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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646677/-should-i-or-shouldn-t-i-imitation-of-undesired-versus-allowed-actions-from-peer-and-adult-models-by-18-and-24-month-old-toddlers
#1
Sabine Seehagen, Silvia Schneider, Kristin Miebach, Katharina Frigge, Norbert Zmyj
Imitation is a common way of acquiring novel behaviors in toddlers. However, little is known about toddlers' imitation of undesired actions. Here we investigated 18- and 24-month-olds' (N=110) imitation of undesired and allowed actions from televised peer and adult models. Permissiveness of the demonstrated actions was indicated by the experimenter's response to their execution (angry or neutral). Analyses revealed that toddlers' imitation scores were higher after demonstrations of allowed versus undesired actions, regardless of the age of the model...
June 21, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645715/agents-mechanisms-and-clinical-features-of-non-scald-burns-in-children-a-prospective-uk-study
#2
E L Johnson, S Maguire, L I Hollén, D Nuttall, D Rea, A M Kemp
AIMS: To inform childhood burn prevention by identifying demographics, clinical features and circumstances of unintentional non-scald burns. METHODS: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted across Cardiff, Bristol and Manchester, including six emergency departments, three minor injury units and one burns unit between 13/01/2013-01/10/2015. Data collected for children aged <16 years with any burn (scald, contact, flame, radiation, chemical, electrical, friction) included: demographics, circumstances of injury and clinical features...
June 20, 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645086/toddler-exposure-to-flame-retardant-chemicals-magnitude-health-concern-and-potential-risk-or-protective-factors-of-exposure-observational-studies-summarized-in-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Eva J Sugeng, Marijke de Cock, Linda J Schoonmade, Margot van de Bor
Endocrine disrupting flame retardant (FR) chemicals form a human health concern, that is investigated mostly from the perspective of adult- and early life exposure. No overview of studies on toddler exposure and health effects exist. However, toddlerhood is a critical developmental period and toddlers are at increased risk for exposure because of their age-specific behavior. This systematic review encompasses toddler FR exposure studies in three countries, associated health effects and potential environmental, demographic, or behavioral risk- or protective factors for toddler exposure...
June 14, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644796/design-of-an-autonomous-social-orienting-training-system-asots-for-young-children-with-autism
#4
Zhi Zheng, Qiang Fu, Huan Zhao, Amy R Swanson, Amy S Weitlauf, Zachary E Warren, Nilanjan Sarkar
Social communication is among the core areas of impairment for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The training of social orientation is important for improving social communication of children with ASD. In recent years, technology-assisted ASD intervention had gained momentum due to its potential advantages in terms of precision, sustainability, flexibility and cost. In this paper, we propose a closed-loop autonomous computer system, named ASOTS, for training social orientation skills to young children with ASD...
June 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644312/early-infections-and-the-risk-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome-a-case-control-study
#5
Edward J Krajicek, Ann E Almazar, Joseph J Larson, Elizabeth J Atkinson, Nicholas J Talley, Yuri A Saito
GOALS: The goal of this study is to evaluate the association between early life infections and subsequent adult onset irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). BACKGROUND: Infections during adulthood are a known risk factor for adult-onset IBS. This investigation examined the role of childhood infections and infection risk factors in the development of IBS symptoms. STUDY: In total, 1010 subjects (509 outpatients with IBS, 501 matched controls) were mailed questionnaires regarding early-life infections during infancy (0 to 12 mo), toddler years (1 to 3 y), and child years (4 to 18 y)...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639396/the-influence-of-parental-concern-on-the-utility-of-autism-diagnostic-instruments
#6
Karoline Alexandra Havdahl, Somer L Bishop, Pål Surén, Anne-Siri Øyen, Catherine Lord, Andrew Pickles, Stephen von Tetzchner, Synnve Schjølberg, Nina Gunnes, Mady Hornig, W Ian Lipkin, Ezra Susser, Michaeline Bresnahan, Per Magnus, Nina Stenberg, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud, Camilla Stoltenberg
The parental report-based Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and the clinician observation-based Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) have been validated primarily in U.S. clinics specialized in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), in which most children are referred by their parents because of ASD concern. This study assessed diagnostic agreement of the ADOS-2 and ADI-R toddler algorithms in a more broadly based sample of 679 toddlers (age 35-47 months) from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort...
June 22, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638363/toddlers-selectively-help-fair-agents
#7
Luca Surian, Laura Franchin
Previous research showed that infants and toddlers are inclined to help prosocial agents and assign a positive valence to fair distributions. Also, they expect that positive and negative actions directed toward distributors will conform to reciprocity principles. This study investigates whether toddlers are selective in helping others, as a function of others' previous distributive actions. Toddlers were presented with real-life events in which two actresses distributed resources either equally or unequally between two puppets...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636872/long-term-postnatal-steroid-effect-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants
#8
YoungAh Youn, Cheong-Jun Moon, In Kyung Sung
We examined whether hydrocortisone exposure ≤ 1week in very low birth weight infants (VLBWI) was associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcomes at corrected 18 months. Further, the clinical factors associated with worse long term outcome were also evaluated. Of a total of 191 VLBWI, the clinical data for these infants relating were retrospectively collected for analysis. Among the 191 VLBWI, 115 (60.2%) infants were exposed to early postnatal hydrocortisone ≤ 1 week of life in our NICU of Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea between December 2012 and December 2014...
June 18, 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634495/choking-hazards-are-current-product-testing-methods-for-small-parts-adequate
#9
Athena Neofotistos, Nancy Cowles, Ragini Sharma
Choking on small parts remains one of the leading causes of death and injury in infants and toddlers. The current method of testing for small parts, created by the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC), has become outdated and has yet to be changed despite the many deaths and injuries of children. The method uses a device called the small parts test fixture (SPTF) that is supposed to mimic the size of a fully expanded throat of a toddler. If a product does not fit inside the cavity of the SPTF, then it is deemed safe to play with because it "will not fit" in the esophagus of a child...
2017: International Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631578/the-journey-to-autism-insights-from-neuroimaging-studies-of-infants-and-toddlers
#10
Jason J Wolff, Suma Jacob, Jed T Elison
By definition, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that emerges during early childhood. It is during this time that infants and toddlers transition from appearing typical across multiple domains to exhibiting the behavioral phenotype of ASD. Neuroimaging studies focused on this period of development have provided crucial knowledge pertaining to this process, including possible mechanisms underlying pathogenesis of the disorder and offering the possibility of prodromal or presymptomatic prediction of risk...
June 20, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628971/occurrence-of-phthalate-diesters-in-indoor-air-from-several-northern-cities-in-vietnam-and-its-implication-for-human-exposure
#11
Tri Manh Tran, Hanh Thi Le, Tu Binh Minh, Kurunthachalam Kannan
Phthalates are used as plasticizers to impart flexibility of plastics. Because of their toxicity, human exposure to phthalates is a concern. Little is known on the occurrence of and inhalation exposure to phthalates in indoor air. In this study, ten phthalates were measured in 97 indoor air samples collected from Northern Vietnam during September 2016 to January 2017. The mean concentrations of total phthalates (i.e., sum of ten phthalates) in particulate and gas phases ranged from 95.2 to 13,100μgg(-1) and from 57...
June 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628773/temperament-and-behavior-in-toddlers-born-preterm-with-related-clinical-problems
#12
Rafaela Guilherme Monte Cassiano, Claudia Maria Gaspardo, Ricardo Augusto de Deus Faciroli, Francisco Eulógio Martinez, Maria Beatriz Martins Linhares
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare temperament and behavior profiles among groups of preterm toddlers differentiated by level of prematurity and the presence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) or retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), controlling for neonatal clinical conditions and chronological age. METHOD: The sample comprised 100 preterm toddlers segregated according to level of prematurity (75 very preterm and 25 moderate/late preterm) and presence of BPD (n=36) and ROP (n=63)...
June 16, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628487/do-toddler-s-fractures-of-the-tibia-require-evaluation-and-management-by-an-orthopaedic-surgeon-routinely
#13
John S Adamich, Mark W Camp
OBJECTIVE: The majority of uncomplicated toddler fractures of the tibia (toddler's fractures) do not need an orthopaedic surgeon's intervention or follow-up. However, inexperienced emergency room physicians, general practitioners and orthopaedic trainees and surgeons understandably defer to a cautious approach of referral and subsequent frequent clinical and radiographic follow-up. An evidence-based pathway can help prevent this overtreatment, reduce unnecessary radiation exposure and decrease the financial burden on families and the healthcare system...
June 16, 2017: European Journal of Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the European Society for Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625208/parenting-cognitions-%C3%A2-parenting-practices-%C3%A2-child-adjustment-the-standard-model
#14
Marc H Bornstein, Diane L Putnick, Joan T D Suwalsky
In a large-scale (N = 317) prospective 8-year longitudinal multiage, multidomain, multivariate, multisource study, we tested a conservative three-term model linking parenting cognitions in toddlerhood to parenting practices in preschool to classroom externalizing behavior in middle childhood, controlling for earlier parenting practices and child externalizing behavior. Mothers who were more knowledgeable, satisfied, and attributed successes in their parenting to themselves when their toddlers were 20 months of age engaged in increased supportive parenting during joint activity tasks 2 years later when their children were 4 years of age, and 6 years after that their 10-year-olds were rated by teachers as having fewer classroom externalizing behavior problems...
June 19, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623778/are-there-signature-limits-in-early-theory-of-mind
#15
Ella Fizke, Stephen Butterfill, Lea van de Loo, Eva Reindl, Hannes Rakoczy
Current theory-of-mind research faces the challenge of reconciling two sets of seemingly incompatible findings: Whereas children come to solve explicit verbal false belief (FB) tasks from around 4years of age, recent studies with various less explicit measures such as looking time, anticipatory looking, and spontaneous behavior suggest that even infants can succeed on some FB tasks. In response to this tension, two-systems theories propose to distinguish between an early-developing system, tracking simple forms of mental states, and a later-developing system, based on fully developed concepts of belief and other propositional attitudes...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623417/a-validated-clinical-mri-injury-scoring-system-in-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#16
Shamik B Trivedi, Zachary A Vesoulis, Rakesh Rao, Steve M Liao, Joshua S Shimony, Robert C McKinstry, Amit M Mathur
BACKGROUND: Deep nuclear gray matter injury in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is associated with worse neurodevelopmental outcomes. We previously published a qualitative MRI injury scoring system utilizing serial T1-weighted, T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), weighted for deep nuclear gray matter injury. OBJECTIVES: To establish the validity of the MRI scoring system with neurodevelopmental outcome at 18-24 months. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MRI scans from neonates with moderate to severe HIE treated with therapeutic hypothermia were evaluated...
June 16, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623349/human-bipedalism-and-body-mass-index
#17
Su Do Yi, Jae Dong Noh, Petter Minnhagen, Mi-Young Song, Tae-Soo Chon, Beom Jun Kim
Body-mass index, abbreviated as BMI and given by M/H (2) with the mass M and the height H, has been widely used as a useful proxy to measure a general health status of a human individual. We generalise BMI in the form of M/H (p) and pursue to answer the question of the value of p for populations of animal species including human. We compare values of p for several different datasets for human populations with the ones obtained for other animal populations of fish, whales, and land mammals. All animal populations but humans analyzed in our work are shown to have p ≈ 3 unanimously...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622782/-prevalence-of-iron-deficiency
#18
C Dupont
Studies of prévalence in iron deficiency separate iron depletion (defined as decreased blood ferritin) and iron deficiency anemia (defined as blood decrease in both ferritin and hemoglobin). In Europe, most studies are outdated. Prevalence of iron depletion varies from 7 to 18 % and 24 to 36% in toddlers and adolescents, respectively. Prevalence of iron deficiency anemia varies from 2 to 8.5% and 7 to 10% in toddlers and adolescents. In French speaking African countries, Demography Health Surveys show that 80% of children aged 0 to 2 years are anemic, severely for 5 to 9% of them...
May 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622589/improving-outcomes-for-babies-and-toddlers-in-child-welfare-a-model-for-infant-mental-health-intervention-and-collaboration
#19
Susan Chinitz, Hazel Guzman, Ellen Amstutz, Joaniko Kohchi, Miriam Alkon
Children under three comprise a sizable and growing proportion of foster care placements. Very young children who enter the child welfare system experience disruptions of critical attachments that are essential to this formative stage of brain development, as well as other traumatic events, leaving them at great risk for lifelong impairments. To reverse these concerning outcomes, babies who have been removed from their homes require intensive, relationship-based interventions that promote secure attachment to a primary caregiver and holistic attention the child's developmental needs...
June 13, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620554/clinical-phenotype-in-a-toddler-with-a-novel-heterozygous-mutation-of-the-vitamin-d-receptor
#20
Preneet Cheema Brar, Elena Dingle, John Pappas, Manish Raisingani
We present the clinical phenotype of a toddler who presented with vitamin D-resistant rickets, with one of the highest initial levels of alkaline phosphatase and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels reported in the literature. The toddler had novel compound heterozygous mutations in the ligand-binding site of the vitamin D receptor and had an excellent response to calcitriol (1,25(OH)2D).
2017: Case Reports in Endocrinology
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