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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719827/mixed-evidence-for-the-potential-of-non-invasive-transcutaneous-vagal-nerve-stimulation-to-improve-the-extinction-and-retention-of-fear
#1
A M Burger, B Verkuil, H Fenlon, L Thijs, L Cools, H C Miller, B Vervliet, I Van Diest
Extinction memories are fragile and their formation has been proposed to partially rely on vagus nerve activity. We tested whether stimulating the auricular branch of the vagus (transcutaneous VNS; tVNS) accelerates extinction and reduces spontaneous recovery of fear. Forty-two healthy students participated in a 3-day fear conditioning study, where we tested fear acquisition (day 1), fear extinction (day 2) and the retention of the extinction memory (day 3). During extinction, participants were randomly allocated to receive tVNS or sham stimulation concurrently with each CS presentation...
July 8, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719199/giant-pbse-cdse-cdse-quantum-dots-crystal-structure-limited-ultrastable-near-infrared-photoluminescence-from-single-nanocrystals
#2
Christina J Hanson, Nicolai F Hartmann, Ajay Singh, Xuedan Ma, William J I DeBenedetti, Joanna L Casson, John K Grey, Yves J Chabal, Anton V Malko, Milan Sykora, Andrei Piryatinski, Han Htoon, Jennifer A Hollingsworth
Toward a truly photostable PbSe quantum dot (QD) we apply the thick-shell or "giant" QD structural motif to this notoriously environmentally sensitive nanocrystal system. Namely, using a sequential application of two shell-growth techniques-partial-cation exchange and successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR)-we are able to overcoat the PbSe QDs with sufficiently thick CdSe shells to impart new single-QD-level photostability as evidenced by suppression of both photobleaching and blinking behavior...
July 18, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718649/ensemble-and-single-particle-fluorescence-characterization-of-dye-labeled-cellulose-nanocrystals
#3
Tianyang Leng, Zygmunt J Jakubek, Mahyar Mazloumi, Alfred C W Leung, Linda J Johnston
Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) have been covalently labeled with both fluorescein and rhodamine and studied by a combination of UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and ensemble and single molecule fluorescence spectroscopy. For all samples the fluorescence anisotropy and lifetimes were consistent with effects expected for covalently bound dye molecules. Low dye loading levels (~ 0.1 dye/particle) were estimated for the fluorescein-labeled CNC which coupled with the strong pH dependence make this a less suitable fluorophore for most applications...
July 18, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718089/eye-blink-detection-for-different-driver-states-in-conditionally-automated-driving-and-manual-driving-using-eog-and-a-driver-camera
#4
Jürgen Schmidt, Rihab Laarousi, Wolfgang Stolzmann, Katja Karrer-Gauß
In this article, we examine the performance of different eye blink detection algorithms under various constraints. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the performance of an electrooculogram- and camera-based blink detection process in both manually and conditionally automated driving phases. A further comparison between alert and drowsy drivers was performed in order to evaluate the impact of drowsiness on the performance of blink detection algorithms in both driving modes. Data snippets from 14 monotonous manually driven sessions (mean 2 h 46 min) and 16 monotonous conditionally automated driven sessions (mean 2 h 45 min) were used...
July 17, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713304/eye-behavior-associated-with-internally-versus-externally-directed-cognition
#5
Mathias Benedek, Robert Stoiser, Sonja Walcher, Christof Körner
What do our eyes do when we are focused on internal representations such as during imagination or planning? Evidence from mind wandering research suggests that spontaneous shifts from externally directed cognition (EDC) to internally directed cognition (IDC) involves oculomotor changes indicative of visual disengagement. In the present study, we investigated potential differences in eye behavior between goal-directed forms of IDC and EDC. To this end, we manipulated the focus of attention (internal versus external) in two demanding cognitive tasks (anagram and sentence generation)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712816/enhanced-startle-reflexivity-during-presentation-of-visual-nurture-cues-in-young-adults-who-experienced-parental-divorce-in-early-childhood
#6
Xenia Hengesch, Mauro F Larra, Johannes B Finke, Terry D Blumenthal, Hartmut Schächinger
Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) may influence stress and affective processing in adulthood. Animal and human studies show enhanced startle reflexivity in adult participants with ACE. This study examined the impact of one of the most common ACE, parental divorce, on startle reflexivity in adulthood. Affective modulation of acoustically-elicited startle eye blink was assessed in a group of 23 young adults with self-reported history of parental divorce, compared to an age- and sex-matched control group (n=18)...
July 13, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703339/the-synthesis-and-photophysical-analysis-of-a-series-of-4-nitrobenzochalcogenadiazoles-for-super-resolution-microscopy
#7
Daniel Ray Jenkinson, Ashley Cadby, Simon Jones
A series of 4-nitrobenzodiazoles with atomic substitution through the chalcogen group were synthesised and their photophysical properties analysed with a view for use in single-molecule localisation microscopy. Sub-diffraction resolution imaging was achieved for silica nanoparticles coated with each dye. Those containing larger atoms were favoured for super-resolution microscopy due to a reduced blink rate (required for stochastic events to be localised). The sulfur containing molecule was deemed most amenable for widespread use due to the ease of synthetic manipulation compared to the selenium containing derivative...
July 13, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696661/multicolor-super-resolution-fluorescence-microscopy-with-blue-and-carmine-small-photoblinking-polymer-dots
#8
Xuanze Chen, Zhihe Liu, Rongqin Li, Chunyan Shan, Zhiping Zeng, Boxin Xue, Weihong Yuan, Chi Mo, Peng Xi, Changfeng Wu, Yujie Sun
Advances in the development of small photoblinking semiconducting polymer dots (Pdots) have attracted great interest for use in super-resolution microscopy. However, multicolor super-resolution imaging using conventional small photoblinking Pdots remains a challenge due to their limited color choice, broad emission spectrum, and heavy spectrum crosstalk. Here, we introduce two new types of small photoblinking Pdots with different colors and relatively narrow emission spectra: blue PFO Pdots and carmine PFTBT5 Pdots for blinking-based statistical nanoscopy...
July 11, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692997/automated-classification-and-removal-of-eeg-artifacts-with-svm-and-wavelet-ica
#9
Chong Yeh Sai, Norrima Mokhtar, Hamzah Arof, Paul Cumming, Masahiro Iwahashi
Brain electrical activity recordings by electroencephalography (EEG) are often contaminated with signal artifacts. Procedures for automated removal of EEG artifacts are frequently sought for clinical diagnostics and brain computer interface (BCI) applications. In recent years, a combination of independent component analysis (ICA) and discrete wavelet transform (DWT) has been introduced as standard technique for EEG artifact removal. However, in performing the wavelet-ICA procedure, visual inspection or arbitrary thresholding may be required for identifying artifactual components in the EEG signal...
July 4, 2017: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692735/an-anti-vegf-b-antibody-fragment-induces-regression-of-pre-existing-blood-vessels-in-the-rat-cornea
#10
Yazad D Irani, Pierre D Scotney, Sonja Klebe, Lauren A Mortimer, Andrew D Nash, Keryn A Williams
Purpose: We tested the ability of an antibody fragment with specificity for vascular endothelial growth factor-B (VEGF-B) to regress nascent and established corneal blood vessels in the rat. Methods: A single chain variable antibody fragment (scFv) with specificity for VEGF-B was engineered from the 2H10 hybridoma. Binding to rat, mouse, and human VEGF-B was confirmed by surface plasmon resonance. Activity of the anti-VEGF-B scFv on developing and established corneal blood vessels was assessed following unilateral superficial cautery in male and female outbred Sprague Dawley rats...
July 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689088/looking-for-ideas-eye-behavior-during-goal-directed-internally-focused-cognition
#11
Sonja Walcher, Christof Körner, Mathias Benedek
Humans have a highly developed visual system, yet we spend a high proportion of our time awake ignoring the visual world and attending to our own thoughts. The present study examined eye movement characteristics of goal-directed internally focused cognition. Deliberate internally focused cognition was induced by an idea generation task. A letter-by-letter reading task served as external task. Idea generation (vs. reading) was associated with more and longer blinks and fewer microsaccades indicating an attenuation of visual input...
July 6, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686138/automatic-recruitment-of-the-motor-system-by-undetected-graspable-objects-a-motor-evoked-potential-study
#12
Nicolas A McNair, Ashleigh D Behrens, Irina M Harris
Previous behavioral and neuroimaging studies have suggested that the motor properties associated with graspable objects may be automatically accessed when people passively view these objects. We directly tested this by measuring the excitability of the motor pathway when participants viewed pictures of graspable objects that were presented during the attentional blink (AB), when items frequently go undetected. Participants had to identify two briefly presented objects separated by either a short or long SOA...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681884/condition-responsive-nanoparticles-for-managing-infection-and-inflammation-in-keratitis
#13
Saad M Ahsan, Ch Mohan Rao
Keratitis is a major cause of avoidable visual impairment. About 30% of patients with fungal keratitis eventually become permanently blind in the developing world. Proteases, secreted by the pathogen and the host, damage the cornea before the infection is resolved. Treating keratitis is a challenge because both infection and inflammation need to be addressed. An additional challenge is to maintain a therapeutic dose at the corneal surface as blinking and tear film wash away the drugs, administered as eye drops...
July 20, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679040/sizing-up-excitons-in-core-shell-quantum-dots-via-shell-dependent-photoluminescence-blinking
#14
Aidan A E Fisher, Mark A Osborne
Semiconductor nanocrystals or quantum dots (QDs) are now widely used across solar cell, display and bioimaging technologies. While advances in multi-shell, alloyed and multinary core-shell QD structures have led to improved light-harvesting and photoluminescence (PL) properties of these nanomaterials, the effects that QD-capping have on the exciton-dynamics that govern PL-instabilities such as blinking in single-QDs, is not well understood. We report experimental measurements of shell-size dependent absorption and PL-intermittency in CdSe-CdS QDs that are consistent with a modified charge-tunnelling, self-trapping (CTST) description of the exciton-dynamics in these nanocrystals...
July 5, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673750/quality-of-vision-in-eyes-with-epiphora-undergoing-lacrimal-passage-intubation
#15
Shizuka Koh, Yasushi Inoue, Shintaro Ochi, Yoshihiro Takai, Naoyuki Maeda, Kohji Nishida
PURPOSE: To investigate visual function and optical quality in eyes with epiphora undergoing lacrimal passage intubation. DESIGN: Prospective case series. METHODS: Thirty-four eyes of 30 patients with lacrimal passage obstruction were enrolled. Before and 1 month after lacrimal passage intubation, functional visual acuity (FVA), higher-order aberrations (HOAs), lower tear meniscus and tear clearance were assessed. An FVA measurement system was used to examine changes in continuous visual acuity (VA) over time, and visual function parameters such as FVA, visual maintenance ratio, and blink frequency were obtained...
June 30, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671662/long-time-lapse-nanoscopy-with-spontaneously-blinking-membrane-probes
#16
Hideo Takakura, Yongdeng Zhang, Roman S Erdmann, Alexander D Thompson, Yu Lin, Brian McNellis, Felix Rivera-Molina, Shin-Nosuke Uno, Mako Kamiya, Yasuteru Urano, James E Rothman, Joerg Bewersdorf, Alanna Schepartz, Derek Toomre
Imaging cellular structures and organelles in living cells by long time-lapse super-resolution microscopy is challenging, as it requires dense labeling, bright and highly photostable dyes, and non-toxic conditions. We introduce a set of high-density, environment-sensitive (HIDE) membrane probes, based on the membrane-permeable silicon-rhodamine dye HMSiR, that assemble in situ and enable long time-lapse, live-cell nanoscopy of discrete cellular structures and organelles with high spatiotemporal resolution. HIDE-enabled nanoscopy movies span tens of minutes, whereas movies obtained with labeled proteins span tens of seconds...
July 3, 2017: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669454/neurophysiological-studies-on-atypical-parkinsonian-syndromes
#17
REVIEW
Matteo Bologna, Antonio Suppa, Flavio Di Stasio, Antonella Conte, Giovanni Fabbrini, Alfredo Berardelli
There have been a relatively large number of experimental investigations using neurophysiological techniques in patients with atypical parkinsonian syndromes (APs), including progressive supranuclear palsy, cortico-basal syndrome and multiple system atrophy. Earlier studies focused on the startle, blink and trigemino-cervical reflexes and showed several brainstem abnormalities. Studies using transcranial magnetic stimulation have revealed a number of abnormalities in primary motor cortex and inter-hemispheric connectivity...
June 27, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667336/eigen-analysis-reveals-components-supporting-super-resolution-imaging-of-blinking-fluorophores
#18
Krishna Agarwal, Dilip K Prasad
This paper presents eigen-analysis of image stack of blinking fluorophores to identify the components that enable super-resolved imaging of blinking fluorophores. Eigen-analysis reveals that the contributions of spatial distribution of fluorophores and their temporal photon emission characteristics can be completely separated. While cross-emitter cross-pixel information of spatial distribution that permits super-resolution is encoded in two matrices, temporal statistics weigh the contribution of these matrices to the measured data...
June 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662184/corneal-epithelial-cells-exposed-to-shear-stress-show-altered-cytoskeleton-and-migratory-behaviour
#19
Sara Molladavoodi, Matthew Robichaud, David Wulff, Maud Gorbet
Cells that form the corneal epithelium, the outermost layer of the cornea, are exposed to shear stress through blinking during waking hours. In this in vitro study, the effect of fluid shear stress on human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) was investigated. Following exposure to shear stresses of 4 and 8 dyn/cm2, HCECs showed cytoskeletal rearrangement with more prominent, organized and elongated filamentous actin. Cytoskeletal changes were time-dependent, and were most significant after 24 hours of shear stress...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646568/blink-r1-latency-utility-in-diagnosis-and-treatment-assessment-of-poems-and-cidp
#20
Wei Wang, William J Litchy, Michelle L Mauermann, P James B Dyck, Angela Dispenzieri, Jay Mandrekar, Peter J Dyck, Christopher J Klein
INTRODUCTION: In POEMS and CIDP, limb nerve conduction studies (NCS) are limited in identifying demyelination and detecting treatment effects in severely affected patients. Blink R1-latency may improve these assessments. METHODS: POEMS and CIDP patients having undergone NCS and blink reflex were identified. Correlations between R1-latency, limb NCS and neuropathy impairment scores (NIS) were compared. RESULTS: With182 patients (124 POEMS, 58 CIDP) identified, R1-prolongation (>13ms) occurred in 64...
June 23, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
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