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Mathilde Fort, Imme Lammertink, Sharon Peperkamp, Adriana Guevara-Rukoz, Paula Fikkert, Sho Tsuji
Adults and toddlers systematically associate pseudowords such as "bouba" and "kiki" with round and spiky shapes, respectively, a sound symbolic phenomenon known as the "bouba-kiki effect". To date, whether this sound symbolic effect is a property of the infant brain present at birth or is a learned aspect of language perception remains unknown. Yet, solving this question is fundamental for our understanding of early language acquisition. Indeed, an early sensitivity to such sound symbolic associations could provide a powerful mechanism for language learning, playing a bootstrapping role in the establishment of novel sound-meaning associations...
March 15, 2018: Developmental Science
Valentina Morsan, Carlo Fantoni, Maria Anna Tallandini
AIM: To verify whether it is appropriate to use age correction for infants born preterm in all the developmental domains (cognitive, linguistic, and motor) considered by the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III). METHOD: Seventy-three infants born preterm (26-35wks) without major neurological sequelae and 67 infants born at term were assessed at 12 months (corrected age for infants born preterm). The performance of the infants born preterm was assessed with two different evaluations: scores based on uncorrected age and scores based on corrected age...
March 14, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Deirdre M Twomey, Conal Wrigley, Caroline Ahearne, Raegan Murphy, Michelle De Haan, Neil Marlow, Deirdre M Murray
OBJECTIVE: To explore the feasibility of using a touch screen assessment tool to measure cognitive capacity in toddlers. DESIGN: 112 typically developing children with a median age of 31 months (IQR: 26-34) interacted with a touch screen cognitive assessment tool. We examined the sensitivity of the tool to age-related changes in cognition by comparing the number of items completed, speed of task completion and accuracy in two age groups; 24-29 months versus 30-36 months...
March 13, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Colleen Peyton, Michael D Schreiber, Michael E Msall
AIM: To determine the relationship between the Test of Infant Motor Performance (TIMP) at 3 months and cognitive, language, and motor outcomes on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III) at 2 years of age in high-risk infants born preterm. METHOD: One hundred and six infants (47 females, 59 males) born at earlier than 31 weeks gestational age were prospectively tested with the TIMP at 10 to 15 weeks after term age and were assessed again with the Bayley-III at 2 years corrected age...
March 13, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Gregor Kachel, Richard Moore, Michael Tomasello
In the current study, 24- to 27-month-old children (N = 37) used pointing gestures in a cooperative object choice task with either peer or adult partners. When indicating the location of a hidden toy, children pointed equally accurately for adult and peer partners but more often for adult partners. When choosing from one of three hiding places, children used adults' pointing to find a hidden toy significantly more often than they used peers'. In interaction with peers, children's choice behavior was at chance level...
March 12, 2018: Developmental Science
Anne-Katrine F Bundgaard, Jette Asmussen, Nadia S Pedersen, Niels Bilenberg
This study investigated whether early signs of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in toddlers aged 2-3 years are associated with disturbed sleep and activity levels. Participants were recruited from the Odense Child Cohort, and children scoring above the 93rd percentile on the ADHD scale of the Child Behaviour Checklist 1½-5 were categorised as cases and compared with age- and gender-matched normal-scoring controls. Daytime and nocturnal activity for 24 children with ADHD traits (cases) and 25 healthy controls was assessed through 7 days of actigraphy, and parents completed the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) and the ADHD Rating Scale IV Preschool Version (ADHD-RS)...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
Katherine L Campbell, Aleksandra Babiarz, Yan Wang, Nicholas A Tilton, Maureen M Black, Erin R Hager
OBJECTIVE: To identify home environment factors associated with toddler dietary behaviours using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). DESIGN: Home environment and toddler's diet were assessed by mothers through EMA (random beeps over ≤8 d and a brief survey). Dietary outcomes were fruit/vegetable consumption, eating episode ('snack' v. 'meal') and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. Home environment factors included interacting with mother, eating alone/with others, eating in a high chair/chair at the table, watching television and movement/translocation...
March 12, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
Amy M Scurlock, Stacie M Jones
Advances in food allergy diagnosis, management, prevention and therapeutic interventions have been significant over the past two decades. Evidence based national and international guidelines have streamlined food allergy diagnosis and management, while paradigm shifting work in primary prevention of peanut allergy has resulted in significant modifications in the approach to early food introduction in infants and toddlers. Innovative investigation of food allergy epidemiology, systems biology, impact, and management has provided important insights...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Umberto Raucci, Pasquale Parisi, Nicola Vanacore, Giacomo Garone, Claudia Bondone, Antonella Palmieri, Lucia Calistri, Agnese Suppiej, Raffaele Falsaperla, Alessandro Capuano, Valentina Ferro, Antonio Francesco Urbino, Ramona Tallone, Alessandra Montemaggi, Stefano Sartori, Piero Pavone, Margherita Mancardi, Federico Melani, Lucrezia Ilvento, Maria Federica Pelizza, Antonino Reale
INTRODUCTION: Limited data exist on epidemiology, clinical presentation and management of acute hyperkinetic movement disorders (AHMD) in paediatric emergency departments (pED). METHODS: We retrospectively analysed a case series of 256 children (aged 2 months to 17 years) presenting with AHMD to the pEDs of six Italian tertiary care hospitals over a 2-year period (January 2012 to December 2013). RESULTS: The most common type of AHMD was tics (44...
March 8, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Katelyn Cahill-Rowley, Jessica Rose
Temporal-spatial reach parameters are revealing of upper-limb function in children with motor impairments, but have not been quantified in a toddler population. This work quantitatively characterizes temporal-spatial reach in typically-developing (TD) and very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) preterm toddlers, who are at increased risk of motor impairment. 47 children born VLBW (<1500 g birth-weight; ≤32 weeks gestation) and 22 TD children completed a reaching assessment at 18-22 months of age, adjusted for prematurity...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Vicky L Ng, Lisa G Sorensen, Estella M Alonso, Emily M Fredericks, Wen Ye, Jeff Moore, Saul J Karpen, Benjamin L Shneider, Jean P Molleston, Jorge A Bezerra, Karen F Murray, Kathleen M Loomes, Philip Rosenthal, Robert H Squires, Kasper Wang, Ronen Arnon, Kathleen B Schwarz, Yumirle P Turmelle, Barbara H Haber, Averell H Sherker, John C Magee, Ronald J Sokol
OBJECTIVES: To assess neurodevelopmental outcomes among participants with biliary atresia with their native liver at ages 12 months (group 1) and 24 months (group 2), and to evaluate variables predictive of neurodevelopmental impairment. STUDY DESIGN: Participants enrolled in a prospective, longitudinal, multicenter study underwent neurodevelopmental testing with either the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 2nd edition, or Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, 3rd edition...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Ann M Weber, Virginia A Marchman, Yatma Diop, Anne Fernald
Valid indigenous language assessments are needed to further our understanding of how children learn language around the world. We assessed the psychometric properties and performance of two caregiver-report measures of Wolof language skill (language milestones achieved and vocabulary knowledge) for 500 children (ages 0;4 to 2;6) living in rural Senegal. Item response models (IRM) evaluated instrument- and item-level performance and differential function by gender. Both caregiver-report measures had good psychometric properties and displayed expected age and socioeconomic effects...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Child Language
Anna Harton, Joanna Myszkowska-Ryciak
Background: Rational nutrition of infants and toddlers is essential for their normal growth and development, and for the development of proper nutritional habits. It should be preceded by proper planning. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate of the planning and organization of nutrition in nurseries. Material and methods: In the research conducted within the program “Eating healthy, growing healthy” (EHGH), 128 crèches from all over Poland participated...
2018: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
Sara Smith, Jane Hunt
Reflection can help nurses make sense of their clinical surroundings and understand risks, challenges and opportunities. Learning the art required for reflective practice begins as a student when critical reflection is particularly important during practice placements. A suitable reflective framework is provided by Rolfe et al ( 2011 ). Adopting this framework, this article draws on the placement experiences of a second-year undergraduate children's nursing student in an acute setting, caring for a toddler with 13% partial and full-thickness burns...
March 7, 2018: Nursing Children and Young People
Lisa Daniels, Sheila M Williams, Rosalind S Gibson, Rachael W Taylor, Samir Samman, Anne-Louise M Heath
Suboptimal zinc status is common in very young children and likely associated with increased risk of infection and detrimental effects on growth. No studies have determined potentially modifiable "predictors" of zinc status in toddlers from high-income countries. This cross-sectional analysis of 115 toddlers from the Baby-Led Introduction to SolidS (BLISS) study used weighed diet records (three non-consecutive days) to assess dietary intake, and a venous blood sample (trace-element free techniques) to assess plasma zinc, at 12 months of age...
March 5, 2018: Nutrients
Alessandra Prioreschi, Thomas Nappey, Kate Westgate, Patrick Olivier, Soren Brage, Lisa Kim Micklesfield
Background: It is important to be able to reliably and feasibly measure infant and toddler physical activity in order to determine adherence to current physical activity guidelines and effects on early life development, growth and health. This study aimed to describe the development of an infant wearable wrist-worn band for the measurement of physical activity; to determine the feasibility of the device data for observational measurement of physical activity and to determine the caregiver reported acceptability of the infant wearable wrist band...
2018: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
K M Boone, B Gracious, M Klebanoff, L K Rogers, J Rausch, D L Coury, S A Keim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2, 2018: Early Human Development
Jessica Page, Caroline Lustenberger, Flavio Fr Hlich
Widespread change in behavior and the underlying brain network substrate is a hallmark of early development. Sleep plays a fundamental role in this process. Both slow waves and spindles are key features of non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM) that exhibit pronounced developmental trajectories from infancy to adulthood. Yet, these prominent features of NREM sleep are poorly understood in infants and toddlers in the age range of 12 to 30 months. Moreover, it is unknown how network dynamics of NREM sleep are associated with outcomes of early development...
February 2, 2018: Sleep
Satoshi Katagiri, Shin Tanaka, Tadashi Yokoi, Takaaki Hayashi, Emiko Matsuzaka, Kazuko Ueda, Tomoyo Yoshida-Uemura, Akira Arakawa, Sachiko Nishina, Kazuaki Kadonosono, Noriyuki Azuma
Purpose: To report the clinical and genetic findings of a male toddler who presented bilateral bullous retinoschisis with a novel RS1 mutation. Observations: This is an observational case report of a patient referred to our hospital with esotropia. A comprehensive ophthalmic examination was performed with the boy (age, 1 year 4 months) under general anesthesia that included fundus examinations, fluorescein angiography (FA), swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT), and full-field electroretinography (FF-ERG)...
April 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
Tzu-Ying Yu, Willy Chou, Julie Chi Chow, Chien-Ho Lin, Li-Chen Tung, Kuan-Lin Chen
Purpose: We investigated 1) the impact of differences in intelligence quotient discrepancy (IQD) on motor skills of preschool-aged children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD); 2) the relationships between IQD and motor skills in preschool-aged children with ASD. Methods: A total of 127 ASD preschool-aged children were divided into three groups according to the size of the IQD: IQD within 1 standard deviation (1SD; EVENIQ; n=81), discrepantly higher verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ; n=22; VIQ>performance intelligence quotient [PIQ] above 1SD [≥15 points]), and discrepantly higher PIQ (n=24; PIQ>VIQ above 1SD [≥15 points])...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
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