bizzarro, Chiara Laezza, Gianluigi Lauro, Alessandra Feoli, Alessandra Tosco, Giuseppe Bifulco, Gianluca Sbardella, Maurizio Bifulco, Patrizia Gazzerro
In a high percentage (≥85%) of both sporadic and familial adenomatous polyposis forms of colorectal cancer (CRC), the inactivation of the APC tumor suppressor gene initiates tumor formation and modulates the Wnt/β-Catenin transduction pathways involved in the control of cell proliferation, adhesion and metastasis. Increasing evidence showed that the endocannabinoids control tumor growth and progression, both in vitro and in vivo. We evaluated the effect of Rimonabant, a Cannabinoid Receptor 1 (CB1) inverse agonist, on the Wnt/β-Catenin pathway in HCT116 and SW48 cell lines carrying the genetic profile of metastatic CRC poorly responsive to chemotherapies...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913816/re-visiting-the-endocannabinoid-system-and-its-therapeutic-potential-in-obesity-and-associated-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Joyce M Richey, Orison Woolcott
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of the review was to revisit the possibility of the endocannabinoid system being a therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity by focusing on the peripheral roles in regulating appetite and energy metabolism. RECENT FINDINGS: Previous studies with the global cannabinoid receptor blocker rimonabant, which has both central and peripheral properties, showed that this drug has beneficial effects on cardiometabolic function but severe adverse psychiatric side effects...
September 14, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912087/endocannabinoid-mechanism-in-amphetamine-type-stimulant-use-disorders-a-short-review
#6
REVIEW
Hang Su, Min Zhao
Recent evidence shows that the endocannabinoid system is involved in amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) use disorders. To elucidate the role of the endocannabinoid system in ATS addiction, we reviewed results of studies using cannabinoid receptor agonists, antagonists as well as knockout model. The endocannabinoid system seems to play a role in reinstatement and relapse of ATS addiction and ATS-induced psychiatric symptoms. The molecular mechanisms of this system remains unclear, the association with dopamine system in nucleus accumbens is most likely involved...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910408/effects-of-tumour-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-upon-the-metabolism-of-the-endocannabinoid-anandamide-in-prostate-cancer-cells
#7
Jessica Karlsson, Sandra Gouveia-Figueira, Mireille Alhouayek, Christopher J Fowler
Tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) is involved in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer, a disease where disturbances in the endocannabinoid system are seen. In the present study we have investigated whether treatment of DU145 human prostate cancer cells affects anandamide (AEA) catabolic pathways. Additionally, we have investigated whether cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) can regulate the uptake of AEA into cells. Levels of AEA synthetic and catabolic enzymes were determined by qPCR. AEA uptake and hydrolysis in DU145 and RAW264...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905873/cardiovascular-effects-of-marijuana-and-synthetic-cannabinoids-the-good-the-bad-and-the-ugly
#8
REVIEW
Pal Pacher, Sabine Steffens, György Haskó, Thomas H Schindler, George Kunos
Dysregulation of the endogenous lipid mediators endocannabinoids and their G-protein-coupled cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2 (CB1R and CB2R) has been implicated in a variety of cardiovascular pathologies. Activation of CB1R facilitates the development of cardiometabolic disease, whereas activation of CB2R (expressed primarily in immune cells) exerts anti-inflammatory effects. The psychoactive constituent of marijuana, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), is an agonist of both CB1R and CB2R, and exerts its psychoactive and adverse cardiovascular effects through the activation of CB1R in the central nervous and cardiovascular systems...
September 14, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903355/anti-proliferative-pro-apoptotic-and-anti-invasive-effect-of-ec-ev-system-in-human-osteosarcoma
#9
Francesca Punzo, Chiara Tortora, Daniela Di Pinto, Iolanda Manzo, Giulia Bellini, Fiorina Casale, Francesca Rossi
Osteosarcoma is the most common and aggressive bone tumor in children. The Endocannabinoid/Endovanilloid system has been proposed as anticancer target in tumor of different origins. This system is composed of two receptors (CB1 and CB2), the Transient Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel and their ligands and enzymes. CB1 is expressed mainly in central nervous system while CB2 predominantly on immune and peripheral cells. We investigated the effects of JWH-133 (CB2 agonist) and RTX (TRPV1 agonist) in six human Osteosarcoma cell lines: MG-63, U-2OS, MNNG/HOS, Saos-2, KHOS/NP, Hs888Lu, by Apoptosis and Migration-Assay...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901776/liposomal-delivery-of-diacylglycerol-lipase-beta-inhibitors-to-macrophages-dramatically-enhances-selectivity-and-efficacy-in-vivo
#10
Myungsun Shin, Helena W Snyder, Giulia Donvito, Lesley D Schurman, Todd E Fox, Aron H Lichtman, Mark Kester, Ku-Lung Hsu
Diacylglycerol lipase-beta (DAGLβ) hydrolyzes arachidonic acid (AA)-containing diacylglycerols to produce bioactive lipids including endocannabinoids and AA-derived eicosanoids involved in regulation of inflammatory signaling. Previously, we demonstrated that DAGLβ inactivation using the triazole urea inhibitor KT109 blocked macrophage inflammatory signaling and reversed allodynic responses of mice in inflammatory and neuropathic pain models. Here, we tested whether we could exploit the phagocytic capacity of macrophages to localize delivery of DAGLβ inhibitors to these cells in vivo using liposome encapsulated KT109...
September 13, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900387/social-isolation-in-early-versus-late-adolescent-mice-is-associated-with-persistent-behavioral-deficits-that-can-be-improved-by-neurosteroid-based-treatment
#11
Andrea Locci, Philippe Geoffroy, Michel Miesch, Ayikoe-Guy Mensah-Nyagan, Graziano Pinna
Early trauma and stress exposure during a critical period of life may increase the risk of major depressive disorder (MDD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adulthood. The first-choice treatment for MDD and PTSD are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants. Unfortunately, half of MDD and PTSD patients show resistance to the therapeutic effects of these drugs and more efficient treatments are essential. Both MDD and PTSD patients present reduced levels of allopregnanolone (Allo), a potent endogenous positive allosteric modulator of GABA action at GABAA receptors which are normalized by SSRIs in treatment responders...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898309/-psychiatric-complications-of-cannabis-use
#12
Adriana V Bulacia
atural and synthetic cannabinoids modify the modulatory activity of the endocannabinoid system. Psychiatric complications induced by cannabis are analyzed, i.e. those that start with intoxication but persist beyond the removal of the drug (cognitive, psychotic and anxiety disorders) and the development of addictive behavior. Adolescence is the period of greatest vulnerability to cognitive impact. Cannabis-induced psychosis has been linked to consumption of high concentration of tetrahydrocannabinol and personality traits of anxiety and somatization...
November 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894217/the-faah-inhibitor-urb597-suppresses-hippocampal-maximal-dentate-afterdischarges-and-restores-seizure-induced-impairment-of-short-and-long-term-synaptic-plasticity
#13
Roberto Colangeli, Massimo Pierucci, Arcangelo Benigno, Giuseppe Campiani, Sefania Butini, Giuseppe Di Giovanni
Synthetic cannabinoids and phytocannabinoids have been shown to suppress seizures both in humans and experimental models of epilepsy. However, they generally have a detrimental effect on memory and memory-related processes. Here we compared the effect of the inhibition of the endocannabinoid (eCB) degradation versus synthetic CB agonist on limbic seizures induced by maximal dentate activation (MDA) acute kindling. Moreover, we investigated the dentate gyrus (DG) granule cell reactivity and synaptic plasticity in naïve and in MDA-kindled anaesthetised rats...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890367/enhanced-anandamide-signaling-reduces-flight-behavior-elicited-by-an-approaching-robo-beetle
#14
Daniel E Heinz, Andreas Genewsky, Carsten T Wotjak
Our current knowledge of the implications of endocannabinoids in fear and anxiety is largely based on fear conditioning paradigms and approach-avoidance conflicts. Here we establish the ethobehavioral beetle mania task (BMT), which confronts mice with an erratically moving robo-beetle. With the help of this task we demonstrate decreased tolerance yet increased avoidance responses to an approaching beetle in high-anxiety behavior (HAB) and BALBc mice compared to C57BL/6N, CD1 and normal-anxiety behavior (NAB) mice...
September 7, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889355/tingenone-a-pentacyclic-triterpene-induces-peripheral-antinociception-due-to-cannabinoid-receptors-activation-in-mice
#15
C C Veloso, R C M Ferreira, V G Rodrigues, L P Duarte, A Klein, I D Duarte, T R L Romero, A C Perez
Several works have shown that triterpenes induce peripheral antinociception by activation of cannabinoid receptors and endocannabinoids; besides, several research groups have reported activation of cannabinoid receptors in peripheral antinociception. The aim of this study was to assess the involvement of the cannabinoid system in the antinociceptive effect induced by tingenone against hyperalgesia evoked by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) at peripheral level. The paw pressure test was used and the hyperalgesia was induced by intraplantar injection of PGE2 (2 μg/paw)...
September 9, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889206/dietary-fatty-acid-composition-modulates-obesity-and-interacts-with-obesity-related-genes
#16
REVIEW
Shatha S Hammad, Peter J Jones
The prevalence of obesity is skyrocketing worldwide. The scientific evidence has associated obesity risk with many independent factors including the quality of dietary fat and genetics. Dietary fat exists as the main focus of dietary guidelines targeting obesity reduction. To prevent/minimize the adipogenic effect of dietary fatty acids (FA), intakes of long-chain saturated- and trans-FA should be reduced and substituted with unsaturated FA. The optimal proportions of dietary unsaturated FA are yet to be defined, along with a particular emphasis on the need to achieve a balanced ratio of n-3:n-6 polyunsaturated FA and to increase monounsaturated FA consumption at the expense of saturated FA...
September 9, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889197/changes-in-gene-expression-in-the-locus-coeruleus-amygdala-circuitry-in-inhibitory-avoidance-ptsd-model
#17
Esther L Sabban, Lidia I Serova, Elizabeth Newman, Nurit Aisenberg, Irit Akirav
The locus coeruleus (LC)-amygdala circuit is implicated in playing a key role in responses to emotionally arousing stimuli and in the manifestation of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Here, we examined changes in gene expression of a number of important mediators of the LC-amygdala circuitry in the inhibition avoidance model of PTSD. After testing for basal acoustic startle response (ASR), rats were exposed to a severe footshock (1.5 mA for 10 s) in the inhibitory avoidance apparatus. They were given contextual situational reminders every 5 day for 25 days...
September 9, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886714/the-oxylipin-and-endocannabidome-responses-in-acute-phase-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-in-children
#18
Izabella Surowiec, Sandra Gouveia-Figueira, Judy Orikiiriza, Elisabeth Lindquist, Mari Bonde, Jimmy Magambo, Charles Muhinda, Sven Bergström, Johan Normark, Johan Trygg
BACKGROUND: Oxylipins and endocannabinoids are low molecular weight bioactive lipids that are crucial for initiation and resolution of inflammation during microbial infections. Metabolic complications in malaria are recognized contributors to severe and fatal malaria, but the impact of malaria infection on the production of small lipid derived signalling molecules is unknown. Knowledge of immunoregulatory patterns of these molecules in malaria is of great value for better understanding of the disease and improvement of treatment regimes, since the action of these classes of molecules is directly connected to the inflammatory response of the organism...
September 8, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880852/rna-sequencing-uncovers-molecular-mechanisms-underlying-pathological-complete-response-to-chemotherapy-in-patients-with-operable-breast-cancer
#19
Yongfeng Li, Xiaozhen Liu, Hongchao Tang, Hongjian Yang, Xuli Meng
BACKGROUND This study aimed to identify key genes contributing to pathological complete response (pCR) to chemotherapy by mRNA sequencing (RNA-seq). MATERIAL AND METHODS RNA was extracted from the frozen biopsy tissue of patients with pathological complete response and patients with non-pathological complete response. Sequencing was performed on the HiSeq2000 platform. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between the pCR group and non-pCR (NpCR) group. Pathway enrichment analysis of DEGs was performed...
September 7, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880480/monoacylglycerol-signalling-and-abhd6-in-health-and-disease
#20
REVIEW
Pegah Poursharifi, Sri Ramachandra Murthy Madiraju, Marc Prentki
Lipid metabolism dysregulation underlies chronic pathologies such as obesity, diabetes and cancer. Besides their role in structure and energy storage, lipids are also important signalling molecules regulating multiple biological functions. Thus, understanding the precise lipid metabolism enzymatic steps that are altered in some pathological conditions is helpful for designing better treatment strategies. Several monoacylglycerol (MAG) species are only recently being recognized as signalling lipid molecules in different tissues...
September 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
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