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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667761/plant-glycosylphosphatidylinositol-gpi-anchored-proteins-at-the-plasma-membrane-cell-wall-nexus
#1
REVIEW
Trevor H Yeats, Antony Bacic, Kim L Johnson
Approximately 1% of plant proteins are predicted to be post-translationally modified with a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor that tethers the polypeptide to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane. While the synthesis and structure of GPI anchors is largely conserved across eukaryotes, the repertoire of functional domains present in the GPI-anchored proteome has diverged substantially. In plants, this includes a large fraction of the GPI-anchored proteome being further modified with plant-specific arabinogalactan (AG) O-glycans...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667462/glucosamine-for-the-treatment-of-osteoarthritis-the-time-has-come-for-higher-dose-trials
#2
Mark F McCarty, James H O'Keefe, James J DiNicolantonio
Although clinical trials with glucosamine in osteoarthritis have yielded mixed results, leading to doubts about its efficacy, the utility of glucosamine for preventing joint destruction and inflammation is well documented in rodent models of arthritis, including models of spontaneous osteoarthritis. The benefit of oral glucosamine in adjuvant arthritis is markedly dose dependent, likely reflecting a modulation of tissue levels of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine that in turn influences mucopolysaccharide synthesis and the extent of protein O-GlcNAcylation...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667132/obesity-and-episodic-memory-function
#3
REVIEW
Paul D Loprinzi, Emily Frith
Obesity-related lifestyle factors, such as physical activity behavior and dietary intake, have been shown to be associated with episodic memory function. From animal work, there is considerable biological plausibility linking obesity with worse memory function. There are no published systematic reviews evaluating the effects of obesity on episodic memory function among humans, and examining whether physical activity and diet influences this obesity-memory link. Thus, the purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the totality of research examining whether obesity is associated with episodic memory function, and whether physical activity and dietary behavior confounds this relationship...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666472/caspase-8-deficiency-in-mouse-embryos-triggers-chronic-ripk1-dependent-activation-of-inflammatory-genes-independently-of-ripk3
#4
Tae-Bong Kang, Ju-Seong Jeong, Seung-Hoon Yang, Andrew Kovalenko, David Wallach
Deletion of the Casp8 gene in epithelial tissues of mice results in severe inflammatory pathologies. Its ubiquitous deletion, or its specific deletion in endothelial cells, results in intrauterine death associated with capillary damage. These pathologies are all preventable by co-deletion of Casp8 and the genes encoding either the RIPK1 or the RIPK3 protein kinase. Since activation of RIPK3 in Caspase-8-deficient cells can trigger necroptotic cell death, and since RIPK1 can activate RIPK3, it is widely assumed that the inflammatory states resulting from Caspase-8 deficiency occur as a consequence of RIPK3-induced necroptosis...
April 17, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666321/glutathione-s-transferase-m1-and-t1-null-genotype-frequency-distribution-among-four-tribal-populations-of-western-india
#5
Prem Chandra Suthar, Pulakes Purkait, Kiran Uttaravalli, B N Sarkar, Rakshit Ameta, Mithun Sikdar
Glutathione S transferase (GST) family is a key contributor in the detoxification mechanism of our body.Deletion of the genes within this family has been reported in the failure of detoxification system, to some extent leading to various types of cancers and other life threatening diseases. The existing data and reports on the association of null genotype of both GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes for various diseases are inconsistent. But knowledge of the polymorphic distributions of genotypes in different populations is important for investigating the risk factors in different epidemiological studies...
March 2018: Journal of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666198/nest-predation-risk-modifies-nestlings-immune-function-depending-on-the-level-of-threat
#6
G Roncalli, E Colombo, M Soler, B I Tieleman, M A Versteegh, F Ruiz-Raya, M Gómez Samblas, J D Ibáñez-Álamo
Predation risk is thought to modify prey's physiology mainly through the stress response. However, little is known about its potential effects on the immunity of animals, particularly in young individuals, despite the importance to overcome wounding and pathogen aggression following a predator attack. We investigated the effect of four progressive levels of nest predation risk on several components of the immune system in common blackbird ( Turdus merula ) nestlings by presenting them with four different calls during 1h: non-predator calls, predator calls, parental alarm calls and conspecific distress calls to induce a null, moderate, high and extreme level of risk, respectively...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666004/biallelic-tp53-gain-of-function-mutations-in-rapidly-progressing-solid-tumors
#7
Christopher M Sande, Brian Chang, Varun Monga, Aaron D Bossler, Deqin Ma
Recent studies are discovering TP53 mutations with gain of function (GOF) properties that promote tumorigenesis via a variety of mechanisms. To our knowledge, all reported compound mutations are allelic. We identified two patients with biallelic GOF TP53 mutations in their tumors and a third with allelic compound variants. The correlation with p53 expression was also examined. Genomic DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue and mutational analysis was performed using Ion AmpliSeq™Cancer HotSpot Panel V2...
April 2018: Cancer Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664998/compatible-ecological-niche-signals-between-biological-and-archaeological-datasets-for-late-surviving-neandertals
#8
Rachael C Bible, A Townsend Peterson
OBJECTIVES: To assess ecological niche similarity for biological and archaeological samples representing late-surviving Neandertals in Europe to evaluate the validity of combining these two types of data in ecological niche modeling analyses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tests of niche conservatism were used to assess niche similarity and niche identity of samples of morphologically diagnostic Neandertal remains and Middle Paleolithic (MP) archaeological sites dating to the time period leading up to Neandertal extinction...
April 17, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664896/a-randomized-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial-of-prazosin-for-the-treatment-of-alcohol-use-disorder
#9
Claire E Wilcox, J Scott Tonigan, Michael P Bogenschutz, Joshua Clifford, Rose Bigelow, Tracy Simpson
OBJECTIVES: The noradrenergic system plays an important role in the pathophysiology of alcohol use disorder (AUD). Medications in this class may reduce drinking. Our aims were to investigate this in a unique sample of individuals with AUD. METHODS: Thirty-six individuals with AUD were randomized to treatment with prazosin, an alpha-1 noradrenergic antagonist, or placebo, for 6 weeks (target daily dose 16 mg). Hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine the effect of treatment group on rate of change in primary (drinks per week [DPW]) and several secondary outcome measures...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664675/knockout-of-glucose-transporter-glut6-has-minimal-effects-on-whole-body-metabolic-physiology-in-mice
#10
Frances L Byrne, Ellen M Olzomer, Robert Brink, Kyle L Hoehn
Glucose transporter 6 (GLUT6) is a member of the facilitative glucose transporter family. GLUT6 is up-regulated in several cancers, but is not widely expressed in normal tissues. Previous studies have shown that GLUT6 knockdown kills endometrial cancer cells that express elevated levels of the protein. However, whether GLUT6 represents a viable anti-cancer drug target is unclear because the role of GLUT6 in normal metabolic physiology is unknown. Herein we generated GLUT6 knockout mice to determine how loss of GLUT6 affected whole body glucose homeostasis and metabolic physiology...
April 17, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664296/ppar%C3%AE-mediates-the-hepatoprotective-effects-of-nutmeg
#11
Xiao Nan Yang, Xue-Mei Liu, JIan-He Fang, Xu Zhu, Xiu-Wei Yang, Xue-Rong Xiao, Jian-Feng Huang, Frank J Gonzalez, Fei Li
Nutmeg is a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat gastrointestinal diseases. Some reports indicated that nutmeg has hepatoprotective activity. In this study, a thioacetamide (TAA)-induced acute liver injury model in mice was used to explore the mechanism of the protective effects of nutmeg extract (NME), including its major bioactive component myrislignan. The results indicated that NME could effectively protect TAA-induced liver damage as assessed by recovery of increased serum liver transaminases, decrease hepatic oxidative stress and lower hepatic inflammation...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663663/modular-ligation-extension-of-guide-rna-operons-lego-for-multiplexed-dcas9-regulation-of-metabolic-pathways-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#12
Matthew Deaner, Allison Holzman, Hal S Alper
Metabolic engineering typically utilizes a suboptimal step-wise gene target optimization approach to parse a highly connected and regulated cellular metabolism. While the endonuclease-null CRISPR/Cas system has enabled gene expression perturbations without genetic modification, it has been mostly limited to small sets of gene targets in eukaryotes due to inefficient methods to assemble and express large sgRNA operons. In this work, we develop a TEF1p-tRNA expression system and demonstrate that the use of tRNAs as splicing elements flanking sgRNAs provides higher efficiency than both Pol III and ribozyme-based expression across a variety of single sgRNA and multiplexed contexts...
April 16, 2018: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663646/isobaric-tag-based-protein-profiling-of-a-nicotine-treated-alpha7-nicotinic-receptor-null-human-haploid-cell-line
#13
Joao A Paulo, Steven P Gygi
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR), the primary cell surface targets of nicotine, have implications in various neurological disorders. Here we investigate the proteome-wide effects of nicotine on human haploid cell lines (wildtype HAP1 and α7KO-HAP1) to address differences in nicotine-induced protein abundance profiles between these cell lines. We performed an SPS-MS3-based TMT10-plex experiment arranged in a 2-3-2-3 design with two replicates for the untreated samples and three for the treated samples for each cell line...
April 16, 2018: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663440/temporal-framing-and-the-hidden-zero-effect-rate-dependent-outcomes-on-delay-discounting
#14
Gideon P Naudé, Brent A Kaplan, Derek D Reed, Amy J Henley, Florence D DiGennaro Reed
Recent research suggests that presenting time intervals as units (e.g., days) or as specific dates, can modulate the degree to which humans discount delayed outcomes. Another framing effect involves explicitly stating that choosing a smaller-sooner reward is mutually exclusive to receiving a larger-later reward, thus presenting choices as an extended sequence. In Experiment 1, participants (N = 201) recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk completed the Monetary Choice Questionnaire in a 2 (delay framing) by 2 (zero framing) design...
April 16, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662258/frequency-of-common-polymorphisms-in-caveolin-1-cav1-gene-in-adults-with-high-serum-triglycerides-from-colombian-caribbean-coast
#15
Gustavo Jose Mora-Garcia, Maria Stephany Ruiz-Diaz, Doris Esther Gomez-Camargo, Claudio Jaime Gomez-Alegria
Background: Caveolin 1 gene ( CAV1 ) has been associated with insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and hypertension in humans. Also, it has been related to high serum triglycerides in rodents, however there is little evidence of this relation in humans. Aim: To describe frequencies of common variations in CAV1 in adults with high serum triglycerides. Methods: A case-control study was carried out with adults from Colombian Caribbean Coast...
December 30, 2017: Colombia Médica: CM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662110/identification-of-human-glycosyltransferase-genes-expressed-in-erythroid-cells-predicts-potential-carbohydrate-blood-group-loci
#16
Magnus Jöud, Mattias Möller, Martin L Olsson
Glycans are biologically important structures synthesised by glycosyltransferase (GT) enzymes. Disruptive genetic null variants in GT genes can lead to serious illness but benign phenotypes are also seen, including antigenic differences on the red blood cell (RBC) surface, giving rise to blood groups. To characterise known and potential carbohydrate blood group antigens without a known underlying gene, we searched public databases for human GT loci and investigated their variation in the 1000 Genomes Project (1000 G)...
April 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661910/myeloid-cell-deficiency-of-p38%C3%AE-p38%C3%AE-protects-against-candidiasis-and-regulates-antifungal-immunity
#17
Dayanira Alsina-Beauchamp, Alejandra Escós, Pilar Fajardo, Diego González-Romero, Ester Díaz-Mora, Ana Risco, Miguel A Martín-Serrano, Carlos Del Fresno, Jorge Dominguez-Andrés, Noelia Aparicio, Rafal Zur, Natalia Shpiro, Gordon D Brown, Carlos Ardavín, Mihai G Netea, Susana Alemany, Juan J Sanz-Ezquerro, Ana Cuenda
Candida albicans is a frequent aetiologic agent of sepsis associated with high mortality in immunocompromised patients. Developing new antifungal therapies is a medical need due to the low efficiency and resistance to current antifungal drugs. Here, we show that p38γ and p38δ regulate the innate immune response to C. albicans We describe a new TAK1-TPL2-MKK1-ERK1/2 pathway in macrophages, which is activated by Dectin-1 engagement and positively regulated by p38γ/p38δ. In mice, p38γ/p38δ deficiency protects against C...
April 16, 2018: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660945/trpc1-null-exacerbates-memory-deficit-and-apoptosis-induced-by-amyloid-%C3%AE
#18
Mengzhu Li, Enjie Liu, Qiuzhi Zhou, Shihong Li, Xin Wang, Yanchao Liu, Lin Wang, Dongsheng Sun, Jinwang Ye, Yuan Gao, Xifei Yang, Jianjun Liu, Ying Yang, Jian-Zhi Wang
The transient receptor potential cation (TRPC) channels are widely expressed in nervous system but their functions remain largely unclear. Here, we found that TRPC1 deletion did not affect learning and memory in physiological conditions, while it aggravated learning and memory deficits induced by amyloid-β (Aβ), the major component of the senile plaques observed in the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Further studies demonstrated that TRPC1 deletion did not affect cell apoptosis in physiological condition, but it exacerbated the Aβ-induced cell death in mouse hippocampus...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660917/medical-compression-stockings-reduce-hypertension-of-nailfold-capillaries-at-the-toe-of-patients-with-chronic-venous-insufficiency1
#19
Anja Oelert, Manuela Kittel, Martin Hahn, Hermann Haase, Michael Jünger
In five patients who suffered from chronic venous insufficiency clinical stage C4 (n = 3) and C6 (n = 2) the capillary blood pressure was measured twice by means of invasive direct cannulation of nailfold capillaries of the toe. During one measurement course the patients wore below knee medical compression stockings (40 mmHg) during the other they did not have compression therapy. With the patient in supine position, the CP was investigated by the servo-nulling technique under resting conditions and under dynamic conditions: the calf-muscle/ankle joint venous pump was simulated by means of inflating a blood pressure cuff, which surrounded the mid lower leg, to 60 mmHg for 60 s...
April 7, 2018: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660852/etiology-and-functional-validation-of-gastrointestinal-motility-dysfunction-in-a-zebrafish-model-of-charge-syndrome
#20
Kellie Cloney, Shelby L Steele, Matthew R Stoyek, Roger P Croll, Frank M Smith, Sergey V Prykhozhij, Mary M Brown, Craig Midgen, Kim Blake, Jason N Berman
CHARGE syndrome is linked to autosomal dominant mutations in the CHD7 gene and results in a number of physiological and structural abnormalities, including heart defects, hearing and vision loss and gastrointestinal (GI) problems. Of these challenges, GI problems have a profound impact throughout an individual's life, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. A homologue of CHD7 has been identified in the zebrafish, the loss of which recapitulates many of the features of the human disease. Using a morpholino chd7 knockdown model complemented by a chd7 null mutant zebrafish line, we examined GI structure, innervation, and motility in larval zebrafish...
April 16, 2018: FEBS Journal
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