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Amit Acharyya, Pranit N Jadhav, Valentina Bono, Koushik Maharatna, Ganesh R Naik
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: EEG is a non-invasive tool for neuro-developmental disorder diagnosis and treatment. However, EEG signal is mixed with other biological signals including Ocular and Muscular artifacts making it difficult to extract the diagnostic features. Therefore, the contaminated EEG channels are often discarded by the medical practitioners which may result in less accurate diagnosis. Many existing methods require reference electrodes, which will create discomfort to the patient/children and cause hindrance to the diagnosis of the neuro-developmental disorder and Brain Computer Interface in the pervasive environment...
May 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Yiwei Chen, Young-Joo Hong, Shuichi Makita, Yoshiaki Yasuno
To correct eye motion artifacts in en face optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) images, a Lissajous scanning method with subsequent software-based motion correction is proposed. The standard Lissajous scanning pattern is modified to be compatible with OCT-A and a corresponding motion correction algorithm is designed. The effectiveness of our method was demonstrated by comparing en face OCT-A images with and without motion correction. The method was further validated by comparing motion-corrected images with scanning laser ophthalmoscopy images, and the repeatability of the method was evaluated using a checkerboard image...
March 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Sean J Farley, Heba Albazboz, Benjamin J De Corte, Jason J Radley, John H Freeman
Previous studies found that reversible inactivation of the central amygdala (CeA) severely impairs acquisition and retention of cerebellum-dependent eye-blink conditioning (EBC) with an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS). A monosynaptic pathway between the CeA and basilar pontine nuclei (BPN) may be capable of facilitating cerebellar learning. However, given that the CeA projects to the medial auditory thalamus, a critical part of the auditory CS pathway in EBC, the CeA influence on cerebellar learning could be specific to auditory stimuli...
March 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Yi-Hui Chen, Robert Sung, Kuangsen Sung
The para-sulfonamide analogue ( p-TsABDI) of a green fluorescent protein (GFP) chromophore was synthesized to mimic the GFP chromophore. Its S1 excited-state p Ka * value in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) is -1.5, which is strong enough to partially protonate dipolar aprotic solvents and causes excited-state proton transfer (ESPT), so it can partially mimic the GFP chromophore to further study the ESPT-related photophysics and the blinking phenomenon of GFP. In comparison with 8-hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonate (HPTS) (p Ka = 7...
March 12, 2018: Organic Letters
J R Si, Y L Zhang
Objective: To investigate the static and dynamic features of the normal lacrimal sac (LS)-nasolacrimal duct (NLD), and find out if tear flows while the subject is in supine position with eyes closed. Methods: Cross-sectional study. Healthy volunteers and patients whose head were examined by MRI in Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine with normal LS-NLD were recruited. The normal lacrimal ducts of the candidates were scanned, while candidates remained in supine position, by static or dynamic imaging procedures with a 1...
March 11, 2018: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
Guillaume Sescousse, Romain Ligneul, Ruth J van Holst, Lieneke K Janssen, Femke de Boer, Marcel Janssen, Anne S Berry, William J Jagust, Roshan Cools
Dopamine is central to a number of cognitive functions and brain disorders. Given the cost of neurochemical imaging in humans, behavioral proxy measures of dopamine have gained in popularity in the past decade, such as spontaneous eye blink rate (sEBR). Increased sEBR is commonly associated with increased dopamine function based on pharmacological evidence and patient studies. Yet, this hypothesis has not been validated using in vivo measures of dopamine function in humans. In order to fill this gap, we measured sEBR and striatal dopamine synthesis capacity using [18 F]DOPA PET in 20 participants (9 healthy individuals and 11 pathological gamblers)...
March 7, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Maryam Kabiri, Syed H Kamal, Sandip V Pawar, Protiva R Roy, Maziar Derakhshandeh, Ujendra Kumar, Savvas G Hatzikiriakos, Sazzad Hossain, Vikramaditya G Yadav
Most medications targeting optic neuropathies are administered as eye drops. However, their corneal penetration efficiencies are typically < 5%. There is a clear, unmet need for novel transcorneal drug delivery vehicles. To this end, we have developed a stimulus-responsive, in situ-forming, nanoparticle-laden hydrogel for controlled release of poorly bioavailable drugs into the aqueous humor of the eye. The hydrogel is formulated as a composite of hyaluronic acid (HA) and methylcellulose (MC). The amphiphilic nanoparticles are composed of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA)...
March 5, 2018: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
Roger A Sunde, Edward T Zemaitis, Andrew B Blink, Julia A Lawinger
Glutathione peroxidase (Gpx1) is the major selenoprotein in most tissues in animals. Knockout (KO) of Gpx1 decreases Gpx1 activity to near zero and substantially reduces liver selenium (Se) levels, but has no overt effects in otherwise healthy mice. To investigate the impact of deletion of Gpx1 on Se metabolism, Se flux, and apparent Se requirements, KO, Gpx1 heterozygous (Het), and Gpx1 wild-type (WT) mice were fed Se-deficient diet for 17 weeks, then repleted with graded levels of Se (0-0.3 μg Se/g as Na2 SeO3 ) for 7 days, and selenoprotein activities and transcripts were determined in blood, liver, and kidney...
March 3, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Zachary Yaple, Roman Vakhrushev
Performance in the attentional blink task has been demonstrated to be directly influenced by alpha and beta neural oscillatory activity. In two experiments we stimulated the right parietal cortex and left frontal cortex with transcranial alternating current stimulation. For the first experiment we targeted only the right parietal cortex and found a non-significant increase in performance from 20 Hz stimulation. In the second experiment we applied two stimulators to the right parietal and left frontal cortex and found a significant increase in performance from 20 Hz tACS with a phase difference of 180°...
February 27, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Eman M Khedr, Noha Abo El-Fetoh, Dina H El-Hammady, Abeer M Ghandour, Khaled Osama, Ahmed F Zaki, Ayman Gamea
OBJECTIVE: Recovery from acute Bell's palsy (BP) is variable and there are few predictors of response. We evaluated the usefulness of a range of neurophysiological parameters to predict outcome in BP. METHODS: Fifty-nine patients (age: 33.7±15.4 years) with acute unilateral BP were recruited within 3-7 days of onset. They were evaluated with electroneurography, facial nerve excitability, and the blink reflex. House-Brackmann (HB) clinical scores were obtained at the same time and three months later...
February 26, 2018: Neurophysiologie Clinique, Clinical Neurophysiology
Brandon T Saxton, Samantha K Myhre, Tharaki Siyaguna, Paul D Rokke
Previous research has shown that emotions differentially influence attention across time, especially when the valence of the attended stimuli is congruent with the emotion of observer. Sadness produces a larger attentional blink while fear and happiness produce smaller attentional blinks. We report on four dual-task rapid serial visual presentation experiments in which participant emotion and the affective features of the first target (T1) were systematically varied to determine whether arousal and valence have unique and consistent influences on attention performance...
February 28, 2018: Psychological Research
Maartje J Schreuder, Thomas Meyer, Alana C Krix
This study was inspired by the case of a robbery victim who was startled and reminded of the crime upon hearing a stranger's voice, while not clearly recognizing the speaker. To investigate whether specific voices can modulate startle reactions and thereby predict speaker identification, we presented an audio hijack scenario to 84 participants and afterwards asked them to identify the perpetrator among neutral and negative speech fragments, while measuring flash-evoked eye-blink startle responses. Furthermore, we addressed data-driven cognitive processing during the audio scenario as a potential moderator in voice discrimination...
February 24, 2018: Biological Psychology
Dubravka Biuk, Maja Vinković, Suzana Matić, Mario Bradvica, Egon Biuk, Tvrtka Benašić
The aim of the study was to evaluate diagnostic tests for keratoconjunctivitis sicca (Schirmer test, tear break-up time (TBUT) test, and corneal staining with fluorescein and lissamine green dye) in patients with blepharospasm. This prospective study included 60 female patients older than 40 with blepharospasm, divided into two groups according to clinical symptoms. For fluorescein test, the surface under the ROC curve was 1.0 with standard error (SE) 0 and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.940-1.0; for Schirmer test, the surface under the ROC curve was 0...
September 2017: Acta Clinica Croatica
V Orsi Gordo, M A G Balanta, Y Galvão Gobato, F S Covre, H V A Galeti, F Iikawa, O D D Couto, F Qu, M Henini, D W Hewak, C C Huang
Monolayers of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD) are promising materials for optoelectronics devices. However, one of the challenges is to fabricate large-scale growth of high quality TMD monolayers with the desired properties in order to expand their use in potential applications. Here, we demonstrate large-scale tungsten disulfide (WS2 ) monolayers grown by van der Waals Epitaxy (VdWE). We show that, in addition to the large structural uniformity and homogeneity of these samples, their optical properties are very sensitive to laser irradiation...
February 22, 2018: Nanoscale
Antonino Naro, Antonino Chillura, Simona Portaro, Alessia Bramanti, Rosaria De Luca, Placido Bramanti, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
The assessment of behavioral responsiveness in patients suffering from chronic disorders of consciousness (DoC), including Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome (UWS) and Minimally Conscious State (MCS), is challenging. Even if a patient is unresponsive, he/she may be covertly aware in reason of a cognitive-motor dissociation, i.e., a preservation of cognitive functions despite a solely reflexive behavioral responsiveness. The approach of an external stimulus to the peripersonal space (PPS) modifies some biological measures (e...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Caroline E Broos, Laura L Koth, Menno van Nimwegen, Johannes C C M In't Veen, Sandra M J Paulissen, Jan Piet van Hamburg, Jouke T Annema, Roxane Heller-Baan, Alex Kleinjan, Henk C Hoogsteden, Marlies S Wijsenbeek, Rudi W Hendriks, Bernt van den Blink, Mirjam Kool
Objective: The lung-draining mediastinal lymph nodes (MLN) are currently widely used to diagnose sarcoidosis. We previously reported that T helper 17.1 (Th17.1) cells are responsible for the exaggerated IFN-γ production in sarcoidosis lungs. In this study, we aimed to investigate (i) whether Th17.1 cells are also increased in the MLN of sarcoidosis patients, and (ii) whether frequencies of the Th17.1 cells at diagnosis may correlate with disease progression. Methods: MLN cells from treatment-naive pulmonary sarcoidosis patients (n=17) and healthy controls (n=22) and peripheral blood (PB) mononuclear cells (n=34) and broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) (n=36) from sarcoidosis patients were examined for CD4 + T cell subset proportions, using flow cytometry...
February 15, 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
S Kasahara, Y Miyoshi, S Yokota, T Mitani, Y Kasahara, S Matsuda, A Kumamoto, A Matsuoka, Y Kazama, H U Frey, V Angelopoulos, S Kurita, K Keika, K Seki, I Shinohara
Auroral substorms, dynamic phenomena that occur in the upper atmosphere at night, are caused by global reconfiguration of the magnetosphere, which releases stored solar wind energy. These storms are characterized by auroral brightening from dusk to midnight, followed by violent motions of distinct auroral arcs that suddenly break up, and the subsequent emergence of diffuse, pulsating auroral patches at dawn. Pulsating aurorae, which are quasiperiodic, blinking patches of light tens to hundreds of kilometres across, appear at altitudes of about 100 kilometres in the high-latitude regions of both hemispheres, and multiple patches often cover the entire sky...
February 14, 2018: Nature
David Hoppe, Stefan Helfmann, Constantin A Rothkopf
Eye blinking is one of the most frequent human actions. The control of blinking is thought to reflect complex interactions between maintaining clear and healthy vision and influences tied to central dopaminergic functions including cognitive states, psychological factors, and medical conditions. The most imminent consequence of blinking is a temporary loss of vision. Minimizing this loss of information is a prominent explanation for changes in blink rates and temporarily suppressed blinks, but quantifying this loss is difficult, as environmental regularities are usually complex and unknown...
February 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jessica R Kuntz, Jenni M Karl, Jon B Doan, Ian Q Whishaw
Reach-to-grasp movements feature the integration of a reach directed by the extrinsic (location) features of a target and a grasp directed by the intrinsic (size, shape) features of a target. The action-perception theory suggests that integration and scaling of a reach-to-grasp movement, including its trajectory and the concurrent digit shaping, are features that depend upon online action pathways of the dorsal visuomotor stream. Scaling is much less accurate for a pantomime reach-to-grasp movement, a pretend reach with the target object absent...
February 13, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Takashi Sugiyama, Hitoshi Mochizuki, Yoshine Hara, Miyuki Miyamoto, Yuki Nakazato, Akitoshi Taniguchi, Nobuyuki Ishii, Kazutaka Shiomi, Masamitsu Nakazato
PURPOSE: Lateral trunk flexion is often observed in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) and causes poor quality of life. Asymmetrical function of the basal ganglia is believed to be the main cause of lateral trunk flexion, and dysfunction of the basal ganglia facilitates the blink reflex by disinhibiting the spinal trigeminal nucleus. Our aim was to investigate whether a disinhibited blink reflex recovery curve (BRrc) was associated with lateral trunk flexion in PD patients. METHODS: We enrolled 21 PD patients, including 11 with marked lateral trunk flexion (F-PD) and 10 with normal posture (N-PD), and 10 normal controls...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
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