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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908561/beyond-eye-gaze-what-else-can-eyetracking-reveal-about-cognition-and-cognitive-development
#1
REVIEW
Maria K Eckstein, Belén Guerra-Carrillo, Alison T Miller Singley, Silvia A Bunge
This review provides an introduction to two eyetracking measures that can be used to study cognitive development and plasticity: pupil dilation and spontaneous blink rate. We begin by outlining the rich history of gaze analysis, which can reveal the current focus of attention as well as cognitive strategies. We then turn to the two lesser-utilized ocular measures. Pupil dilation is modulated by the brain's locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system, which controls physiological arousal and attention, and has been used as a measure of subjective task difficulty, mental effort, and neural gain...
November 11, 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903814/blink-associated-contralateral-eccentric-saccades-as-a-rare-sign-of-unilateral-brain-injury
#2
Ilaria Zivi, Eugenio Bertelli, Giacinta Bilotti, Ignazio Alessandro Clemente, Leopold Saltuari, Giuseppe Frazzitta
OBJECTIVE: To describe a rare sign of unilateral brain injury as a form of unwanted blink-associated contralateral eccentric saccades. METHODS: A 62-year-old patient who underwent an ischemic stroke affecting the entire right middle cerebral artery territory came to our attention 1 year after stroke, manifesting with transient contralateral conjugate gaze deviations associated with spontaneous blinking. We complemented the regular neurologic evaluation with brain MRI, study of evoked potentials, electroneurography of the facial nerve, and infrared video-oculoscopy...
November 30, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902828/spontaneous-eyeblinks-during-breaking-continuous-flash-suppression-are-associated-with-increased-detection-times
#3
Filip Van Opstal, Esther De Loof, Tom Verguts, Axel Cleeremans
An eyeblink has a clear effect on low-level information processing because it temporarily occludes all visual information. Recent evidence suggests that eyeblinks can also modulate higher level processes (e.g., attentional resources), and vice versa. Despite these putative effects on different levels of information processing, eyeblinks are typically neglected in vision and in consciousness research. The main aim of this study was to investigate the timing and the effect of eyeblinks in an increasingly popular paradigm in consciousness research, namely breaking continuous flash suppression (b-CFS)...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898984/transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-signaling-cascade-induced-by-mechanical-stimulation-of-fluid-shear-stress-in-cultured-corneal-epithelial-cells
#4
Tsugiaki Utsunomiya, Akihiro Ishibazawa, Taiji Nagaoka, Kazuomi Hanada, Harumasa Yokota, Nobuhito Ishii, Akitoshi Yoshida
Purpose: Because blinking is regarded as mechanical stimulation of fluid shear stress on the corneal epithelial cells, we investigated the effects of fluid shear stress on cultured human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs). Methods: The HCECs were exposed to shear stress (0, 1.2, 12 dyne/cm2) with the parallel-plate type of flow chamber. Wound healing, cellular proliferation, growth factor expression, TGF-β1 concentration in the culture supernatant, and phosphorylation of SMAD2 were investigated...
November 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893622/image-quality-and-artifacts-on-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-comparison-of-pathologic-and-paired-fellow-eyes-in-65-patients-with-unilateral-choroidal-melanoma-treated-with-plaque-radiotherapy
#5
Emil A T Say, Sandor Ferenczy, George N Magrath, Wasim A Samara, Chloe T L Khoo, Carol L Shields
PURPOSE: To study image quality and artifacts seen on optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). METHODS: Sixty-five consecutive patients with unilateral posterior uveal melanoma treated with plaque radiotherapy had OCTA during follow-up. Optical coherence tomography angiography was performed on both the affected and fellow eye. Signal strength and frequency of image artifacts on en face images were compared between affected and fellow eyes. RESULTS: A total of 130 eyes in 65 patients were analyzed, the mean age at time of OCTA was 55 years (median: 56, range: 12-81 years), and 39 (39/65, 60%) were female...
November 23, 2016: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875773/bereitschaftspotential-preceding-spontaneous-and-voluntary-eyelid-blinks-in-normal-individuals
#6
Isabella Araujo Mota, Otávio Gomes Lins
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the Bereitschaftspotential (BP) preceding spontaneous and voluntary eyelid blinks in normal subjects. METHODS: Eighteen healthy individuals (10 female) between 17 and 60years (mean 35) were studied. The EEG was recorded from 11 scalp positions of the 10-20 international electrode placement system referenced to linked mastoids. The vertical electrooculogram (VEOG) was recorded from two electrodes positioned above and below the right eye...
October 28, 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853352/tear-lipid-layer-thickness-with-eye-drops-in-meibomian-gland-dysfunction
#7
Jennifer S Fogt, Matthew J Kowalski, P Ewen King-Smith, Alice T Epitropolous, Andrew J Hendershot, Carrie Lembach, John Paul Maszczak, Lisa A Jones-Jordan, Joseph T Barr
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a lipid containing emollient eye drop, Soothe XP, which was reformulated in 2014 with a more stable preservative and buffer system, compared to a control, non-emollient, eye drop (Systane Ultra) in improving lipid layer thickness (LLT) in subjects with dry eye due to meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This prospective single-center, open-label, cross-over, examiner masked-study enrolled subjects aged 30-75 years with lipid-deficient dry eye and a clinical diagnosis of MGD as determined by a slit lamp examination, an evaluation of meibomian gland drop out with meibography, and a standard patient evaluation of eye dryness questionnaire of >5...
2016: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848992/unconscious-processing-of-facial-attractiveness-invisible-attractive-faces-orient-visual-attention
#8
Shao-Min Hung, Chih-Hsuan Nieh, Po-Jang Hsieh
Past research has proven human's extraordinary ability to extract information from a face in the blink of an eye, including its emotion, gaze direction, and attractiveness. However, it remains elusive whether facial attractiveness can be processed and influences our behaviors in the complete absence of conscious awareness. Here we demonstrate unconscious processing of facial attractiveness with three distinct approaches. In Experiment 1, the time taken for faces to break interocular suppression was measured...
November 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843434/peters-anomaly-in-twins-a-case-report-of-a-rare-incident-with-novel-comorbidities
#9
Hashem S Almarzouki, Alaa A Tayyib, Hassan A Khayat, Raed E Alsulami, Saeed M Alzahrani, Abdulaziz S Alkahtani, Loai S Alghifees
INTRODUCTION: Peters anomaly is a rare developmental malformation involving the anterior segment of the eye, which culminates in amblyopia or congenital blindness. Multiple ocular and/or systemic malformations have been observed with this anomaly, and novel comorbidities continue to be reported. CASE PRESENTATION: The probands were monozygotic twin boys (twin I and twin II) born to consanguineous parents at 36 weeks of gestation. Coarse facial features and deep-seated eyes were noted at birth...
September 2016: Case Reports in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828025/statistical-precision-in-super-resolution-optical-fluctuation-imaging
#10
Xuehua Wang, Danni Chen, Bin Yu, Hanben Niu
The super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI) technique enhances image spatial resolution by calculating the spatiotemporal cross-cumulants of independent stochastic intensity fluctuations of emitters. Ideally, SOFI eliminates any noise that is not correlated over time, but in practice, due to limited data lengths, the statistical uncertainty of cumulants will affect the continuities and homogeneities of SOFI images. Since the variance and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) characterize cumulant statistical uncertainty, we determined theoretical expressions for these based on a single dataset...
October 1, 2016: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824192/a-fret-based-dual-emission-nanoprobe-freden-with-improved-blinking-behavior-for-single-molecule-localization-imaging
#11
Shenfei Zong, Xiaoyue Jiang, Zhuyuan Wang, Chen Chen, Ju Lu, Le Wang, Dan Zhu, Yiping Cui
Single molecule localization based super resolution imaging techniques (e.g. PALM/STORM) require that the employed optical nanoprobes possess signal fluctuations under certain excitations. Here, we present a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) based dual emission nanoprobe (denoted as FREDEN), which is suitable for PALM/STORM imaging. Basically, FREDEN is constructed by attaching Alexa Fluor 647 (A647) molecules onto semiconductor quantum dots (QDs). Dual emission is realized via FRET from QDs to A647...
December 7, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815976/deficient-median-nerve-prepulse-inhibition-of-the-blink-reflex-in-cervical-dystonia
#12
Oya Öztürk, Ayşegül Gündüz, Meral E Kızıltan
OBJECTIVE: We analyzed prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the blink reflex (BR) in patients with cervical dystonia (CD) to examine the sensory modulation of the motor system. METHODS: This study enrolled 22 consecutive patients with idiopathic CD and 25 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects. Prepulse inhibition of the BR was recorded after stimulating the median nerve at the wrist using an electrical stimulus twice at a perception threshold 100ms before a test stimulus to the supraorbital nerve...
December 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815865/video-based-data-acquisition-system-for-use-in-eye-blink-classical-conditioning-procedures-in-sheep
#13
Kelsey Nation, Adam Birge, Emily Lunde, Timothy Cudd, Charles Goodlett, Shannon Washburn
Pavlovian eye blink conditioning (EBC) has been extensively studied in humans and laboratory animals, providing one of the best-understood models of learning in neuroscience. EBC has been especially useful in translational studies of cerebellar and hippocampal function. We recently reported a novel extension of EBC procedures for use in sheep, and now describe new advances in a digital video-based system. The system delivers paired presentations of conditioned stimuli (CSs; a tone) and unconditioned stimuli (USs; an air puff to the eye), or CS-alone "unpaired" trials...
November 4, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811313/endoscopic-resection-of-high-risk-t1-colorectal-carcinoma-prior-to-surgical-resection-has-no-adverse-effect-on-long-term-outcomes
#14
A Overwater, K Kessels, S G Elias, Y Backes, B W M Spanier, T C J Seerden, H J M Pullens, W H de Vos Tot Nederveen Cappel, A van den Blink, G J A Offerhaus, J van Bergeijk, M Kerkhof, J M J Geesing, J N Groen, N van Lelyveld, F Ter Borg, F Wolfhagen, P D Siersema, M M Lacle, L M G Moons
OBJECTIVE: It is difficult to predict the presence of histological risk factors for lymph node metastasis (LNM) before endoscopic treatment of T1 colorectal cancer (CRC). Therefore, endoscopic therapy is propagated to obtain adequate histological staging. We examined whether secondary surgery following endoscopic resection of high-risk T1 CRC does not have a negative effect on patients' outcomes compared with primary surgery. DESIGN: Patients with T1 CRC with one or more histological risk factors for LNM (high risk) and treated with primary or secondary surgery between 2000 and 2014 in 13 hospitals were identified in the Netherlands Cancer Registry...
November 3, 2016: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798890/fluorescence-imaging-of-actin-fine-structure-in-tumor-tissues-using-sir-actin-staining
#15
Natalia V Klementieva, Ludmila B Snopova, Natalia N Prodanets, Olga E Furman, Varvara V Dudenkova, Elena V Zagaynova, Konstantin A Lukyanov, Alexander S Mishin
BACKGROUND: The rearrangement of actin cytoskeleton is being increasingly considered a marker of cancer cell activity, but the fine structure and remodeling of microfilaments within tumor tissue still remains unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used the recently introduced silicon-rhodamine (SiR)-actin dye to visualize endogenous actin within tissues by confocal or total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. We established imaging conditions for robust blinking of SiR-actin, which makes this dye applicable for super-resolution localization microscopy, as well as for an efficient background elimination...
October 2016: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789385/nocebo-hyperalgesia-and-the-startle-response
#16
Per M Aslaksen, Ole Åsli, Morten Øvervoll, Espen Bjørkedal
BACKGROUND: The literature on the effects of nocebo on pain is sparse. The present experimental study investigated whether suggestions of nocebo hyperalgesia modified the startle response and whether increased startle contributed to the nocebo hyperalgesic effect. METHODS: A design with four groups was employed; the participants were randomized into either a placebo group, a natural history group, or into two nocebo groups. The participants in the placebo and nocebo groups received suggestions of pain decrease or pain increase, together with a placebo or nocebo cream applied to the lower arm, respectively...
December 17, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788128/reduction-hybrid-artifacts-of-emg-eog-in-electroencephalography-evoked-by-prefrontal-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation
#17
Yang Bai, Xiaohong Wan, Ke Zeng, Yinmei Ni, Lirong Qiu, Xiaoli Li
OBJECTIVE: When prefrontal-transcranial magnetic stimulation (p-TMS) performed, it may evoke hybrid artifact mixed with muscle activity and blink activity in EEG recordings. Reducing this kind of hybrid artifact challenges the traditional preprocessing methods. We aim to explore method for the p-TMS evoked hybrid artifact removal. APPROACH: We propose a novel method used as independent component analysis (ICA) post processing to reduce the p-TMS evoked hybrid artifact...
December 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784474/-clinical-features-and-gene-mutations-in-epilepsy-of-infancy-with-migrating-focal-seizures
#18
K W Shang, Y H Zhang, X L Yang, A J Liu, Z X Yang, X Y Liu, Y W Jiang, X R Wu
Objective: To summarize the clinical features and gene mutations of epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures (EIMFS). Method: Clinical features and electroencephalograms(EEG)of 9 patients with EIMFS of Peking University First Hospital from May 2015 to January 2016 were analyzed. Candidate gene mutations were screened by next generation sequencing. Result: Among the 9 patients, 3 were males and 6 were females. Two patients had family history. Seizure onset age was 2 days to 3 months after birth (median age 35 days)...
October 2, 2016: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781964/-tinnitus-in-patients-with-hemifacial-spasm-a-treatable-combination
#19
C V M Verhagen, J Meulstee, H D Boogaarts, W I M Verhagen
BACKGROUND: About 5-15% of people in the Western world will suffer from an extended period of tinnitus during their lifetime. This is often a non-treatable, disabling disorder. Tinnitus can be classified as pulsatile or non-pulsatile. Pulsatile tinnitus can be caused by a treatable neurovascular compression. CASE DESCRIPTION: Here we describe two patients, a 68-year old woman and 40-year old man suffering from pulsatile tinnitus and hemifacial spams due to neurovascular compression of the facial and acoustic nerve in the anterior cranial fossa...
2016: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771197/deficient-prepulse-inhibition-of-blink-reflex-in-migraine-and-its-relation-to-allodynia
#20
Ugur Uygunoglu, Aysegul Gunduz, Harika Devrimsel Ertem, Derya Uluduz, Sabahattin Saip, Baki Goksan, Aksel Siva, Nurten Uzun, Feray Karaali-Savrun, Meral Kızıltan
OBJECTIVE: Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the blink reflex (BR) is a reduction in BR excitability due to a conditioning stimulus, reflecting sensory gating by brainstem structures. We aimed to analyze PPI changes during a painful episode in chronic or episodic migraine and its relation to allodynia, since abnormal brainstem filtering has been hypothesized in migraine pathophysiology. METHODS: We included 20 patients with migraine during headache episode, and age- and gender-matched 22 healthy subjects...
October 19, 2016: Neurophysiologie Clinique, Clinical Neurophysiology
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