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Marie-José Lecomte, Chloé Bertolus, Nélina Ramanantsoa, Françoise Saurini, Jacques Callebert, Catherine Sénamaud-Beaufort, Maud Ringot, Thomas Bourgeois, Boris Matrot, Corinne Collet, Jeannette Nardelli, Jacques Mallet, Guilan Vodjdani, Jorge Gallego, Jean-Marie Launay, Sylvie Berrard
Pituitary growth hormone (GH) and insulinlike growth factor (IGF)-1 are anabolic hormones whose physiological roles are particularly important during development. The activity of the GH/IGF-1 axis is controlled by complex neuroendocrine systems including two hypothalamic neuropeptides, GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin (SRIF), and a gastrointestinal hormone, ghrelin. The neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) is involved in tuning GH secretion, and its GH-stimulatory action has mainly been shown in adults but is not clearly documented during development...
April 1, 2018: Endocrinology
David Aguado-Llera, Sandra Canelles, Laura M Frago, Julie A Chowen, Jesús Argente, Eduardo Arilla, Vicente Barrios
Somatostatin (SRIF), a neuropeptide highly distributed in the hippocampus and involved in learning and memory, is markedly reduced in the brain of Alzheimer's disease patients. The effects of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) against β amyloid (Aβ)-induced neuronal death and associated cognitive disorders have been extensively reported in experimental models of this disease. Here, we examined the effect of IGF-I on the hippocampal somatostatinergic system in Aβ-treated rats and the molecular mechanisms associated with changes in this peptidergic system...
March 15, 2018: Neuroscience
Anupam Kumar, Sujith V Cherian, Robert Vassallo, Eunhee S Yi, Jay H Ryu
Tobacco exposure results in various changes to the airways and lung parenchyma. Although emphysema represents the more common injury pattern, in some individuals, cigarette smoke injures alveolar epithelial cells and other lung cells, resulting in diffuse infiltrates and parenchymal fibrosis. Smoking can trigger interstitial injury patterns mediated via recruitment and inappropriate persistence of myeloid and other immune cells, including eosinophils. As our understanding of the role of cigarette smoke constituents in triggering lung injury continues to evolve, so does our recognition of the spectrum of smoking-related interstitial lung changes...
December 5, 2017: Chest
Francesco Crespi
Somatostatin (SRIF) is widely distributed throughout the body, and regulates the endocrine system via interactions with various hormones, including the pituitary growth hormone, the thyroid stimulating hormone and the majority of the hormones of the gastrointestinal tract. SRIF is present in the central nervous system (CNS), where it affects rates of neurotransmission, and is also reported to be active in the intestinal tract, with evidence that stressed rats present a significant decrease in antral somatostatin-like immunoreactivity (SLI)...
November 17, 2017: Biosensors
Aurélie Fabre, Ann Treacy, Lisa P Lavelle, Maciek Narski, Nazia Faheem, David Healy, Jonathan D Dodd, Michael P Keane, James J Egan, Gilles Jebrak, Hervé Mal, Marcus W Butler
More data are needed regarding the radiology, co-morbidities and natural history of smoking-related interstitial fibrosis (SRIF), a common pathological finding, mainly described heretofore in association with lung cancer, where respiratory bronchiolitis (RB) usually co-exists. We prospectively acquired high resolution CT scan data (edge-enhancing lung reconstructions) to detect any radiologic interstitial lung abnormality (ILA) in individuals who ultimately underwent surgical lobectomy for lung cancer (n = 20), for radiologic/pathologic correlation...
December 2017: COPD
Jonathan H H Bank, Dana Wilson, Eddy Rijntjes, Perry Barrett, Annika Herwig
Djungarian hamsters are able to reduce their body weight by more than 30% in anticipation of the winter season. This particular adaptation to extreme environmental conditions is primarily driven by a natural reduction in day length and conserved under laboratory conditions. We used this animal model to investigate hypothalamic gene expression linked to body weight regulation behind this physiological phenomenon. After an initial collective short photoperiod (SP) adaptation for 14 weeks from a preceding long photoperiod (LP), hamsters were re-exposed to LP for either six or 14 weeks, followed by a second re-exposure to SP for eight weeks...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Santhosh Kumar Nagarajan, Sathya Babu, Thirumurthy Madhavan
We report on SSTR5 receptor modeling and its interaction with reported antagonist and agonist molecules. Modeling of the SSTR5 receptor was carried out using multiple templates with the aim of improving the precision of the generated models. The selective SSTR5 antagonists, agonists and native somatostatin SRIF-14 were employed to propose the binding site of SSTR5 and to identify the critical residues involved in the interaction of the receptor with other molecules. Residues Q2.63, D3.32, Q3.36, C186, Y7.34 and Y7...
May 2017: Molecular Diversity
Kum Ju Chae, Gong Yong Jin, Hyun Nyeong Jung, Keun Sang Kwon, Hyemi Choi, Yong Chul Lee, Myoung Ja Chung, Ho Sung Park
OBJECTIVE: To differentiate smoking-related interstitial fibrosis (SRIF) from usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) with emphysema on CT in combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was approved by the institutional review board and informed consent was waived. We included 65 patients who underwent lung biopsy under the suspicion of UIP pattern on HRCT, and after radiologic-pathologic correlation, they were divided into three groups: UIP without emphysema (n = 30), UIP with emphysema (n = 26), and SRIF (n = 9)...
2016: PloS One
Hideji Otani, Tomonori Tanaka, Kiyoshi Murata, Junya Fukuoka, Norihisa Nitta, Yukihiro Nagatani, Akinaga Sonoda, Masashi Takahashi
PURPOSE: To evaluate the incidence and pathologic correlation of thin-section computed tomography (TSCT) findings in smoking-related interstitial fibrosis (SRIF) with pulmonary emphysema. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Our study included 172 consecutive patients who underwent TSCT and subsequent lobectomy. TSCT findings including clustered cysts with visible walls (CCVW) and ground-glass attenuation with/without reticulation (GGAR) were evaluated and compared in nonsmokers and smokers and among lung locations...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Pablo Martín-Gago, Álvaro Rol, Toni Todorovski, Eric Aragón, Pau Martin-Malpartida, Xavier Verdaguer, Mariona Vallès Miret, Jimena Fernández-Carneado, Berta Ponsati, Maria J Macias, Antoni Riera
Somatostatin is a 14-residue peptide hormone that regulates the endocrine system by binding to five G-protein-coupled receptors (SSTR1-5). We have designed six new Somatostatin analogs with L-3-(3',5'-difluorophenyl)-alanine (Dfp) as a substitute of Phe and studied the effect of an electron-poor aromatic ring in the network of aromatic interactions present in Somatostatin. Replacement of each of the Phe residues (positions 6, 7 and 11) by Dfp and use of a D-Trp8 yielded peptides whose main conformations could be characterized in aqueous solution by NMR...
2016: Scientific Reports
Qin-Qin Deng, Wen-Long Sheng, Gong Zhang, Shi-Jun Weng, Xiong-Li Yang, Yong-Mei Zhong
Somatostatin (SRIF) is involved in a variety of physiological functions via the activation of five subtypes of specific receptors (sst1-5). Here, we investigated the effects of SRIF on AMPA receptor (AMPAR)-mediated currents (AMPA currents) in isolated rat retinal ganglion cells (GCs) using patch-clamp techniques. Immunofluorescence double labelling demonstrated the expression of sst5 in rat GCs. Consistent to this, whole cell AMPA currents of GCs were dose-dependently suppressed by SRIF, and the effect was reversed by the sst5 antagonist BIM-23056...
August 2016: Neuropharmacology
Helen E Vuong, Claudia N Hardi, Steven Barnes, Nicholas C Brecha
An inner retinal microcircuit composed of dopamine (DA)-containing amacrine cells and melanopsin-containing, intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (M1 ipRGCs) process information about the duration and intensity of light exposures, mediating light adaptation, circadian entrainment, pupillary reflexes, and other aspects of non-image-forming vision. The neural interaction is reciprocal: M1 ipRGCs excite DA amacrine cells, and these, in turn, feed inhibition back onto M1 ipRGCs. We found that the neuropeptide somatostatin [somatotropin release inhibiting factor (SRIF)] also inhibits the intrinsic light response of M1 ipRGCs and postulated that, to tune the bidirectional interaction of M1 ipRGCs and DA amacrine cells, SRIF amacrine cells would provide inhibitory modulation to both cell types...
December 2, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Bin Wang, Jirong Jia, Guokun Yang, Jingkai Qin, Cong Zhang, Qiuping Zhang, Caiyun Sun, Wensheng Li
Growth in vertebrates is mainly mediated by the growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis, and somatostatin (SRIF) inhibits growth by decreasing GH release at the pituitary level and antagonizing the release and action of GHRH in the hypothalamus. However, the effects of SRIF on the regulation of growth at levels other than GH release from the pituitary gland are less well known. In the present study, we comprehensively examined the pituitary and peripheral actions of SRIF on the GH-IGF axis in grouper using a primary pituitary and hepatocyte cell culture system...
October 1, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
T Y Xie, S T Ngo, J D Veldhuis, P L Jeffery, L K Chopin, M Tschöp, M J Waters, V Tolle, J Epelbaum, C Chen, F J Steyn
Ghrelin, a gut hormone originating from the post-translational cleavage of preproghrelin, is the endogenous ligand of growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1a). Within the growth hormone (GH) axis, the biological activity of ghrelin requires octanoylation by ghrelin-O-acyltransferase (GOAT), conferring selective binding to the GHS-R1a receptor via acylated ghrelin. Complete loss of preproghrelin-derived signalling (through deletion of the Ghrl gene) contributes to a decline in peak GH release; however, the selective contribution of endogenous acyl-ghrelin to pulsatile GH release remains to be established...
December 2015: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Dimitri De Bundel, Assia Fafouri, Zsolt Csaba, Ellen Loyens, Sophie Lebon, Vincent El Ghouzzi, Stéphane Peineau, Guilan Vodjdani, Foteini Kiagiadaki, Najat Aourz, Jessica Coppens, Laura Walrave, Jeanelle Portelli, Patrick Vanderheyden, Siew Yeen Chai, Kyriaki Thermos, Véronique Bernard, Graham Collingridge, Stéphane Auvin, Pierre Gressens, Ilse Smolders, Pascal Dournaud
UNLABELLED: Within the hippocampus, the major somatostatin (SRIF) receptor subtype, the sst2A receptor, is localized at postsynaptic sites of the principal neurons where it modulates neuronal activity. Following agonist exposure, this receptor rapidly internalizes and recycles slowly through the trans-Golgi network. In epilepsy, a high and chronic release of somatostatin occurs, which provokes, in both rat and human tissue, a decrease in the density of this inhibitory receptor at the cell surface...
August 26, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
S E Franck, A J van der Lely, P J D Delhanty, J O L Jørgensen, S J C M M Neggers
BACKGROUND: Doses of the GH receptor (GHR) antagonist pegvisomant (PEGV) that normalize insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) levels vary widely among acromegaly patients. Predictors for PEGV response are baseline IGF1 levels, sex, body weight and previous radiotherapy. A GHR polymorphism lacking exon 3 (d3-GHR) is frequent in the general population. The influence of d3-GHR on PEGV responsiveness in acromegaly is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of d3-GHR on IGF1 levels and PEGV responsiveness in acromegaly patients using combined PEGV and long-acting somatostatin receptor ligand (LA-SRIF) treatment...
November 2015: European Journal of Endocrinology
R A Dumbell, F Scherbarth, V Diedrich, H A Schmid, S Steinlechner, P Barrett
The timing of growth in seasonal mammals is inextricably linked to food availability. This is exemplified in the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus), which uses the annual cycle of photoperiod to optimally programme energy expenditure in anticipation of seasonal fluctuations in food resources. During the autumn, energy expenditure is progressively minimised by physiological adaptations, including a 30% reduction in body mass, comprising a reduction in both fat and lean tissues. However, the mechanistic basis of this adaptation is still unexplained...
July 2015: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Lili Huang, Hwee Y Tan, Matthew J Fogarty, Zane B Andrews, Johannes D Veldhuis, Herbert Herzog, Frederik J Steyn, Chen Chen
The hypothalamic NPY system plays an important role in regulating food intake and energy expenditure. Different biological actions of NPY are assigned to NPY receptor subtypes. Recent studies demonstrated a close relationship between food intake and growth hormone (GH) secretion; however, the mechanism through which endogenous NPY modulates GH release remains unknown. Moreover, conclusive evidence demonstrating a role for NPY and Y-receptors in regulating the endogenous pulsatile release of GH does not exist...
December 3, 2014: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Ian Lewis, Herbert A Schmid, Rainer Kneuer, Daniel Hoyer, Antonio P Silva, Gisbert Weckbecker, Christian Bruns, Janos Pless
A rational drug design approach involving transposition of functional groups from SRIF into a reduced size cyclohexapeptide template has led to the discovery of SOM230, a novel, stable cyclohexapeptide somatostatin mimic which exhibits unique high affinity binding to human somatostatin receptors (sst1-5). This unique receptor subtype binding profile, in particular the exceptional high affinity binding to sst5, led to SOM230 being approved by EMEA and FDA in 2012 as the first effective pituitary directed therapeutic modality for Cushing's disease...
2014: Chimia
Anna-Luise A Katzenstein
Smoking-related interstitial fibrosis (SRIF) is a common, histologically striking finding in smokers that must be distinguished from the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias and other chronic interstitial fibrosing lesions. It is characterised by marked thickening of alveolar septa by fibrosis composed of thick collagen bundles that have a distinctive hyalinised quality and often are admixed with variable numbers of hyperplastic smooth muscle fibres. There is minimal accompanying inflammation. This fibrosis is usually most prominent in subpleural and centrilobular parenchyma, but can be present elsewhere as well...
October 2014: Postgraduate Medical Journal
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