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colorectal cancer And cancer stem cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100854/the-role-of-cancer-stem-cells-in-pathogenesis-of-colorectal-cancer
#1
Magdalena Szaryńska, Agata Olejniczak, Zbigniew Kmieć
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer, accounting for about 10% of total adult malignancies worldwide. The majority of CRC cases are diagnosed at the late stage; thus the investigation of the pathogenesis of early-stage disease and its detection could prevent formation of metastasis, a leading cause of death. This review highlights the recent progress in the understanding of the development of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in the colon epithelium and mechanisms of their proliferation...
December 31, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096468/o-glcnac-expression-levels-epigenetically-regulate-colon-cancer-tumorigenesis-by-affecting-the-cancer-stem-cell-compartment-via-modulating-expression-of-transcriptional-factor-mybl1
#2
Huabei Guo, Bing Zhang, Alison V Nairn, Tamas Nagy, Kelley W Moremen, Phillip Buckhaults, Michael Pierce
To study the regulation of colorectal adenocarcinoma progression by O-GlcNAc, we have focused on the O-GlcNAc-mediated epigenetic regulation of human colon cancer stem cells (CCSC). Xenograft tumors from colon tumor cells with OGT knockdown grew significantly slower than those formed from control cells, indicating a reduced proliferation of tumor cells due to inhibition of OGT expression. Significant reduction of CCSC population was observed in the tumor cells after OGT knockdown, while tumor cells treated with O-GlcNAcase inhibitor showed an increased CCSC population, indicating that O-GlcNAc levels regulated the CCSC compartment...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086833/delta-like-4-notch-signaling-promotes-apc-min-tumor-initiation-through-angiogenic-and-non-angiogenic-related-mechanisms
#3
Marina Badenes, Alexandre Trindade, Hugo Pissarra, Luís Lopes-da-Costa, António Duarte
BACKGROUND: Delta like 4 (Dll4)/Notch signaling is a key regulator of tumor angiogenesis. Additionally, the role of Dll4 has been studied on tumor stem cells. However, as these cells are implicated in tumor angiogenesis, it is conceivable that the effect of Dll4 on these cells may be a consequence of its angiogenic function. Our aim was to evaluate the expression and dissect the functions of Dll4 in the Apc (Min/+) model of colorectal cancer. METHODS: We evaluated the protein expression pattern of Dll4 and other Notch members in the Apc (Min/+) tumors relatively to the normal gut and compared endothelial-specific with ubiquitous Dll4 knockout mice on an Apc (Min/+) background...
January 13, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077379/effects-of-supplementation-with-nondigestible-carbohydrates-on-fecal-calprotectin-and-on-epigenetic-regulation-of-sfrp1-expression-in-the-large-bowel-mucosa-of-healthy-individuals
#4
Fiona C Malcomson, Naomi D Willis, Iain McCallum, Long Xie, Idoia Ibero-Baraibar, Wing C Leung, Seamus Kelly, D Michael Bradburn, Nigel J Belshaw, Ian T Johnson, John C Mathers
BACKGROUND: Hyperactive Wnt signaling is frequently observed in colorectal cancer. Higher intakes of dietary fiber [nondigestible carbohydrates (NDCs)] and the fermentation product butyrate are protective against colorectal cancer and may exert their preventative effects via modulation of the Wnt pathway. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effects of supplementing healthy individuals with 2 NDCs [resistant starch (RS) and polydextrose] on fecal calprotectin concentrations and Wnt pathway-related gene expression...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058217/review-of-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-with-reduced-intensity-conditioning-in-solid-tumors-excluding-breast-cancer
#5
REVIEW
Nuri Karadurmus, Ugur Sahin, Bilgin Bahadir Basgoz, Fikret Arpaci, Taner Demirer
Solid tumors in adults constitute a heterogeneous group of malignancy originating from various organ systems. Solid tumors are not completely curable by chemotherapy, even though some subgroups are very chemo-sensitive. Recently, oncologists have focused on the use of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) with reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) for the treatment of some refractory solid tumors. After the demonstration of allogeneic graft-versus-leukemia effect in patients with hematological malignancies who received allo-HSCT, investigators evaluated this effect in patients with refractory metastatic solid tumors...
December 24, 2016: World Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039449/expression-analysis-of-microrna-as-prognostic-biomarkers-in-colorectal-cancer
#6
Jie Yang, Dongling Ma, Andrew Fesler, Haiyan Zhai, Apisri Leamniramit, Wenzhe Li, Song Wu, Jingfang Ju
microRNA (miRNA) based biomarkers have unique advantages due to their critical regulatory function, superior stability, and relatively small number compared to mRNAs. A number of miRNAs play key roles in colon cancer stem cell chemoresistance and have clinical potential as prognostic biomarkers. The purpose of this study is to systematically validate the prognostic potential of miRNAs in colorectal cancer. In this study, we validated the prognostic potential of a panel of miRNAs using 205 stage II, III, and IV colorectal cancer specimens by qRT-PCR analysis...
December 26, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028388/detection-of-cancer-stem-cells-in-colorectal-cancer-histopathological-and-immunohistochemical-study
#7
Nour El Hoda S Ismaiel, Walid M Sharaf, Dina O Helmy, Mona M Zaki, Manal A Badawi, Ahmed S A Soliman
BACKGROUND: Growing evidence supports the notion that the onset of tumorigenesis could occur through cancer stem cells (CSCs). These tumour cells show low proliferative rates, high self-renewal capacity, propensity to differentiate into active proliferating tumour cells & resistance to chemoradiotherapy thus, possibly causing local recurrences & metastasis formation. CD44 has been used as a marker to isolate CSCs from colorectal carcinoma (CRC). AIM: To investigate the immunohistochemical expression of cancer stem cells marker (CD44) in CRC and correlate its expression with the clinicopathological aspects, TNM staging and modified Dukes' classification...
December 15, 2016: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019089/biomarker-discovery-by-proteomics-based-approaches-for-early-detection-and-personalized-medicine-in-colorectal-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Claudia Corbo, Armando Cevenini, Francesco Salvatore
About one million people/year develop colorectal cancer (CRC) and approximately half of them die. The extent of the disease (i.e. local invasion at the time of diagnosis) is a key prognostic factor. The 5-year survival rate is almost 90% in the case of delimited CRC and 10% in the case of metastasized CRC. Hence, one of the great challenges in the battle against CRC is to improve early diagnosis strategies. Large-scale proteomic approaches are widely used in cancer research to search for novel biomarkers. Such biomarkers can help in improving the accuracy of the diagnosis and in the optimization of personalized therapy...
December 26, 2016: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011472/kif11-is-required-for-spheroid-formation-by-oesophageal-and-colorectal-cancer-cells
#9
Takeharu Imai, Naohide Oue, Kazuhiro Sentani, Naoya Sakamoto, Naohiro Uraoka, Hiroyuki Egi, Takao Hinoi, Hideki Ohdan, Kazuhiro Yoshida, Wataru Yasui
BACKGROUND: Oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) are common types of human cancer. Spheroid colony formation is used to characterize cancer stem cell (CSCs). In the present study, we analyzed the significance of kinesin family 11 (KIF11 in human ESCC and CRC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Expression of KIF11 in 105 ESCC and 100 CRC cases was determined using immunohistochemistry. RNA interference was used to inhibit KIF11 expression in ESCC and CRC cell lines...
January 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010732/the-effect-of-a-germline-mutation-in-the-apc-gene-on-%C3%AE-catenin-in-human-embryonic-stem-cells
#10
Nofar Yedid, Yael Kalma, Mira Malcov, Ami Amit, Revital Kariv, Michal Caspi, Rina Rosin-Arbesfeld, Dalit Ben-Yosef
BACKGROUND: Most cases of colorectal cancer (CRC) are initiated by inactivation mutations in the APC gene, which is a negative regulator of the Wnt-β-catenin pathway. Patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) inherit a germline mutation in one APC allele, and loss of the second allele leads to the development of polyps that will turn malignant if not removed. It is not fully understood which molecular mechanisms are activated by APC loss and when the loss of the second APC allele occurs...
December 23, 2016: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000884/thioridazine-elicits-potent-antitumor-effects-in-colorectal-cancer-stem-cells
#11
Chen Zhang, Ping Gong, Pengfei Liu, Ning Zhou, Yulai Zhou, Yi Wang
As a member of the phenothiazine family, thioridazine (THIO) is a potent anti-anxiety and anti-psychotic drug. Recent studies have reported that THIO could suppress the growth of several types of cancer cells. However, the effect of THIO on colorectal cancer stem cells (CSCs) has not been investigated. In the present study, we examined the effect of THIO on viability of CSCs isolated from the human colon cancer cell line HCT116 and its colony-formation ability, along with its stem cell-specific gene expression...
February 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989099/clinicopathologic-significance-of-survivin-expression-in-relation-to-cd133-expression-in-surgically-resected-stage-ii-or-iii-colorectal-cancer
#12
Wanlu Li, Mi-Ra Lee, EunHee Choi, Mee-Yon Cho
BACKGROUND: Cancer stem cells have been investigated as new targets for colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment. We recently reported that CD133(+) colon cancer cells showed chemoresistance to 5-fluorouracil through increased survivin expression and proposed the survivin inhibitor YM155 as an effective therapy for colon cancer in an in vitro study. Here, we investigate the relationship between survivin and CD133 expression in surgically resected CRC to identify whether the results obtained in our in vitro study are applicable to clinical samples...
January 2017: Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983919/overexpression-of-per3-inhibits-self-renewal-capability-and-chemoresistance-of-colorectal-cancer-stem-like-cells-via-inhibition-of-notch-and-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#13
Feng Zhang, Hong Sun, Sai Zhang, Xin Yang, Guogang Zhang, Tao Su
PER3, a circadian clock gene, plays an important role in colorectal cancer, but its action and underlying mechanisms incolorectal cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) remain unclear. Here, the colorectal CSCs were enriched in colorectal HCT-116 sphere-forming cells, expressing lower levels of stem cell markers CD133, CD44, LGR5, Sox2 compared with HCT-116 cells. And drug-resistant strain from HCT-116 was established. Western blot and qRT-PCR analysis showed that PER3 was downregulated in colorectal CSCs and drug-resistant HCT-116...
October 26, 2016: Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959384/pro-metastatic-intracellular-signaling-of-the-elaidic-trans-fatty-acid
#14
Kiyomu Fujii, Yi Luo, Rina Fujiwara-Tani, Shingo Kishi, Song He, Shuyun Yang, Takamitsu Sasaki, Hitoshi Ohmori, Hiroki Kuniyasu
Trans fatty acids (TFAs) are risk factors of cardiovascular disorders, and a few studies have reported the cancer-promoting effects of TFAs. In the present study, we examined the effects and signaling of elaidic acid (EA), a TFA, in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. Oral intake of EA increased the metastasis of CT26 mouse CRC cells by inducing the expression of stemness markers nucleostemin (NS) and CD133. Mechanisms underlying EA-induced signaling were confirmed by determining the binding of EA to G-protein coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) and GPR120 by performing surface protein internalization assay...
January 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951586/nlrc3-is-an-inhibitory-sensor-of-pi3k-mtor-pathways-in-cancer
#15
Rajendra Karki, Si Ming Man, R K Subbarao Malireddi, Sannula Kesavardhana, Qifan Zhu, Amanda R Burton, Bhesh Raj Sharma, Xiaopeng Qi, Stephane Pelletier, Peter Vogel, Philip Rosenstiel, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti
NLRs (nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeats) belong to a large family of cytoplasmic sensors that regulate an extraordinarily diverse range of biological functions. One of these functions is to contribute to immunity against infectious diseases, but dysregulation of their functional activity leads to the development of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Cytoplasmic innate immune sensors, including NLRs, are central regulators of intestinal homeostasis. NLRC3 (also known as CLR16.2 or NOD3) is a poorly characterized member of the NLR family and was identified in a genomic screen for genes encoding proteins bearing leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) and nucleotide-binding domains...
December 12, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941880/different-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-transformation-of-intestinal-stem-cells-in-mismatch-repair-deficiency
#16
K Keysselt, T Kreutzmann, K Rother, C Kerner, K Krohn, J Przybilla, P Buske, H Löffler-Wirth, M Loeffler, J Galle, G Aust
Mutations in mismatch repair (MMR) genes result in microsatellite instability (MSI) and early onset of colorectal cancer. To get mechanistic insights into the time scale, sequence and frequency of intestinal stem cell (ISC) transformation, we quantified MSI and growth characteristics of organoids of Msh2-deficient and control mice from birth until tumor formation and related them to tissue gene expression. Although in Msh2-deficient organoids MSI continuously increased from birth, growth characteristics remained stable at first...
December 12, 2016: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927191/somatostatin-signaling-via-sstr1-contributes-to-the-quiescence-of-colon-cancer-stem-cells
#17
Shirin R Modarai, Lynn M Opdenaker, Vignesh Viswanathan, Jeremy Z Fields, Bruce M Boman
BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine cells (NECs) reside adjacent to colonic stem cells (SCs) in the crypt stem cell (SC) niche, but how NECs are involved in regulation of SCs is unclear. We investigated NECs expressing somatostatin (SST) and somatostatin receptor type 1 (SSTR1) because SST inhibits intestinal proliferation. HYPOTHESIS: SSTR1 cells maintain SCs in a quiescent state, and aberrant SST signaling contributes to SC overpopulation in colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS: The proportion of SCs to NECs cells was quantified, by flow cytometry, in CRC cell lines and primary normal/tumor tissues based on cellular ALDH and SSTR1 levels, respectively...
December 7, 2016: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916539/inhibiting-the-sumo-pathway-represses-the-cancer-stem-cell-population-in-breast-and-colorectal-carcinomas
#18
Maria V Bogachek, Jung M Park, James P De Andrade, Allison W Lorenzen, Mikhail V Kulak, Jeffrey R White, Vivian W Gu, Vincent T Wu, Ronald J Weigel
Many solid cancers have an expanded CD44(+/hi)/CD24(-/low) cancer stem cell (CSC) population, which are relatively chemoresistant and drive recurrence and metastasis. Achieving a more durable response requires the development of therapies that specifically target CSCs. Recent evidence indicated that inhibiting the SUMO pathway repressed tumor growth and invasiveness, although the mechanism has yet to be clarified. Here, we demonstrate that inhibition of the SUMO pathway repressed MMP14 and CD44 with a concomitant reduction in cell invasiveness and functional loss of CSCs in basal breast cancer...
December 13, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915990/possible-molecular-mechanisms-by-which-vitamin-d-prevents-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-colitis-associated-colorectal-cancer
#19
Zijian Luan, Yiming Ma, Yu Xin, Jiaming Qian, Hongying Wang
It is well accepted that inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, is one of high risk factors for colorectal cancer (CRC). This supports the notion that inflammation plays a key role in cancer development. Epidemiologic studies have shown that vitamin D (Vit D) deficiency is associated with IBD and various types of cancer including colorectal cancer. Clinical trials and mouse models have shown that Vit D is beneficial in preventing or ameliorating inflammation and carcinogenesis...
December 2, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913197/doxorubicin-induced-mitophagy-contributes-to-drug-resistance-in-cancer-stem-cells-from-hct8-human-colorectal-cancer-cells
#20
Chen Yan, Lan Luo, Chang-Ying Guo, Shinji Goto, Yoshishige Urata, Jiang-Hua Shao, Tao-Sheng Li
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are known to be drug resistant. Mitophagy selectively degrades unnecessary or damaged mitochondria by autophagy during cellular stress. To investigate the potential role of mitophagy in drug resistance in CSCs, we purified CD133(+)/CD44(+) CSCs from HCT8 human colorectal cancer cells and then exposed to doxorubicin (DXR). Compared with parental cells, CSCs were more resistant to DXR treatment. Although DXR treatment enhanced autophagy levels in both cell types, the inhibition of autophagy by ATG7 silencing significantly increased the toxicity of DXR only in parental cells, not in CSCs...
November 30, 2016: Cancer Letters
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