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Endocannabinoid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529018/effects-of-anandamide-administration-on-components-of-reward-processing-during-free-choice
#1
Luke C Zona, Benjamin R Fry, Jacob A LaLonde, Howard C Cromwell
Previous research has implicated the positive modulation of anandamide, an endocannabinoid neurotransmitter, on feeding behavior. Anandamide is particularly noteworthy as it acts as an endogenous ligand of the CB1 receptor, the same receptor that is activated by tetrahydrocannabinol, the primary psychoactive component in Cannabis sativa. Cannabis legalization in North America has presented with a need to study endocannabinoid agonists and their effects on behavior. Much has yet to be determined in terms of the role of the endocannabinoid system in decision-making scenarios...
May 18, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526975/lipid-nanoparticles-for-administration-of-poorly-water-soluble-neuroactive-drugs
#2
Elisabetta Esposito, Markus Drechsler, Paolo Mariani, Federica Carducci, Michela Servadio, Francesca Melancia, Patrizia Ratano, Patrizia Campolongo, Viviana Trezza, Rita Cortesi, Claudio Nastruzzi
This study describes the potential of solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers as nano-formulations to administer to the central nervous system poorly water soluble drugs. Different neuroactive drugs, i.e. dimethylfumarate, retinyl palmitate, progesterone and the endocannabinoid hydrolysis inhibitor URB597 have been studied. Lipid nanoparticles constituted of tristearin or tristearin in association with gliceryl monoolein were produced. The nanoencapsulation strategy allowed to obtain biocompatible and non-toxic vehicles, able to increase the solubility of the considered neuroactive drugs...
September 2017: Biomedical Microdevices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522407/high-throughput-screening-and-bioinformatic-analysis-to-ascertain-compounds-that-prevent-saturated-fatty-acid-induced-%C3%AE-cell-apoptosis
#3
Seung-Hee Lee, Daniel Cunha, Carlo Piermarocchi, Giovanni Paternostro, Anthony Pinkerton, Laurence Ladriere, Piero Marchetti, Decio L Eizirik, Miriam Cnop, Fred Levine
Pancreatic β-cell lipotoxicity is a central feature of the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. To study the mechanism by which fatty acids cause β-cell death and develop novel approaches to prevent it, a high-throughput screen on the β-cell line INS1 was carried out. The cells were exposed to palmitate to induce cell death and compounds that reversed palmitate-induced cytotoxicity were ascertained. Hits from the screen were analyzed by an increasingly more stringent testing funnel, ending with studies on primary human islets treated with palmitate...
May 15, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520937/atypical-endocannabinoid-signaling-initiates-a-new-form-of-memory-related-plasticity-at-a-cortical-input-to-hippocampus
#4
Weisheng Wang, Yousheng Jia, Danielle T Pham, Linda C Palmer, Kwang-Mook Jung, Conor D Cox, Gavin Rumbaugh, Daniele Piomelli, Christine M Gall, Gary Lynch
Endocannabinoids (ECBs) depress transmitter release at sites throughout the brain. Here, we describe another form of ECB signaling that triggers a novel form of long-term potentiation (LTP) localized to the lateral perforant path (LPP) which conveys semantic information from cortex to hippocampus. Two cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R) signaling cascades were identified in hippocampus. The first is pregnenolone sensitive, targets vesicular protein Munc18-1 and depresses transmitter release; this cascade is engaged by CB1Rs in Schaffer-Commissural afferents to CA1 but not in the LPP, and it does not contribute to LTP...
May 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520841/chronic-inflammatory-pain-impairs-mglur5-mediated-depolarization-induced-suppression-of-excitation-in-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex
#5
Baolin Guo, Jiaqi Wang, Han Yao, Keke Ren, Jing Chen, Jing Yang, Guohong Cai, Haiying Liu, Yunlong Fan, Wenting Wang, Shengxi Wu
The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is a critical hub for nociceptive perception and pain-related anxiety. Long-term synaptic plasticity in ACC was found to be important for chronic inflammatory pain and pain-related anxiety. As short-term synaptic plasticity, depolarization-induced suppression of excitation (DSE) is involved in several conditions, such as chronic stress, epilepsy, and autism. However, it is still unknown whether DSE in the ACC is involved in the central sensitization of pain and anxiety. Using a whole-cell patch clamp, calcium imaging, western blot, and behavioral testing, we found that DSE was induced by a 2 s depolarization in postsynaptic pyramidal cells in ACC...
May 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516445/role-of-the-endocannabinoid-system-in-vertebrates-emphasis-on-the-zebrafish-model
#6
REVIEW
Francesca Oltrabella, Adam Melgoza, Brian Nguyen, Su Guo
The endocannabinoid system (eCBs), named after the plant Cannabis sativa, comprises cannabinoid receptors, endogenous ligands known as "endocannabinoids", and enzymes involved in the biosynthesis and degradation of these ligands, as well as putative transporters for these ligands. ECBs proteins and small molecules have been detected in early embryonic stages of many vertebrate models. As a result, cannabinoid receptors and endogenous as well as exogenous cannabinoids influence development and behavior in many vertebrate species...
May 17, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515817/systematic-review-of-the-potential-role-of-cannabinoids-as-antiproliferative-agents-for-urological-cancers
#7
REVIEW
Shreyas Gandhi, Gaurav Vasisth, Anil Kapoor
INTRODUCTION: The palliative effects of cannabis sativa (marijuana), which include appetite stimulation, attenuation of nausea and emesis, and pain relief, are well known. The active components of cannabis sativa (cannabinoids) and their derivatives have received growing interest due to their diverse pharmacological activities, such as cell growth inhibition and tumour regression. The aim of this review is to look at the current evidence on the antiproliferative effects of cannabinoids in urological malignancies, including renal, prostate, bladder, and testicular cancers...
March 2017: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515018/plasma-levels-of-the-endocannabinoid-anandamide-related-n-acylethanolamines-and-linoleic-acid-derived-oxylipins-in-patients-with-migraine
#8
Sandra Gouveia-Figueira, Kristina Goldin, Sanaz A Hashemian, Agneta Lindberg, Monica Persson, Malin L Nording, Katarina Laurell, Christopher J Fowler
There is evidence that patients with migraine have deficient levels of the endogenous cannabinoid receptor ligand anandamide (AEA). It is not known, however, if this is a localised or generalised phenomenon. In the present study, levels of AEA, related N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) and linoleic acid-derived oxylipins have been measured in the blood of 26 healthy women and 38 women with migraine (26 with aura, 12 without aura) who were matched for age and body-mass index. Blood samples were taken on two occasions: the first sample near the start of the menstrual cycle (when present) and the second approximately fourteen days later...
May 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511899/signaling-pathways-to-and-from-the-hypophysial-pars-tuberalis-an-important-center-for-the-control-of-seasonal-rhythms
#9
REVIEW
Horst-Werner Korf
Seasonal (circannual) rhythms play an important role for the control of body functions (reproduction, metabolism, immune responses) in nearly all living organisms. Also humans are affected by the seasons with regard to immune responses and mental functions, the seasonal affective disorder being one of the most prominent examples. The hypophysial pars tuberalis (PT), an important interface between the hypophysial pars distalis and neuroendocrine centers in the brain, plays an essential role in the regulation of seasonal functions and may even be the seat of the circannual clock...
May 13, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499834/n-stearoyltyrosine-protects-primary-cortical-neurons-against-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-induced-apoptosis-through-inhibiting-anandamide-inactivation-system
#10
Heng-Jing Cui, Sha Liu, Rui Yang, Guo-Hui Fu, Yang Lu
N-stearoylthrosine (NST), a synthesized anandamide (AEA) analogue, plays a neuroprotective role in neurodegenerative diseases and cerebrovascular diseases. Several studies have demonstrated that the endocannabinoids systems (ECS) are involved in the neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemic injury. Oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced neuronal injury elevated the levels of endocannabinoids and activated ECS. This research was conducted to investigate the neuroprotective effect of NST against OGD-induced neuronal injury in cultured primary cortical neurons and the potential mechanism involved...
May 9, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497982/neuroprotection-in-oxidative-stress-related-neurodegenerative-diseases-role-of-endocannabinoid-system-modulation
#11
Janos Paloczi, Zoltan V Varga, George Hasko, Pal Pacher
SIGNIFICANCE: Redox imbalance may lead to overproduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) and subsequent oxidative tissue damage which is a critical event in the course of neurodegenerative diseases. It is still not fully elucidated, however, whether oxidative stress is the primary trigger or a consequence in process of neurodegeneration. Recent Advances: Increasing evidence suggests that oxidative stress is involved in the propagation of neuronal injury and consequent inflammatory response, which in concert promote development of pathological alterations characteristic of most common neurodegenerative diseases...
May 12, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495606/the-synthetic-cannabinoid-win-55-212-55-212-induced-apoptosis-in-cytotrophoblasts-cells-by-a-mechanism-dependent-on-cb1-receptor
#12
Marta Almada, Lia Costa, Bruno Miguel Fonseca, Cristina Amaral, Natércia Teixeira, Georgina Correia-da-Silva
The endocannabinoid system has evolved as a key regulator in several pathological and physiological processes, including placentation, decidualization and implantation. In addition, it is known that Cannabis and cannabinoids negatively affect female reproduction. Although, the biological action of synthetic cannabinoids, such as WIN-55,212, in human fertility and pregnancy outcome remain to be unveiled. A tight balance between proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of trophoblast cells is required for placental development and pregnancy outcome...
May 8, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492416/cannabinoid-1-receptor-blockade-in-the-dorsal-hippocampus-prevents-the-reinstatement-but-not-acquisition-of-morphine-induced-conditioned-place-preference-in-rats
#13
Xin Zhao, Li Yao, Fang Wang, Han Zhang, Li Wu
The cannabinoid 1 receptors (CB1Rs) signaling is strongly linked to conditioned rewarding effects of opiates. Learned associations between environmental contexts and discrete cues and drug use play an important role in the maintenance and/or relapse of morphine addiction. Although previous studies suggest that context-dependent morphine treatment alters endocannabinoid signaling and synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus, the role of endocannabinoid in morphine conditioned place preference (CPP) and reinstatement remains unknown...
May 10, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481838/contribution-of-endocannabinoid-gene-expression-and-genotype-on-low-back-pain-susceptibility-and-chronicity
#14
Divya Ramesh, Amy D'Agata, Angela Starkweather, Erin Young
A major research emphasis has been focused on defining the molecular changes that occur from acute to chronic pain in order to identify potential therapeutic targets for chronic pain. As the endocannabinoid system is dynamically involved in pain signaling, a plausible mechanism that may contribute to chronic pain vulnerability involves alterations in the amount of circulating endocannabinoids. Therefore, this study sought to examine cannabinoid type-1 (CNR1), type-2 (CNR2) receptors, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and the vanilloid receptor (TRPV1) gene expression profiles among individuals with acute and chronic LBP at their baseline visit...
May 5, 2017: Clinical Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481360/a-chronic-low-dose-of-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-thc-restores-cognitive-function-in-old-mice
#15
Andras Bilkei-Gorzo, Onder Albayram, Astrid Draffehn, Kerstin Michel, Anastasia Piyanova, Hannah Oppenheimer, Mona Dvir-Ginzberg, Ildiko Rácz, Thomas Ulas, Sophie Imbeault, Itai Bab, Joachim L Schultze, Andreas Zimmer
The balance between detrimental, pro-aging, often stochastic processes and counteracting homeostatic mechanisms largely determines the progression of aging. There is substantial evidence suggesting that the endocannabinoid system (ECS) is part of the latter system because it modulates the physiological processes underlying aging. The activity of the ECS declines during aging, as CB1 receptor expression and coupling to G proteins are reduced in the brain tissues of older animals and the levels of the major endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) are lower...
May 8, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479394/ampk-contributes-to-aerobic-exercise-induced-antinociception-downstream-of-endocannabinoids
#16
Tanya S King-Himmelreich, Christine V Möser, Miriam C Wolters, Julia Schmetzer, Yannik Schreiber, Nerea Ferreirós, Otto Q Russe, Gerd Geisslinger, Ellen Niederberger
Physical exercise has been repeatedly associated with decreased nociceptive responses but the underlying mechanisms have still not been fully clarified. In this study, we investigated exercise-induced effects after a single bout of treadmill running on the mouse model of formalin-induced inflammatory nociception. As potential molecular mediators, we focused on endogenous endocannabinoids as well as AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Our results showed that wild type mice display a reduced nociceptive response in the formalin test after treadmill running, while exercise had no effect on inflammatory nociception in AMPKα2 knockout mice...
May 4, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478955/spatial-distribution-of-cannabinoid-receptor-1-and-fatty-acid-amide-hydrolase-in-the-cat-ovary-and-oviduct
#17
Andrea Pirone, Carla Lenzi, Angela Briganti, Francesco Abbate, Maria Levanti, Francesca Abramo, Vincenzo Miragliotta
Involvement of the endocannabinoid system in female reproduction has been extensively described in humans with the cognate receptors and ligands being found in the ovaries and genital tract. In human, an imbalance of the endocannabinoid system is linked with both ectopic pregnancy and infertility. In bovine species anandamide levels regulate aspects of sperm-oviduct interaction. Here we report the immunohistochemical distribution of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) in cat ovary and oviduct, using paraffin-embedded tissue samples and commercially available antibodies...
May 4, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476947/prenatal-ethanol-exposure-persistently-alters-endocannabinoid-signaling-and-endocannabinoid-mediated-excitatory-synaptic-plasticity-in-ventral-tegmental-area-dopamine-neurons
#18
Kathryn Hausknecht, Ying-Ling Shen, Rui-Xiang Wang, Samir Haj-Dahmane, Roh-Yu Shen
Prenatal ethanol exposure (PE) leads to increased addiction risk which could be mediated by enhanced excitatory synaptic strength in ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons. Previous studies have shown that PE enhances excitatory synaptic strength by facilitating an anti-Hebbian form of long-term potentiation (LTP). In this study, we investigated the effect of PE on endocannabinoid-mediated long-term depression (eCB-LTD) in VTA DA neurons. Rats were exposed to moderate (3 g/kg/day) or high (6 g/kg/day) level of ethanol during gestation...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476070/peripheral-inflammation-alters-n-arachidonoylphosphatidylethanolamine-20-4-nape-induced-modulation-of-nociceptive-spinal-cord-synaptic-transmission
#19
Vladimir Nerandzic, Petra Mrozkova, Pavel Adamek, Diana Spicarova, Istvan Nagy, Jiri Palecek
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Endocannabinoids play an important role in modulating spinal nociceptive signalling, crucial for the development of pain. The cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) are both activated by the endocannabinoid anandamide that is a product of biosynthesis from the endogenous lipid precursor N-arachidonoylphosphatidylethanolamine (20:4-NAPE). Here we are first to report CB1 receptor- and TRPV1-mediated effects of 20:4-NAPE application on spinal synaptic transmission in control and inflammatory conditions...
May 5, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467971/anti-proliferative-pro-apoptotic-and-anti-invasive-effect-of-ec-ev-system-in-human-osteosarcoma
#20
Francesca Punzo, Chiara Tortora, Daniela Di Pinto, Iolanda Manzo, Giulia Bellini, Fiorina Casale, Francesca Rossi
Osteosarcoma is the most common and aggressive bone tumor in children. The Endocannabinoid/Endovanilloid system has been proposed as anticancer target in tumor of different origins. This system is composed of two receptors (CB1 and CB2), the Transient Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel and their ligands and enzymes. CB1 is expressed mainly in central nervous system while CB2 predominantly on immune and peripheral cells. We investigated the effects of JWH-133 (CB2 agonist) and RTX (TRPV1 agonist) in six human Osteosarcoma cell lines: MG-63, U-2OS, MNNG/HOS, Saos-2, KHOS/NP, Hs888Lu, by Apoptosis and Migration-Assay...
April 13, 2017: Oncotarget
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