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Liver immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790196/rituximab-is-ineffective-for-treatment-of-fatigue-in-primary-biliary-cholangitis-a-phase-2-randomised-controlled-trial
#1
Amardeep Khanna, Laura Jopson, Denise Howel, Andrew Bryant, Andrew Blamire, Julia L Newton, David E Jones
Primary Biliary Cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease. Half of patients experience debilitating fatigue which is currently untreatable. Previous studies have shown muscle bioenergetic abnormalities in PBC, including increased muscle acidosis with exercise linked to the anti-mitochondrial antibody (AMA) diagnostic of the disease, and reduced anaerobic threshold. In this study we addressed the hypothesis that fatigue in PBC is driven by muscle bioenergetic abnormality related to AMA, and that AMA reduction with B-cell depletion therapy will improve fatigue...
May 23, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782877/analysis-of-spontaneous-resolution-of-cytomegalovirus-replication-after-transplantation-in-cmv-seropositive-patients-with-pretransplant-cd8-ifng-response
#2
Aurora Páez-Vega, Antonio Poyato, Alberto Rodriguez-Benot, Lluis Guirado, Jesús Fortún, Oscar Len, Edson Abdala, María C Fariñas, Elisa Cordero, Carmen de Gracia, Domingo Hernández, Rafael González, Julián Torre-Cisneros, Sara Cantisán
This prospective study evaluates whether CMV-seropositive (R+) transplant patients with pretransplant CD8+IFNG+ T-cell response to cytomegalovirus (CMV) (CD8+IFNG+ response) can spontaneously clear the CMV viral load without requiring treatment. A total of 104 transplant patients (kidney/liver) with pretransplant CD8+IFNG+ response were evaluable. This response was determined using QuantiFERON-CMV assay. The incidence of CMV replication and disease was 45.2% (47/104) and 6.7% (7/104), respectively. Of the total patients, 77...
May 18, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782661/comparable-outcomes-in-intestinal-retransplantation-single-center-cohort-study
#3
Burcin Ekser, Chandrashekhar A Kubal, Jonathan A Fridell, Richard S Mangus
BACKGROUND: Graft loss in intestinal transplantation (ITx) is close to 25% in the first year and 50% at 5-year post-transplantation. Although technically and immunologically challenging, intestinal retransplantation is now the 4th most common indication for ITx. METHODS: The aim of this study is to review and compare the outcomes of intestinal retransplantation with primary ITx, which included isolated ITx, modified multivisceral transplantation (mMVTx), and full MVTx, between 2003-2014 at Indiana University...
May 21, 2018: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764292/evaluation-of-performance-testing-of-different-rapid-diagnostic-kits-in-comparison-with-eias-to-validate-detection-of-hepatitis-b-virus-among-high-risk-group-in-nigeria
#4
Abosede Yetunde Afolabi, Adeleye Solomon Bakarey, Moses Olubusuyi Adewumi
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes chronic liver-associated diseases and its early detection is of high public health importance. Its diagnosis is mainly based on immunological assays among which Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and rapid tests are the most common and widespread methods. However, a major challenge is the discordance of results of any two laboratory assays which cannot be easily resolved. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the validity and reliability of commercially available five rapid test kits in comparison with two Enzyme Immunoassays (EIAs) in Nigeria using hepatitis B surface antigen as a reference marker...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Immunoassay & Immunochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761172/loss-of-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-aggravates-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-mediated-inflammation-during-acetaminophen-induced-liver-injury
#5
Tomohiro Suzuki, Shoko Minagawa, Takashi Yamazaki, Takatomo Arai, Mai Kanai, Satoko Shinjo, Nobuhito Goda
Acetaminophen (APAP)-induced liver injury is closely associated with acute hepatic inflammation. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is activated during immunological processes and regulates gene expressions in various types of immune cells. Although HIF-1 controls the differentiation and functions of conventional T cells in chronic inflammation, the pathological importance of HIF-1 in innate-like T cells during acute inflammation remains unknown. Here, we investigated the role of HIF-1 in innate-like γδ T cells during APAP-induced acute liver injury...
May 2018: Hepatology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760339/the-potential-antifibrotic-impact-of-apocynin-and-alpha-lipoic-acid-in-concanavalin-a-induced-liver-fibrosis-in-rats-role-of-nadph-oxidases-1-and-4
#6
Mostafa R Fayed, Reem N El-Naga, El-Sayed Akool, Ebtehal El-Demerdash
Liver fibrosis results from chronic inflammation that precipitates excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix. Oxidative stress is involved in its pathogenesis. This study aimed to elucidate the potential antifibrotic effect of the NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibitor, apocynin against concanavalin A (ConA)-induced immunological model of liver fibrosis, and to investigate the ability of the antioxidant, alpha-lipoic acid (α-LA) to potentiate this effect. Rats were treated with apocynin and/or α-LA for six weeks...
2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754192/gastrointestinal-disorders-associated-with-primary-immunodeficiency-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Stella Hartono, Michelina Rosa Ippoliti, Maria Mastroianni, Ricardo Torres, Nicholas L Rider
There are now 354 inborn errors of immunity (primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDDs)) with 344 distinct molecular etiologies reported according to the International Union of Immunological Sciences (IUIS) (Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 11: p. 1050-63, 2013, Semin Gastrointest Dis 8: p. 22-32, 1997, J Clin Immunol 38: p. 96-128, 2018). Using the IUIS document as a reference and cross-checking PubMed ( www.ncbi.nlm.nih.pubmed.gov ), we found that approximately one third of the 354 diseases of impaired immunity have a gastrointestinal component [J Clin Immunol 38: p...
May 13, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751499/survival-and-prognostic-factors-in-mixed-cryoglobulinemia-data-from-246-cases
#8
Cesare Mazzaro, Luigino Dal Maso, Endri Mauro, Valter Gattei, Michela Ghersetti, Pietro Bulian, Giulia Moratelli, Gabriele Grassi, Francesca Zorat, Gabriele Pozzato
INTRODUCTION: The clinical and therapeutic management of mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC) remains a subject of controversy. In addition, most studies have not recorded the long-term follow-up and the outcome of these cases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We enrolled 246 patients affected by MC who were consecutively admitted to our Department from January 1993 to February 2013. Clinical and biological data had been recorded until June 2014. RESULTS: The median age (at diagnosis) was 60 years (range 26⁻83)...
May 3, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750876/evaluation-of-molecular-changes-of-distal-organs-after-small-bowel-transplantation-experimental-study
#9
P Urban, M Rabajdová, Š Feterik, G Bódy, T Granda, M Mareková, J Veselá
The ischemia and reperfusion of a jejunal graft during transplantation triggers the stress of endoplasmic reticulum; thus inducing the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Spreading of these signals stimulate immunological reactions in distal tissues i.e. lung, liver and spleen. The aim of this study was to detect the molecular changes in liver and spleen induced by transplanted jejunal graft with one or six hours of reperfusion (group Tx1 and Tx6). Analysis of gene expression changes of inflammatory mediators (TNFalpha, IL-10) and specific chaperones (Gadd153, Grp78) derived from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) was done and compared to control group...
May 10, 2018: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749672/transgenic-mice-that-accept-luciferase-or-gfp-expressing-syngeneic-tumor-cells-at-high-efficiencies
#10
Naoki Aoyama, Hiroyuki Miyoshi, Hitoshi Miyachi, Masahiro Sonoshita, Masaru Okabe, Makoto Mark Taketo
Jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) and firefly luciferase can serve as versatile tracking markers for identification and quantification of transplanted cancer cells in vivo. However, immune reactions against these markers can hamper the formation of syngraft tumors and metastasis that follows. Here, we report two transgenic (Tg) mouse lines that express nonfunctional mutant marker proteins, namely modified firefly luciferase (Luc2) or enhanced GFP (EGFP). These mice, named as Tg-mLuc2 and Tg-mEGFP, turned out to be immunologically tolerant to the respective tracking markers and thus efficiently accepted syngeneic cancer cells expressing the active forms of the markers...
May 11, 2018: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749320/combined-treatment-for-gastric-cancer-immunological-approach
#11
Olzhas Zhandossov, Galina Kaussova, Avraam Koten
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Gastric cancer is one of the most common oncological diseases. It can develop in any part of the stomach and spread to other organs, especially the esophagus, lungs, and liver. The aim of our study was to investigate the effectiveness of our proposed therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our research promises more effective neoadjuvant therapy, including immunotherapy and multi-agent chemotherapy. Of the 62 patients involved in our study, 32 underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy in combination with surgery, whereas the rest underwent neoadjuvant chemoimmunotherapy with surgery...
March 2018: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748586/the-gut-liver-axis-and-the-intersection-with-the-microbiome
#12
REVIEW
Anupriya Tripathi, Justine Debelius, David A Brenner, Michael Karin, Rohit Loomba, Bernd Schnabl, Rob Knight
In the past decade, an exciting realization has been that diverse liver diseases - ranging from nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, alcoholic steatohepatitis and cirrhosis to hepatocellular carcinoma - fall along a spectrum. Work on the biology of the gut-liver axis has assisted in understanding the basic biology of both alcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Of immense importance is the advancement in understanding the role of the microbiome, driven by high-throughput DNA sequencing and improved computational techniques that enable the complexity of the microbiome to be interrogated, together with improved experimental designs...
May 10, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747455/fast-and-cost-effective-biochemical-spectrophotometric-analysis-of-solution-of-insect-blood-and-body-surface-elution
#13
REVIEW
Aleksandra Łoś, Aneta Strachecka
Using insect hemolymph ("blood") and insect body surface elutions, researchers can perform rapid and cheap biochemical analyses to determine the insect's immunology status. The authors of this publication describe a detailed methodology for a quick marking of the concentration of total proteins and evaluation of the proteolytic system activity (acid, neutral, and alkaline proteases and protease inhibitors), as well as a methodology for quick "liver" tests in insects: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and urea and glucose concentration analyses...
May 9, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742693/a-successful-treatment-of-severe-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-caused-by-occult-pulmonary-infection-associated-with-hemophagocytic-syndrome-a-case-report
#14
Weihong Shi, Mingyang Duan, Ligang Jie, Weifeng Sun
RATIONALE: A 27-year-old woman with a history of systemic lupus erythaematosus (SLE) developed hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) secondary due to an unrecognized infection that led to severe SLE with a prolonged recovery. PATIENT CONCERNS: The patient showed a high spiking fever and myalgia. Laboratory data revealed pancytopenia and immunological abnormalities. Pulse methylprednisone plus intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) failed to improve the clinical symptoms and laboratory data...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740199/is-it-possible-to-stop-nucleos-t-ide-analogue-treatment-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients
#15
REVIEW
Elia Moreno-Cubero, Robert T Sánchez Del Arco, Julia Peña-Asensio, Eduardo Sanz de Villalobos, Joaquín Míquel, Juan Ramón Larrubia
Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) remains a challenging global health problem, with nearly one million related deaths per year. Nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA) treatment suppresses viral replication but does not provide complete cure of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The accepted endpoint for therapy is the loss of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), but this is hardly ever achieved. Therefore, indefinite treatment is usually required. Many different studies have evaluated NA therapy discontinuation after several years of NA treatment and before HBsAg loss...
May 7, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737057/-clinicopathological-analysis-of-autoimmune-hepatitis-with-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome
#16
Lin-Lin Zhu, Li-Hua Yang, Qi-Bing Xie, Geng Yin
OBJECTIVE: To explore the biochemical-immune and pathological characteristics of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) with Sjögren's syndrome (SS) . METHODS: A total of 76 cases of AIH patients were included from January 2009 to April 2017. Among them,there were 40 cases of AIH with SS and 36 cases without SS. The liver function,immunological index,histological features,length of first diagnosis and treatment costs were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: For AIH+SS group and AIH group,the proportion of women were 97...
March 2018: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736626/regional-therapies-for-locoregionally-advanced-and-unresectable-melanoma
#17
Evan S Weitman, Jonathan S Zager
Locoregionally advanced and unresectable disease can be seen in up to 10% of melanoma patients. Treatment options for these patients have been evolving most notably over the past few decades and have demonstrated efficacy through multiple intra-arterial as well as intralesional therapies. Isolated limb perfusions and isolated limb infusions have been utilized to treat locoregionally advanced melanoma of the extremity with overall response rates up to 90% in some reports. Intralesional therapies, for in transit metastatic melanoma, such as Bacille Calmette-Guerin, talimogene laherparepvec, and PV-10 (Rose Bengal) have all demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of unresectable cutaneous melanoma...
May 8, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735884/polysaccharides-extracted-from-rhizoma-pleionis-have-antitumor-properties-in-vitro-and-in-an-h22-mouse-hepatoma-ascites-model-in-vivo
#18
Yukun Fang, Anhong Ning, Sha Li, Shaozheng Zhou, Lei Liu, Thomson Patrick Joseph, Mintao Zhong, Jilong Jiao, Wei Zhang, Yonghui Shi, Meishan Zhang, Min Huang
Malignant ascites is a highly severe and intractable complication of advanced or recurrent malignant tumors that is often immunotherapy-resistant. Rhizoma Pleionis is widely used in traditional medicine as an antimicrobial and anticancer agent, but its effectiveness in treating malignant ascites is unclear. In the current study, we investigated the effect of polysaccharides isolated from Rhizoma Pleionis (PRP) on murine hepatocarcinoma H22 cells in an ascites model. We have found that the main components of PRP, that presented a relative molecular weight of 383...
May 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735482/cd71-erythroid-suppressor-cells-promote-fetomaternal-tolerance-through-arginase-2-and-pdl-1
#19
Cole Delyea, Najmeh Bozorgmehr, Petya Koleva, Garett Dunsmore, Shima Shahbaz, Vivian Huang, Shokrollah Elahi
Survival of the allogeneic pregnancy depends on the maintenance of immune tolerance to paternal alloantigens at the fetomaternal interface. Multiple localized mechanisms contribute to the fetal evasion from the mother's immune rejection as the fetus is exposed to a wide range of stimulatory substances such as maternal alloantigens, microbes and amniotic fluids. In this article, we demonstrate that CD71+ erythroid cells are expanded at the fetomaternal interface and in the periphery during pregnancy in both humans and mice...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735030/living-donor-intestinal-transplantation
#20
REVIEW
Ivo G Tzvetanov, Kiara A Tulla, Giuseppe D'Amico, Enrico Benedetti
Living donor intestinal transplantation (LDIT) has been improved leading to results comparable to those obtained with deceased donors. LDIT should be limited to specific indications and patient selection. The best indication is combined living donor intestinal/liver transplantation in pediatric recipients with intestinal and hepatic failure; the virtual elimination of waiting time may avoid the high mortality experienced by candidates on the deceased waiting list. Potentially, LDIT could be used in highly sensitized recipients to allow the application of de-sensitization protocols...
June 2018: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
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