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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150208/development-of-a-synthetic-vi-polysaccharide-vaccine-for-typhoid-fever
#1
Yawei Ni, Michael J Springer, Jianhua Guo, Isaac Finger-Baker, James P Wilson, Ronald R Cobb, Debra Turner, Ian Tizard
Typhoid fever remains a serious public health problem with a high impact on toddlers and young children. Vaccines against the Vi capsular polysaccharide are efficacious against typhoid fever demonstrating that antibodies against Vi confer protection. The currently licensed Vi typhoid vaccines have however limited efficacy and are manufactured by a complex process from wild-type bacteria. Due to these inherent issues with the current vaccines, an alternative vaccine based on an O-acetylated high molecular weight (HMW) polygalacturonic acid (GelSite-OAc™) was generated...
November 14, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149854/cardiac-arrest-in-a-toddler-treated-with-propranolol-for-infantile-hemangioma-a-case-report
#2
Alvise Tosoni, Mario Cutrone, Maurizio Dalle Carbonare, Andrea Pettenazzo, Giorgio Perilongo, Stefano Sartori
BACKGROUND: Propranolol has become the first-line treatment for complicated Infantile Hemangioma (IH), showing so far a good risk-benefit profile. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a toddler, on propranolol, who suffered cardiac arrest during an acute viral infection. She had a neurally-mediated syncope that progressed to asystole, probably because of concurrent factors as dehydration, beta-blocking and probably individual susceptibility to vaso-vagal phenomena...
November 17, 2017: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148287/does-the-brief-observation-of-social-communication-change-help-moving-forward-in-measuring-change-in-early-autism-intervention-studies
#3
Mirjam Kj Pijl, Nanda Nj Rommelse, Monica Hendriks, Manon Wp De Korte, Jan K Buitelaar, Iris J Oosterling
The field of early autism research is in dire need of outcome measures that adequately reflect subtle changes in core autistic behaviors. This article compares the ability of a newly developed measure, the Brief Observation of Social Communication Change (BOSCC), and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) to detect changes in core symptoms of autism in 44 toddlers. The results provide encouraging evidence for the Brief Observation of Social Communication Change as a candidate outcome measure, as reflected in sufficient inter- and intra-rater reliability, independency from other child characteristics, and sensitivity to capture change...
December 1, 2016: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147839/screening-accuracy-of-the-brief-infant-toddler-social-emotional-assessment-to-identify-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-toddlers-born-at-less-than-30%C3%A2-weeks-gestation
#4
Kelly M Boone, Anne K Brown, Sarah A Keim
Despite the higher prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children born preterm, valid screening tools for use in preterm populations are lacking. We aimed to evaluate the screening accuracy of the Brief Infant Toddler Social-Emotional Assessment (BITSEA) and to compare it to the Pervasive Developmental Disorders Screening Test-II, Stage 2, Developmental Clinic Screener (PDDST-II-DCS) in identifying ASD diagnosis in toddlers born at < 30 weeks' gestation. Caregivers (94% mothers) of 555 children completed questionnaires (BITSEA, PDDST-II-DCS, socio-demographics) when the children (58% male) were 18-36 months...
November 17, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145909/-a-toddler-with-nightly-vomiting-and-pain-in-the-abdomen
#5
K de Graaf, M R Ernst-Kruis, R W B Bottema
A 4-year-old boy was referred to the emergency department with four days of nightly vomiting after ingestion of a marble. Abdominal X-ray showed the marble in the antrum of the stomach. The marble was successfully removed by endoscopy. X-rays detect 86% of all glass objects and should therefore be considered as diagnostic option by ingestion of a marble.
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145589/the-abcds-of-pain-management-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial-examining-the-impact-of-a-brief-educational-video-on-infants-and-toddlers-pain-scores-and-parent-soothing-behavior
#6
Rebecca Pillai Riddell, Monica C O'Neill, Lauren Campbell, Anna Taddio, Saul Greenberg, Hartley Garfield
Objectives: To test the efficacy of a brief behavioral pain management strategy (The ABCDs of Needle Pain Management), delivered via video, on infants' and toddlers' pain scores and on parental soothing behavior. Methods: This was a double-blind, parallel trial design. Parent-child dyads (N = 128) were recruited before their child's 6-month (infant) or 18-month (toddler) vaccination in a pediatric clinic and randomly assigned to watch a 5-min treatment video or a placebo video...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143890/paternal-anxiety-in-relation-to-toddler-anxiety-the-mediating-role-of-maternal-behavior
#7
Robert C Gibler, Anne E Kalomiris, Elizabeth J Kiel
Despite robust investigations examining the impact of maternal anxiety and parenting behaviors and child anxiety risk, less is understood about the impact of paternal anxiety and parenting behaviors on child anxiety risk, particularly within the broader family context. An Actor Partner Interdependence Model (APIM) was used to examine whether paternal anxiety longitudinally predicted child anxiety risk indirectly through maternal and paternal parenting behaviors, while controlling for maternal anxiety. Both fathers and mothers of 12- to 30-month-olds (n = 94) provided self-report of their anxiety and parenting behaviors...
November 16, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140927/clinical-trial-designs-and-models-for-analgesic-medications-for-acute-pain-in-neonates-infants-toddlers-children-and-adolescents-acttion-recommendations
#8
Gary A Walco, Ernest A Kopecky, Steven J Weisman, Jennifer Stinson, Bonnie Stevens, Paul J Desjardins, Charles B Berde, Elliot J Krane, Kanwaljeet Js Anand, Myron Yaster, Carlton D Dampier, Robert H Dworkin, Ian Gilron, Anne M Lynn, Lynne G Maxwell, Srinivasa Raja, Bernard Schachtel, Dennis C Turk
Clinical trials to test the safety and efficacy of analgesics across all pediatric age cohorts are needed to avoid inappropriate extrapolation of adult data to children. However, the selection of acute pain models and trial design attributes to maximize assay sensitivity, by pediatric age cohort, remains problematic. Acute pain models used for drug treatment trials in adults are not directly applicable to the pediatric age cohorts - neonates, infants, toddlers, children, and adolescents. Developmental maturation of metabolic enzymes in infants and children must be taken into consideration when designing trials to test analgesic treatments for acute pain...
November 13, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129432/occurrence-and-human-exposure-to-brominated-and-organophosphorus-flame-retardants-via-indoor-dust-in-a-brazilian-city
#9
Joyce Cristale, Tiago Gomes Aragão Belé, Silvia Lacorte, Mary Rosa Rodrigues de Marchi
Indoor dust is considered an important human exposure route to flame retardants (FRs), which has arised concern due the toxic properties of some of these substances. In this study, ten organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs), eight polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and four new brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) were determined in indoor dust from different places in Araraquara-SP (Brazil). The sampled places included houses, apartments, offices, primary schools and cars. The analysis of the sample extracts was performed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and two ionization techniques were used (electron ionization - EI; electron capture negative ionization - ECNI)...
November 9, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127891/elevated-maternal-anxiety-in-the-nicu-predicts-worse-fine-motor-outcome-in-vlbw-infants
#10
Michelle M Greene, Beverly Rossman, Paula Meier, Kousiki Patra
AIM: The literature is sparse with respect to the impact of elevated maternal psychological distress in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) on later neurodevelopmental outcome in VLBW infants. The objective of this study is to examine the impact of elevated maternal distress, defined as elevated depression, anxiety and perinatal-specific post-traumatic stress, during the NICU hospitalization on VLBW infant ND outcome at 20months corrected age (CA). METHODS: This was a prospective study of 69 mothers and their VLBW infants recruited in 2011-2012...
November 8, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127870/concentrations-of-several-phthalates-contaminants-in-egyptian-bottled-water-effects-of-storage-conditions-and-estimate-of-human-exposure
#11
Ghada Zaki, Tamer Shoeib
The occurrence and concentrations of six common phthalates were investigated for the first time in bottled water locally produced in the Egyptian market. The compounds investigated were dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), n-butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), diethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP), and Di-n-octyl phthalate (D-n-OP). A set of 108 bottled water samples from six different commercial brands of water bottled in transparent polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic bottles with high density polyethylene (HDPE) plastic caps were investigated...
November 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126026/legacy-and-novel-brominated-flame-retardants-in-indoor-dust-from-beijing-china-occurrence-human-exposure-assessment-and-evidence-for-pbdes-replacement
#12
Jiandi Wang, Yuwei Wang, Zhixiong Shi, Xianqing Zhou, Zhiwei Sun
Levels of legacy brominated flame retardants (BFRs), including tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), hexabromocyclododecane isomers (HBCDs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and six currently used novel BFRs were determined in house dust and office dust collected from a community in Beijing, China. This is the first study where the three kinds of legacy BFRs and novel BFRs were all measured in dust samples from China. HPLC-MS/MS was used for the detection of TBBPA and HBCDs, and the other BFRs were tested on a GC-NCI/MS...
November 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124081/an-uncommon-cause-of-severe-upper-airway-obstruction-in-a-toddler
#13
Carlos Castillo, Carston Ruffo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Global Pediatric Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124053/contextual-factors-and-mastery-motivation-in-young-children-with-and-without-cerebral-palsy-a-systematic-review
#14
Hsiang-Han Huang, Tzu-Han Sun, Chia-I Lin, Yi-Ru Chen
Background: Mastery motivation is the driving force behind children's desire to explore the surrounding world and their comprehensive development. However, disease factors may lower a child's motivation and hamper development. The aim of this review is to examine mastery motivation in preschool children with cerebral palsy (CP) and the impact of contextual factors on mastery motivation. Methods: Six electronic databases were searched (PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, PsycINFO, Medline, and Airiti Library) using the keywords "Activity," "Cerebral Palsy," "Preschool," "Motivation," "Mastery motivation," "Gross motor," and "Toddler...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121526/waiting-for-a-treat-studying-behaviors-related-to-self-regulation-in-18-and-24-month-olds
#15
Marta Białecka-Pikul, Karolina Byczewska-Konieczny, Magdalena Kosno, Arkadiusz Białek, Małgorzata Stępień-Nycz
The ability to delay gratification - conceived as an early expression of self-regulation - develops in the second half of the second year of life. We used inductive methodology to identify different behaviors and set of behaviors performed by children while waiting for a treat. We asked which sets are more effective when it comes to successfully delaying gratification and how all observed sets change during toddler age. 130 children were tested twice - at 18 and at 24 months - using a Snack Delay Task. We observed 20 different behaviors and distinguished 4 sets of behaviors...
November 6, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120479/father-child-play-during-the-preschool-years-and-child-internalizing-behaviors-between-robustness-and-vulnerability
#16
Lieselotte Ahnert, Lukas Teufl, Nina Ruiz, Bernhard Piskernik, Barbara Supper, Silke Remiorz, Alexander Gesing, Katja Nowacki
Play observations with a total of 400 toddlers and preschoolers were videotaped and rated for Intensity and Quality of play with their parents. Parents were asked about perceived stress and personality characteristics (Big 5). Child's motor, cognitive skills, temperament, and internalizing behaviors were assessed. Study 1 investigated the robustness of play across child age and gender, and examined differences between fathers and mothers. Study 2 explored the vulnerability of play with fathers of children born preterm (PT-fathers) and fathers who had experienced adverse childhoods (AC-fathers)...
November 9, 2017: Infant Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119214/safety-and-efficacy-of-radiofrequency-catheter-ablation-for-tachyarrhythmia-in-children-weighing-less-than-10%C3%A2-kg
#17
Noriyasu Ozaki, Yoshihide Nakamura, Tsugutoshi Suzuki, Jun Yoshimoto, Keiko Toyohara, Hitoo Fukuhara, Hiroshi Katayama, Kanta Kishi, Yutaka Odanaka, Hiroshi Tamai
An increasing number of children are undergoing radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) for tachyarrhythmia. However, infants and toddlers undergoing RFCA are often resistant to medication or need to eliminate arrhythmia substrate, and the risks of RFCA complications are still high in infants and toddlers. From April 2008 and December 2016, 285 children who underwent radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) were stratified according to body weight (group A, less than 10 kg, n = 22; group B, over 10 kg, n = 263) and the clinical features of RFCA were retrospectively reviewed in these groups...
November 8, 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117894/toddler-signaling-regulates-mesodermal-cell-migration-downstream-of-nodal-signaling
#18
Megan L Norris, Andrea Pauli, James A Gagnon, Nathan D Lord, Katherine W Rogers, Christian Mosimann, Leonard I Zon, Alexander F Schier
Toddler/Apela/Elabela is a conserved secreted peptide that regulates mesendoderm development during zebrafish gastrulation. Two non-exclusive models have been proposed to explain Toddler function. The 'specification model' postulates that Toddler signaling enhances Nodal signaling to properly specify endoderm, whereas the 'migration model' posits that Toddler signaling regulates mesendodermal cell migration downstream of Nodal signaling. Here, we test key predictions of both models. We find that in toddler mutants Nodal signaling is initially normal and increasing endoderm specification does not rescue mesendodermal cell migration...
November 9, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117133/development-and-relative-validity-of-a-food-frequency-questionnaire-to-assess-intakes-of-total-and-free-sugars-in-australian-toddlers
#19
Gemma Devenish, Aqif Mukhtar, Andrea Begley, Loc Do, Jane Scott
Background: Dental research into early childhood caries is hindered by a lack of suitable dietary assessment tools that have been developed and validated for the population and outcomes of interest. The aim of this study was to develop and investigate the relative validity and reproducibility of the Study of Mothers' and Infants' Life Events Food Frequency Questionnaire (SMILE-FFQ), to assess the total and free sugars intakes of Australian toddlers. Methods: The SMILE-FFQ was designed to capture the leading dietary contributors to dental caries risk in toddlers aged 18-30 months via a proxy report...
November 8, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114645/longitudinal-study-assessing-factors-associated-with-mutans-streptococci-acquisition-in-infants-and-toddlers
#20
Tejasi Avasare, John Warren, Fang Qian, Teresa Marshall, Karin Weber-Gasparoni, David Drake
PURPOSE: To assess the role of sociodemographic, dietary, and clinical factors in early mutans streptococci (MS) colonization in children aged 6 to 24 months who were followed for 18 months. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-four children (mean age: 11.5 ± 4.99 months at baseline) were enrolled in the study from the Women, Infants and Children Supplemental Nutrition Program during 2003-2004. Salivary MS levels of the children were determined at baseline and at 18 months using a semi-quantitative method...
November 7, 2017: Oral Health & Preventive Dentistry
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