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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539879/multiple-neural-networks-malfunction-in-primary-blepharospasm-an-independent-components-analysis
#1
Xiao-Feng Huang, Meng-Ru Zhu, Ping Shan, Chen-Hui Pei, Zhan-Hua Liang, Hui-Ling Zhou, Ming-Fei Ni, Yan-Wei Miao, Guo-Qing Xu, Bing-Wei Zhang, Ya-Yin Luo
Primary blepharospasm (BPS) is a focal dystonia characterized by involuntary blinking and eyelid spasms. The pathophysiology of BPS remains unclear. Several neuroimaging studies have suggested dysfunction of sensory processing and sensorimotor integration, but the results have been inconsistent. This study aimed to determine whether patients with BPS exhibit altered functional brain connectivity and to explore possible correlations between these networks and clinical variables. Twenty-five patients with BPS and 25 healthy controls were enrolled...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539400/approaching-threatening-stimuli-cause-an-expansion-of-defensive-peripersonal-space
#2
Rory John Bufacchi
When sudden environmental stimuli signalling threat occur in the portion of space surrounding the body (defensive peripersonal space), defensive responses are enhanced. Recently Bisio et al. (2017) showed that a marker of defensive peripersonal space, the defensive hand-blink reflex, is modulated by the motion of the eliciting threatening stimulus. These results can be parsimoniously explained by the continuous monitoring of environmental threats, resulting in an expansion of DPPS when threatening stimuli approach...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538993/fefsem-neuronal-response-during-combined-volitional-and-reflexive-pursuit
#3
Leah Bakst, Jérome Fleuriet, Michael J Mustari
Although much is known about volitional and reflexive smooth eye movements individually, much less is known about how they are coordinated. It is hypothesized that separate cortico-ponto-cerebellar loops subserve these different types of smooth eye movements. Specifically, the MT-MST-DLPN pathway is thought to be critical for ocular following eye movements, whereas the FEF-NRTP pathway is understood to be vital for volitional smooth pursuit. However, the role that these loops play in combined volitional and reflexive behavior is unknown...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533379/learned-response-sequences-in-cerebellar-purkinje-cells
#4
Dan-Anders Jirenhed, Anders Rasmussen, Fredrik Johansson, Germund Hesslow
Associative learning in the cerebellum has previously focused on single movements. In eyeblink conditioning, for instance, a subject learns to blink at the right time in response to a conditional stimulus (CS), such as a tone that is repeatedly followed by an unconditional corneal stimulus (US). During conditioning, the CS and US are transmitted by mossy/parallel fibers and climbing fibers to cerebellar Purkinje cells that acquire a precisely timed pause response that drives the overt blink response. The timing of this conditional Purkinje cell response is determined by the CS-US interval and is independent of temporal patterns in the input signal...
May 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522369/electroencephalographic-monitoring-during-sevoflurane-anaesthesia-in-an-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-patient-with-locked-in-state
#5
Kazuko Hayashi, Ryuhei Araki, Akiko Tanaka
Recently, the cognitive abilities of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have been found to be impaired along with the neurodegeneration of motor neurons. Electroencephalography (EEG) of end-stage ALS patients has reportedly shown specific features based on neuronal network modulations, differing from EEG of other patients with cognitive failure and dementia. However, EEG of end-stage ALS patients during anaesthesia has not yet been reported. A 64-year-old male ALS patient with locked-in state (LIS), supported by tracheostomy positive-pressure ventilation (TPPV) and enteral nourishment for 9years, underwent scheduled general anaesthesia for repair of a fractured mandible...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518172/super-resolution-microscopy-with-dna-paint
#6
Joerg Schnitzbauer, Maximilian T Strauss, Thomas Schlichthaerle, Florian Schueder, Ralf Jungmann
Super-resolution techniques have begun to transform biological and biomedical research by allowing researchers to observe structures well below the classic diffraction limit of light. DNA points accumulation for imaging in nanoscale topography (DNA-PAINT) offers an easy-to-implement approach to localization-based super-resolution microscopy, owing to the use of DNA probes. In DNA-PAINT, transient binding of short dye-labeled ('imager') oligonucleotides to their complementary target ('docking') strands creates the necessary 'blinking' to enable stochastic super-resolution microscopy...
June 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506403/an-on-road-study-of-sleepiness-in-split-shifts-among-city-bus-drivers
#7
Anna Anund, Carina Fors, Jonas Ihlström, Göran Kecklund
Bus drivers often work irregular hours or split shifts and their work involves high levels of stress. These factors can lead to severe sleepiness and dangerous driving. This study examined how split shift working affects sleepiness and performance during afternoon driving. An experiment was conducted on a real road with a specially equipped regular bus driven by professional bus drivers. The study had a within-subject design and involved 18 professional bus drivers (9 males and 9 females) who drove on two afternoons; one on a day in which they had driven early in the morning (split shift situation) and one on a day when they had been off duty until the test (afternoon shift situation)...
May 12, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497776/using-shape-to-turn-off-blinking-for-two-colour-multiexciton-emission-in-cdse-cds-tetrapods
#8
Nimai Mishra, Noah J Orfield, Feng Wang, Zhongjian Hu, Sachidananda Krishnamurthy, Anton V Malko, Joanna L Casson, Han Htoon, Milan Sykora, Jennifer A Hollingsworth
Semiconductor nanostructures capable of emitting from two excited states and thereby of producing two photoluminescence colours are of fundamental and potential technological significance. In this limited class of nanocrystals, CdSe/CdS core/arm tetrapods exhibit the unusual trait of two-colour (red and green) multiexcitonic emission, with green emission from the CdS arms emerging only at high excitation fluences. Here we show that by synthetic shape-tuning, both this multi-colour emission process, and blinking and photobleaching behaviours of single tetrapods can be controlled...
May 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497070/impact-of-polyethylene-glycol-400-propylene-glycol-hydroxypropyl-guar-and-0-1-sodium-hyaluronate-on-postoperative-discomfort-following-cataract-extraction-surgery-a-comparative-study
#9
Georgios Labiris, Panagiota Ntonti, Haris Sideroudi, Vassilios Kozobolis
BACKGROUND: Universal postoperative guidelines for cataract extraction surgery are yet to be introduced. Artificial tears are gaining popularity as an additional integral component of the postoperative regime. The primary objective of this study was to explore the impact of two prevalent artificial tear preparations on postoperative discomfort following cataract extraction surgery. METHODS: A total of 180 patients that underwent cataract extraction surgery were randomly divided into three groups according to their postoperative regime: a) Study group 1 (SG1) received a fixed combination of tobramycin and dexamethasone (FCTD) quid for 3 weeks and, additionally polyethylene glycol 400/propylene glycol/hydroxypropyl-guar quid, for 6 weeks, b) Study group 2 (SG2) received FCTD quid for 3 weeks and, additionally 0...
2017: Eye and Vision (London, England)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495637/veridical-stimulus-localization-is-linked-to-human-area-v5-mt-activity
#10
Anna K Bonkhoff, Eckart Zimmermann, Gereon R Fink
How the brain represents visual space is an unsolved mystery. Spatial localization becomes particularly challenging when visual information processing is briefly disrupted, as in the case of saccadic eye movements, blinks, or visual masks. As we have recently reported, a compression of visual space, illustrated by displacements of shortly flashed stimuli, can be observed in the temporal vicinity of masking stimuli during ocular fixation (Zimmermann et al., 2013). We here aimed at investigating the neural mechanisms underlying these displacements using functional magnetic resonance imaging...
May 8, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495634/network-targeted-cerebellar-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-improves-attentional-control
#11
Michael Esterman, Michelle Thai, Hidefusa Okabe, Joseph DeGutis, Elyana Saad, Simon E Laganiere, Mark A Halko
Developing non-invasive brain stimulation interventions to improve attentional control is extremely relevant to a variety of neurological and psychiatric populations, yet few studies have identified reliable biomarkers that can be readily modified to improve attentional control. One potential biomarker of attention is functional connectivity in the core cortical network supporting attention - the dorsal attention network (DAN). We used a network-targeted cerebellar transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) procedure, intended to enhance cortical functional connectivity in the DAN...
May 8, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494949/molecular-counting-with-localization-microscopy-a-bayesian-estimate-based-on-fluorophore-statistics
#12
Daniel Nino, Nafiseh Rafiei, Yong Wang, Anton Zilman, Joshua N Milstein
Superresolved localization microscopy has the potential to serve as an accurate, single-cell technique for counting the abundance of intracellular molecules. However, the stochastic blinking of single fluorophores can introduce large uncertainties into the final count. Here we provide a theoretical foundation for applying superresolved localization microscopy to the problem of molecular counting based on the distribution of blinking events from a single fluorophore. We also show that by redundantly tagging single molecules with multiple, blinking fluorophores, the accuracy of the technique can be enhanced by harnessing the central limit theorem...
May 9, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494384/attentional-blink-to-alcohol-cues-in-binge-drinkers-versus-non-binge-drinkers
#13
Francesco M DePalma, Natalie Ceballos, Reiko Graham
Previous studies have shown alcohol-related attentional biases in social drinkers; however, the temporal dynamics of these biases are not well understood. The current study examined this issue in 94 participants (27 male) categorized as binge drinkers (BD) or non-binge drinkers (NBD). Two versions of an alcohol-related attentional blink (AB) paradigm were used: one with words and one with images. It was predicted that BDs (versus NBDs) would exhibit reduced AB for alcohol cues, which would be enhanced for the pictorial version of the task (versus words)...
April 29, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493519/neurotransmitters-behind-pain-relief-with-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-positron-emission-tomography-evidence-for-release-of-endogenous-opioids
#14
S Lamusuo, J Hirvonen, P Lindholm, I K Martikainen, N Hagelberg, R Parkkola, T Taiminen, J Hietala, S Helin, A Virtanen, A Pertovaara, S K Jääskeläinen
BACKGROUND: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) at M1/S1 cortex has been shown to alleviate neuropathic pain. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the possible neurobiological correlates of cortical neurostimulation for the pain relief. METHODS: We studied the effects of M1/S1 rTMS on nociception, brain dopamine D2 and μ-opioid receptors using a randomized, sham-controlled, double-blinded crossover study design and 3D-positron emission tomography (PET)...
May 11, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488755/frequency-dependent-habituation-deficit-of-the-nociceptive-blink-reflex-in-aura-with-migraine-headache-can-migraine-aura-modulate-trigeminal-excitability
#15
Armando Perrotta, Maria Grazia Anastasio, Roberto De Icco, Gianluca Coppola, Anna Ambrosini, Mariano Serrao, Giorgio Sandrini, Francesco Pierelli
OBJECTIVE: To study the influence of the migraine aura on the trigeminal nociception, we investigated the habituation of the nociceptive blink reflex (nBR) R2 responses in aura with migraine headache (AwMH) and comparatively in migraine without aura (MWoA) and healthy subjects (HS). BACKGROUND: A clear deficit of habituation in trigeminal nociceptive responses has been documented in MWoA; however, similar data in MWA are lacking. METHODS: Seventeen AwMH, 29 MWoA, and 30 HS were enrolled and a nonrandomized clinical neurophysiological study examining nBR habituation by clinical diagnosis was devised...
May 10, 2017: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485977/-supertrap-at-work-extremely-efficient-nonradiative-recombination-channels-in-mapbi3-perovskites-revealed-by-luminescence-super-resolution-imaging-and-spectroscopy
#16
Aboma Merdasa, Yuxi Tian, Rafael Camacho, Alexander Dobrovolsky, Elke Debroye, Eva L Unger, Johan Hofkens, Villy Sundström, Ivan G Scheblykin
Organo-metal halide perovskites are some of the most promising materials for the new generation of low-cost photovoltaic and light-emitting devices. Their solution processability is a beneficial trait, although it leads to a spatial inhomogeneity of perovskite films with a variation of the trap state density at the nanoscale. Comprehending their properties using traditional spectroscopy therefore becomes difficult, calling for a combination with microscopy in order to see beyond the ensemble-averaged response...
May 16, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485457/a-wearable-strain-sensor-based-on-a-carbonized-nano-sponge-silicone-composite-for-human-motion-detection
#17
Xiao-Guang Yu, Yuan-Qing Li, Wei-Bin Zhu, Pei Huang, Tong-Tong Wang, Ning Hu, Shao-Yun Fu
Melamine sponge, also known as nano-sponge, is widely used as an abrasive cleaner in our daily life. In this work, the fabrication of a wearable strain sensor for human motion detection is first demonstrated with a commercially available nano-sponge as a starting material. The key resistance sensitive material in the wearable strain sensor is obtained by the encapsulation of a carbonized nano-sponge (CNS) with silicone resin. The as-fabricated CNS/silicone sensor is highly sensitive to strain with a maximum gauge factor of 18...
May 25, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483633/gastric-modulation-of-startle-eye-blink
#18
André Schulz, Zoé van Dyck, Annika P C Lutz, Silke Rost, Claus Vögele
Previous assessment methods of gastric interoception either rely on self-reports, or imply invasive procedures. We investigated the reliability of startle methodology as a non-invasive alternative for the assessment of afferent gastric signals. Twenty-four participants were tested on three separate days, on which they were requested to ingest water (either 0, 300 or 600ml), after 8h of fasting. On each assessment day, eye blink responses (EMG) to 10 acoustic startle stimuli (105dB) were assessed at 4 measurement points (before, 0, 7, 14min...
May 5, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481422/dual-chimeric-innervated-vastus-lateralis-free-flap-for-single-stage-blink-and-midface-reanimation
#19
Lauren S H Chong, Richard Tjahjono, Timothy J Eviston, Jonathan R Clark
BACKGROUND: The immediate reconstruction of the face in the setting of radical parotidectomy for malignancy represents a particular challenge. We present a novel technique using 2 sections of the vastus lateralis muscle as a chimeric flap in combination with the anterolateral thigh (ALT) fasciocutaneous flap to achieve midface reanimation and eye closure after radical parotidectomy. METHODS: The harvest technique in view of variations in chimeric muscle components, vascular pedicles, and neural coaptations is described herein...
May 8, 2017: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476326/clinical-heterogeneity-in-patients-with-idiopathic-blepharospasm-a-cluster-analysis
#20
G Defazio, A Conte, A F Gigante, G Ferrazzano, R Pellicciari, S Dagostino, G Fabbrini, A Berardelli
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic blepharospasm is a clinically heterogeneous condition. It is not known whether the various manifestations become manifest sequentially during the course of the disease or aggregate in separate clusters identifying subpopulations of patients. METHODS: Eighty-nine patients with idiopathic blepharospasm were assessed using k-means cluster analysis to identify relatively homogeneous groups on the basis of low-intragroup/high-intergroup differences across a set of selected variables...
April 25, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
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