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colorectal cancer And cancer stem cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549344/metformin-increases-chemo-sensitivity-via-gene-downregulation-encoding-dna-replication-proteins-in-5-fu-resistant-colorectal-cancer-cells
#1
Sung-Hee Kim, Soon-Chan Kim, Ja-Lok Ku
Metformin is most widely prescribed for type 2 diabetes. Recently, evidences have shown that metformin has anticancer effects on pancreatic-, colorectal-, ovarian-, and other cancers. Because metformin has less adverse effects and is inexpensive, it could be a useful chemo-therapeutic agent with anticancer effects. In this study, we demonstrated metformin inhibited by cell proliferation, cell migration ability, clonogenic ability, and cancer stem cell population. Metformin also induced cell cycle arrest in parental-(SNU-C5), and 5-Fu resistant-colorectal cancer cell line (SNU-C5_5FuR)...
May 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545226/emergence-of-cd26-cancer-stem-cells-with-metastatic-properties-in-colorectal-carcinogenesis
#2
Alvin Ho-Kwan Cheung, Deepak Narayanan Iyer, Colin Siu-Chi Lam, Lui Ng, Sunny K M Wong, Hung-Sing Lee, Timothy Wan, Johnny Man, Ariel K M Chow, Ronnie T Poon, Roberta Pang, Wai-Lun Law
Colorectal cancer results from genetic aberrations which accumulate over a long period of time, with malignant and metastatic properties acquired at a relatively late stage. A subpopulation of CD26+ colorectal cancer stem cells are known to be implicated in metastasis. We quantified CD26+ cancer cells in 11 primary tumor samples by flow cytometry, and showed that tumors having confirmed or suspected metastases harbored a relatively high CD26+ level in these samples. We hypothesized that this subpopulation of cancer stem cells arises in the late stage of carcinogenesis from the bulk of tumor daughter cells which are CD26-...
May 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543447/fas-signaling-induces-stemness-properties-in-colorectal-cancer-by-regulation-of-bmi1
#3
Jiaxuan Chen, Yadong Wang, Linghao Zhuo, Zhizhong Liu, Tao Liu, Wenjing Li, Yidong Cai, Haoxuan Zheng
Fas signaling promotes colorectal cancer (CRC) metastasis by inducing epithelial- mesenchymal transition (EMT). The acquisition of EMT properties in turn induces stemness but the mechanism by which Fas signaling contributes to it still remains unclear. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate how Fas signaling regulates CRC stemness. For this purpose, soft agar assay, sphere formation assay, cell survival analysis, immunoblot, qRT-PCR, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and luciferase reporter assay were performed...
May 25, 2017: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542126/human-mscs-promotes-colorectal-cancer-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-and-progression-via-ccl5-%C3%AE-catenin-slug-pathway
#4
Ke Chen, Qianqian Liu, Lai Ling Tsang, Qiao Ye, Hsiao Chang Chan, Yunwei Sun, Xiaohua Jiang
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) extensively interact with cancer cells and other stroma cells in the tumor microenvironment. However, the role of MSCs in colorectal cancer (CRC) progression and metastasis is controversial. This study was designed to identify the role of inflammation-activated-MSCs in CRC development. Our results show that tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-preactivated-hMSCs significantly promote the progression of colon cancer cells by enhancing cell proliferation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, migration, and invasion...
May 25, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526879/musashi-1-promotes-a-cancer-stem-cell-lineage-and-chemoresistance-in-colorectal-cancer-cells
#5
Guang-Yuh Chiou, Tzu-Wei Yang, Chi-Chou Huang, Chia-Ying Tang, Jung-Yi Yen, Ming-Chang Tsai, Hsuan-Yi Chen, Nurul Fadhilah, Chun-Che Lin, Yuh-Jyh Jong
Colorectal cancers (CRCs) are a critical health issue worldwide. Cancer stem cell (CSC) lineages are associated with tumour transformation, progression, and malignant transformation. However, how lineages are transformed and how chemoresistance is acquired by CRCs remain largely unknown. In this report, we demonstrated that the RNA-binding protein Musashi-1 enhanced the development of CD44(+) colorectal CSCs and triggered the formation of anti-apoptotic stress granules (SGs). Our results indicated that CD44(+) CSC lineage-specific induction of tumour malignancies was controlled by Musashi-1...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517961/overcoming-chemoresistance-in-cancer-stem-cells-with-the-help-of-micrornas-in-colorectal-cancer
#6
Andrew Fesler, Shixiang Guo, Hua Liu, Ning Wu, Jingfang Ju
It has been recognized that acute resistance to chemotherapy mediated by post-transcriptional and translational control is crucial to influence response and survival in cancer treatment. Tumor cells are highly heterogeneous and have the ability to adapt a resistance phenotype through epigenetic regulations such as microRNAs. This poses a major challenge to the treatment of advanced stage colon cancer patients. Colon cancer stem cells have been identified as one of the major contributors to resistance of colon cancer to chemotherapy...
May 18, 2017: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516914/adenylate-kinase-hcinap-determines-self-renewal-of-colorectal-cancer-stem-cells-by-facilitating-ldha-phosphorylation
#7
Yapeng Ji, Chuanzhen Yang, Zefang Tang, Yongfeng Yang, Yonglu Tian, Hongwei Yao, Xi Zhu, Zeming Zhang, Jiafu Ji, Xiaofeng Zheng
Targeting the specific metabolic phenotypes of colorectal cancer stem cells (CRCSCs) is an innovative therapeutic strategy for colorectal cancer (CRC) patients with poor prognosis and relapse. However, the context-dependent metabolic traits of CRCSCs remain poorly elucidated. Here we report that adenylate kinase hCINAP is overexpressed in CRC tissues. Depletion of hCINAP inhibits invasion, self-renewal, tumorigenesis and chemoresistance of CRCSCs with a loss of mesenchymal signature. Mechanistically, hCINAP binds to the C-terminal domain of LDHA, the key regulator of glycolysis, and depends on its adenylate kinase activity to promote LDHA phosphorylation at tyrosine 10, resulting in the hyperactive Warburg effect and the lower cellular ROS level and conferring metabolic advantage to CRCSC invasion...
May 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512258/clinicopathological-prognostic-and-predictive-value-of-cd166-expression-in-colorectal-cancer-a-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
Susu Han, Wei Yang, Shaoqi Zong, Hongjia Li, Shanshan Liu, Wen Li, Qi Shi, Fenggang Hou
CD166 has been identified as an important cancer stem cell (CSC) marker in colorectal cancer (CRC). The purpose of our study was to investigate the relationship between CD166 expression and clinical features and to examine the role of CD166 expression on the survival of patients with CRC. A total of 15 studies with 3,332 cases were identified in this meta-analysis. The pooled OR indicated that CD166 expression was significantly higher in CRC than in colonic adenomas or normal colonic mucosa (OR = 3.48, P = 0...
April 26, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512242/a-systematic-analysis-of-oncogenic-gene-fusions-in-primary-colon-cancer
#9
Wigard P Kloosterman, Robert R J Coebergh van den Braak, Mark Pieterse, Markus J van Roosmalen, Anieta M Sieuwerts, Christina Stangl, Ronne Brunekreef, Zarina S Lalmahomed, Salo Ooft, Anne van Galen, Marcel Smid, Armel Lefebvre, Fried Zwartkruis, John W M Martens, John A Foekens, Katharina Biermann, Marco J Koudijs, Jan N M IJzermans, Emile E Voest
Genomic rearrangements that give rise to oncogenic gene fusions can offer actionable targets for cancer therapy. Here we present a systematic analysis of oncogenic gene fusions among a clinically well-characterized, prospectively collected set of 278 primary colon cancers spanning diverse tumor stages and clinical outcomes. Gene fusions and somatic genetic variations were identified in fresh frozen clinical specimens by Illumina RNA-sequencing, the STAR fusion gene detection pipeline, and GATK RNA-seq variant calling...
May 16, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510291/associations-between-rna-splicing-regulatory-variants-of-stemness-related-genes-and-racial-disparities-in-susceptibility-to-prostate-cancer
#10
Yanru Wang, Jennifer A Freedman, Hongliang Liu, Patricia G Moorman, Terry Hyslop, Daniel J George, Norman H Lee, Steven R Patierno, Qingyi Wei
Evidence suggests that cells with a stemness phenotype play a pivotal role in oncogenesis, and prostate cells exhibiting this phenotype have been identified. We used two genome-wide association study (GWAS) datasets of African descendants, from the Multiethnic/Minority Cohort Study of Diet and Cancer (MEC) and the Ghana Prostate Study, as well as two GWAS datasets of non-Hispanic whites, from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial and the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3), to analyze the associations between genetic variants of stemness-related genes and racial disparities in susceptibility to prostate cancer...
May 16, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509532/nanodiamonds-mediate-oral-delivery-of-proteins-for-stem-cell-activation-and-intestinal-remodeling-in-drosophila
#11
Xingjie Hu, Xiaojiao Li, Min Yin, Ping Li, Ping Huang, Lihua Wang, Yiguo Jiang, Hui Wang, Nan Chen, Chunhai Fan, Haiyun Song
Introduction of exogenous biomacromolecules into living systems is of great interest in genome editing, cancer immunotherapy, and stem cell reprogramming. Whereas current strategies generally depend on nucleic acids transfection, direct delivery of functional proteins that provides enhanced specificity, increased safety, and fast and temporal regulation is highly desirable. Nevertheless, intracellular delivery of intact and bioactive proteins, especially in vivo, remains poorly explored. In this study, we developed a nanodiamonds (NDs)-based protein delivery system in cultured cells and in Drosophila that showed high adsorption, high efficiency, and effective cytosolic release of fully functional proteins...
May 23, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503404/wnt-signaling-in-normal-and-malignant-stem-cells
#12
Dheeraj Bhavanasi, Peter S Klein
Wnt signaling plays important roles in stem cell self-renewal and differentiation in adults as well as in embryonic development. Mutations that activate canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling also initiate and maintain several cancer states, including colorectal cancer and leukemia, and hence Wnt inhibitors are currently being explored as therapeutic options. In this review, we summarize previous studies and update recent findings on canonical Wnt signaling and its components, as well as their roles in somatic stem cell homeostasis and maintenance of cancer initiating cells...
December 2016: Current Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503055/protein-markers-associated-with-an-aldh-sub-population-in-colorectal-cancer
#13
Rui Yang, Xinhua Liu, Smathorn Thakolwiboon, Jianhui Zhu, Xiucong Pei, Mingrui An, Zhijing Tan, David M Lubman
ALDH has been shown to be a marker that denotes a sub-population of cancer stem cells in colorectal and other cancers. This sub-population of cells shows an increased risk for tumor initiation, metastasis, and resistance to chemotherapy and radiation resulting in recurrence and death. It is thus essential to identify the important signaling pathways related to ALDH1+ CSCs in colon cancer. The essential issue becomes to isolate pure sub-populations of cells from heterogeneous tissues for further analysis. To achieve this goal, tissues from colorectal cancer Stage III patients were immuno-stained with ALDH1 antibody...
October 2016: Journal of Proteomics & Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502334/ap-1-expression-and-its-clinical-relevance-in-immune-disorders-and-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Shivtia Trop-Steinberg, Yehudit Azar
The inflammatory response is known to have a significant role in certain autoimmune diseases and malignancies. We review current knowledge regarding the functions of activator protein 1 (AP-1) as an important modulator in several immune disorders and carcinomas. AP-1 is overexpressed in rheumatoid arthritis and in long-term allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation survivors; however, decreased expression of AP-1 has been observed in psoriasis, systematic lupus erythematosus and in patients who do not survive after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation...
May 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496335/knockdown-of-a-dis3l2-promoter-upstream-long-noncoding-rna-ac105461-1-enhances-colorectal-cancer-stem-cell-properties-in-vitro-by-down-regulating-dis3l2
#15
Wei Liu, Qiang Yu, Jun Ma, Yong Cheng, Hongbo Zhang, Wengguang Luo, Jie Yao, Hongyan Zhang
A large number of studies have identified plentiful long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) associated with the development of multiple cancers. Some lncRNAs have also been found to be strongly linked with stem cell properties such as pluripotency and differentiation. However, only in a few cases have cancer stem cell (CSC)-related lncRNAs been studied. Commonly, the expression and function of lncRNAs are associated with adjacent protein coding transcripts. In the present study, we found an lncRNA (AC105461.1), a promoter upstream transcript of DIS3 mitotic control homolog (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)-like 2 (DIS3L2), may be closely connected with "stem cell-like" properties...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487386/an-mirna-expression-signature-for-the-human-colonic-stem-cell-niche-distinguishes-malignant%C3%A2-from-normal-epithelia
#16
Vignesh Viswanathan, Shirish Damle, Tao Zhang, Lynn M Opdenaker, Shirin Modarai, Monica Accerbi, Skye Schmidt, Pamela J Green, Deni Galileo, Juan P Palazzo, Jeremy Fields, Sepehr Haghighat, Isidore Rigoutsos, Gregory E Gonye, Bruce M Boman
Malignant transformation of tissue stem cells may be the root of most cancer. Accordingly, we identified miRNA expression patterns in the normal human colonic stem cell (SC) niche to understand how cancer stem cells (CSCs) may arise. In profiling miRNA expression in SC-enriched crypt subsections isolated from fresh, normal surgical specimens, we identified 16 miRNAs that were differentially expressed in the crypt bottom, creating a SC signature for normal colonic epithelia (NCE). A parallel analysis of colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues showed differential expression of 83 miRNAs relative to NCE...
May 9, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486225/fatty-acids-induce-stemness-in-the-stromal-cells-of-a-ct26-mouse-tumor-model
#17
Isao Kawahara, Takuya Mori, Kei Goto, Kiyomu Fujii, Hitoshi Ohmori, Shingo Kishi, Rina Fujiwara-Tani, Hiroki Kuniyasu
The potential effects of 2 types of fatty acids on colorectal cancer (CRC) were assessed using cancer stromal cells. Linoleic acid (LA; C-18, n-6 unsaturated fatty acid) and elaidic acid (EA; C-18, trans acid), both known to affect colon carcinogenesis and cancer progression, were administered by gavage to BALB/c mice, which were inoculated with CT26 syngeneic colon cancer cells in the back. Both EA and LA treatments enhanced tumor growth and metastasis. EA and LA also increased the number of CD133-positive stromal cells in the tumor capsule...
May 10, 2017: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484606/an-agent-based-model-of-anoikis-in-the-colon-crypt-displays-novel-emergent-behaviour-consistent-with-biological-observations
#18
Tim Ingham-Dempster, Dawn C Walker, Bernard M Corfe
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of cancer mortality. Colon crypts are multi-cellular flask-shaped invaginations of the colonic epithelium, with stem cells at their base which support the continual turnover of the epithelium with loss of cells by anoikis from the flat mucosa. Mutations in these stem cells can become embedded in the crypts, a process that is strongly implicated in CRC initiation. We describe a computational model which includes novel features, including an accurate representation of the geometry of the crypt mouth...
April 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484082/temporal-and-spatial-changes-of-cells-positive-for-stem-like-markers-in-different-compartments-and-stages-of-human-colorectal-adenoma-carcinoma-sequence
#19
Guanglin Cui, Gang Xu, Li Zhu, Zhigang Pang, Wei Zheng, Zhenfeng Li, Aping Yuan
Considerable evidence supports the idea that stem-like cells may play an essential role during the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). To accomplish this aim, we use immunohistochemistry (IHC) and double IHC with different potential stem-like markers, anti-musashi (Msi), anti-CD133, anti- LGR5 and anti-ALDH1 to examine the presentation of stem-like cells in different compartments including adenoma/CRC epithelium, transitional crypts and tumor stroma in colorectal adenoma and CRC. The results showed that cells positive for stem-like markers were remarkably increased in number and frequently observed in the adenoma/CRC epithelium, transitional crypts and tumor stroma...
April 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468934/a-genome-editing-approach-to-study-cancer-stem-cells-in-human-tumors
#20
Carme Cortina, Gemma Turon, Diana Stork, Xavier Hernando-Momblona, Marta Sevillano, Mònica Aguilera, Sébastien Tosi, Anna Merlos-Suárez, Camille Stephan-Otto Attolini, Elena Sancho, Eduard Batlle
The analysis of stem cell hierarchies in human cancers has been hampered by the impossibility of identifying or tracking tumor cell populations in an intact environment. To overcome this limitation, we devised a strategy based on editing the genomes of patient-derived tumor organoids using CRISPR/Cas9 technology to integrate reporter cassettes at desired marker genes. As proof of concept, we engineered human colorectal cancer (CRC) organoids that carry EGFP and lineage-tracing cassettes knocked in the LGR5 locus...
May 2, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
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