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Liver immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433099/other-organ-involvement-and-clinical-aspects-of-wilson-disease
#1
Karolina Dzieżyc, Tomasz Litwin, Anna Członkowska
Wilson disease (WD) is a rare disorder of copper metabolism that presents mainly with hepatic and neuropsychiatric features. Copper accumulates not only in the liver and brain, but also in other organs. Liver injury can also be the cause of secondary impairment of other tissues. Therefore, the clinical manifestation of WD may be renal, cardiac, skin, osteoarticular, or endocrinologic and include other organ disturbances. Renal abnormalities include tubular dysfunction (e.g., renal tubular acidosis, aminoaciduria) and nephrolithiasis...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430618/t-2-mycotoxin-toxicological-effects-and-decontamination-strategies
#2
REVIEW
Manish Adhikari, Bhawana Negi, Neha Kaushik, Anupriya Adhikari, Abdulaziz A Al-Khedhairy, Nagendra Kumar Kaushik, Eun Ha Choi
Mycotoxins are highly diverse secondary metabolites produced in nature by a wide variety of fungus which causes food contamination, resulting in mycotoxicosis in animals and humans. In particular, trichothecenes mycotoxin produced by genus fusarium is agriculturally more important worldwide due to the potential health hazards they pose. It is mainly metabolized and eliminated after ingestion, yielding more than 20 metabolites with the hydroxy trichothecenes-2 toxin being the major metabolite. Trichothecene is hazardously intoxicating due to their additional potential to be topically absorbed, and their metabolites affect the gastrointestinal tract, skin, kidney, liver, and immune and hematopoietic progenitor cellular systems...
February 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428185/investments-in-cancer-research-awarded-to-uk-institutions-and-the-global-burden-of-cancer-2000-2013-a-systematic-analysis
#3
Mahiben Maruthappu, Michael G Head, Charlie D Zhou, Barnabas J Gilbert, Majd A El-Harasis, Rosalind Raine, Joseph R Fitchett, Rifat Atun
OBJECTIVES: To systematically categorise cancer research investment awarded to United Kingdom (UK) institutions in the period 2000-2013 and to estimate research investment relative to disease burden as measured by mortality, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and years lived with disability (YLDs). DESIGN: Systematic analysis of all open-access data. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Public and philanthropic funding to all UK cancer research institutions, 2000-2013...
April 20, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410676/the-immunoregulatory-effects-of-co-infection-with-fasciola-hepatica-from-bovine-tuberculosis-to-johne-s-disease
#4
REVIEW
Amalia Naranjo Lucena, Laura Garza Cuartero, Grace Mulcahy, Annetta Zintl
Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke) is a parasite prevalent in much of the world that causes the economically-important disease of fasciolosis in livestock. The threat that this disease poses extends beyond its direct effects due to the parasite's immunomodulatory effects. Research at this laboratory is focusing on whether this immunoregulation can, in animals infected with liver fluke, exert a bystander effect on concurrent infections in the host. It has already been established that F. hepatica infection reduces cell mediated immune responses to Mycobacterium bovis in cattle, and that the interaction between the two pathogens can be detected on an epidemiological scale...
April 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404878/activation-of-liver-x-receptor-delayed-the-retinal-degeneration-of-rd1-mice-through-modulation-of-the-immunological-function-of-glia
#5
Xiao He, Dayu Sun, Siyu Chen, Haiwei Xu
Retinal degeneration (RD), including retinitis pigmentosa (RP), is an inherited eye disease characterized by progressive degeneration of photoreceptors. Recently, immune cells, including microglia, Müller cells and astrocytes, in degenerative retina are demonstrated to play key roles in the development of RD and can be used as potential therapeutic targets. Liver X receptors (LXRs) are important immuno-inflammatory response transcription factors that have been reported to be a new potential therapeutic drug target for neurodegenerative diseases...
March 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404136/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-in-patients-with-hiv
#6
REVIEW
Elizabeth C Verna
Liver disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among people with HIV, and in this era of safer and more effective hepatitis C therapy, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) could soon emerge as the most common liver disease in this population. NAFLD is common among patients with HIV, and might be more likely to progress to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and NAFLD-related fibrosis or cirrhosis in these patients than in individuals without HIV. Several mechanisms of NAFLD pathogenesis are postulated to explain the disease severity in patients with HIV; these mechanisms include the influence of the gut microbiome, and also metabolic, genetic, and immunological factors...
March 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402325/the-bioenergetics-of-inflammation-insights-into-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes
#7
REVIEW
K N Keane, E K Calton, R Carlessi, P H Hart, P Newsholme
Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic metabolic disorders worldwide, and its incidence in Asian countries is alarmingly high. Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is closely associated with obesity, and the staggering rise in obesity is one of the primary factors related to the increased frequency of T2DM. Low-grade chronic inflammation is also accepted as an integral metabolic adaption in obesity and T2DM, and is believed to be a major player in the onset of insulin resistance. However, the exact mechanism(s) that cause a persistent chronic low-grade infiltration of leukocytes into insulin-target tissues such as adipose, skeletal muscle and liver are not entirely known...
April 12, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396056/connecting-the-metabolic-and-immune-responses-to-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Thomas R Flint, Douglas T Fearon, Tobias Janowitz
Separate research fields have advanced our understanding of, on the one hand, cancer immunology and, on the other hand, cachexia, the fatal tumor-induced wasting syndrome. A link between the host's immune and metabolic responses to cancer remained unexplored. Emerging work in preclinical models of colorectal and pancreatic cancer has unveiled tumor-induced reprogramming of liver metabolism in cachexia that leads to suppression of antitumor immunity and failure of immunotherapy. As research efforts in metabolism and immunology in cancer are rapidly expanding, it is timely to discuss the metabolic and immunological determinants of the cancer-host interaction...
April 7, 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392573/inducible-rubicon-facilitates-viral-replication-by-antagonizing-interferon-production
#9
Yushun Wan, Wei Cao, Tao Han, Sheng Ren, Jian Feng, TieLong Chen, Jun Wang, Ruth Broering, Mengji Lu, Ying Zhu
The RUN domain Beclin-1-interacting cysteine-rich-containing (Rubicon) protein is involved in the maturation step of autophagy and the endocytic pathway as a Beclin-1-binding partner, but little is known regarding the role of Rubicon during viral infection. Here, we performed functional studies of the identified target in interferon (IFN) signaling pathways associated with Rubicon to elucidate the mechanisms of viral resistance to IFN. The Rubicon protein levels were elevated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, sera and liver tissues from patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection relative to those in healthy individuals...
April 10, 2017: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392163/current-progress-in-non-viral-rnai-based-delivery-strategies-to-lymphocytes
#10
REVIEW
Shoshy Mizrahy, Inbal Hazan-Halevy, Niels Dammes, Dalit Landesman-Milo, Dan Peer
RNAi-based therapy holds great promise, as it can be utilized for the treatment of multiple conditions in an accurate manner via sequence-specific manipulation of gene expression. To date, RNAi therapeutics have advanced into clinical trials for liver diseases and solid tumors; however, delivery of RNAi to leukocytes in general and to lymphocytes in particular remains a challenge. Lymphocytes are notoriously hard to transduce with RNAi payloads and are disseminated throughout the body, often located in deep tissues; therefore, developing an efficient systemic delivery system directed to lymphocytes is not a trivial task...
April 6, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377412/astrocyte-shed-extracellular-vesicles-regulate-the-peripheral-leukocyte-response-to-inflammatory-brain-lesions
#11
Alex M Dickens, Luis B Tovar-Y-Romo, Seung-Wan Yoo, Amanda L Trout, Mihyun Bae, Marlene Kanmogne, Bezawit Megra, Dionna W Williams, Kennith W Witwer, Mar Gacias, Nino Tabatadze, Robert N Cole, Patrizia Casaccia, Joan W Berman, Daniel C Anthony, Norman J Haughey
Brain injury induces a peripheral acute cytokine response that directs the transmigration of leukocytes into the brain. Because this brain-to-peripheral immune communication affects patient recovery, understanding its regulation is important. Using a mouse model of inflammatory brain injury, we set out to find a soluble mediator for this phenomenon. We found that extracellular vesicles (EVs) shed from astrocytes in response to intracerebral injection of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) rapidly entered into peripheral circulation and promoted the transmigration of leukocytes through modulation of the peripheral acute cytokine response...
April 4, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371374/vitamin-a-deficiency-in-chronic-cholestatic-liver-disease-is-vitamin-a-therapy-beneficial
#12
Cora Freund, Daniel Nils Gotthardt
Chronic cholestatic diseases are progressive diseases of the biliary tract that cause hepatic fibrosis and ultimately lead to liver failure. Liver transplantation is the sole curative option currently available, and because of high morbidity and mortality rates of these diseases, new therapeutic approaches are needed. Vitamin A is a nutrient essential for health as it regulates many processes, including epithelial growth and immunological processes. Vitamin A is primarily stored in hepatic stellate cells, and during liver injury, through an unknown mechanism, these cells lose vitamin A and convert into collagen-producing myofibroblasts, which contributes to hepatic fibrosis...
March 29, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366932/intravital-microscopy-in-historic-and-contemporary-immunology
#13
REVIEW
Judith Secklehner, Cristina Lo Celso, Leo M Carlin
In this review, we discuss intravital microscopy of immune cells, starting from its historic origins to current applications in diverse organs. It is clear from a quantitative review of the literature that intravital microscopy is a key tool in both historic and contemporary immunological research, providing unique advances in our understanding of immune responses. We have chosen to focus this review on how intravital microscopy methodologies are used to image specific organs or systems and we present recent descriptions of fundamental immunological processes that could not have been achieved by other methods...
April 3, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364817/management-of-immunosuppression-in-liver-transplantation
#14
REVIEW
Renumathy Dhanasekaran
Liver transplantation outcomes have significantly improved over the past few decades owing largely to the introduction of effective immunosuppression medications. Further comprehension of the unique immune microenvironment of the liver has led to the development of newer molecular targeted therapeutics. Understanding the mechanism of action and adverse effect profiles of these medications is crucial for appropriate management of posttransplant patients. In this review, the author describes the immunologic response elicited by liver transplantation, chronicles the various immunosuppressant drug classes, discusses the evidence behind their use, and evaluates the management of special subpopulations of posttransplantation patients...
May 2017: Clinics in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353041/the-inhibitory-effect-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-with-rad-nk4-on-liver-cancer
#15
Chao Cai, Lingling Hou, Jingsi Zhang, Diandian Zhao, Ziling Wang, Honggang Hu, Jinsheng He, Weijun Guan, Yuehui Ma
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can migrate to the tumor site and integrate into the tumor tissue. As a delivery vehicle of antitumor factors, MSCs have been tried in various tumor therapies. NK4 can both inhibit the growth, metastasis, and invasion of tumor cells induced by hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and suppress tumor angiogenesis that is independent on HGF/cellular-mesenchymal-to-transition factor pathway. Adenovirus can directly deliver NK4 for tumor treatment but may induce immunological rejection. We combined MSCs with an adenovirus vector to deliver NK4 for liver tumor treatment...
March 28, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351734/chronic-hepatitis-b-immunological-profile-and-current-therapeutic-vaccines-in-clinical-trials
#16
REVIEW
Yadira Lobaina, Marie-Louise Michel
More than 250million people worldwide are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (CHB), and over half a million die each year due to CHB-associated liver complications such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The translation of immunological knowledge about CHB into therapeutic strategies aiming to a sustainable hepatitis B virus (HBV) clearance has been challenging. In recent years, however, the understanding on the immune effectors required to overcome chronicity has notably increased thanks to preclinical and clinical research...
March 25, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340492/hemolysis-elevated-liver-enzymes-low-platelets-syndrome-superimposed-on-hemolytic-uremic-syndrome
#17
Inês Martins, Madalena Gomes Conceição, Paulo Pereira Gomes, Nuno Clode
A pregnancy complicated by typical hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets (HELLP) syndrome is reported. At 20 weeks of gestation, a case of HUS was diagnosed, with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli identified. Plasmapheresis allowed continuation of the pregnancy for 5 weeks. Superimposed preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome were diagnosed after the establishment of nephrotic range proteinuria, hypertension and recurrence of hemolysis. This is a singular case, as it demonstrates that HELLP syndrome can superimpose upon HUS, a fact that can impact future research on reproductive immunology...
April 2017: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321910/the-coming-of-age-of-a-young-subspecialty-paediatric-hepatology
#18
REVIEW
Antal Németh
Paediatric hepatology dates from the 1970s and it is the youngest of the organ-specific subspecialties. As then there have been impressive achievements in the fields of anatomical, metabolic, immunological and neoplastic diseases, and the advent of modern molecular biology has resulted in a marked increase in exact diagnoses. Liver transplants provided enormous stimulus for the discipline. Due to changing morbidity patterns, the discipline faces new challenges, such as environment- and lifestyle-induced liver diseases, but different forms of chronic viral hepatitis are diminishing...
March 21, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320105/anti-fibrotic-potential-of-human-umbilical-cord-mononuclear-cells-and-mouse-bone-marrow-cells-in-ccl4-induced-liver-fibrosis-in-mice
#19
Nageh Ahmed Elmahdy, Samia Salem Sokar, Mohamed Labib Salem, Naglaa Ibrahim Sarhan, Sherin Hamed Abou-Elela
Liver fibrosis is the consequence of hepatocyte injury that leads to the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC). The treatment of choice is Liver transplantation; however, it has many problems such as surgery-related complications, immunological rejection and high costs associated with the procedure. Stem cell-based therapy would be a potential alternative, so the aim of this study is to investigate the therapeutic potential of human umbilical cord mononuclear cells (MNC) and mouse bone marrow cells (BMC) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver fibrosis in mice and compare it with that of silymarin...
May 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317620/lupus-hepatitis-and-autoimmune-hepatitis-lupoid-hepatitis
#20
REVIEW
Avinash Adiga, Kenneth Nugent
Liver dysfunction occurs in approximately 50% of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and patients with SLE and elevated liver enzymes can present a complicated and difficult differential diagnosis. Lupus hepatitis and autoimmune hepatitis are 2 immunologic conditions involving the liver, which can have similar clinical, laboratory and systemic presentations, leading to difficulties in diagnosis. Physicians need to be aware of these 2 hepatic diseases as diagnosis and appropriate therapy need to occur early in the disease course to prevent progression to advanced liver disease...
April 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
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