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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815863/decoding-fmri-events-in-sensorimotor-motor-network-using-sparse-paradigm-free-mapping-and-activation-likelihood-estimates
#1
Francisca M Tan, César Caballero-Gaudes, Karen J Mullinger, Siu-Yeung Cho, Yaping Zhang, Ian L Dryden, Susan T Francis, Penny A Gowland
Most functional MRI (fMRI) studies map task-driven brain activity using a block or event-related paradigm. Sparse paradigm free mapping (SPFM) can detect the onset and spatial distribution of BOLD events in the brain without prior timing information, but relating the detected events to brain function remains a challenge. In this study, we developed a decoding method for SPFM using a coordinate-based meta-analysis method of activation likelihood estimation (ALE). We defined meta-maps of statistically significant ALE values that correspond to types of events and calculated a summation overlap between the normalized meta-maps and SPFM maps...
August 16, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813964/brain-computer-interface-combining-eye-saccade-two-electrode-eeg-signals-and-voice-cues-to-improve-the-maneuverability-of-wheelchair
#2
Ker-Jiun Wang, Lan Zhang, Bo Luan, Hsiao-Wei Tung, Quanfeng Liu, Jiacheng Wei, Mingui Sun, Zhi-Hong Mao
Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) largely augment human capabilities by translating brain wave signals into feasible commands to operate external devices. However, many issues face the development of BCIs such as the low classification accuracy of brain signals and the tedious human-learning procedures. To solve these problems, we propose to use signals associated with eye saccades and blinks to control a BCI interface. By extracting existing physiological eye signals, the user does not need to adapt his/her brain waves to the device...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813959/-wink-to-grasp-comparing-eye-voice-emg-gesture-control-of-grasp-with-soft-robotic-gloves
#3
Bernardo Noronha, Sabine Dziemian, Giuseppe A Zito, Charalambos Konnaris, A Aldo Faisal
The ability of robotic rehabilitation devices to support paralysed end-users is ultimately limited by the degree to which human-machine-interaction is designed to be effective and efficient in translating user intention into robotic action. Specifically, we evaluate the novel possibility of binocular eye-tracking technology to detect voluntary winks from involuntary blink commands, to establish winks as a novel low-latency control signal to trigger robotic action. By wearing binocular eye-tracking glasses we enable users to directly observe their environment or the actuator and trigger movement actions, without having to interact with a visual display unit or user interface...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813084/bereitschaftspotential-preceding-eyelid-blinks-in-parkinson-s-disease
#4
Isabella Araújo Mota, Maria das Graças Coriolano, Otávio Gomes Lins
Methods: Ten PD patients in stages 1 and 2 of the Hoehn & Yahr classification were compared to 18 healthy controls. Artifact-free EEG segments of two seconds preceding the onset of the blink potential were averaged and analyzed, and the statistical significance of the measured amplitudes were evaluated by analysis of variance models. Results: The presence of a BP in the PD patients was demonstrated. The mean amplitudes at 0 ms were respectively 0.6 µV and 3.3 µV for the BP patients and the normal controls, respectively...
August 2017: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809846/the-use-of-trace-eyeblink-classical-conditioning-to-assess-hippocampal-dysfunction-in-a-rat-model-of-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#5
Tuan D Tran, Aenia Amin, Keith G Jones, Ellen M Sheffer, Lidia Ortega, Keith Dolman
Neonatal rats were administered a relatively high concentration of ethyl alcohol (11.9% v/v) during postnatal days 4-9, a time when the fetal brain undergoes rapid organizational change and is similar to accelerated brain changes that occur during the third trimester in humans. This model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) produces severe brain damage, mimicking the amount and pattern of binge-drinking that occurs in some pregnant alcoholic mothers. We describe the use of trace eyeblink classical conditioning (ECC), a higher-order variant of associative learning, to assess long-term hippocampal dysfunction that is typically seen in alcohol-exposed adult offspring...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805247/beauty-in-the-blink-of-an-eye-the-time-course-of-aesthetic-experiences
#6
San Verhavert, Johan Wagemans, M Dorothee Augustin
Under normal circumstances, perception runs very fast and seemingly automatic. In just a few ms, we go from sensory features to perceiving objects. This fast time course does not only apply to general perceptual aspects but also to what we call higher-level judgements. Inspired by the study on 'very first impressions' by Bar, Neta, and Linz (2006, Emotion, 6, 269) the current research examined the speed and time course of three aspects of the aesthetic experience, namely beauty, specialness, and impressiveness...
August 14, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802836/neocortical-prodynorphin-expression-is-transiently-increased-with-learning-implications-for-time-and-learning-dependent-neocortical-kappa-opioid-receptor-activation
#7
Ryan Loh, Sean Collins, Roberto Galvez
There are several lines of evidence that indicate a prominent role for the opioid system in the acquisition and consolidation of learned associations. Specifically, kappa opioid receptor (KOR) modulation has been demonstrated to alter various behavioral tasks including whisker trace eyeblink conditioning (WTEB). WTEB is an associative conditioning paradigm in which a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS; Whisker stimulation) is paired following a short stimulus free trace interval with a salient unconditioned stimulus that elicits a blink response (US; Eye shock)...
August 9, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802427/experimental-study-on-visual-detection-for-fatigue-of-fixed-position-staff
#8
Baisheng Nie, Xin Huang, Yang Chen, Anjin Li, Ruming Zhang, Jinxin Huang
Fatigue can lead to decreased work performance and poorer safety and health condition. Fatigue is ubiquitous in production and in life, while the research on it is mainly concentrated in the automotive driving, aircraft piloting and other fields, and it is insufficient to study on the fatigue of fixed-position staff. This paper puts forward a non-contact visual image method, which can monitor the extent of fatigue of fixed-position staff. Fatigue threshold used in judgment is obtained by processing the recorded data of visual images of the experimental subjects when fatiguing and by analyzing eye closure time, percentage of eyelid closure (PERCLOS) value, frequency and number of blinks...
November 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800744/physiological-artifacts-in-scalp-eeg-and-ear-eeg
#9
Simon L Kappel, David Looney, Danilo P Mandic, Preben Kidmose
BACKGROUND: A problem inherent to recording EEG is the interference arising from noise and artifacts. While in a laboratory environment, artifacts and interference can, to a large extent, be avoided or controlled, in real-life scenarios this is a challenge. Ear-EEG is a concept where EEG is acquired from electrodes in the ear. METHODS: We present a characterization of physiological artifacts generated in a controlled environment for nine subjects. The influence of the artifacts was quantified in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) deterioration of the auditory steady-state response...
August 11, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782029/eye-motion-triggered-self-powered-mechnosensational-communication-system-using-triboelectric-nanogenerator
#10
Xianjie Pu, Hengyu Guo, Jie Chen, Xue Wang, Yi Xi, Chenguo Hu, Zhong Lin Wang
Mechnosensational human-machine interfaces (HMIs) can greatly extend communication channels between human and external devices in a natural way. The mechnosensational HMIs based on biopotential signals have been developing slowly owing to the low signal-to-noise ratio and poor stability. In eye motions, the corneal-retinal potential caused by hyperpolarization and depolarization is very weak. However, the mechanical micromotion of the skin around the corners of eyes has never been considered as a good trigger signal source...
July 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776995/effect-of-interfacial-alloying-versus-volume-scaling-on-auger-recombination-in-compositionally-graded-semiconductor-quantum-dots
#11
Young-Shin Park, Jaehoon Lim, Nikolay S Makarov, Victor I Klimov
Auger recombination is a nonradiative three-particle process wherein the electron-hole recombination energy dissipates as a kinetic energy of a third carrier. Auger decay is enhanced in quantum-dot (QD) forms of semiconductor materials compared to their bulk counterparts. Because this process is detrimental to many prospective applications of the QDs, the development of effective approaches for suppressing Auger recombination has been an important goal in the QD field. One such approach involves "smoothing" of the confinement potential, which suppresses the intraband transition involved in the dissipation of the electron-hole recombination energy...
August 4, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769865/eyelid-dysfunction-in-neurodegenerative-neurogenetic-and-neurometabolic-disease
#12
REVIEW
Ali G Hamedani, Daniel R Gold
Eye movement abnormalities are among the earliest clinical manifestations of inherited and acquired neurodegenerative diseases and play an integral role in their diagnosis. Eyelid movement is neuroanatomically linked to eye movement, and thus eyelid dysfunction can also be a distinguishing feature of neurodegenerative disease and complements eye movement abnormalities in helping us to understand their pathophysiology. In this review, we summarize the various eyelid abnormalities that can occur in neurodegenerative, neurogenetic, and neurometabolic diseases...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767359/an-eog-based-human-machine-interface-for-wheelchair-control
#13
Qiyun Huang, Shenghong He, Qihong Wang, Zhenghui Gu, Nengneng Peng, Kai Li, Yuandong Zhang, Ming Shao, Yuanqing Li
OBJECTIVE: Non-manual human-machine interfaces (HMIs) have been studied for wheelchair control with the aim of helping severely paralyzed individuals regain some mobility. The challenge is to rapidly, accurately and sufficiently produce control commands, such as left and right turns, forward and backward motions, acceleration, deceleration, and stopping. In this paper, a novel electrooculogram (EOG)-based HMI is proposed for wheelchair control. METHODS: Thirteen flashing buttons are presented in the graphical user interface (GUI), and each of the buttons corresponds to a command...
July 27, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765147/the-association-between-ocular-surface-measurements-with-visual-field-reliability-indices-and-gaze-tracking-results-in-preperimetric-glaucoma
#14
Takahiro Arai, Hiroshi Murata, Masato Matsuura, Tomohiko Usui, Ryo Asaoka
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To investigate the relationship between gaze tracking (GT) results and ocular surface condition in glaucoma. METHOD: The Humphrey 24-2 visual field (VF) was measured in 34 eyes of 30 patients with open-angle glaucoma without VF damage. Tear break-up time, Schirmer's test, tear meniscus volume (TMV) and presence of superficial punctate keratopathy (SPK) were also measured in order to describe the condition of the ocular surface. Various GT parameters were calculated: the average frequency of eye movements per stimulus between 1° and 2° (move1-2), the average frequency of eye movements per stimulus between 3° and 5° (move3-5), the average frequency of eye movements per stimulus more than 6° (move≥6), the average tracking failure frequency per stimulus (TFF) and the average blinking frequency...
August 1, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763227/strong-dependence-of-quantum-dot-delayed-luminescence-on-excitation-pulse-width
#15
Arianna Marchioro, Patrick J Whitham, Heidi D Nelson, Michael Christopher De Siena, Kathryn E Knowles, Victor Z Polinger, Philip J Reid, Daniel R Gamelin
Delayed luminescence involving charge-carrier trapping and detrapping has recently been identified as a widespread and possibly universal phenomenon in colloidal quantum dots. Its near-power-law decay suggests a relationship with blinking. Here, using colloidal CuInS2 and CdSe quantum dots as model systems, we show that short (ns) excitation pulses yield less delayed luminescence intensity and faster delayed luminescence decay than observed with long (ms) square wave excitation pulses. Increasing the excitation power also affects the delayed luminescence intensity, but the delayed luminescence decay kinetics appear much less sensitive to excitation power than to excitation pulse width...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760960/oligomerization-of-the-tetramerization-domain-of-p53-probed-by-two-and-three-color-single-molecule-fret
#16
Hoi Sung Chung, Fanjie Meng, Jae-Yeol Kim, Kevin McHale, Irina V Gopich, John M Louis
We describe a method that combines two- and three-color single-molecule FRET spectroscopy with 2D FRET efficiency-lifetime analysis to probe the oligomerization process of intrinsically disordered proteins. This method is applied to the oligomerization of the tetramerization domain (TD) of the tumor suppressor protein p53. TD exists as a monomer at subnanomolar concentrations and forms a dimer and a tetramer at higher concentrations. Because the dissociation constants of the dimer and tetramer are very close, as we determine in this paper, it is not possible to characterize different oligomeric species by ensemble methods, especially the dimer that cannot be readily separated...
August 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758152/sleep-deprivation-disrupts-recall-of-conditioned-fear-extinction
#17
Laura D Straus, Dean T Acheson, Victoria B Risbrough, Sean P A Drummond
BACKGROUND: Learned fear is crucial in the development and maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other anxiety disorders, and extinction of learned fear is necessary for response to exposure-based treatments. In humans, research suggests disrupted sleep impairs consolidation of extinction, though no studies have examined this experimentally using total sleep deprivation. METHODS: Seventy-one healthy controls underwent a paradigm to acquire conditioned fear to a visual cue...
March 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756199/consciousness-and-working-memory-current-trends-and-research-perspectives
#18
REVIEW
Boris B Velichkovsky
Working memory has long been thought to be closely related to consciousness. However, recent empirical studies show that unconscious content may be maintained within working memory and that complex cognitive computations may be performed on-line. This promotes research on the exact relationships between consciousness and working memory. Current evidence for working memory being a conscious as well as an unconscious process is reviewed. Consciousness is shown to be considered a subset of working memory by major current theories of working memory...
July 27, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755012/perceptual-similarity-induces-overinvestment-in-an-attentional-blink-task
#19
Ellen MacLellan, David I Shore, Bruce Milliken
The overinvestment account of the attentional blink (AB) posits that the AB results from the allocation of more resources than necessary to encode a first target (T1), which in turn lowers the resources available to encode a second target (T2) shortly thereafter. Across two experiments, we examined whether resource allocation to T1, and thus overinvestment that results in an AB effect, might be limited by perceptual mechanisms that evaluate the need for encoding resources. The key result observed in both experiments was that a relatively easy to encode T1 can nonetheless result in an AB when it is perceptually similar to a more difficult to encode T1...
July 28, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754276/physiological-correlates-of-emotional-reactivity-and-regulation-in-early-adolescents
#20
Melissa D Latham, Nina Cook, Julian G Simmons, Michelle L Byrne, Jonathan W L Kettle, Orli Schwartz, Nandita Vijayakumar, Sarah Whittle, Nicholas B Allen
Few studies have examined physiological correlates of emotional reactivity and regulation in adolescents, despite the occurrence in this group of significant developmental changes in emotional functioning. The current study employed multiple physiological measures (i.e., startle-elicited eyeblink and ERP, skin conductance, facial EMG) to assess the emotional reactivity and regulation of 113 early adolescents in response to valenced images. Reactivity was measured while participants viewed images, and regulation was measured when they were asked to discontinue or maintain their emotional reactions to the images...
July 25, 2017: Biological Psychology
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