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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433875/framing-causal-questions-about-the-past-the-cambrian-explosion-as-case-study
#1
Greg Priest
About 540 million years ago, a rapid radiation of animal phyla radically changed the Earth's biota in a geological eye-blink. What caused this "Cambrian explosion"? Over the years, paleontologists have pointed to a wide array of different physical mechanisms as the causal "trigger" for the explosion. More recently, some paleontologists have proposed complex causal pathways to which multiple physical mechanisms are said to have contributed. Despite their variety, these answers share an assumption that a single explanation can in principle be constructed that identifies some factor or confluence of factors as the cause of the Cambrian explosion...
April 20, 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420482/detection-of-driver-drowsiness-using-wearable-devices-a-feasibility-study-of-the-proximity-sensor
#2
Jibo He, William Choi, Yan Yang, Junshi Lu, Xiaohui Wu, Kaiping Peng
BACKGROUND: Drowsiness is one of the major factors that cause crashes in the transportation industry. Drowsiness detection systems can alert drowsy operators and potentially reduce the risk of crashes. In this study, a Google-Glass-based drowsiness detection system was developed and validated. METHODS: The proximity sensor of Google Glass was used to monitor eye blink frequency. A simulated driving study was carried out to validate the system. Driving performance and eye blinks were compared between the two states of alertness and drowsiness while driving...
April 15, 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420114/fuzzy-system-based-target-selection-for-a-nir-camera-based-gaze-tracker
#3
Rizwan Ali Naqvi, Muhammad Arsalan, Kang Ryoung Park
Gaze-based interaction (GBI) techniques have been a popular subject of research in the last few decades. Among other applications, GBI can be used by persons with disabilities to perform everyday tasks, as a game interface, and can play a pivotal role in the human computer interface (HCI) field. While gaze tracking systems have shown high accuracy in GBI, detecting a user's gaze for target selection is a challenging problem that needs to be considered while using a gaze detection system. Past research has used the blinking of the eyes for this purpose as well as dwell time-based methods, but these techniques are either inconvenient for the user or requires a long time for target selection...
April 14, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418326/artifact-in-pediatric-oculomotor-findings-during-videonystagmography-a-retrospective-analysis
#4
Steven M Doettl, Patrick N Plyler, Devin L McCaslin
BACKGROUND: Accurate measurement of oculomotor function using videonystagmography (VNG) is imperative for diagnosis and management of patients with reported dizziness. The oculomotor evaluation during VNG utilizes video-oculography providing valuable information regarding the central structures and pathways that control eye movements. Artifact may have an effect on the overall validity and reliability of VNG oculomotor tracings and can result from patient and/or recording errors. It is postulated that artifact could occur more frequently in the pediatric population due to both patient and equipment factors...
April 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410866/backward-masking-interrupts-spatial-attention-slows-downstream-processing-and-limits-conscious-perception
#5
Talia Losier, Christine Lefebvre, Mattia Doro, Roberto Dell'Acqua, Pierre Jolicœur
The attentional blink (AB) is a difficulty in correctly processing a target when it follows one or more other targets after a short delay. When no backward mask is presented after the last critical target, there is no or little behavioral AB deficit. The mask plays an important role in limiting conscious access to target information. In this electrophysiological study, we tested the impact of masking on the deployment and engagement of attention by measuring the N2pc and P3 components in an RSVP paradigm. We found that the presence of a mask in an AB paradigm reduced the amplitude of the N2pc, P3a, and P3b components...
April 11, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410354/effects-of-tear-film-lipid-layer-thickness-and-blinking-pattern-on-tear-film-instability-after-corneal-refractive-surgery
#6
Qingzhong Chen, Min Li, Ying Yuan, Rao Me, Yunjie Yu, Guangsen Shi, Xin Wang, Bilian Ke
PURPOSE: To investigate associations between changes in tear film instability and the lipid layer thickness (LLT) and blink pattern after corneal refractive surgery (CRS). METHODS: Forty patients were enrolled in this study. The LLT and blink pattern were evaluated 1 week before and 30 days after CRS using a novel interferometer and an ocular surface disease index (OSDI) questionnaire, and other tear film stability markers were also evaluated. RESULTS: Mean OSDI scores increased from 5...
April 13, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398632/prenatal-and-postnatal-assessment-in-rabbits-with-evacetrapib-a-cholesteryl-ester-transfer-protein-inhibitor
#7
William J Breslin, Kim G Hilbish, Ellen A Cannady, Tammy L Edwards
BACKGROUND: Evacetrapib, a potent and selective inhibitor of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), was under development for the treatment of cardiovascular (CV) disease. The purpose of this pre-postnatal study in rabbits was to evaluate the effects of evacetrapib on pregnancy, parturition, and lactation of the maternal animals and on the growth, viability, development, and reproductive performance of the first filial (F1) offspring. The rabbit is considered a relevant species for toxicity testing with evacetrapib as it demonstrates significant CETP expression, whereas mice and rats do not express significant levels of CETP...
April 17, 2017: Birth Defects Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392402/does-seasonal-allergic-rhinitis-increase-sensitivity-to-ammonia-exposure
#8
Marlene Pacharra, Stefan Kleinbeck, Michael Schäper, Meinolf Blaszkewicz, Klaus Golka, Christoph van Thriel
Allergic inflammation in the upper airways represents a wide-spread health issue: Little is known about whether it increases sensitivity to airborne chemicals thereby challenging established exposure limits that neglect such differences in susceptibility. To investigate the role of pre-existing allergic inflammation, 19 subjects with seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) and 18 control subjects with low risk of sensitization were exposed for 4h to ammonia in two concentrations (cross-over design): 2.5ppm (odor threshold) and 0-40ppm (occupational exposure limit: 20ppm TWA)...
April 2, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391597/contrast-enhanced-ultrasound-imaging-in-vivo-with-laser-activated-nanodroplets
#9
Heechul Yoon, Steven K Yarmoska, Alexander S Hannah, Changhan Yoon, Kristina A Hallam, Stanislav Y Emelianov
PURPOSE: This study introduces a real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging method with recently developed laser-activated nanodroplets (LANDs), a new class of phase-change nanometer-scale contrast agents that provides perceptible, sustained high-contrast with ultrasound. METHODS: In response to pulsed laser irradiation, the LANDs-, which contain liquid perfluorohexane and optical fuses-blink (vaporize and recondense). That is, they change their state from liquid nanodroplets to gas microbubbles, and then back to liquid nanodroplets...
April 9, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388208/coarse-graining-the-fluid-flow-around-a-human-sperm
#10
Kenta Ishimoto, Hermes Gadêlha, Eamonn A Gaffney, David J Smith, Jackson Kirkman-Brown
The flagellar beat is extracted from human sperm digital imaging microscopy and used to determine the flow around the cell and its trajectory, via boundary element simulation. Comparison of the predicted cell trajectory with observation demonstrates that simulation can predict fine-scale sperm dynamics at the qualitative level. The flow field is also observed to reduce to a time-dependent summation of regularized Stokes flow singularities, approximated at leading order by a blinking force triplet. Such regularized singularity decompositions may be used to upscale cell level detail into population models of human sperm motility...
March 24, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378585/amine-based-passivating-materials-for-enhanced-optical-properties-and-performance-of-organic-inorganic-perovskites-in-light-emitting-diodes
#11
Seungjin Lee, Jong Hyun Park, Bo Ram Lee, Eui Dae Jung, Jae Choul Yu, Daniele Di Nuzzo, Richard H Friend, Myoung Hoon Song
The use of hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites in optoelectronic applications are attracting an interest because of their outstanding characteristics, which enable a remarkable enhancement of device efficiency. However, solution-processed perovskite crystals unavoidably contain defect sites that cause hysteresis in perovskite solar cells (PeSCs) and blinking in perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs). Here, we report significant beneficial effects using a new treatment based on amine-based passivating materials (APMs) to passivate the defect sites of methylammonium lead tribromide (MAPbBr3) through coordinate bonding between the nitrogen atoms and undercoordinated lead ions...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375789/the-effect-of-tear-supplementation-with-0-15-preservative-free-zinc-hyaluronate-on-ocular-surface-sensations-in-patients-with-dry-eye
#12
Kristóf Perényi, Lóránt Dienes, Anna Kornafeld, Balázs Kovács, Huba J Kiss, Zsuzsanna Szepessy, Zoltán Z Nagy, Árpád Barsi, M Carmen Acosta, Juana Gallar, Illés Kovács
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of tear supplementation with preservative free 0.15% zinc-hyaluronate on ocular surface sensations and corneal sensitivity in dry eye patients. METHODS: Ocular surface sensations were assessed using the ocular surface disease index (OSDI) questionnaire and by recording ocular sensations during forced blinking in parallel with noninvasive tear film breakup time measurement in 20 eyes of 20 dry eye patients. Corneal sensitivity thresholds to selective stimulation of corneal mechano-, thermal- and chemical receptors were measured using the Belmonte gas esthesiometer...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373805/circadian-change-in-blink-reflex-recovery-in-restless-legs-syndrome
#13
Nurten Uzun, Ayşegül Gündüz, Derya Karadeniz, Meral E Kiziltan
INTRODUCTION: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is associated with dysfunction of the dopaminergic systems in the pathways that specifically link the sensory input and motor output. Keeping in mind that clinical symptomatology in RLS and cerebrospinal fluid dopamine concentrations in healthy individuals show changes throughout the day, we hypothesized that excitability of the related pathways increases during the night in RLS, and in the present study, we aimed to analyze our hypothesis by the assessment of blink reflex (BR) recovery...
September 2016: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368200/word-and-face-processing-engage-overlapping-distributed-networks-evidence-from-rsvp-and-eeg-investigations
#14
Amanda K Robinson, David C Plaut, Marlene Behrmann
Words and faces have vastly different visual properties, but increasing evidence suggests that word and face processing engage overlapping distributed networks. For instance, fMRI studies have shown overlapping activity for face and word processing in the fusiform gyrus despite well-characterized lateralization of these objects to the left and right hemispheres, respectively. To investigate whether face and word perception influences perception of the other stimulus class and elucidate the mechanisms underlying such interactions, we presented images using rapid serial visual presentations...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367630/dynamic-evolution-from-negative-to-positive-photocharging-in-colloidal-cds-quantum-dots
#15
Donghai Feng, Dmitri R Yakovlev, Victor V Pavlov, Anna V Rodina, Elena V Shornikova, Johannes Mund, Manfred Bayer
The optical properties of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals are largely influenced by the trapping of charge carriers on the nanocrystal surface. Different concentrations of electron and hole traps and different rates of their capture to the traps provide dynamical charging of otherwise neutral nanocrystals. We study the photocharging formation and evolution dynamics in CdS colloidal quantum dots with native oleic acid surface ligands. A time-resolved technique with three laser pulses (pump, orientation and probe) is developed to monitor the photocharging dynamics with picosecond resolution on wide timescales ranging from ps to ms...
April 3, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363785/targeted-delivery-of-hyaluronic-acid-to-the-ocular-surface-by-a-polymer-peptide-conjugate-system-for-dry-eye-disease
#16
David Lee, Qiaozhi Lu, Sven D Sommerfeld, Amanda Chan, Nikhil G Menon, Tannin A Schmidt, Jennifer H Elisseeff, Anirudha Singh
Hyaluronic acid (HA) solutions effectively lubricate the ocular surface and are used for the relief of dry eye related symptoms. However, HA undergoes rapid clearance due to limited adhesion, which necessitates frequent instillation. Conversely, highly viscous artificial tear formulations with HA blur vision and interfere with blinking. Here, we developed an HA-eye drop formulation that selectively binds and retains HA for extended periods of time on the ocular surface. We synthesized a heterobifunctional polymer-peptide system with one end binding HA while the other end binding either sialic acid-containing glycosylated transmembrane molecules on the ocular surface epithelium, or type I collagen molecule within the tissue matrix...
March 28, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348644/navigation-synchronized-multimodal-control-wheelchair-from-brain-to-alternative-assistive-technologies-for-persons-with-severe-disabilities
#17
Dilok Puanhvuan, Sarawin Khemmachotikun, Pongsakorn Wechakarn, Boonyanuch Wijarn, Yodchanan Wongsawat
Currently, electric wheelchairs are commonly used to improve mobility in disabled people. In severe cases, the user is unable to control the wheelchair by themselves because his/her motor functions are disabled. To restore mobility function, a brain-controlled wheelchair (BCW) would be a promising system that would allow the patient to control the wheelchair by their thoughts. P300 is a reliable brain electrical signal, a component of visual event-related potentials (ERPs), that could be used for interpreting user commands...
April 2017: Cognitive Neurodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341145/facial-correlates-of-emotional-behaviour-in-the-domestic-cat-felis-catus
#18
Valerie Bennett, Nadine Gourkow, Daniel S Mills
Leyhausen's (1979) work on cat behaviour and facial expressions associated with offensive and defensive behaviour is widely embraced as the standard for interpretation of agonistic behaviour in this species. However, it is a largely anecdotal description that can be easily misunderstood. Recently a facial action coding system has been developed for cats (CatFACS), similar to that used for objectively coding human facial expressions. This study reports on the use of this system to describe the relationship between behaviour and facial expressions of cats in confinement contexts without and with human interaction, in order to generate hypotheses about the relationship between these expressions and underlying emotional state...
March 21, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339208/doubly-resonant-photonic-antenna-for-single-infrared-quantum-dot-imaging-at-telecommunication-wavelengths
#19
Zhihua Xie, Yannick Lefier, Miguel Angel Suarez, Mathieu Mivelle, Roland Salut, Jean-Marc Merolla, Thierry Grosjean
Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) have drawn strong interest in the past for their high prospects in scientific, medical, and industrial applications. However, the full characterization of these quantum emitters is currently restricted to the visible wavelengths, and it remains a key challenge to optically probe single CQDs operating in the infrared spectral domain, which is targeted by a growing number of applications. Here, we report the first experimental detection and imaging at room temperature of single infrared CQDs operating at telecommunication wavelengths...
March 24, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328997/influence-of-intraocular-lens-subsurface-nanoglistenings-on-functional-visual-acuity
#20
Takahiro Hiraoka, Kazunori Miyata, Takeshi Hayashidera, Masaharu Iida, Keita Takada, Keiichiro Minami, Tetsuro Oshika
To investigate the influence of intraocular lens subsurface nanoglistenings (SSNGs) on functional visual acuity (FVA), thirty-nine eyes of 29 patients were examined in this study. The SSNG group comprised 19 eyes of 14 patients (75.7± 5.4 years, mean ± standard deviation), and the control group comprised 20 eyes of 15 patients (73.6 ± 6.5 years). The SSNGs were diagnosed on the basis of the typical whitish IOL appearance upon slit-lamp examination and results of densitometry regarding surface light scattering using Scheimpflug images...
2017: PloS One
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