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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527113/mutant-p53-promotes-cell-spreading-and-migration-via-arhgap44
#1
Jinjin Xu, Jian Jiao, Wei Xu, Lei Ji, Dongjie Jiang, Shaofang Xie, Syeda Kubra, Xiaotao Li, Junjiang Fu, Jianru Xiao, Bianhong Zhang
The tumor suppressor p53 protein is either lost or mutated in about half of all human cancers. Loss of p53 function is well known to influence cell spreading, migration and invasion. While expression of mutant p53 is not equivalent to p53 loss, mutant p53 can acquire new functions to drive cell spreading and migration via different mechanisms. In our study, we found that mutant p53 significantly increased cell spreading and migration when comparing with p53-null cells. RNA-Seq analysis suggested that Rho GTPase activating protein 44 (ARHGAP44) is a new target of mutant p53, which suppressed ARHGAP44 transcription...
May 16, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526877/magnetospinography-visualizes-electrophysiological-activity-in-the-cervical-spinal-cord
#2
Satoshi Sumiya, Shigenori Kawabata, Yuko Hoshino, Yoshiaki Adachi, Kensuke Sekihara, Shoji Tomizawa, Masaki Tomori, Senichi Ishii, Kyohei Sakaki, Dai Ukegawa, Shuta Ushio, Taishi Watanabe, Atsushi Okawa
Diagnosis of nervous system disease is greatly aided by functional assessments and imaging techniques that localize neural activity abnormalities. Electrophysiological methods are helpful but often insufficient to locate neural lesions precisely. One proposed noninvasive alternative is magnetoneurography (MNG); we have developed MNG of the spinal cord (magnetospinography, MSG). Using a 120-channel superconducting quantum interference device biomagnetometer system in a magnetically shielded room, cervical spinal cord evoked magnetic fields (SCEFs) were recorded after stimulation of the lower thoracic cord in healthy subjects and a patient with cervical spondylotic myelopathy and after median nerve stimulation in healthy subjects...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526855/gut-homeostasis-and-regulatory-t-cell-induction-depend-on-molecular-chaperone-gp96-in-cd11c-cells
#3
Yunpeng Hua, Yi Yang, Shaoli Sun, Stephen Iwanowycz, Caroline Westwater, Boris Reizis, Zihai Li, Bei Liu
The intestinal immunity and tolerance are orchestrated by both the innate and the adaptive immune system. Intestinal professional antigen presenting cells (pAPCs) recognize and respond to the gut microbiota through multiple pattern-recognition receptors, including TLRs and NLRs. How gut pAPCs maintain mucosal homeostasis remains incompletely understood. Heat shock protein gp96, also known as grp94, is an essential immune chaperone for TLRs. However, the role of gp96 in regulating CD11c(+) APCs in the gut immunity and tolerance is unknown...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525962/association-of-lunate-morphology-with-carpal-instability-in-scapholunate-ligament-injury
#4
Eric Quan Pang, Nathan Douglass, Robin N Kamal
BACKGROUND: We examined the relationship between lunate morphology (type 1 without a medial facet; type II with a medial facet) and dorsal intercalated segmental instability (DISI) in patients with scapholunate ligament injuries. We tested the primary null hypothesis that there is no relationship between lunate morphology and development of DISI. Secondary analysis compared the agreement of classifying lunate morphology based on the presence of a medial lunate facet, capitate-to-triquetrum (CT) distance, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
May 1, 2017: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522238/biomechanical-comparison-of-four-coupled-fixation-systems-for-acl-reconstruction-with-bone-socket-or-full-tunnel-on-the-tibial-side
#5
Edoardo Monaco, Mattia Fabbri, Riccardo Maria Lanzetti, Andrea Del Duca, Luca Labianca, Andrea Ferretti
BACKGROUND: To compare in an animal model the biomechanical properties of four coupled fixation devices currently used in ACL reconstruction. Three out of four devices used a full tibial tunnel with an interference screw, while the other one system used a tibial socket and an adjustable loop suspension device. The null hypothesis is that there are no biomechanical differences between all the techniques tested. METHODS: Thirty two femur-graft-tibia complexes were mounted on a tensile machine using bovine digital extensor tendons, porcine knees and four different fixation device combinations: After a preconditioning with a tensile load of 90N for five minutes, 1000cycles between 0 and 150N were applied to the complex before the final pulled to failure...
May 15, 2017: Knee
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520870/defining-the-role-of-estrogen-receptor-beta-in-the-regulation-of-female-fertility
#6
Ma Karim Rumi, Prabhakar Singh, Katherine F Roby, Xiao Zhao, Khursheed Iqbal, Anamika Ratri, Tianhua Lei, Wei Cui, Shaon Borosha, Pramod Dhakal, Kaiyu Kubota, Damayanti Chakraborty, Jay L Vivian, Michael W Wolfe, Michael J Soares
Estrogens are essential hormones for the regulation of fertility. Cellular responses to estrogens are mediated by estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) and estrogen receptor beta (ESR2). In mouse and rat models, disruption of Esr1 causes infertility in both males and females. However, the role of ESR2 in reproductive function remains undecided due to a wide variation in phenotypic observations among Esr2 mutant mouse strains. Regulatory pathways independent of ESR2 binding to its cognate DNA response element have also been implicated in ESR2 signaling...
May 16, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518057/on-the-mechanistic-nature-of-epistasis-in-a-canonical-cis-regulatory-element
#7
Mato Lagator, Tiago Paixao, Nick Barton, Jonathan P Bollback, Călin C Guet
Understanding the relation between genotype and phenotype remains a major challenge. The difficulty of predicting individual mutation effects, and particularly the interactions between them, has prevented the development of a comprehensive theory that links genotypic changes to their phenotypic effects. We show that a general thermodynamic framework for gene regulation, based on a biophysical understanding of protein-DNA binding, accurately predicts the sign of epistasis in a canonical cis-regulatory element consisting of overlapping RNA polymerase and repressor binding sites...
May 18, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516841/us3-and-us9-proteins-contribute-to-the-stromal-invasion-of-bovine-herpesvirus-1-in-the-respiratory-mucosa
#8
Jing Zhao, Katrien C K Poelaert, Lennert Steukers, Herman W Favoreel, Yewei Li, Shafiqul I Chowdhury, Sylvia van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, Brigitte Caij, Hans J Nauwynck
Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) infection may lead to conjunctivitis, upper respiratory tract problems, pneumonia, genital disorders and abortion. BHV-1 is able to spread quickly in a plaque-wise manner and invade by breaching the basement membrane (BM) barrier in the respiratory mucosa. BHV-1 Us3, a serine/threonine kinase, induces a dramatic cytoskeletal reorganization and BHV-1 Us9, a tail-anchored membrane protein, is required for axonal transport of viruses in neurons. In this study, we investigated the role of Us3 and Us9 during BHV-1 infection in the respiratory mucosa...
May 18, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516732/diadenosine-tetraphosphate-ap4a-an-e-coli-alarmone-or-a-damage-metabolite
#9
Dragana Despotović, Alexander Brandis, Alon Savidor, Yishai Levin, Laura Fumagalli, Dan S Tawfik
Under stress, metabolism is changing: specific up- or down-regulation of proteins and metabolites occurs as well as side-effects. Distinguishing specific stress-signaling metabolites (alarmones) from side-products (damage metabolites) is not trivial. One example is diadenosine tetraphosphate, Ap4A - a side-product of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases found in all domains of life. The earliest observations suggested that Ap4A serves as an alarmone for heat stress in E. coli. However, despite 50 years of research, the signaling mechanisms associated with Ap4A remain unknown...
May 18, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516430/ramelteon-improves-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-like-behaviors-exhibited-by-fatty-acid-binding-protein-3-null-mice
#10
Yasushi Yabuki, Ibuki Takahata, Kazuya Matsuo, Yuji Owada, Kohji Fukunaga
We previously reported that fatty acid-binding protein 3 (FABP3) knockout (Fabp3 (-/-)) mice exhibit abnormal dopamine-related behaviors such as enhanced dopamine D2 receptor antagonist-induced catalepsy behaviors. Here, we report that Fabp3 null mice exhibit cognitive deficits, hyperlocomotion and impaired fear extinction, and thus show post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-like behaviors. Notably, chronic administration of ramelteon (1.0 mg/kg, p.o.), a melatonin receptor agonist, improved all PTSD-like behaviors tested in Fabp3 (-/-) mice...
May 17, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516090/lower-aorto-iliac-bifurcation-position-and-incident-cardiovascular-disease-a-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis-mesa
#11
Nketi I Forbang, Matthew A Allison, Michael H Criqui
BACKGROUND: With increasing age, a downward shift of the aorto-iliac bifurcation relative to the lumbar spine occurs. A lower bifurcation position is an independent marker for adverse vascular aging and is associated with increased burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors; however, the associations between lower bifurcation position and CVD events remain unknown. METHODS: Abdominal computed tomography scans were used to measure the aorto-iliac bifurcation distance (AIBD, distance from the aorto-iliac bifurcation to the L5/S1 disc space)...
October 2016: Aorta (Stamford, Conn.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515871/wolf-in-sheep-s-clothing-model-misspecification-undermines-tests-of-the-neutral-theory-for-life-histories
#12
Matthieu Authier, Lise M Aubry, Emmanuelle Cam
Understanding the processes behind change in reproductive state along life-history trajectories is a salient research program in evolutionary ecology. Two processes, state dependence and heterogeneity, can drive the dynamics of change among states. Both processes can operate simultaneously, begging the difficult question of how to tease them apart in practice. The Neutral Theory for Life Histories (NTLH) holds that the bulk of variations in life-history trajectories is due to state dependence and is hence neutral: Once previous (breeding) state is taken into account, variations are mostly random...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515773/building-a-multipurpose-insertional-mutant-library-for-forward-and-reverse-genetics-in-chlamydomonas
#13
Xi Cheng, Gai Liu, Wenting Ke, Lijuan Zhao, Bo Lv, Xiaocui Ma, Nannan Xu, Xiaoling Xia, Xuan Deng, Chunlei Zheng, Kaiyao Huang
BACKGROUND: The unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, is a classic model for studying flagella and biofuel. However, precise gene editing, such as Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated protein (Cas9) system, is not widely used in this organism. Screening of random insertional mutant libraries by polymerase chain reaction provides an alternate strategy to obtain null mutants of individual gene. But building, screening, and maintaining such a library was time-consuming and expensive...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515695/chronic-endurance-exercise-impairs-cardiac-structure-and-function-in-middle-aged-mice-with-impaired-nrf2-signaling
#14
Gobinath Shanmugam, Madhusudhanan Narasimhan, Robbie L Conley, Thiagarajan Sairam, Ashutosh Kumar, Ronald P Mason, Ramalingam Sankaran, John R Hoidal, Namakkal S Rajasekaran
Nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling maintains the redox homeostasis and its activation is shown to suppress cardiac maladaptation. Earlier we reported that acute endurance exercise (2 days) evoked antioxidant cytoprotection in young WT animals but not in aged WT animals. However, the effect of repeated endurance exercise during biologic aging (WT) characterized by an inherent deterioration in Nrf2 signaling and pathological aging (pronounced oxidative susceptibility-Nrf2 absence) in the myocardium remains elusive...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515285/cortical-amplification-models-of-the-experience-dependent-development-of-selective-columns-and-response-sparsification
#15
Ian Kaplan Christie, Paul Miller, Stephen D Van Hooser
The development of direction-selective cortical columns requires visual experience, but the neural circuits and plasticity mechanisms that are responsible for this developmental transition are unknown. To gain insight into the mechanisms that could underlie experience-dependent increases in selectivity, we explored families of cortical amplifier models that enhance weakly biased feed-forward signals. Here, we focused exclusively on possible contributions of cortico-cortical connections and took feed-forward input to be constant...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515211/functional-equivalence-of-the-sox2-and-sox3-transcription-factors-in-the-developing-mouse-brain-and-testes
#16
Fatwa Adikusuma, Daniel Pederick, Dale McAninch, James Hughes, Paul Thomas
Gene duplication provides spare genetic material that evolution can craft into new functions. Sox2 and Sox3 are evolutionarily-related genes with overlapping and unique sites of expression during embryogenesis. It is currently unclear whether SOX2 and SOX3 have identical or different functions. Here we use CRISPR/Cas9-assisted mutagenesis to perform a gene-swap, replacing the Sox3 ORF with the Sox2 ORF to investigate their functional equivalence in the brain and testes. We show that increased expression of SOX2 can functionally replace SOX3 in the development of the infundibular recess/ventral diencephalon and largely rescues pituitary gland defects that occur in Sox3 null mice...
May 17, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515068/low-fat-dietary-pattern-and-cardiovascular-disease-results-from-the-women-s-health-initiative-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Ross L Prentice, Aaron K Aragaki, Linda Van Horn, Cynthia A Thomson, Shirley Aa Beresford, Jennifer Robinson, Linda Snetselaar, Garnet L Anderson, JoAnn E Manson, Matthew A Allison, Jacques E Rossouw, Barbara V Howard
Background: The influence of a low-fat dietary pattern on the cardiovascular health of postmenopausal women continues to be of public health interest.Objective: This report evaluates low-fat dietary pattern influences on cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and mortality during the intervention and postintervention phases of the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial.Design: Participants comprised 48,835 postmenopausal women aged 50-79 y; 40% were randomly assigned to a low-fat dietary pattern intervention (target of 20% of energy from fat), and 60% were randomly assigned to a usual diet comparison group...
May 17, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515043/brain-perivascular-macrophages-initiate-the-neurovascular-dysfunction-of-alzheimer-a%C3%AE-peptides
#18
Laibaik Park, Ken Uekawa, Lidia Garcia-Bonilla, Kenzo Koizumi, Michelle Murphy, Rose Pitstick, Linda H Younkin, Steven G Younkin, Ping Zhou, Geroge A Carlson, Josef Anrather, Costantino Iadecola
Rationale: Increasing evidence indicates that alterations of the cerebral microcirculation may play a role in Alzheimer's disease (AD), the leading cause of late-life dementia. The amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), a key pathogenic factor in AD, induces profound alterations in neurovascular regulation through the innate immunity receptor CD36, which, in turn, activates a Nox2-containing NADPH oxidase leading to cerebrovascular oxidative stress. Brain perivascular macrophages (PVM) located in the perivascular space, a major site of brain Aβ collection and clearance, are juxtaposed to the wall of intracerebral resistance vessels and are a powerful source of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
May 17, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515014/hiv-and-the-criminalisation-of-drug-use-among-people-who-inject-drugs-a-systematic-review
#19
Kora DeBeck, Tessa Cheng, Julio S Montaner, Chris Beyrer, Richard Elliott, Susan Sherman, Evan Wood, Stefan Baral
BACKGROUND: Mounting evidence suggests that laws and policies prohibiting illegal drug use could have a central role in shaping health outcomes among people who inject drugs (PWID). To date, no systematic review has characterised the influence of laws and legal frameworks prohibiting drug use on HIV prevention and treatment. METHODS: Consistent with PRISMA guidelines, we did a systematic review of peer-reviewed scientific evidence describing the association between criminalisation of drug use and HIV prevention and treatment-related outcomes among PWID...
May 12, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513786/3-year-survival-rates-of-retained-composite-resin-and-art-sealants-using-two-assessment-criteria
#20
Leandro Augusto Hilgert, Soraya Coelho Leal, Gabriela Mesquita Lopes Freire, Jan Mulder, Jo E Frencken
The aim was to test the null-hypothesis that there is no difference in the cumulative survival rate of retained composite resin (CR) sealants and a high-viscosity glass-ionomer Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) sealant in first permanent molars calculated according to the traditional and the modified retention assessment criteria over a period of 3 years. This cluster-randomized controlled clinical trial consisted of 123 schoolchildren, 6-7-years-old. At baseline, high-caries risk pits and fissures of fully erupted first permanent molars were treated with CR and ART sealants...
May 4, 2017: Brazilian Oral Research
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