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Liver immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628614/lamphimerus-a-novel-lamp-assay-for-detecting-amphimerus-sp-dna-in-human-stool-samples
#1
William Cevallos, Pedro Fernández-Soto, Manuel Calvopiña, Cristina Fontecha-Cuenca, Hiromu Sugiyama, Megumi Sato, Julio López Abán, Belén Vicente, Antonio Muro
BACKGROUND: Amphimeriasis is a fish-borne disease caused by the liver fluke Amphimerus spp. that has recently been reported as endemic in the tropical Pacific side of Ecuador with a high prevalence in humans and domestic animals. The diagnosis is based on the stool examination to identify parasite eggs, but it lacks sensitivity. Additionally, the morphology of the eggs may be confounded with other liver and intestinal flukes. No immunological or molecular methods have been developed to date...
June 19, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626871/a-successful-living-donor-liver-re-transplantation-for-graft-failure-within-seven-days-due-to-acute-de-novo-donor-specific-anti-hla-antibody-mediated-rejection
#2
Yohei Yamada, Ken Hoshino, Teisaburo Mori, Miho Kawaida, Kiyotomo Abe, Hideo Ishihama, Takahiro Shimizu, Nobuhiro Takahashi, Kentaro Matsubara, Taizo Hibi, Yuta Abe, Hiroshi Yagi, Naoki Shimojima, Masahiro Shinoda, Minoru Kitago, Hideaki Obara, Yasushi Fuchimoto, Kaori Kameyama, Yuko Kitagawa, Tatsuo Kuroda
Growing evidence suggests a relationship between antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) and early graft failure due to a previously unknown etiology in liver transplantation (LTx). We herein report a three-year-old boy who developed rapid graft failure due to de novo donor-specific antibody (DSA)-driven AMR a week after living donor LTx, requiring a second transplant on the 10th day after the first LTx. The pathology of the first graft showed massive necrosis in zone 3 along with positive C4d and inflammatory cell infiltrates in portal areas...
June 19, 2017: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624108/modification-of-immunosuppressive-therapy-as-risk-factor-for-complications-after-liver-transplantation
#3
REVIEW
Paolo De Simone, Paola Carrai, Laura Coletti, Davide Ghinolfi, Stefania Petruccelli, Franco Filipponi
Management of complications post-liver transplantation (LT) includes immunosuppressive manipulations with the aim to reduce the overall burden of immunologic suppression and compensate for renal, cardiovascular, metabolic toxicities, and for the increased oncologic risk. Two approaches can be implemented to reduce immunosuppression-related adverse events: upfront schedules tailored to the pretransplant individual patient's risk profile versus downstream modifications in the event of immunosuppression-related complications...
April 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620583/engineering-of-genetically-arrested-parasites-gaps-for-a-precision-malaria-vaccine
#4
REVIEW
Oriana Kreutzfeld, Katja Müller, Kai Matuschewski
Continuous stage conversion and swift changes in the antigenic repertoire in response to acquired immunity are hallmarks of complex eukaryotic pathogens, including Plasmodium species, the causative agents of malaria. Efficient elimination of Plasmodium liver stages prior to blood infection is one of the most promising malaria vaccine strategies. Here, we describe different genetically arrested parasites (GAPs) that have been engineered in Plasmodium berghei, P. yoelii and P. falciparum and compare their vaccine potential...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620263/immunopathological-response-of-leukocytes-against-microfilariae-and-adult-worms-in-white-rats-infected-with-setaria-cervi
#5
Sharba Kausar, Wajihullah Khan
AIM: Aim of this study was to see the immunopathological changes against the microfilariae (Mf) and adult worms of a bovine filarid, Setaria cervi in the tissues of vital organs of experimentally infected white rats. The effect of diethylcarbamazine (DEC) was also observed on the Mf, as leukocytes especially lymphocytes produce immunoglobulins which opsonize and increase the efficacy of DEC against circulating Mf. Effect of this drug was also assessed on liver enzymes in the microfilaremic rats...
May 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614908/adenoviral-production-of-interleukin-2-at-the-tumor-site-removes-the-need-for-systemic-postconditioning-in-adoptive-cell-therapy
#6
Joao Manuel Santos, Riikka Havunen, Mikko Siurala, Víctor Cervera-Carrascon, Siri Tähtinen, Suvi Sorsa, Marjukka Anttila, Pauliina Karell, Anna Kanerva, Akseli Hemminki
Systemic high-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) postconditioning has long been utilized in boosting the efficacy of T cells in adoptive cell therapy (ACT) of solid tumors. The resulting severe off-target toxicity of these regimens renders local production at the tumor an attractive concept with possible safety gains. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of intratumorally administered IL-2-coding adenoviruses in combination with tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte therapy in syngeneic Syrian hamsters bearing HapT1 pancreatic tumors and with T cell receptor transgenic ACT in B16...
June 14, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608637/regulatory-t-cell-therapy-in-liver-transplantation
#7
REVIEW
Gavin P Whitehouse, Andrew Hope, Alberto Sanchez-Fueyo
Modern immunosuppression drug regimens have produced excellent short term survival after liver transplantation but it is generally accepted that the side effects of these medications remain a significant contributing factor for less satisfactory long term outcomes. The liver has unique tolerogenic properties as evidenced by the higher rates of operational tolerance seen in liver transplant recipients compared to other solid organ transplants and therefore liver transplantation offers an attractive setting in which to study tolerising therapies...
June 13, 2017: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597106/relative-ascites-polymorphonuclear-cell-count-indicates-bacterascites-and-risk-of-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis
#8
Philipp Lutz, Felix Goeser, Dominik J Kaczmarek, Stefan Schlabe, Hans Dieter Nischalke, Jacob Nattermann, Achim Hoerauf, Christian P Strassburg, Ulrich Spengler
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Absolute polymorphonuclear (PMN) counts in ascites define spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP), a severe form of bacterial infection in liver cirrhosis. Bacterascites, another form of ascites infection, can progress to SBP or may resolve spontaneously but is not reflected by absolute PMN counts. We investigated whether the relative ascites PMN count (the absolute PMN count divided by the absolute leukocyte count) provides additional information to detect bacterascites or predict SBP...
June 9, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591628/type-i-interferons-interfere-with-liver-glucose-metabolism
#9
Güneş Parlakgul, Gökhan S Hotamisligil
The specific immunological components linking metabolic stresses to liver inflammation and systemic metabolic pathologies in obesity are not entirely known. A recent study (Ghazarian et al., 2017) reveals that obesity-induced type I interferon signaling drives the accumulation and activation of intrahepatic CD8(+) T cells, leading to systemic metabolic deterioration.
June 6, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589058/metoprolol-induced-severe-liver-injury-and-successful-management-with-therapeutic-plasma-exchange
#10
Cyriac Philips, Rajaguru Paramaguru, Pushpa Mahadevan, Jayasurya Ravindranath, Philip Augustine
Liver injury caused by metoprolol is very rare with current reports limited to an isolated elevation in transaminases. We report the first case of severe icteric liver injury leading to hepatic encephalopathy secondary to metoprolol use in a patient diagnosed with coronary heart disease. We also describe the histopathology of metoprolol-related liver injury, discuss mechanisms of injury with new insights on the immunological phenomenon, and shed light on the successful utility of early plasmapheresis as a salvage therapy in metoprolol-induced severe liver damage...
May 2, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584245/immune-signatures-of-pathogenesis-in-the-peritoneal-compartment-during-early-infection-of-sheep-with-fasciola-hepatica
#11
Maria Teresa Ruiz-Campillo, Veronica Molina Hernandez, Alejandro Escamilla, Michael Stevenson, Jose Perez, Alvaro Martinez-Moreno, Sheila Donnelly, John P Dalton, Krystyna Cwiklinski
Immune signatures of sheep acutely-infected with Fasciola hepatica, an important pathogen of livestock and humans were analysed within the peritoneal compartment to investigate early infection. Within the peritoneum, F. hepatica antibodies coincided with an intense innate and adaptive cellular immune response, with infiltrating leukocytes and a marked eosinophilia (49%). However, while cytokine qPCR analysis revealed IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-23 and TGFβ were elevated, these were not statistically different at 18 days post-infection compared to uninfected animals indicating that the immune response is muted and not yet skewed to a Th2 type response that is associated with chronic disease...
June 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579252/biological-implications-of-selenium-in-adolescent-rats-exposed-to-binge-drinking-oxidative-immunologic-and-apoptotic-balance
#12
M Luisa Ojeda, Olimpia Carreras, Paula Sobrino, M Luisa Murillo, Fátima Nogales
Alcohol intermittent binge drinking (BD) during adolescence decreases the levels of selenium (Se), a trace element that plays a key biological role against oxidative damage in hepatocytes through different selenoproteins such as the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidases (GPx1 and Gpx4) and selenoprotein P (SelP). In this context, it has been found that GPx4 has an essential antioxidant role in mitochondria modulating the apoptosis and NF-kB activation (a factor intimately related to apoptosis and immune function)...
June 1, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567448/type-i-interferon-responses-drive-intrahepatic-t-cells-to-promote-metabolic-syndrome
#13
Magar Ghazarian, Xavier S Revelo, Mark K Nøhr, Helen Luck, Kejing Zeng, Helena Lei, Sue Tsai, Stephanie A Schroer, Yoo Jin Park, Melissa Hui Yen Chng, Lei Shen, June Ann D'Angelo, Peter Horton, William C Chapman, Diane Brockmeier, Minna Woo, Edgar G Engleman, Oyedele Adeyi, Naoto Hirano, Tianru Jin, Adam J Gehring, Shawn Winer, Daniel A Winer
Obesity-related insulin resistance is driven by low-grade chronic inflammation of metabolic tissues. In the liver, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with hepatic insulin resistance and systemic glucose dysregulation. However, the immunological factors supporting these processes are poorly understood. We found that the liver accumulates pathogenic CD8+ T cell subsets which control hepatic insulin sensitivity and gluconeogenesis during diet-induced obesity in mice. In a cohort of human patients, CD8+ T cells represent a dominant intrahepatic immune cell population which links to glucose dysregulation...
April 21, 2017: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566719/chronic-alcohol-consumption-promotes-diethylnitrosamine-induced-hepatocarcinogenesis-via-immune-disturbances
#14
Guoxiu Yan, Xuefu Wang, Cheng Sun, Xiaodong Zheng, Haiming Wei, Zhigang Tian, Rui Sun
Chronic alcohol consumption increases the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, little is known about the potential immunological mechanisms by which ethanol affects tumor progression. Here, adult male mice were administered multiple doses of diethylnitrosamine (DEN). Four and a half months later, the DEN-treated mice were placed on a liquid Lieber-DeCarli control diet or diet containing 5% ethanol for 2.5 months. At the end of the study, liver tissue samples were obtained to analyze pathology, gene expression, and hepatic mononuclear cells (MNCs)...
May 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28564593/the-occurrence-of-l-lactate-dehydrogenase-in-the-inner-mitochondrial-compartment-of-pig-liver
#15
Gianluca Paventi, Roberto Pizzuto, Salvatore Passarella
Although pig represents a model species in biomedical research including studies dealing with liver patho-physiology, some aspects of liver metabolism need to be addressed. In particular, whether and how pig mitochondria can metabolize l-lactate remains to be established. We show here that pig liver mitochondria (PLM) possess their own l-lactate dehydrogenase (mL-LDH). This was shown both via immunological analysis and by assaying photometrically the L-LDH reaction in solubilised PLM. The mL-LDH reaction shows hyperbolic dependence on the substrate concentration, it is inhibited by oxamate and proves to differ from the cytosolic activity (cL-LDH), as revealed by the difference found in both pH profiles and temperature dependence of m- and cL-LDH...
May 28, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562019/mass-spectrometric-characterization-of-circulating-covalent-protein-adducts-derived-from-epoxide-metabolites-of-carbamazepine-in-patients
#16
Vincent L M Yip, Xiaoli Meng, James L Maggs, Rosalind E Jenkins, Philippe T Marlot, Anthony G Marson, B Kevin Park, Munir Pirmohamed
Carbamazepine (CBZ) is an effective antiepileptic drug that has been associated with hypersensitivity reactions. The pathogenesis of those reactions is incompletely understood but is postulated to involve a complex interplay between the drug's metabolism, genetic variation in human leukocyte antigens, and adverse activation of the immune system. Multiple T-cell activation mechanisms have been hypothesized including activation by drug-peptide conjugates derived from proteins haptenated by reactive metabolites...
June 12, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558712/molecular-and-immunological-analyses-of-confirmed-plasmodium-vivax-relapse-episodes
#17
Sarunya Maneerattanasak, Panita Gosi, Srivicha Krudsood, Pattamawan Chimma, Jarinee Tongshoob, Yuvadee Mahakunkijcharoen, Chonlaphat Sukasem, Mallika Imwong, Georges Snounou, Srisin Khusmith
BACKGROUND: Relapse infections resulting from the activation hypnozoites produced by Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale represent an important obstacle to the successful control of these species. A single licensed drug, primaquine is available to eliminate these liver dormant forms. To date, investigations of vivax relapse infections have been few in number. RESULTS: Genotyping, based on polymorphic regions of two genes (Pvmsp1F3 and Pvcsp) and four microsatellite markers (MS3...
May 30, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549942/tissue-specific-expression-profile-of-some-immune-related-genes-in-labeo-rohita-to-edwardsiella-tarda-infection
#18
Sajal Kole, Deepika Anand, Rupam Sharma, Gayatri Tripathi, M Makesh, K V Rajendran, Megha Kadam Bedekar
Rohu (Labeo rohita), an Indian Major Carp (IMC) is an economically important aquaculture species in India. Inspite of the technological advances, infectious diseases caused by viruses, bacteria and parasites have been a major limiting factor in the development and profitability of fish farms. At present, information regarding the immune status of the Indian major carps is limited. This lack of knowledge is a major impediment for establishment of effective preventive measures against broad spectrum of infectious agents...
May 23, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544232/peripartum-cytokine-flares-in-a-multiethnic-cohort-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-carriers-does-not-correlate-with-hepatitis-b-virus-suppression-or-increased-risk-of-liver-disease
#19
Shivali S Joshi, Daniel Wong, Eliana Castillo, Mark G Swain, Carla S Coffin
PROBLEM: In chronic hepatitis B (CHB) carriers, alanine transaminase (ALT) flares are common in the peripartum period. There are limited data on immunological changes of pregnancy in CHB. We hypothesize that in pregnant CHB carriers, the Th1/Th2 cytokine ratio is altered resulting in changes in biochemical/virological and liver fibrosis markers. STUDY METHODS: Serum from 38 pregnant/post-partum CHB carriers (median age 32 years, 53% Asian, 8 HBeAg(+) ) was tested for HBV DNA, quantitative HBV surface antigen, ALT and liver fibrosis by transient elastography (TE)...
May 19, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542438/chemically-induced-disseminated-pythiosis-in-balb-c-mice-a-new-experimental-model-for-pythium-insidiosum-infection
#20
Juliana S M Tondolo, Érico S Loreto, Pauline C Ledur, Francielli P K Jesus, Taiara M Silva, Glaucia D Kommers, Sydney H Alves, Janio M Santurio
Pythiosis is a severe and life-threatening disease that affects humans and various animal species. We report a model of vascular/disseminated pythiosis occurring after subcutaneous inoculation of 2 x 104 Pythium insidiosum zoospores/mL in immunocompromised BALB/c mice. For this model, we carried out two rounds of experiments. First, we evaluated two protocols of immunosuppression before inoculation: cyclophosphamide at 150 mg/kg (CYP group) and cyclophosphamide 200 mg/kg plus hydrocortisone acetate at 250 mg/kg (CYP+HCA group)...
2017: PloS One
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