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Liver immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749434/unsolved-puzzles-surrounding-hcv-immunity-heterologous-immunity-adds-another-dimension
#1
REVIEW
Babita Agrawal, Shakti Singh, Nancy Gupta, Wen Li, Satish Vedi, Rakesh Kumar
Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) afflicts 3% of the world's population and can lead to serious and late-stage liver diseases. Developing a vaccine for HCV is challenging because the correlates of protection are uncertain and traditional vaccine approaches do not work. Studies of natural immunity to HCV in humans have resulted in many enigmas. Human beings are not immunologically naïve because they are continually exposed to various environmental microbes and antigens, creating large populations of memory T cells...
July 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744748/biliary-complications-after-living-donor-liver-transplantation-a-retrospective-analysis-of-the-kyoto-experience-1999-2004
#2
Ayman Zaki Azzam, Koichi Tanaka
BACKGROUND AND AIM: In living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), biliary complications continue to be the most frequent cause of morbidity and may contribute to mortality of recipients although there are advances in surgical techniques. This study will evaluate retrospectively the short-term and long-term management of biliary complications. METHODS: During the period from May 1999, to May 2004, 505 patients underwent 518 LDLT in the Department of Liver Transplantation and Immunology, Kyoto University Hospital, Japan...
July 26, 2017: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742190/the-research-on-the-influences-of-hyperthermal-perfusion-chemotherapy-combined-with-immunologic-therapy-on-the-immunologic-function-and-levels-of-circulating-tumor-cells-of-the-advanced-colorectal-cancer-patients-with-liver-metastasis
#3
J-J Sun, G-L Fan, X-G Wang, K Xu
OBJECTIVE: To investigated the influence of hyperthermal perfusion chemotherapy combined with immunologic therapy on the immunologic function and levels of circulating tumor cells of the advanced colorectal cancer patients with liver metastasis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We enrolled 98 advanced colorectal cancer patients with liver metastasis that were admitted to this hospital for treatment and were randomly divided into two groups, the observation group (n = 49) and the control group (n = 49)...
July 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739303/cpg-oligonucleotides-increase-hbv-specific-cytokine-responses-in-whole-blood-and-enhance-cytokine-release-assay-sensitivity
#4
Werner Dammermann, Julia Dornbrack, Katharina Bröker, Frank Bentzien, Stefan Lüth
BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis B leads to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. To develop a therapeutic vaccine for chronic hepatitis B patients it is necessary to assess cellular immune responses to hepatitis B virus(HBV) antigens. We investigated the potential of toll-like receptor(TLR) 9 agonists, i.e. CpG oligonucleotides, as costimulators to increase diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of our HBV specific cytokine release assay. METHODS: Whole blood from 80 healthy individuals(n=51 hepatitis B vaccinated, n=29 unvaccinated) was stimulated with hepatitis B surface antigen(HBsAg) or hepatitis B core antigen(HBcAg) in presence or absence of CpG oligonucleotides...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737147/brucella-causing-liver-abscess-in-a-child-with-selective-iga-deficiency
#5
Devdeep Mukherjee, Priyankar Pal, Ritabrata Kundu
BACKGROUND: Brucella has been known to cause pyrexia of unknown origin. CASE CHARACTERISTICS: 9-year-old boy with fever and abdominal pain; multiple abscesses within the liver on ultrasonography. OBSERVATIONS: IgM Antibodies against Brucella were raised in his serum sample, and Brucella serum agglutination test was positive. Immunological work-up suggested selective IgA deficiency. Reduction in size following treatment with trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, amikacin and doxycycline...
July 15, 2017: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720146/analysis-of-long-term-cd4-cd25highcd127-t-reg-cells-kinetics-in-peripheral-blood-of-lung-transplant-recipients
#6
Davide Piloni, Monica Morosini, Sara Magni, Alice Balderacchi, Luigia Scudeller, Emanuela Cova, Tiberio Oggionni, Giulia Stella, Carmine Tinelli, Filippo Antonacci, Andrea Maria D'Armini, Federica Meloni
BACKGROUND: The role of CD4(+)CD25(high)CD127(-) T-reg cells in solid-organ Transplant (Tx) acceptance has been extensively studied. In previous studies on kidney and liver recipients, peripheral T-reg cell counts were associated to graft survival, while in lung Tx, there is limited evidence for similar findings. This study aims to analyze long term peripheral kinetics of T-reg-cells in a cohort of lung recipients and tests its association to several clinical variables. METHODS: From jan 2009 to dec 2014, 137 lung Tx recipients were submitted to an immunological follow up (median: 105...
July 18, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719149/cadmium-induced-toxicity-is-rescued-by-curcumin-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Mohammad Mohajeri, Mehdi Rezaee, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most common environmental and occupational heavy metals with extended distribution. Exposure to Cd may be associated with several deleterious consequences on the liver, bones, kidneys, lungs, testes, brain, immunological, and cardiovascular systems. Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as the main mechanism behind its toxicity causes oxidative stress and subsequent damages to lipids, proteins, and DNA. Therefore, antioxidants along with chelating agents have shown promising outcomes against Cd-induced toxicity...
July 18, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714241/cytokine-profiles-in-tibetan-macaques-following-%C3%AE-1-3-galactosyltransferase-knockout-pig-liver-xenotransplantation
#8
Zhuochao Zhang, Xiao Li, Hong Zhang, Xuan Zhang, Hui Chen, Dengke Pan, Hongchen Ji, Liang Zhou, Juan Ling, Jingshi Zhou, Shuqiang Yue, Desheng Wang, Zhaoxu Yang, Kaishan Tao, Kefeng Dou
BACKGROUND: Pig-to-nonhuman primate orthotopic liver xenotransplantation is often accompanied by thrombocytopenia and coagulation disorders. Furthermore, the release of cytokines can trigger cascade reactions of coagulation and immune attacks within transplant recipients. To better elucidate the process of inflammation in liver xenograft recipients, we utilized a modified heterotopic auxiliary liver xenotransplantation model for xeno-immunological research. We studied the cytokine profiles and the relationship between cytokine levels and xenograft function after liver xenotransplantation...
July 17, 2017: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713494/caspase-3-role-and-immunohistochemical-expression-in-assessment-of-apoptosis-as-a-feature-of-h1n1-vaccine-caused-drug-induced-liver-injury-dili
#9
Abir Khalil Mohamed, Mona Magdy
BACKGROUND: Drug-Induced Liver Injury (DILI) changes, occur post exposure to natural or chemical compounds including apoptosis. AIM: To assess the H1N1 vaccine-caused DILI by histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. METHODS: This 2014's experimental study was conducted on 70 albino rats. They were given Arepanrix(TM) H1N1 vaccine and were divided into 7 groups; 10 mice each, as control (non-vaccinated), vac2 and vac4 injected with 1(st) and 2(nd) doses of vaccine (suspension only) and euthanized after 3 weeks each, vac5 euthanized 6 weeks after 2(nd) dose, mix2 and mix4 injected with 1(st) and 2(nd) doses of vaccine (mixture of suspension and adjuvant) and euthanized after 3 weeks each, mix5 and euthanized 6 weeks after 2(nd) dose...
May 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710903/stellate-cells-orchestrate-concanavalin-a-induced-acute-liver-damage
#10
Richa Rani, Ashish Tandon, Jiang Wang, Sudhir Kumar, Chandrashekhar R Gandhi
Concanavalin A (ConA) causes immune cell-mediated liver damage, but the contribution of resident nonparenchymal cells is also evident. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) induce hepatic inflammation and immunological reactions; we therefore investigated their role in ConA-induced liver injury. ConA was administered i.v. to control or HSC-depleted mice; hepatic histopathology and cytokines/chemokines were determined after 6 hours. In vitro, the effects of ConA-conditioned HSC medium on hepatocytes were determined...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706073/mouse-models-of-acute-and-chronic-hepacivirus-infection
#11
Eva Billerbeck, Raphael Wolfisberg, Ulrik Fahnøe, Jing W Xiao, Corrine Quirk, Joseph M Luna, John M Cullen, Alex S Hartlage, Luis Chiriboga, Kalpana Ghoshal, W Ian Lipkin, Jens Bukh, Troels K H Scheel, Amit Kapoor, Charles M Rice
An estimated 71 million people worldwide are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). The lack of small-animal models has impeded studies of antiviral immune mechanisms. Here we show that an HCV-related hepacivirus discovered in Norway rats can establish high-titer hepatotropic infections in laboratory mice with immunological features resembling those seen in human viral hepatitis. Whereas immune-compromised mice developed persistent infection, immune-competent mice cleared the virus within 3 to 5 weeks. Acute clearance was T cell dependent and associated with liver injury...
July 14, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690845/diagnostic-autoantibodies-for-autoimmune-liver-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Ban-Hock Toh
Autoimmune liver diseases are conditions of low prevalence that comprise the triad of autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cholangitis (cirrhosis) and primary sclerosing cholangitis and their poorly characterised overlapping syndromes. Diagnostic autoantibodies are associated with autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cholangitis but not with primary sclerosing cholangitis. Autoantibodies are useful disease markers that facilitate early diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cholangitis and allow for therapeutic intervention to prevent progression to liver cirrhosis and associated complications...
May 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680378/effects-of-cellular-11%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-1-on-lps-induced-inflammatory-responses-in-synovial-cell-line-sw982
#13
Young Sik Cho, Ki Nam Kim, Jung Hyun Shim
11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1) catalyzes the conversion of inactive cortisone into active cortisol, which has pleiotropic roles in various biological conditions, such as immunological and metabolic homeostasis. Cortisol is mainly produced in the adrenal gland, but can be locally regenerated in the liver, fat, and muscle. Its diverse actions are primarily mediated by binding to the glucocorticoid receptor. SW982, a human synovial cell line, expresses 11β-HSD type 1, but not type 2, that catalyzes the conversion of cortisone to cortisol...
June 2017: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669591/primary-biliary-cholangitis-old-and-novel-therapy
#14
Annarosa Floreani, Chiara Mangini
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), formerly called primary biliary cirrhosis, is a chronic cholestatic liver disease that progresses slowly to end-stage liver disease. The first Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved treatment for PBC was ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). This treatment slows the progress of the disease, but approximatively 30-40% of patients fail to respond to UDCA. A number of options are under investigation as second line treatment. Obeticholic acid (OCA), a Farnesoid X Receptor agonist, has been approved in May 2017 by FDA for patients non responders or intolerant to UDCA...
June 29, 2017: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666653/the-liver-is-a-metabolic-and-immunologic-organ-a-reconsideration-of-metabolic-decompensation-due-to-infection-in-inborn-errors-of-metabolism-iem
#15
REVIEW
Tatyana N Tarasenko, Peter J McGuire
Metabolic decompensation in inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) is characterized by a rapid deterioration in metabolic status leading to life-threatening biochemical perturbations (e.g. hypoglycemia, hyperammonemia, acidosis, organ failure). Infection is the major cause of metabolic decompensation in patients with IEM. We hypothesized that activation of the immune system during infection leads to further perturbations in end-organ metabolism resulting in increased morbidity. To address this, we established model systems of metabolic decompensation due to infection...
June 24, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665300/transplant-trials-with-tregs-perils-and-promises
#16
Qizhi Tang, Flavio Vincenti
Modern immunosuppression regimens effectively control acute rejection and decrease graft loss in the first year after transplantation; however, these regimens do not have a durable effect on long-term graft survival owing to a combination of drug toxicities and the emergence of chronic alloimmune responses. Eliminating drugs and their toxicities while maintaining graft acceptance has been the primary aim of cellular therapies. Tregs suppress both autoimmune and alloimmune responses and are particularly effective in protecting allografts in experimental transplant models...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660010/liver-immunology-and-herbal-treatment
#17
REVIEW
Yasemin H Balaban, Ceylan Aka, Ufuk Koca-Caliskan
Beyond the metabolic functions, the liver recently has been defined as an organ of immune system (IS), which have central regulatory role for innate and adaptive immunity. The liver keeps a delicate balance between hepatic screening of pathogenic antigens and immune tolerance to self-antigens. Herbal treatments with immunological effects have potential to alter this hepatic immune balance towards either therapeutic side or diseases side by inducing liver injury via hepatotoxicity or initiation of autoimmune diseases...
June 18, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659437/type-2-immunity-is-protective-in-metabolic-disease-but-exacerbates-nafld-collaboratively-with-tgf-%C3%AE
#18
Kevin M Hart, Thomas Fabre, Joshua C Sciurba, Richard L Gieseck, Lee A Borthwick, Kevin M Vannella, Thomas H Acciani, Rafael de Queiroz Prado, Robert W Thompson, Sandra White, Genevieve Soucy, Marc Bilodeau, Thirumalai R Ramalingam, Joseph R Arron, Naglaa H Shoukry, Thomas A Wynn
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is now the most common progressive liver disease in developed countries and is the second leading indication for liver transplantation due to the extensive fibrosis it causes. NAFLD progression is thought to be tied to chronic low-level type 1 inflammation originating in the adipose tissue during obesity; however, the specific immunological mechanisms regulating the progression of NAFLD-associated fibrosis in the liver are unclear. To investigate the immunopathogenesis of NAFLD more completely, we investigated adipose dysfunction, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and fibrosis in mice that develop polarized type 1 or type 2 immune responses...
June 28, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651900/potential-clinical-applications-of-placental-stem-cells-for-use-in-fetal-therapy-of-birth-defects
#19
Melissa Vanover, Aijun Wang, Diana Farmer
Placental stem cells are of growing interest for a variety of clinical applications due to their multipotency and ready availability from otherwise frequently discarded biomaterial. Stem cells derived from the placenta have been investigated in a number of disease processes, including wound healing, ischemic heart disease, autoimmune disorders, and chronic lung or liver injury. Fetal intervention for structural congenital defects, such as spina bifida, has rapidly progressed as a field due to advances in maternal-fetal medicine and improving surgical techniques...
May 18, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649126/cis-stilbene-glucoside-in-polygonum-multiflorum-induces-immunological-idiosyncratic-hepatotoxicity-in-lps-treated-rats-by-suppressing-ppar-%C3%AE
#20
Ya-Kun Meng, Chun-Yu Li, Rui-Yu Li, Lan-Zhi He, He-Rong Cui, Ping Yin, Cong-En Zhang, Peng-Yan Li, Xiu-Xiu Sang, Ya Wang, Ming Niu, Ya-Ming Zhang, Yu-Ming Guo, Rong Sun, Jia-Bo Wang, Zhao-Fang Bai, Xiao-He Xiao
The root of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb (PM) has been used in China to treat a variety of diseases, such as constipation, early graying of the hair and hyperlipemia. Recent evidence shows that PM causes idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (IDILI) in humans. In this study, we investigated the molecular basis of PM-induced liver injury in a rat model of IDILI based on a non-hepatotoxic dose of LPS. SD rats were orally administered 3 potentially hepatotoxic compounds of PM: cis-stilbene glucoside (cis-SG, 50 mg/kg), trans-SG (50 mg/kg) or emodin (5 mg/kg), followed by injection of LPS (2...
June 26, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
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