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Liver immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341339/immunomodulation-by-therapeutic-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-msc-is-triggered-through-phagocytosis-of-msc-by-monocytic-cells
#1
Samantha F H de Witte, Franka Luk, Jesus M Sierra Parraga, Madhu Gargesha, Ana Merino, Sander S Korevaar, Anusha S Shankar, Lisa O'Flynn, Steve J Elliman, Debashish Roy, Michiel G H Betjes, Philip N Newsome, Carla C Baan, Martin J Hoogduijn
Mesenchymal stem or stromal cells (MSC) are under investigation as a potential immunotherapy. MSC are usually administered via intravenous infusion, after which they are trapped in the lungs and die and disappear within a day. The fate of MSC after their disappearance from the lungs is unknown and it is unclear how MSC realize their immunomodulatory effects in their short lifespan. We examined immunological mechanisms determining the fate of infused MSC and the immunomodulatory response associated with it. Tracking viable and dead human umbilical cord MSC (ucMSC) in mice using Qtracker beads (contained in viable cells) and Hoechst33342 (staining all cells) revealed that viable ucMSC were present in the lungs immediately after infusion...
January 17, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331944/liver-sampling-a-vital-window-into-hbv-pathogenesis-on-the-path-to-functional-cure
#2
REVIEW
Upkar S Gill, Laura J Pallett, Patrick T F Kennedy, Mala K Maini
In order to optimally refine the multiple emerging drug targets for hepatitis B virus (HBV), it is vital to evaluate virological and immunological changes at the site of infection. Traditionally liver biopsy has been the mainstay of HBV disease assessment, but with the emergence of non-invasive markers of liver fibrosis, there has been a move away from tissue sampling. Here we argue that liver biopsy remains an important tool, not only for the clinical assessment of HBV but also for research progress and evaluation of novel agents...
January 13, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331367/molecular-characterization-and-differential-expression-analysis-of-interleukin-1%C3%AE-from-ovis-aries
#3
Yi-Ming Shui, Shi-Ying Lu, Xing Guo, Xi-Lin Liu, Bao-Quan Fu, Pan Hu, Lin-Lin Qu, Nan-Nan Liu, Yan-Song Li, Lu-Lu Wang, Fei-Fei Zhai, Dan-Di Ju, Zeng-Shan Liu, Yu Zhou, Hong-Lin Ren
The interleukin-1 family is an important component of the innate immune system and plays an important role in regulating immune responses on the invasion of intracellular parasites in the acquired immune system. Interleukin 1β (IL-1β) is one of the members of the IL-1 family that predominantly activates downstream signaling pathways to play immunological functions of stimulating T and B lymphocyte activation and promoting the various syntheses of inflammatory substances in conjunction with other cytokines...
January 10, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329410/1918-h1n1-influenza-virus-replicates-and-induces-pro-inflammatory-cytokine-responses-in-extra-respiratory-tissues-of-ferrets
#4
Emmie de Wit, Jurre Siegers, Jacqueline M Cronin, Sarah Weatherman, Judith van den Brand, Lonneke M Leijten, Peter van Run, Lineke Begeman, Henk-Jan van den Ham, Arno C Andeweg, Trenton Bushmaker, Dana P Scott, Greg Saturday, Vincent J Munster, Heinz Feldmann, Debby van Riel
Background: The 1918 Spanish H1N1 influenza pandemic was the most severe recorded influenza pandemic with an estimated 20-50 million deaths worldwide. Even though it is known that influenza viruses can cause extra-respiratory tract complications-which are often severe or even fatal- the potential contribution of extra-respiratory tissues to the pathogenesis of 1918 H1N1 virus infection has not been studied comprehensively. Methods: Here, we performed a time course study in ferrets inoculated intranasally with 1918 H1N1 virus, with special emphasis on the involvement of extra-respiratory tissues...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328785/immune-responses-in-the-liver
#5
Paul Kubes, Craig Jenne
The liver is a key, frontline immune tissue. Ideally positioned to detect pathogens entering the body via the gut, the liver appears designed to detect, capture, and clear bacteria, viruses, and macromolecules. Containing the largest collection of phagocytic cells in the body, this organ is an important barrier between us and the outside world. Importantly, as portal blood also transports a large number of foreign but harmless molecules (e.g., food antigens), the liver's default immune status is anti-inflammatory or immunotolerant; however, under appropriate conditions, the liver is able to mount a rapid and robust immune response...
January 12, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325628/pharmacogenetics
#6
Jeffrey R Bishop
Pharmacogenetics is the study of how genetics influences drug treatment outcomes. Much research has been conducted to identify and characterize gene variants that impact the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects of medications used to treat neurologic and psychiatric disorders. This chapter reviews the current state of pharmacogenetic aspects of these treatments. Medications with supporting pharmacogenetic information in product labeling, clinical guidelines, or important mechanistic implications are discussed...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325285/-primary-biliary-cholangitis-and-bile-acid-metabolism
#7
L Wang, Y C Han, Y Han
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is an immune-mediated cholestatic liver disease of unknown pathogenesis. The research on immunologic injury in the past helps us to understand more about this disease, but there are still many problems and challenges in the research on PBC. With a focus on the cholestatic features of PBC, this article reviews the research advances in bile acid metabolism in the field of PBC, in order to provide new thoughts for future research.
November 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322426/isolation-and-characterization-of-mouse-intrahepatic-lymphocytes-by-flow-cytometry
#8
Florian Wiede, Tony Tiganis
In the field of cellular immunology multicolor flow cytometry is a frequently applied method that allows for the simultaneously detection of multiple parameters on an individual cell basis. Flow cytometry can be used to characterize a wide range of immune cell subsets using fluorophore-conjugated antibodies to a wide range of cellular antigens. The isolation of immune cells from nonlymphoid tissue and their preparation for flow cytometry can be a challenging process with respect to immune cell yields and viability...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322327/combined-and-sequential-liver-kidney-transplantation-in-children
#9
Ryszard Grenda, Piotr Kaliciński
Combined and sequential liver-kidney transplantation (CLKT and SLKT) is a definitive treatment in children with end-stage organ failure. There are two major indications: - terminal insufficiency of both organs, or - need for transplanting new liver as a source of lacking enzyme or specific regulator of the immune system in a patient with renal failure. A third (uncommon) option is secondary end-stage renal failure in liver transplant recipients. These three clinical settings use distinct qualification algorithms...
January 10, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318713/hybrid-feature-extraction-techniques-for-microscopic-hepatic-fibrosis-classification
#10
Dalia S Ashour, Dina M Abou Rayia, Mohamed Maher Ata, Amira S Ashour, Mustafa M Abd Elnaby
Chronic liver diseases' hallmark is the fibrosis that results in liver function failure in advanced stages. One of the serious parasitic diseases affecting the liver tissues is schistosomiasis. Immunologic reactions to Schistosoma eggs leads to accumulation of collagen in the hepatic parenchyma causing fibrosis. Thus, monitoring and reporting the staging of the histopathological information related to liver fibrosis are essential for accurate diagnosis and therapy of the chronic liver diseases. Automated assessment of the microscopic liver tissue images is an essential process...
January 10, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302904/acute-kidney-injury-in-pregnancy-with-special-reference-to-pregnancy-specific-disorders-a-hospital-based-study-2014-2016
#11
Jai Prakash, Vivek C Ganiger, Suraj Prakash, Mohammad Iqbal, Deba Prasad Kar, Usha Singh, Ashish Verma
INTRODUCTION: There are numerous reports in the literature describing acute kidney injury in pregnancy (P-AKI) due to various obstetric complications. However, there is a dearth of studies on AKI related to pregnancy-specific disorders from India. We aimed to analyze clinical features and outcome of P-AKI related to pregnancy-specific disorders compared to total pregnancy, in India. METHOD: All pregnant women attending the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology from November 2014 to July 2016 were screened for AKI based on: (1) sudden elevation of serum creatinine ≥ 1 mg/dl; (2) oligoanuria for > 12 h; and (3) need for dialysis...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290508/the-emergency-medicine-evaluation-and-management-of-the-patient-with-cirrhosis
#12
REVIEW
Brit Long, Alex Koyfman
BACKGROUND: Cirrhosis is a significant cause of death in the U.S. and has a variety of causes, most commonly Hepatitis C and alcohol. Liver fibrosis and nodule formation result in significant complications due to portal system hypertension. There are several deadly complications emergency physicians must consider. OBJECTIVE OF THE REVIEW: Provide an evidence-based update for the resuscitation of decompensating cirrhotic patients and an overview of cirrhosis complications...
December 23, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290265/correlation-between-immune-related-adverse-events-and-efficacy-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-treated-with-nivolumab
#13
Koichi Sato, Hiroaki Akamatsu, Eriko Murakami, Seigo Sasaki, Kuninobu Kanai, Atsushi Hayata, Nahomi Tokudome, Keiichiro Akamatsu, Yasuhiro Koh, Hiroki Ueda, Masanori Nakanishi, Nobuyuki Yamamoto
OBJECTIVES: Patients treated with nivolumab often experience its unique adverse events, called immune-related adverse events (irAEs). Regarding the mechanisms of immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), the occurrence of irAEs may also reflect antitumor responses. Here, we report the clinical correlation between irAEs and efficacy in NSCLC patients treated with nivolumab. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between December 2015 and February 2017, 38 advanced NSCLC patients were treated in our institution...
January 2018: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285874/early-cellular-interactions-and-immune-transcriptome-profiles-in-human-factor-viii-exposed-hemophilia-a-mice
#14
J D Lai, D Cartier, R B Hartholt, L L Swystun, A S van Velzen, J M M den Haan, C Hough, J Voorberg, D Lillicrap
BACKGROUND: Developing factor VIII (FVIII) inhibitory antibodies is the most serious complication in hemophilia A treatment, representing a significant health and economic burden. A better understanding of the early events in an immune response leading to this outcome may provide insight into inhibitor development. OBJECTIVE: To identify early mediators of FVIII immunity and to detail immune expression profiles in the spleen and liver. METHODS: C57Bl/6 F8 E16 knockout mice were infused with 5-20 μg (2000-8000 IU/kg) of recombinant FVIII...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276181/expression-of-human-cytokine-genes-associated-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-disease-progression
#15
Shuaibu Abdullahi Hudu, Mohd Taib Niazlin, Syafinaz Amin Nordin, Mohammed Ibrahim Saeed, Soek Siam Tan, Zamberi Sekawi
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis viruses are non-cytopathic viruses that lead to the infection and pathogenesis of liver diseases as a result of immunologically mediated events. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of human inflammatory cytokines in chronic hepatitis B patients according to the severity of the infection. METHODS: We recruited a total of 120 patients, 40 of whom from cirrhotic, 40 non-cirrhotic, and 40 acute flare chronic hepatitis B and 40 healthy controls...
December 2017: Iranian Journal of Immunology: IJI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262476/-short-stature-optic-nerve-atrophy-and-pelger-hu%C3%A3-t-anomaly-syndrome-with-antibody-immunodeficiency-and-aplastic-anemia-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#16
T Y He, N Zhang, Y Xia, Y Luo, C R Li, J Yang
Objective: To investigate the clinical features and genetic characteristics of cases with NBAS gene defects. Method: Characteristics of clinical materials, immunological data and gene mutation of the first case in China with NBAS gene mutation were retrospectively analyzed. The related literature was searched by using search terms'NBAS'. Result: A 2-year-four-month old girl, was admitted due to 'fever and pallor for one day'. There was an intrauterine growth retardation at her fetal stage. Since her birth, she had suffered from recurrent infections and development delay was accompanied by persistent liver dysfunction...
December 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260741/-lymphocyte-subpopulations-levels-of-interferon-and-expression-of-their-receptors-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-and-c-correlation-with-the-species-of-viruses-and-the-degree-of-liver-fibrosis
#17
O V Kalyuzhin, Zh B Ponezheva, I V Semenova, O N Khokhlova, L V Serebrovskaya, T S Guseva, O V Parshina, V V Maleev
AIM: To determine whether there is a correlation of the composition of circulating lymphocyte subpopulations, the serum concentrations of interferon (IFN)-α, IFN-γ, and IFN-λ3, and the lymphocyte expression of types I and II IFN receptors with the species of a disease pathogen and the degree of liver fibrosis (LF) in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and in those with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The investigation enrolled 44 patients with CHC, 9 patients with CHB, and 13 clinically healthy donors...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259374/improved-experimental-model-of-hepatic-cystic-hydatid-disease-resembling-natural-infection-route-with-stable-growing-dynamics-and-immune-reaction
#18
Rui-Qing Zhang, Xin-Hua Chen, Hao Wen
AIM: To investigate a safer way to set up the disease model of cystic echinococcosis without contamination risk and develop a novel experimental murine model of hepatic cystic echinococcosis. METHODS: C57B/6 mice were injected with human protoscolices of three different concentrations via the portal vein. The mice were followed for 10 mo by ultrasound, gross anatomy, and pathological and immunological examinations. The protoscolex migration in the portal vein, hydatid cyst growth, host immune reaction, and hepatic histopathology were examined periodically...
December 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259232/cardiac-depression-in-pigs-after-multiple-trauma-characterization-of-posttraumatic-structural-and-functional-alterations
#19
M Kalbitz, S Schwarz, B Weber, B Bosch, J Pressmar, F M Hoenes, C K Braun, K Horst, T P Simon, R Pfeifer, P Störmann, H Hummler, F Gebhard, H C Pape, M Huber-Lang, F Hildebrand
The purpose of this study was to define the relationship between cardiac depression and morphological and immunological alterations in cardiac tissue after multiple trauma. However, the mechanistic basis of depressed cardiac function after trauma is still elusive. In a porcine polytrauma model including blunt chest trauma, liver laceration, femur fracture and haemorrhage serial trans-thoracic echocardiography was performed and correlated with cellular cardiac injury as well as with the occurrence of extracellular histones in serum...
December 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250647/protective-and-therapeutic-possibility-of-medical-herbs-for-liver-cirrhosis
#20
Vesna Stanković, Vladimir Mihailović, Slobodanka Mitrović, Vladimir Jurišić
Liver damage is a serious medical problem worldwide and is caused by primary or secondary metabolic, microbiological, toxicological, immunological and circulatory etiological factors. The objective of this paper is to analyze the hepatoprotective effect of various plants, their biologically active compounds and extracts and the possibility of these compounds to attenuate complex pathophysiology processes during chronic inflammation and the development of liver cirrhosis. This review summarizes several plants whose hepatoprotective effects have been demonstrated and partially describes the mechanisms of inflammation inhibition...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
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