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André Schulz, Thomas M Schilling, Claus Vögele, Mauro F Larra, Hartmut Schächinger
Current approaches to assess interoception of respiratory functions cannot differentiate between the physiological basis of interoception, i.e. visceral-afferent signal processing, and the psychological process of attention focusing. Furthermore, they typically involve invasive procedures, e.g. induction of respiratory occlusions or the inhalation of CO2-enriched air. The aim of this study was to test the capacity of startle methodology to reflect respiratory-related afferent signal processing, independent of invasive procedures...
November 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Yuri Martins Costa, Lene Baad-Hansen, Leonardo Rigoldi Bonjardim, Paulo César Rodrigues Conti, Peter Svensson
OBJECTIVE: The nociceptive blink reflex (nBR) can be useful to investigate trigeminal nociceptive function. The aim of this study was to estimate the reliability of the nBR evoked by electrical stimulation of the three branches of the trigeminal nerve under the following conditions: over time (test-retest and intrarater reliability) and by two examiners (interrater reliability). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-one healthy participants were evaluated in two sessions (24 h apart)...
January 10, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
Panagiotis Zis, Dasappaiah Ganesh Rao, Bart E Wagner, Lucinda Nicholson-Goult, Nigel Hoggard, Marios Hadjivassiliou
BACKGROUND: Cerebellar ataxia with sensory ganglionopathy is a rare neurological combination that can occur in some hereditary ataxias including mitochondrial diseases and in gluten sensitivity. Individually each condition can be a classic paraneoplastic neurological syndrome. We report a patient with this combination who was diagnosed with light-chain myeloma ten years after initial presentation. CASE PRESENTATION: A 65-year-old Caucasian lady was referred to our Ataxia Clinic because of a 6-year history of progressive unsteadiness and a 2-year history of slurred speech...
2017: Cerebellum & Ataxias
Alexander M Rowe, Hongmin Yun, Robert L Hendricks
Purpose: Most of the inflammation in murine herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)-induced stromal keratitis (HSK) is due to exposure stress resulting from loss of corneal nerves and blink reflex. Corneal grafts often fail when placed on corneal beds with a history of HSK. We asked if corneal exposure contributes to the severe pathology of corneal grafts on HSV-1-infected corneal beds. Methods: Herpes simplex virus type 1-infected corneas were tested for blink reflex...
January 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Natalia V Klementieva, Anton I Pavlikov, Alexander A Moiseev, Nina G Bozhanova, Natalie M Mishina, Sergey A Lukyanov, Elena V Zagaynova, Konstantin A Lukyanov, Alexander S Mishin
Single-molecule localization microscopy relies on either controllable photoswitching of fluorescent probes or their robust blinking. We have found that blinking of monomeric red fluorescent proteins TagRFP, TagRFP-T, and FusionRed occurs at moderate illumination power and matches well with camera acquisition speed. It allows for super-resolution image reconstruction of densely labelled structures in live cells using various algorithms.
January 3, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Natalie Russo, Wendy R Kates, Nicole Shea, Megan LeBlanc, Bradley Wyble
The attentional blink (AB) is thought to help the visual system parse and categorize rapidly changing information by segmenting it into temporal chunks, and is elicited using Rapid Serial Visual Presentation. It is reflected in a decrease in accuracy at detecting the second of two targets presented within 200-500 ms of the first, and its development appears to be protracted on tasks that require set-shifting. Here, younger (M = 8.5 years) and older (M = 12.8 years) children and adults (M = 19.13 years) completed a simple AB task with no set-shift requirement in which participants detected two letters in a stream of numbers presented at a rate of 135 ms/item...
December 29, 2016: Developmental Science
Alberto López-de la Rosa, Vicente Martín-Montañez, Alberto López-Miguel, Itziar Fernández, Margarita Calonge, José M González-Méijome, María J González-García
PURPOSE: To assess the influence of different indoor environments simulated in an environmental chamber on soft contact lens (CL) wearers. METHODS: Fifty-four CL wearers were grouped based on their symptoms while wearing their CLs. Subjects were fitted with two different CL types, conventional hydrogel (Omafilcon A) and silicone hydrogel (comfilcon A), and exposed to two controlled indoor environmental conditions, standard [50% relative humidity (RH), 23°C, 930 mb of atmospheric pressure] and adverse (in-flight air cabin environment: 5% RH, localised air flow, 23°C, 750 mb atmospheric pressure), for 90 min in an environmental chamber, making a total of four visits...
January 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
Yifei Jiang, Jason McNeill
Conjugated polymer nanoparticles are a class of nanoparticles with many useful and interesting properties, including very high fluorescence brightness, excellent photostability, and sensing capabilities. They also exhibit interesting and potentially useful phenomena, such as highly efficient energy transfer, anomalous single particle blinking, and twinkling phenomena associated with polaron motion. As little as one dye molecule per nanoparticle can efficiently quench the fluorescence of hundreds of polymer chromophore units...
December 28, 2016: Chemical Reviews
Joshua T Maxwell, Lothar A Blatter
In atrial myocytes Ca release during excitation-contraction coupling (ECC) is strikingly different from ventricular myocytes. In many species atrial myocytes lack a transverse tubule system, dividing the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca store into the peripheral subsarcolemmnal junctional (j-SR) and the much more abundant central non-junctional (nj-SR) SR. Action potential (AP)-induced Ca entry activates Ca-induced Ca release (CICR) from j-SR ryanodine receptor (RyR) Ca release channels. Peripheral elevation of [Ca]i initiates CICR from nj-SR and sustains propagation of CICR to the cell centre...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Pierre-Louis Destruel, Ni Zeng, Marc Maury, Nathalie Mignet, Vincent Boudy
In situ gelling delivery systems for the ocular administration of drugs has been a major focus of research over the past two decades, improving the treatment of diseases of the anterior segment of the eye by simple, safe, and reproducible drug administration. This drug delivery strategy results in high ocular bioavailability by avoiding rapid precorneal clearance resulting from nasolacrimal drainage and eye blinking. However, the development of such unconventional forms requires many parameters to be mastered, such as gelation time, viscoelastic behavior, mucoadhesion, and sustained release...
December 23, 2016: Drug Discovery Today
Matthew Patterson, Hans J Vogel, Elmar J Prenner
The tear film lipid layer is formed on the anterior surface of the eye, functioning as a barrier to excess evaporation and foreign particles, while also providing stability to the tear film. The lipid layer is organized into a polar lipid layer consisting of phospholipids, ceramides, and free fatty acids that act as a surfactant to a non-polar multilayer of wax and cholesterol esters. Due to shear forces from eye movement and the compression and expansion of blinking, the tear lipids are under constant stress...
December 16, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
E Antelmi, F Di Stasio, L Rocchi, R Erro, R Liguori, C Ganos, F Brugger, J Teo, A Berardelli, J Rothwell, K P Bhatia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 15, 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Heleen A Slagter, Ali Mazaheri, Leon C Reteig, Ruud Smolders, Martijn Figee, Mariska Mantione, P Richard Schuurman, Damiaan Denys
: The brain is limited in its capacity to consciously process information, necessitating gating of information. While conscious perception is robustly associated with sustained, recurrent interactions between widespread cortical regions, subcortical regions, including the striatum, influence cortical activity. Here, we examined if the ventral striatum, given its ability to modulate cortical information flow, contributes to conscious perception. Using intracranial EEG, we recorded ventral striatum activity while 7 patients performed an attentional blink task in which they had to detect two targets (T1 and T2) in a stream of distractors...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Ilya Sychugov, Jan Valenta, Jan Linnros
Silicon nanocrystals represent an important class of non-toxic, heavy-metal free quantum dots, where the high natural abundance of silicon is an additional advantage. Successful development in mass-fabrication, starting from porous silicon to recent advances in chemical and plasma synthesis, opens up new possibilities for applications in optoelectronics, bio-imaging, photovoltaics, and sensitizing areas. In this review basic physical properties of silicon nanocrystals revealed by photoluminescence spectroscopy, lifetime, intensity trace and electrical measurements on individual nanoparticles are summarized...
December 16, 2016: Nanotechnology
Weigao Xu, Weiwei Liu, Jan F Schmidt, Weijie Zhao, Xin Lu, Timo Raab, Carole Diederichs, Weibo Gao, Denis V Seletskiy, Qihua Xiong
'Blinking', or 'fluorescence intermittency', refers to a random switching between 'ON' (bright) and 'OFF' (dark) states of an emitter; it has been studied widely in zero-dimensional quantum dots and molecules, and scarcely in one-dimensional systems. A generally accepted mechanism for blinking in quantum dots involves random switching between neutral and charged states (or is accompanied by fluctuations in charge-carrier traps), which substantially alters the dynamics of radiative and non-radiative decay. Here, we uncover a new type of blinking effect in vertically stacked, two-dimensional semiconductor heterostructures, which consist of two distinct monolayers of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) that are weakly coupled by van der Waals forces...
December 14, 2016: Nature
Renyang Meng, Haiyan Qin, Yuan Niu, Wei Fang, Sen Yang, Xing Lin, Hujia Cao, Junliang Ma, Wanzhen Lin, Limin Tong, Xiaogang Peng
Understanding photoluminescence (PL) intermittency of single quantum dots (QDs) (intensity blinking by randomly switching between distinguishable brightness states under continuous excitation) has been a long-standing fundamental challenge and potential roadblock for their applications. Here we introduce a new analysis method for single-molecule spectroscopy that treats the blinking as photochemical/chemical processes (switching between neutral/bright and charged/dim states). It uncovers the channels for charging (bright to dim) and discharging (dim to bright) involved in PL blinking of single CdSe/CdS core/shell QDs...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
N Leibovich, A Dechant, E Lutz, E Barkai
The power spectrum of a stationary process may be calculated in terms of the autocorrelation function using the Wiener-Khinchin theorem. We here generalize the Wiener-Khinchin theorem for nonstationary processes and introduce a time-dependent power spectrum 〈S_{t_{m}}(ω)〉 where t_{m} is the measurement time. For processes with an aging autocorrelation function of the form 〈I(t)I(t+τ)〉=t^{Υ}ϕ_{EA}(τ/t), where ϕ_{EA}(x) is a nonanalytic function when x is small, we find aging 1/f^{β} noise. Aging 1/f^{β} noise is characterized by five critical exponents...
November 2016: Physical Review. E
Danielle A Hamstra, E Ronald de Kloet, Ina Quataert, Myrthe Jansen, Willem Van der Does
BACKGROUND: Carriers of MR-haplotype 1 and 3 (GA/CG; rs5522 and rs2070951) are more sensitive to the influence of oral contraceptives (OC) and menstrual cycle phase on emotional information processing than MR-haplotype 2 (CA) carriers. We investigated whether this effect is associated with estradiol (E2) and/or progesterone (P4) levels. METHOD: Healthy MR-genotyped premenopausal women were tested twice in a counterbalanced design. Naturally cycling (NC) women were tested in the early-follicular and mid-luteal phase and OC-users during OC-intake and in the pill-free week...
November 30, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Kai Wen Teng, Yuji Ishitsuka, Pin Ren, Yeoan Youn, Xiang Deng, Pinghua Ge, Andrew S Belmont, Paul R Selvin
Site-specific fluorescent labeling of proteins inside live mammalian cells has been achieved by employing Streptolysin O, a bacterial enzyme which forms temporary pores in the membrane and allows delivery of virtually any fluorescent probes, ranging from labeled IgG's to small ligands, with high efficiency (>85% of cells). The whole process, including recovery, takes 30 min, and the cell is ready to be imaged immediately. A variety of cell viability tests were performed after treatment with SLO to ensure that the cells have intact membranes, are able to divide, respond normally to signaling molecules, and maintains healthy organelle morphology...
December 9, 2016: ELife
Krishna Agarwal, Radek Macháň
Single-molecule localization techniques are restricted by long acquisition and computational times, or the need of special fluorophores or biologically toxic photochemical environments. Here we propose a statistical super-resolution technique of wide-field fluorescence microscopy we call the multiple signal classification algorithm which has several advantages. It provides resolution down to at least 50 nm, requires fewer frames and lower excitation power and works even at high fluorophore concentrations...
December 9, 2016: Nature Communications
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