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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636190/uchl1-promotes-invasion-of-breast-cancer-cells-through-activating-akt-signaling-pathway
#1
Yanhong Luo, Jianfeng He, Chunlin Yang, Matthew Orange, Xingcong Ren, Nick Blair, Tao Tan, Jin-Ming Yang, Hua Zhu
As a de-ubiquitin enzyme, ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase (UCH)-L1 has been shown to be overexpressed in several human cancers. However, the function of UCH-L1 in invasion of breast cancers is still unclear. Here we report that the expression of UCH-L1 is significantly higher in cancer cells with higher invasive ability. While ectopic UCH-L1 expression failed to alter cell proliferation in MCF-7 cells, it caused a significant upregulation of cellular invasion. Furthermore, siRNA mediated knockdown of UCH-L1 led to suppression of invasion in UCH-L1 overexpressing MCF-7 cells...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636010/engineering-multi-functional-bacterial-outer-membrane-vesicles-as-modular-nanodevices-for-biosensing-and-bioimaging
#2
Qi Chen, Sharon Rozovsky, Wilfred Chen
Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are proteoliposomes derived from the outer membrane and periplasmic space of many Gram-negative bacteria including E. coli as part of their natural growth cycle. Inspired by the natural ability of E. coli to sort proteins to both the exterior and interior of OMVs, we reported here a one-pot synthesis approach to engineer multi-functionalized OMV-based sensors for both antigen binding and signal generation. SlyB, a native lipoprotein, was used a fusion partner to package nanoluciferase (Nluc) within OMVs, while a previously developed INP-Scaf3 surface scaffold was fused to the Z-domain for antibody recruiting...
June 21, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635967/social-behaviour-involving-drug-resistance-the-role-of-initial-density-initial-frequency-and-population-structure-in-shaping-the-effect-of-antibiotic-resistance-as-a-public-good
#3
I L Domingues, J A Gama, L M Carvalho, F Dionisio
Bacteria sometimes cooperate with co-inhabiting cells. Pathogenic bacteria, for example, often produce and excrete virulence factors, eventually benefitting both producer and non-producer cells. The role of social interactions involving antibiotic resistance, however, has been more elusive. Enzymes that inactivate β-lactam antibiotics such as ampicillin or penicillin (β-lactamases) are good candidates as public goods. Nonetheless, it has been claimed that bacteria harbouring plasmids of natural origin coding for β-lactamase almost do not protect sensitive bacteria...
June 21, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635681/antimicrobial-activity-of-nitric-oxide-releasing-ti-6al-4v-metal-oxide
#4
Nina A Reger, Wilson S Meng, Ellen S Gawalt
Titanium and titanium alloy materials are commonly used in joint replacements, due to the high strength of the materials. Pathogenic microorganisms can easily adhere to the surface of the metal implant, leading to an increased potential for implant failure. The surface of a titanium-aluminum-vanadium (Ti-6Al-4V) metal oxide implant material was functionalized to deliver an small antibacterial molecule, nitric oxide. S-nitroso-penicillamine, a S-nitrosothiol nitric oxide donor, was covalently immobilized on the metal oxide surface using self-assembled monolayers...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635589/regulation-of-escherichia-coli-pathogenesis-by-alternative-sigma-factor-n
#5
James T Riordan, Avishek Mitra
σ(N) (also σ(54)) is an alternative sigma factor subunit of the RNA polymerase complex that regulates the expression of genes from many different ontological groups. It is broadly conserved in the Eubacteria with major roles in nitrogen metabolism, membrane biogenesis, and motility. σ(N) is encoded as the first gene of a five-gene operon including rpoN (σ(N)), ptsN, hpf, rapZ, and npr that has been genetically retained among species of Escherichia, Shigella, and Salmonella. In an increasing number of bacteria, σ(N) has been implicated in the control of genes essential to pathogenic behavior, including those involved in adherence, secretion, immune subversion, biofilm formation, toxin production, and resistance to both antimicrobials and biological stressors...
June 2017: EcoSal Plus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635307/synthesis-evaluation-and-modeling-of-some-triazolothienopyrimidinones-as-anti-inflammatory-and-antimicrobial-agents
#6
Adnan A Bekhit, Ahmed M Farghaly, Ragab M Shafik, Mona Ma Elsemary, Mai S El-Shoukrofy, Alaa El-Din A Bekhit, Tamer M Ibrahim
AIM: New triazolotetrahydrobenzothienopyrimidinone derivatives were synthesized. EXPERIMENTAL: Their structures were confirmed, and their anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial activities and ulcerogenic potentials were evaluated. RESULTS: Compounds 7a, 10a and 11a showed minimal ulcerogenic effect and high selectivity toward human recombinant COX-2 over COX-1 enzyme with IC50 values of 1.39, 1.22 and 0.56 μM, respectively. Their docking outcome correlated with their biological activity and confirmed the high selectivity binding toward COX-2...
June 21, 2017: Future Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634805/comparative-prevalence-of-escherichia-coli-carrying-virulence-genes-and-class-1-and-2-integrons-in-sub-tropical-and-cool-temperate-freshwater
#7
Jatinder P S Sidhu, Paul Jagals, Amy Smith, Simon Toze
Aquatic environments are now recognized secondary habitat of potentially pathogenic Escherichia coli. In this study, PCR-based analyses were used to determine the phylogenetic composition and frequency of occurrence of eight clinically significant virulence genes (VGs) in E. coli isolates from sub-tropical Brisbane and cool temperate Tasmania freshwater in Australia. In Brisbane, non-commensal E. coli isolates belonging to the B2 and D phylogenetic group were dominant (72%). A significantly higher number (P < 0...
June 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634775/hydrophilic-acylated-surface-protein-a-haspa-of-leishmania-donovani-expression-purification-and-biophysico-chemical-characterization
#8
Manoj Kumar, Kishu Ranjan, Vijay Singh, Chandramani Pathak, Anju Pappachan, Desh Deepak Singh
Hydrophilic acylated surface proteins (HASPs) are acidic surface proteins which get localized on the surface of Leishmania parasite during infective stages through a "non-classical" pathway. In this study, we report the heterologous expression and purification of Leishmania donovani HASPA (r-LdHASPA) in E. coli system and its partial characterization. The structural aspects of the purified protein were analyzed using CD spectroscopy and modeling studies which indicate that r-LdHASPA consists of random coils...
June 21, 2017: Protein Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634762/rapid-preconcentration-of-viable-bacteria-using-magnetic-ionic-liquids-for-pcr-amplification-and-culture-based-diagnostics
#9
Kevin D Clark, Jeffrey A Purslow, Stephen A Pierson, Omprakash Nacham, Jared L Anderson
In this study, a series of magnetic ionic liquids (MILs) were investigated for the extraction and preconcentration of bacteria from aqueous samples. By dispersing small volumes (e.g., 15 μL) of MIL within an aqueous cell suspension, bacteria were rapidly extracted and isolated using a magnetic field. Of the seven hydrophobic MILs examined, the trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium Ni(II) hexafluoroacetylacetonate ([P66614(+)][Ni(hfacac)3(-)]) MIL exhibited the greatest enrichment of viable Escherichia coli K12 when coupled with microbiological culture as the detection method...
June 20, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634713/characterization-and-in-vitro-antibacterial-activity-of-saponin-conjugated-silver-nanoparticles-against-bacteria-that-cause-burn-wound-infection
#10
Anbarasan Muniyan, Kalaiselvi Ravi, Udayamathi Mohan, Rajasekar Panchamoorthy
Saponins are glycosides, which destabilize the membrane by altering the membrane permeability. Thus, the present study was aimed to fabricate the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using fenugreek derived saponin (SN) against multi-drug resistant bacteria. This study has optimized the concentration of SN (240 mg/mL) for the synthesis of an effective AgNPs against the test organism Escherichia coli. The SN reduced AgNPs produced a reddish-brown colour and displayed UV absorption at 416 nm. The bio-reducing efficiency of SN (62...
July 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634479/whole-blood-profiling-of-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-induced-trained-innate-immunity-in-infants-identifies-epidermal-growth-factor-il-6-platelet-derived-growth-factor-ab-bb-and-natural-killer-cell-activation
#11
Steven G Smith, Johanneke Kleinnijenhuis, Mihai G Netea, Hazel M Dockrell
Vaccination of infants with bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) activates both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune response. The antimycobacterial effects of these responses most likely account for the ability of BCG to protect against childhood forms of tuberculosis (TB). There is also evidence for a heterologous protective effect of BCG vaccination against TB-unrelated mortality in low birth weight infants. A possible mechanism of action of this effect, the induction of trained innate immunity, has been demonstrated when cells from BCG-vaccinated adults are restimulated in vitro with non-related microbial stimuli...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634471/a-chitin-binding-protein-purified-from-moringa-oleifera-seeds-presents-anticandidal-activity-by-increasing-cell-membrane-permeability-and-reactive-oxygen-species-production
#12
João X S Neto, Mirella L Pereira, Jose T A Oliveira, Lady C B Rocha-Bezerra, Tiago D P Lopes, Helen P S Costa, Daniele O B Sousa, Bruno A M Rocha, Thalles B Grangeiro, José E C Freire, Ana Cristina O Monteiro-Moreira, Marina D P Lobo, Raimunda S N Brilhante, Ilka M Vasconcelos
Candida species are opportunistic pathogens that infect immunocompromised and/or immunosuppressed patients, particularly in hospital facilities, that besides representing a significant threat to health increase the risk of mortality. Apart from echinocandins and triazoles, which are well tolerated, most of the antifungal drugs used for candidiasis treatment can cause side effects and lead to the development of resistant strains. A promising alternative to the conventional treatments is the use of plant proteins...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634345/sirtuin-3-deficiency-does-not-alter-host-defenses-against-bacterial-and-fungal-infections
#13
Eleonora Ciarlo, Tytti Heinonen, Jérôme Lugrin, Hans Acha-Orbea, Didier Le Roy, Johan Auwerx, Thierry Roger
Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) is the main mitochondrial deacetylase. SIRT3 regulates cell metabolism and redox homeostasis, and protects from aging and age-associated pathologies. SIRT3 may drive both oncogenic and tumor-suppressive effects. SIRT3 deficiency has been reported to promote chronic inflammation-related disorders, but whether SIRT3 impacts on innate immune responses and host defenses against infections remains essentially unknown. This aspect is of primary importance considering the great interest in developing SIRT3-targeted therapies...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634232/the-phosphocarrier-protein-hpr-of-the-bacterial-phosphotransferase-system-globally-regulates-energy-metabolism-by-directly-interacting-with-multiple-enzymes-in-escherichia-coli
#14
Irina A Rodionova, Zhongge Zhang, Jitender Mehla, Norman Goodacre, Mohan Babu, Andrew Emili, Peter Uetz, Milton H Saier
The histidine-phosphorylatable phosphocarrier protein HPr, is an essential component of the sugar-transporting phosphotransferase system (PTS) in many bacteria. Recent interactome findings suggested that HPr interacts with several carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes, but whether HPr plays a regulatory role was unclear. Here, we provide evidence that HPr interacts with a large number of proteins in Escherichia coli. We demonstrate HPr-dependent allosteric regulation of the activities of pyruvate kinase (PykF, but not PykA), phosphofructokinase (PfkB, but not PfkA), glucosamine 6-phosphate deaminase (NagB) and adenylate kinase (Adk)...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634160/high-throughput-characterization-of-cascade-type-i-e-crispr-guide-efficacy-reveals-unexpected-pam-diversity-and-target-sequence-preferences
#15
Becky Xu Hua Fu, Michael Wainberg, Anshul Kundaje, Andrew Z Fire
Interactions between Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat (CRISPR) RNAs and CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins form an RNA-guided adaptive immune system in prokaryotes. The adaptive immune system utilizes segments of the genetic material of invasive foreign elements in the CRISPR locus. The loci are transcribed and processed to produce small CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs), with degradation of invading genetic material directed by a combination of complementarity between RNA and DNA and in some cases recognition of adjacent motifs called PAMs (Protospacer Adjacent Motifs)...
June 20, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634030/effects-of-membrane-curvature-and-ph-on-proton-pumping-activity-of-single-cytochrome-bo3-enzymes
#16
Mengqiu Li, Sanobar Khan, Honglin Rong, Roman Tuma, Nikos S Hatzakis, Lars J C Jeuken
The molecular mechanism of proton pumping by heme-copper oxidases (HCO) has intrigued the scientific community since it was first proposed. We have recently reported a novel technology that enables the continuous characterisation of proton transport activity of a HCO and ubiquinol oxidase from Escherichia coli, cytochrome bo3, for hundreds of seconds on the single enzyme level (Li et al. J Am Chem Soc 137 (2015) 16055-16063). Here, we have extended these studies by additional experiments and analyses of the proton transfer rate as a function of proteoliposome size and pH at the N- and P-side of single HCOs...
June 17, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633497/genome-wide-identification-and-functional-characterization-of-udp-glucosyltransferase-genes-involved-in-flavonoid-biosynthesis-in-glycine-max
#17
Qinggang Yin, Guoan Shen, Shaokang Di, Cunying Fan, Zhenzhan Chang, Yongzhen Pang
Flavonoids, natural products abundant in the model legume Glycine max, confer benefits to plants and animals health. Flavonoids are present in soybean mainly as glycoconjugates. However, the biosynthesis mechanisms of flavonoid glycosides are largely unknown in G. max. In the present study, 212 putative UDP-glycosyltransferase (UGTs) genes were identified in G. max by genome-wide searching. The GmUGT genes were distributed differentially among the twenty chromosomes, and they were expressed in various tissues with distinct expression profile...
June 19, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633311/cofactor-specificity-switch-in-shikimate-dehydrogenase-by-rational-design-and-consensus-engineering
#18
Fernando García-Guevara, Iris Bravo, Claudia Martínez-Anaya, Lorenzo Segovia
Consensus engineering has been used to design more stable variants using the most frequent amino acid at each site of a multiple sequence alignment; sometimes consensus engineering modifies function, but efforts have mainly been focused on studying stability. Here we constructed a consensus Rossmann domain for the Shikimate dehydrogenase enzyme; separately we decided to switch the cofactor specificity through rational design in the Escherichia coli Shikimate dehydrogenase enzyme and then analyzed the effect of consensus mutations on top of our design...
June 13, 2017: Protein Engineering, Design & Selection: PEDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632788/high-throughput-identification-and-rational-design-of-synergistic-small-molecule-pairs-for-combating-and-bypassing-antibiotic-resistance
#19
Morgan A Wambaugh, Viplendra P S Shakya, Adam J Lewis, Matthew A Mulvey, Jessica C S Brown
Antibiotic-resistant infections kill approximately 23,000 people and cost $20,000,000,000 each year in the United States alone despite the widespread use of small-molecule antimicrobial combination therapy. Antibiotic combinations typically have an additive effect: the efficacy of the combination matches the sum of the efficacies of each antibiotic when used alone. Small molecules can also act synergistically when the efficacy of the combination is greater than the additive efficacy. However, synergistic combinations are rare and have been historically difficult to identify...
June 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632753/mait-cells-launch-a-rapid-robust-and-distinct-hyperinflammatory-response-to-bacterial-superantigens-and-quickly-acquire-an-anergic-phenotype-that-impedes-their-cognate-antimicrobial-function-defining-a-novel-mechanism-of-superantigen-induced-immunopathology
#20
Christopher R Shaler, Joshua Choi, Patrick T Rudak, Arash Memarnejadian, Peter A Szabo, Mauro E Tun-Abraham, Jamie Rossjohn, Alexandra J Corbett, James McCluskey, John K McCormick, Olivier Lantz, Roberto Hernandez-Alejandro, S M Mansour Haeryfar
Superantigens (SAgs) are potent exotoxins secreted by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. They target a large fraction of T cell pools to set in motion a "cytokine storm" with severe and sometimes life-threatening consequences typically encountered in toxic shock syndrome (TSS). Given the rapidity with which TSS develops, designing timely and truly targeted therapies for this syndrome requires identification of key mediators of the cytokine storm's initial wave. Equally important, early host responses to SAgs can be accompanied or followed by a state of immunosuppression, which in turn jeopardizes the host's ability to combat and clear infections...
June 2017: PLoS Biology
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