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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045572/impaired-sperm-maturation-in-conditional-lcn6-knockout-mice
#1
Qianqian Yin, Jia Shen, Xiaofeng Wan, Qiang Liu, Yuchuan Zhou, Yonglian Zhang
Human LCN6, a lipocalin protein, exhibits predominant expression in epididymis and location on the sperm surface. However, the biological function of LCN6 in vivo remains unknown. Herein, we found that unlike human LCN6, mouse Lcn6 gene encoded two transcript variants that were both up regulated by androgen. Subsequently, we generated a conditional knockout mouse model to disrupt Lcn6 in the adult and investigate its function. In this model, spermatogenesis was normal and Lcn6 deficiency did not affect the natural birth rate of male mice or in vitro fertilization ability of their cauda epididymal sperm...
October 13, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045534/evaluation-of-variable-selection-methods-for-random-forests-and-omics-data-sets
#2
Frauke Degenhardt, Stephan Seifert, Silke Szymczak
Machine learning methods and in particular random forests are promising approaches for prediction based on high dimensional omics data sets. They provide variable importance measures to rank predictors according to their predictive power. If building a prediction model is the main goal of a study, often a minimal set of variables with good prediction performance is selected. However, if the objective is the identification of involved variables to find active networks and pathways, approaches that aim to select all relevant variables should be preferred...
October 16, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045283/timing-of-initiation-of-antiretroviral-therapy-and-risk-of-preterm-birth-in-studies-of-hiv-infected-pregnant-women-the-role-of-selection-bias
#3
Marie C D Stoner, Stephen R Cole, Joan Price, Jennifer Winston, Jeff S A Stringer
BACKGROUND: Women who initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) during pregnancy are reported to have lower risk of preterm birth compared to those who enter pregnancy care already receiving ART. We hypothesize this association can be largely attributed to selection bias. METHODS: We simulated a cohort of 1000 preconceptional, HIV-infected women, where half were randomly allocated to receive immediate ART and half to delay ART until their presentation for pregnancy care...
October 16, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044829/enzyme-replacement-therapy-prevents-loss-of-bone-and-fat-mass-in-murine-homocystinuria
#4
Tomas Majtan, Insun Park, Erez M Bublil, Jan P Kraus
Skeletal and connective tissue defects are the most striking symptoms in patients suffering from classical homocystinuria (HCU). Here, we determined body composition and bone mass in three mouse models of HCU and assessed whether a long-term administration of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) corrected the phenotype. The mouse models of HCU were analyzed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and the data were complemented by plasma biochemical profiles. Both the mouse model lacking CBS (KO) and the one expressing human CBS mutant transgene on a mouse CBS null background (I278T) showed marked bone loss and decreased weight mostly due to a lower fat content compared to negative controls...
October 16, 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043973/-aesthetic-perception-of-the-vertical-position-of-the-incisal-edges-of-the-maxillary-lateral-incisors-in-the-smile-arch
#5
Sophie Stolz, François Lefebvre, Yves Bolender, Daniel Kanter
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study is to assess the attractiveness in the smile arch of different vertical positions of the incisal edges of the maxillary lateral incisors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A frontal photograph of a Caucasian woman's smile was digitally modified to obtain an image with the incisal edges of the maxillary lateral incisors symmetrically tangent to the smile arch. These incisal edges were then moved vertically by 0.5 mm increments. The value was considered positive for an occlusal shift and negative for a gingival shift...
September 2017: L' Orthodontie Française
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043597/do-holocentric-chromosomes-represent-an-evolutionary-advantage-a-study-of-paired-analyses-of-diversification-rates-of-lineages-with-holocentric-chromosomes-and-their-monocentric-closest-relatives
#6
José Ignacio Márquez-Corro, Marcial Escudero, Modesto Luceño
Despite most of the cytogenetic research is focused on monocentric chromosomes, chromosomes with kinetochoric activity localized in a single centromere, several studies have been centered on holocentric chromosomes which have diffuse kinetochoric activity along the chromosomes. The eukaryotic organisms that present this type of chromosomes have been relatively understudied despite they constitute rather diversified species lineages. On the one hand, holocentric chromosomes may present intrinsic benefits (chromosome mutations such as fissions and fusions are potentially neutral in holocentrics)...
October 17, 2017: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043426/roles-of-cytosolic-phospholipase-a2%C3%AE-in-reproductive-and-systemic-toxicities-in-2-3-7-8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-exposed-mice
#7
Nozomi Fujisawa, Wataru Yoshioka, Hiroyuki Yanagisawa, Chiharu Tohyama
Exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induces a variety of toxicities upon binding of TCDD to aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Although this binding upregulates the synthesis of prostaglandins and their related lipid mediators via cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α), toxicological significance of this signaling pathway remains elusive. Herein, we investigated the roles of cPLA2α in TCDD toxicities using cPLA2α-null mice. In a first set of experiments, pregnant mice were orally administered TCDD at a dose of 40 μg/kg on gestation day (GD) 12...
October 17, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043028/enhanced-effects-of-biotic-interactions-on-predicting-multispecies-spatial-distribution-of-submerged-macrophytes-after-eutrophication
#8
Kun Song, Yichong Cui, Xijin Zhang, Yingji Pan, Junli Xu, Kaiqin Xu, Liangjun Da
Water eutrophication creates unfavorable environmental conditions for submerged macrophytes. In these situations, biotic interactions may be particularly important for explaining and predicting the submerged macrophytes occurrence. Here, we evaluate the roles of biotic interactions in predicting spatial occurrence of submerged macrophytes in 1959 and 2009 for Dianshan Lake in eastern China, which became eutrophic since the 1980s. For the four common species occurred in 1959 and 2009, null species distribution models based on abiotic variables and full models based on both abiotic and biotic variables were developed using generalized linear model (GLM) and boosted regression trees (BRT) to determine whether the biotic variables improved the model performance...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042730/a-comparative-scanning-electron-microscopic-analysis-of-the-effect-of-qmix-%C3%A2-and-sofscale-%C3%A2-as-an-adjunct-to-scaling-and-root-planing-on-periodontally-compromised-root-surfaces-an-in-vitro-study
#9
Abhay A Nawathe, Neeraj C Deshpande, Shivani A Dandekar
AIM: This study aimed to comparatively analyze, under scanning electron microscope (SEM), the effect of the use of QMix(®) and SofScale(™) as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP) on periodontally compromised root surfaces. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This study was carried out in K. M. Shah Dental College and Hospital, Vadodara. METHODOLOGY: This was a single-blinded in vitro study which compared QMix(®) and SofScale(™) as an adjunct to SRP on periodontally compromised root surfaces under SEM...
July 2017: Contemporary Clinical Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042138/managing-the-excessive-proliferation-of-glycogen-accumulating-organisms-in-industrial-activated-sludge-by-nitrogen-supplementation-a-fish-nanosims-approach
#10
Cristobal A Onetto, Kathryn L Eales, Paul Guagliardo, Matt R Kilburn, Joanna M Gambetta, Paul R Grbin
Defluviicoccus vanus-related glycogen accumulating organisms (GAO) regularly proliferate in industrial wastewater treatment plants handling high carbon but nitrogen deficient wastes. When GAO dominate, they are associated with poor performance, characterised by slow settling biomass and turbid effluents. Although their ecophysiology has been studied thoroughly in domestic waste treatment plants, little attention has been paid to them in aerobic industrial systems. In this study, the effect of nitrogen addition on GAO carbon metabolism was investigated during an 8h cycle...
October 2, 2017: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041735/analysis-of-spurious-diffraction-orders-of-computer-generated-hologram-in-symmetric-aspheric-metrology
#11
Yiwei He, Xi Hou, Fan Wu, Xinxue Ma, Rongguang Liang
Computer-generated hologram (CGH) has been widely used as a wavefront compensator in symmetric aspheric metrology. As a diffractive element, it generates different diffraction orders, but only the 1st-order diffraction is used to test aspheric surface. The light from spurious diffraction orders (SDO) will produce many high-frequency fringes in interferogram and reduce measurement accuracy. In this paper, we regard the CGH null system as an imaging system and develop an aberration model in Seidel formalism to analyze the SDO...
August 21, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040938/age-estimation-using-olze-s-method-in-an-adult-brazilian-population
#12
Geovane Praxedes Lavez, Andrea Sayuri Silveira Dias Terada, Thais Uenoyama Dezem, Rodrigo Galo, Ricardo Henrique Alves da Silva
OBJECTIVES: Age estimation is important to set an anthropological profile in human remains, as well as in legal issues where the suspect or victim doesn't have documents that prove the real age. The age estimation, in adults, is a challenge, and it can be analyzed through some dental stages. This study aimed to test Olze's method in a Brazilian sample composed by adults, aged between 20 and 70 years old, both sex. METHODS: For experiments, 306 orthopantomography from Brazilian individuals between 20 and 70 years were selected...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040600/robust-inference-in-summary-data-mendelian-randomization-via-the-zero-modal-pleiotropy-assumption
#13
Fernando Pires Hartwig, George Davey Smith, Jack Bowden
Background: Mendelian randomization (MR) is being increasingly used to strengthen causal inference in observational studies. Availability of summary data of genetic associations for a variety of phenotypes from large genome-wide association studies (GWAS) allows straightforward application of MR using summary data methods, typically in a two-sample design. In addition to the conventional inverse variance weighting (IVW) method, recently developed summary data MR methods, such as the MR-Egger and weighted median approaches, allow a relaxation of the instrumental variable assumptions...
July 12, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040522/behavioral-and-transcriptomic-analysis-of-trem2-null-mice-not-all-knockout-mice-are-created-equal
#14
Silvia S Kang, Aishe Kurti, Kelsey E Baker, Chia-Chen Liu, Marco Colonna, Jason D Ulrich, David M Holtzman, Guojun Bu, John D Fryer
It is clear that innate immune system status is altered in numerous neurodegenerative diseases. Human genetic studies have demonstrated that Triggering Receptor Expressed in Myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) coding variants have a strong association with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative diseases. To more thoroughly understand the impact of TREM2 in vivo, we studied the behavioral and cognitive functions of wild-type (WT) and Trem2-/- (KO) mice during basal conditions and brain function in the context of innate immune stimulation with peripherally administered lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
October 11, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040465/the-fut2-secretor-variant-p-trp154ter-influences-serum-vitamin-b12-concentration-via-holo-haptocorrin-but-not-holo-transcobalamin-and-is-associated-with-haptocorrin-glycosylation
#15
Aneliya Velkova, Jennifer E L Diaz, Faith Pangilinan, Anne M Molloy, James L Mills, Barry Shane, Erica Sanchez, Conal Cunningham, Helen McNulty, Cheryl D Cropp, Joan E Bailey-Wilson, Alexander F Wilson, Lawrence C Brody
Vitamin B12 deficiency is common in older individuals. Circulating vitamin B12 concentration can be used to diagnose deficiency but this test has substantial false positive and false negative rates. We conducted genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in which we resolved total serum vitamin B12 into the fractions bound to transcobalamin and haptocorrin: two carrier proteins with very different biological properties. We replicated reported associations between total circulating vitamin B12 concentrations and a common null variant in FUT2...
October 12, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040414/luma-is-not-essential-for-murine-cardiac-development-and-function
#16
Matthew John Stroud, Xi Fang, Jianlin Zhang, Nuno Guimarães-Camboa, Jennifer Veevers, Nancy D Dalton, Yusu Gu, William H Bradford, Kirk L Peterson, Sylvia M Evans, Larry Gerace, Ju Chen
Aims: Luma is a recently discovered, evolutionarily conserved protein expressed in mammalian heart that is associated with the LInker of Nucleoskeleton and Cytoskeleton (LINC) complex. The LINC complex structurally integrates the nucleus and the cytoplasm, and plays a critical role in mechanotransduction across the nuclear envelope. Mutations in several LINC components in both humans and mice result in various cardiomyopathies, implying they play essential, non-redundant roles. A single amino acid substitution of serine 358 to leucine (S358L) in LUMA is the unequivocal cause of a distinct form of arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy...
October 12, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040273/schistosoma-japonicum-transmission-risk-maps-at-present-and-under-climate-change-in-mainland-china
#17
Gengping Zhu, Jingyu Fan, A Townsend Peterson
BACKGROUND: The South-to-North Water Diversion (SNWD) project is designed to channel fresh water from the Yangtze River north to more industrialized parts of China. An important question is whether future climate change and dispersal via the SNWD may synergistically favor a northward expansion of species involved in hosting and transmitting schistosomiasis in China, specifically the intermediate host, Oncomelania hupensis. METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, climate spaces occupied by the four subspecies of O...
October 17, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039278/genetic-correlations-among-milk-yield-morphology-performance-test-traits-and-somatic-cells-in-dual-purpose-rendena-breed
#18
C Sartori, N Guzzo, S Mazza, R Mantovani
Selection in native local breeds needs great carefulness due to the small population size and the risk of inbreeding. Furthermore, most breeds are dual-purpose, and milk and beef attitudes are antagonistic. For preservation purposes functional traits need to be considered. Focusing on the small local Rendena cattle, this study aimed to analyse the genetic correlations among milk, beef and udder health traits and the response to selection predicted under different scenarios. The study considered milk, fat and protein yields (MY), factor scores for udder volume (UV), conformation (UC) and muscularity obtained from type traits scored on primiparous cows, and performance test traits (PT) measured on young bulls at test station: average daily gain, in vivo SEUROP fleshiness, in vivo dressing percentage...
October 17, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038916/functional-characterization-of-chloroplast-targeted-rbga-gtpase-in-higher-plants
#19
Young Jeon, Hee-Kyung Ahn, Yong Won Kang, Hyun-Sook Pai
Plant RbgA GTPase is targeted to chloroplasts and co-fractionated with chloroplast ribosomes, and plays a role in chloroplast rRNA processing and/or ribosome biogenesis. Ribosome Biogenesis GTPase A (RbgA) homologs are evolutionarily conserved GTPases that are widely distributed in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In this study, we investigated functions of chloroplast-targeted RbgA. Nicotiana benthamiana RbgA (NbRbgA) and Arabidopsis thaliana RbgA (AtRbgA) contained a conserved GTP-binding domain and a plant-specific C-terminal domain...
October 16, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038684/modification-of-episodic-memories-by-novel-learning-a-failed-replication-study
#20
Kevin van Schie, Suzanne C van Veen, Marcel A van den Hout, Iris M Engelhard
Background: After reactivation, memories can become unstable and sensitive to modification before they are restored into long-term memory. Using behavioural manipulations, reactivated memories may be disrupted via the mechanism of interference (i.e. novel learning). In a laboratory study, Wichert et al. (2013a) showed that new learning after reactivation changed episodic memory, while new learning alone or reactivation alone did not. Objective: Given the potential clinical application of such a procedure in trauma-focused psychological treatments, such as CBT or EMDR, the aim of this study was to replicate Wichert et al...
2017: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
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