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Akashdeep Singh Oberoi, Ligy Philip
In the present study, an attempt was made to understand the variation in the toxicity during the biodegradation of aromatic hydrocarbons in single and multi-substrate system. The bacterial bioassay based on the inhibition of dehydrogenase enzyme activity of two different bacterial sp. E.coli and Pseudomonas fluorescens was used for toxicity assessment. Amongst the chosen pollutants, the highest acute toxicity was observed for benzothiophene followed by benzofuran having EC50 value of 16.60mg/L and 19.30mg/L respectively...
October 19, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
G Kamkamidze, I Migriauli, D Razmadze, M Kochlamazashvili, K Mulkijanyan, M Butsashvili
The main objective of this investigation was to develop and pilot a real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (rt-PCR) diagnostic system for rapid and simultaneous identification of pathogens with a particular emphasis on diarrheal disease diagnostics. The diarrheal diseases were selected as a target for the pilot because they constitute a primary public health priority in Georgia and worldwide. The product developed by our research team "Neo_PCR_Diagnostics" represents an original system for the identification of pathogens associated with gastrointestinal tract infections and diarrhea...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
T Didbaridze, L Saginashvili, L Akhmeteli, B Iremashvili, N Gogokhia
This study provides a contemporary epidemiology of aspirates taken during surgery from the abdominal cavity among patients with bacterial peritonitis to identify the isolates and study their sensitivity to antibiotics. Our bacteriology investigations included isolation of poor cultures, and detection of microbes was conducted using a rapid identification system (API20E, API Staph, API Strep, API Ana, BioMerieux). Rapid tests for detection of oxidase and catalase activity were also used. Susceptibility of microorganisms to antibiotics was defined by the disc-diffusion method using standard discs (EUCAST guidelines 2015) according to Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) protocols (ATB strips: ATB G, ATB Staph, ATBANA, ATBPse, ATBStrep...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
J D Rodgers, E Simpkin, R Lee, F A Clifton-Hadley, A B Vidal
Broiler chicken flocks are a significant source of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli that result in the major public health problem of campylobacteriosis. Accurate estimates of the prevalence of both C. coli and C. jejuni in flocks would enhance epidemiological understanding, risk assessment and control options. This study combined results from a panel of 10 detection tests (direct culture, enrichment and PCR) on caecal samples from flocks at slaughter. A parallel interpretation approach was used to determine the presence of Campylobacter spp...
October 22, 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
Shobha Devi, Po-Hung Wu, Pei-Yu Chu, Yue-Pei Liu, Hsin-Lin Wu, Yen-Peng Ho
The impact of microwave irradiation on the in-solution digestion processes and the detection limit of proteins are systematically studied. Kinetic processes of many peptides produced through the trypsin digestion of various proteins under microwave heating at 50°C were investigated with MALDI-MS. This study also examines the detection limits and digestion completeness of individual proteins under microwave heating at 50°C and at different time intervals (1, 5 and 30 min) using LC-MS. We conclude that, if the peptides without missed cleavage dictate the detection limit, conventional digestion will lead to a better detection limit...
October 22, 2016: Electrophoresis
Kenneth Eng Ling Kwan, Vishalkumar G Shelat, Cher Heng Tan
Recurrent pyogenic cholangitis (RPC) is an infective process involving the biliary tree typified by pigmented intraductal calculi with dilatation of the intra- and extrahepatic biliary tree. Previously endemic to South-east Asia, RPC can now be seen in Western countries with the increasing access to international travel and immigration. Affected patients are often plagued by recurrent bouts of cholangitis, and commonly suffer from complications such as abscess formation and biliary strictures. In severe cases, cirrhosis with portal hypertension may develop...
October 21, 2016: Abdominal Radiology
Igor B Zhulin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
Héloïse Coté, Marie-Anne Boucher, André Pichette, Benoit Roger, Jean Legault
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Oleoresin of Abies balsamea (L.) Mill. was used by Aboriginal people of the boreal forest of Canada and French Canadians to treat various infections, suggesting that oleoresin has antibacterial properties. AIM OF THE STUDY: In this study, the antibacterial activity of whole oleoresin from A. balsamea was investigated against E. coli, S. aureus and two methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains using a new sensitive assay developed to evaluate hydrophobic matrix and compounds...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Kaouther Majouli, Assia Hamdi, Kamel Msaada, Abderraouf Kenani
This study was carried out with the objective to investigate the antibacterial activity of Hertia cheirifolia L. extracts against Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains including Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633), Bacillus licheniformis, Esherichia coli (ATCC 8739), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 9027), Salmonella enterica (CIP 8039) and Salmonella typhimirium. The results of this antibacterial screening showed that the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extracts had the best activity against the tested microorganisms...
October 18, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
J F Leal, I S Henriques, A Correia, E B H Santos, V I Esteves
Oxytetracycline (OTC) is one of the most used antibiotics in aquaculture. The main concern related to its use is the bacterial resistance, when ineffective treatments are applied for its removal or inactivation. OTC photo-degradation has been suggested as an efficient complementary process to conventional methods used in intensive fish production (e.g.: ozonation). Despite this, and knowing that the complete mineralization of OTC is difficult, few studies have examined the antibacterial activity of OTC photoproducts...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Alexander Mischnik, Philipp Baumert, Axel Hamprecht, Anna Rohde, Silke Peter, Susanne Feihl, Johannes Knobloch, Hanna Gölz, Axel Kola, Birgit Obermann, Christiane Querbach, Matthias Willmann, Friedemann Gebhardt, Evelina Tacconelli, Petra Gastmeier, Harald Seifert, Winfried V Kern
As part of the multicenter Antibiotic Therapy Optimisation Study-the largest study on the prevalence of third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae carriage upon hospital admission-minimum inhibitory concentration values were generated for ampicillin/sulbactam, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, piperacillin/tazobactam, mecillinam, mecillinam/clavulanic acid, and temocillin against third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species and Enterobacter species.
September 23, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Xiaoxue Tong, Tania Triscari Barberi, Catherine H Botting, Sunil V Sharma, Mark J H Simmons, Tim W Overton, Rebecca J M Goss
BACKGROUND: Engineering of single-species biofilms for enzymatic generation of fine chemicals is attractive. We have recently demonstrated the utility of an engineered Escherichia coli biofilm as a platform for synthesis of 5-halotryptophan. E. coli PHL644, expressing a recombinant tryptophan synthase, was employed to generate a biofilm. Its rapid deposition, and instigation of biofilm formation, was enforced by employing a spin-down method. The biofilm presents a large three-dimensional surface area, excellent for biocatalysis...
October 21, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
Jeremiah Seni, Enock Sweya, Amri Mabewa, Stephen E Mshana, Japhet M Gilyoma
BACKGROUND: Secondary peritonitis is a common surgical emergence with deadly outcomes when not timely and promptly intervened. The emergence of Extended spectrum beta lactamase producing bacteria (ESBL) poses treatment challenge at Bugando Medical Centre (BMC); hence a need to evaluate the magnitude of ESBL so as to guide specific therapy. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study conducted at BMC from May 2014 to April 2015 involving patients with secondary peritonitis...
October 21, 2016: BMC Emergency Medicine
Miao Liu, Ling Zhou, Baiyu Zhang, Minhong He, Xiaoying Dong, Xiaojun Lin, Chunhong Jia, Xiaochun Bai, Yifan Dai, Yongchun Su, Zhipeng Zou, Hang Zheng
Although epidemiological and preclinical studies have shown the preventative effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on colorectal cancer (CRC), the underlying molecular mechanisms are not clear. In this study, we revealed that elevation of n-3/n-6 PUFAs ratio suppress the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and prevent colorectal tumorigenesis. The transgenic expression of fat-1, a desaturase that catalyzes the conversion of n-6 to n-3 PUFAs and produces n-3 PUFAs endogenously, repressed colorectal tumor cell growth and remarkably reduced tumor burden, and alleviated anemia as well as hyperlipidemia in APCMin/+ (adenomatous polyposis coli) mice, a classic CRC model that best simulates most clinical cases...
October 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Jingjing Yu, Yuling Huang, Lijuan Liu, Jing Wang, Jiye Yin, Lihua Huang, Shaojun Chen, Jingao Li, Hong Yuan, Guoping Yang, Wenyu Liu, Hai Wang, Qi Pei, Chengxian Guo
Radiotherapy (RT) is the normative therapeutic treatment for primary nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of genes in Wnt/β-catenin pathway are correlated to the development, prognosis, and treatment benefit of various cancers. However, it has not been established whether SNPs of Wnt/β-catenin pathway are associated with nasopharyngeal tumorigenesis and the efficacy of RT in NPC patients. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate the nine potentially functional SNPs of four genes in the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and genotyped these in 188 NPC patients treated with RT...
October 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Troy A Skwor, Stephanie Klemm, Hanyu Zhang, Brianna Schardt, Stephanie Blaszczyk, Matthew A Bork
Increasing rates of antibiotic resistance coupled with the lack of novel antibiotics threatens proper clinical treatment and jeopardizes their use in prevention. A photodynamic approach appears to be an innovative treatment option, even for multi-drug resistant strains of bacteria. Three components are utilized in photodynamic inactivation: a photosensitizer, light source, and oxygen. Variations in photosensitizers strongly influence microbial binding and bactericidal activity. In this study, four different cationic metalloporphyrins (Cu(2+), Fe(2+), Pd(2+), Zn(2+)) were compared to the free-base ligand 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(N-methylpyridinium-4-yl)porphyrin regarding their electronic properties and generation of reactive oxygen species upon subsequent 405nm violet-blue irradiation...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Narges Abdali, Jerry Matthew Parks, Keith Haynes, Julie L Chaney, Adam T Green, David Wolloscheck, John K Walker, Valentin V Rybenkov, Jerome Yves Baudry, Jeremy C Smith, Helen I Zgurskaya
Antibiotic resistance is a major threat to human welfare. Inhibitors of multidrug efflux pumps (EPIs) are promising alternative therapeutics that could revive activities of antibiotics and reduce bacterial virulence. Identification of new druggable sites for inhibition is critical for development of effective EPIs, especially in light of constantly emerging resistance. Here, we describe EPIs that interact with periplasmic membrane fusion proteins, critical components of efflux pumps that are responsible for the activation of the transporter and the recruitment of the outer-membrane channel...
October 21, 2016: ACS Infectious Diseases
Marta Gibert, Sonia Paytubi, Sergi Beltrán, Antonio Juárez, Carlos Balsalobre, Cristina Madrid
Plasmids of the incompatibility group HI1 (IncHI1) have been isolated from several Gram-negative pathogens and are associated with the spread of multidrug resistance. Their conjugation is tightly regulated and it is inhibited at temperatures higher than 30°C, indicating that conjugation occurs outside warm-blooded hosts. Using R27, the prototype of IncHI1 plasmids, we report that plasmid transfer efficiency in E. coli strongly depends on the physiological state of the donor cells. Conjugation frequency is high when cells are actively growing, dropping sharply when cells enter the stationary phase of growth...
October 21, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
Nitzan Krinsky, Maya Kaduri, Janna Shainsky-Roitman, Mor Goldfeder, Eran Ivanir, Itai Benhar, Yuval Shoham, Avi Schroeder
Cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) systems are important laboratory tools that are used for various synthetic biology applications. Here, we present a simple and inexpensive laboratory-scale method for preparing a CFPS system from E. coli. The procedure uses basic lab equipment, a minimal set of reagents, and requires less than one hour to process the bacterial cell mass into a functional S30-T7 extract. BL21(DE3) and MRE600 E. coli strains were used to prepare the S30-T7 extract. The CFPS system was used to produce a set of fluorescent and therapeutic proteins of different molecular weights (up to 66 kDa)...
2016: PloS One
Po C Liu, Yi T Lee, Chun Y Wang, Ya-Tang Yang
We describe a low cost, configurable morbidostat for characterizing the evolutionary pathway of antibiotic resistance. The morbidostat is a bacterial culture device that continuously monitors bacterial growth and dynamically adjusts the drug concentration to constantly challenge the bacteria as they evolve to acquire drug resistance. The device features a working volume of ~10 ml and is fully automated and equipped with optical density measurement and micro-pumps for medium and drug delivery. To validate the platform, we measured the stepwise acquisition of trimethoprim resistance in Escherichia coli MG 1655, and integrated the device with a multiplexed microfluidic platform to investigate cell morphology and antibiotic susceptibility...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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