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Liver immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924436/resolution-of-multifocal-epstein-barr-virus-related-smooth-muscle-tumor-in-a-patient-with-gata2-deficiency-following-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#1
Mark Parta, Jennifer Cuellar-Rodriguez, Alexandra F Freeman, Juan Gea-Banacloche, Steven M Holland, Dennis D Hickstein
We performed allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in a patient with GATA2 deficiency and an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related spindle cell tumor involving the liver and possibly bone. He received a matched-related donor transplant with donor peripheral blood stem cells following a myeloablative conditioning regimen. He achieved rapid and high levels of donor engraftment and had complete reversal of the clinical and immunologic phenotype of MonoMAC/GATA2 deficiency and eradication of the EBV tumors after 3 years of follow-up...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917263/changes-in-cellular-proliferation-and-plasma-products-are-associated-with-liver-failure
#2
Juliana Gil Melgaço, Frederico Marianetti Soriani, Pedro Henrique Ferreira Sucupira, Leonardo Assaf Pinheiro, Yasmine Rangel Vieira, Jaqueline Mendes de Oliveira, Lia Laura Lewis-Ximenez, Cristina Carvalho Vianna Araújo, Lúcio Filgueiras Pacheco-Moreira, Gustavo Batista Menezes, Oswaldo Gonçalves Cruz, Claudia Lamarca Vitral, Marcelo Alves Pinto
AIM: To study the differences in immune response and cytokine profile between acute liver failure and self-limited acute hepatitis. METHODS: Forty-six patients with self-limited acute hepatitis (AH), sixteen patients with acute liver failure (ALF), and twenty-two healthy subjects were involved in this study. The inflammatory and anti-inflammatory products in plasma samples were quantified using commercial enzyme-linked immunoassays and quantitative real-time PCR...
November 18, 2016: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917172/immunization-strategies-against-piscirickettsia-salmonis-infections-review-of-vaccination-approaches-and-modalities-and-their-associated-immune-response-profiles
#3
REVIEW
Øystein Evensen
Salmonid rickettsial septicemia (SRS) is a serious, infectious disease in Chilean salmon farming caused by Piscirickettsia salmonis, causing heavy losses to the salmonid industry. P. salmonis belongs to the Gammaproteobacteria, order Thiotrichales. SRS was first described in Chile in 1989, and infection with P. salmonis has since been described from a high number of fish species and in several geographic regions globally. P. salmonis infection of salmonids causes multifocal, necrotic areas of internal organs such as liver, kidney, and spleen...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913223/hepatitis-e-virus-infection-beyond-the-liver
#4
REVIEW
S Pischke, J Hartl, S D Pas, A W Lohse, B C Jacobs, A A van der Eijk
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections are not limited to the liver but may also affect other organs. Several diseases, including Guillain-Barré syndrome, neuralgic amyotrophy, glomerulonephritis, cryoglobulinemia, pancreatitis, lymphoma, thrombopenia, meningitis, thyreoiditis and myocarditis have been observed in the context of hepatitis E. To date the definite pathophysiological links between HEV and extrahepatic manifestations are not yet established. However, it is suggested that HEV-infection might be causative based on serological studies, case series, in vitro data and animal models...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911488/hepatocellular-carcinoma-as-an-emerging-morbidity-in-the-thalassemia-syndromes-a-comprehensive-review
#5
REVIEW
Hassan M Moukhadder, Racha Halawi, Maria Domenica Cappellini, Ali T Taher
The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with thalassemia is on the rise. The 2 well recognized HCC risk factors in thalassemia are iron overload and chronic viral infection with hepatitis C. The carcinogenicity of iron is related to its induction of oxidative damage, which results in genotoxicity, and to immunologic dysregulation, which attenuates cancer immune surveillance. Chronic hepatitis B and C infections lead to necroinflammation, which can prompt progression to HCC, but an independent role of hepatitis B virus in hepatic carcinogenesis among patients with thalassemia has not been demonstrated...
December 1, 2016: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903079/preclinical-evaluation-of-a-replication-deficient-recombinant-adenovirus-serotype-5-vaccine-expressing-guanylate-cyclase-c-and-the-padre-t-helper-epitope
#6
Adam Eugene Snook, Trevor R Baybutt, Terry Hyslop, Scott Arthur Waldman
There is an unmet need for improved therapeutics for colorectal cancer, the second leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Adjuvant chemotherapy only marginally improves survival in some patients, and has no benefit in others, underscoring the clinical opportunity for novel immunotherapeutic approaches to improve survival in colorectal cancer. In that context, guanylate cyclase C (GUCY2C) is an established biomarker and therapeutic target for metastatic colorectal cancer with immunological characteristics that promote durable antitumor efficacy without autoimmunity...
November 30, 2016: Human Gene Therapy Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899813/the-pro-fibrotic-role-of-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-in-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-experimental-liver-injury
#7
Xin M Wang, Lauren E Holz, Sumaiya Chowdhury, Shaun P Cordoba, Kathryn A Evans, Margaret G Gall, Ana Júlia Vieira de Ribeiro, Yuan Zhou Zheng, Miriam T Levy, Denise M T Yu, Tsun-Wen Yao, Natasa Polak, Christopher J Jolly, Patrick Bertolino, Geoffrey W McCaughan, Mark D Gorrell
Liver fibrosis is a progressive pathological process involving inflammation and extracellular matrix deposition. Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), also known as CD26, is a cell surface glycoprotein and serine protease. DPP4 binds to fibronectin, can inactivate specific chemokines, incretin hormone and neuropeptides, and influences cell adhesion and migration. Such properties suggest a pro-fibrotic role for this peptidase but this hypothesis needs in vivo examination. Experimental liver injury was induced with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in DPP4 gene knockout (gko) mice...
November 30, 2016: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890369/anti-tumor-activity-of-tanshinone-iia-in-combined-with-cyclophosphamide-against-lewis-mice-with-lung-cancer
#8
Qi Li, Ke Hu, Si Tang, Li-Fang Xu, Yu-Chuan Luo
OBJECTIVE: To explore the anti-tumor activity of tanshinone IIA in combined with cyclophosphamide against Lewis mice with lung cancer and the effect on cellular immune function. METHODS: Lewis tumor cells were inoculated subcutaneously into the right armpit of mice in each group (n = 20) to establish Lewis lung cancer mice model. After model establishment, mice in the model group were given normal saline by lavage, qd. Mice in treatment I group were given intraperitoneal injection of Tan IIA, 15 mg/kg, qd...
November 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889890/protective-role-of-quercetin-against-hematotoxic-and-immunotoxic-effects-of-furan-in-rats
#9
Rasha T Alam, Ehsan H Abu Zeid, Tamer S Imam
Furan (Fu) is a liver carcinogen produced during heating process of food and concerns a public health problem. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the protective role of quercetin (Que) on Fu-induced hematological, immunological, and histopathological alterations in rats. Fifty male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into five equal groups. Group I (Cont) received distilled water, group II (CO) received corn oil, group III (Que) received Que at 50 mg/kg BW, group IV (Fu) received Fu at 16 mg/kg BW, and group V received Que + Fu simultaneously; all groups gavaged daily for 30 days...
November 26, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869439/immunology-update-long-term-care-of-solid-organ-transplant-recipients
#10
S Paul Starr
Nearly 31,000 US patients received solid organ transplants in 2015 and the number is increasing. Care of transplant recipients includes management of a variety of common posttransplantation issues. Skin cancers are common because of immunosuppression and require skin examinations at intervals. Patients should be educated about the need to report new skin lesions. The rates of other cancers also are increased, including cancers of the head and neck, lung, esophagus, cervix, and urinary tract. Osteoporosis is common in transplant recipients; monitoring and early therapy are important...
November 2016: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865205/human-hepatic-stellate-cells-and-inflammation-a-regulated-cytokine-network-balance
#11
Mehdi Najar, Hussein Fayyad-Kazan, Wissam H Faour, Adil El Taghdouini, Gordana Raicevic, Mustapha Najimi, Michel Toungouz, Leo A van Grunsven, Etienne Sokal, Laurence Lagneaux
AIM: Uncertainty about the safety of cell therapy continues to be a major challenge to the medical community. Inflammation and the associated immune response represent a major safety concern hampering the development of long-term clinical therapy. In vivo interactions between the cell graft and the host immune system are mediated by functional environmental sensors and stressors that play significant roles in the immunobiology of the graft. Within this context, human liver stellate cells (HSC) demonstrated marked immunological plasticity that has main importance for future liver cell therapy application...
November 16, 2016: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862900/long-term-renal-allograft-survival-after-sequential-liver-kidney-transplantation-from-a-single-living-donor
#12
Kumiko Kitajima, Yuichi Ogawa, Katsuyuki Miki, Kotaro Kai, Akihito Sannomiya, Kazuhiro Iwadoh, Toru Murakami, Ichiro Koyama, Ichiro Nakajima, Shohei Fuchinoue
Background Combined liver-kidney transplantation (CLKT) is well-established as a definitive therapy with the potential to provide complete recovery for certain liver-kidney diseases, although the results might be contingent on the cause of transplantation. The purposes of the present study were to review the long-term outcome of renal allografts in CLKT patients from single living donors and to investigate the beneficial factors, compared with solitary renal transplantation. Materials and Methods Thirteen patients underwent sequential liver (LTx) and kidney (KTx) transplantations from single living donors...
November 10, 2016: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860293/thrombocytopenia-in-chronic-liver-disease
#13
Markus Peck-Radosavljevic
Thrombocytopenia is a common haematological disorder in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD). It is multifactorial and severity of liver disease is the most influential factor. Due to the increased risk of bleeding, thrombocytopenia may impact upon medical procedures, such as surgery or liver biopsy. The pathophysiology of thrombocytopenia in CLD has long been associated with the hypothesis of hypersplenism, where portal hypertension causes pooling and sequestration of all corpuscular elements of the blood, predominantly thrombocytes, in the enlarged and congested spleen...
November 17, 2016: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832587/the-liver-at-the-nexus-of-host-microbial-interactions
#14
REVIEW
Andrew J Macpherson, Mathias Heikenwalder, Stephanie C Ganal-Vonarburg
The liver receives blood from the intestine, from the spleen, and directly from the heart and holds a vital position in vertebrate physiology. It plays a role in intermediary metabolism, bile secretion, maintaining blood sterility, serum homeostasis, xenobiotic detoxification, and immunological activity. This article provides our perspective on the liver as a nexus in establishing and maintaining host microbial mutualism. We discuss the role of the liver not only in sanitizing the blood stream from penetrant live microbes, but also in metabolizing xenobiotics that are synthesized or modified by intestinal microbes, and how microbiota modify the signaling potential of bile acids...
November 9, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832318/immunological-effects-of-a-novel-rna-based-adjuvant-in-liver-cancer-patients
#15
Luisa Circelli, Annacarmen Petrizzo, Maria Tagliamonte, Regina Heidenreich, Maria Lina Tornesello, Franco M Buonaguro, Luigi Buonaguro
Evaluation of biological effects of adjuvants on immune cells has been assessed in a limited number of studies. Moreover, no data are available on samples derived from cancer patients who may have a severe immune impairment. The effects of a novel RNA-based adjuvant (RNAdjuvant(®) developed by CureVac) were assessed in an ex vivo setting on PBMCs obtained from 8 healthy volunteers and 17 HCC patients, using a multiparametric approach to analyze network dynamics of early immune responses. Evaluation of CD80, CD86 and HLA-DR expression, cytokine production as well as gene expression was performed...
November 10, 2016: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832170/carotid-catheterization-and-automated-blood-sampling-induce-systemic-il-6-secretion-and-local-tissue-damage-and-inflammation-in-the-heart-kidneys-liver-and-salivary-glands-in-nmri-mice
#16
Anne Charlotte Teilmann, Björn Rozell, Otto Kalliokoski, Jann Hau, Klas S P Abelson
Automated blood sampling through a vascular catheter is a frequently utilized technique in laboratory mice. The potential immunological and physiological implications associated with this technique have, however, not been investigated in detail. The present study compared plasma levels of the cytokines IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, GM-CSF, IFN-γ and TNF-α in male NMRI mice that had been subjected to carotid artery catheterization and subsequent automated blood sampling with age-matched control mice. Body weight and histopathological changes in the surgical area, including the salivary glands, the heart, brain, spleen, liver, kidneys and lungs were compared...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819130/current-status-and-future-prospects-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-therapy-for-liver-fibrosis
#17
Yang Guo, Bo Chen, Li-Jun Chen, Chun-Feng Zhang, Charlie Xiang
Liver fibrosis is the end-stage of many chronic liver diseases and is a significant health threat. The only effective therapy is liver transplantation, which still has many problems, including the lack of donor sources, immunological rejection, and high surgery costs, among others. However, the use of cell therapy is becoming more prevalent, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) seem to be a promising cell type for the treatment of liver fibrosis. MSCs have multiple differentiation abilities, allowing them to migrate directly into injured tissue and differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells...
2016: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808112/fish-gut-liver-immunity-during-homeostasis-or-inflammation-revealed-by-integrative-transcriptome-and-proteome-studies
#18
Nan Wu, Yu-Long Song, Bei Wang, Xiang-Yang Zhang, Xu-Jie Zhang, Ya-Li Wang, Ying-Yin Cheng, Dan-Dan Chen, Xiao-Qin Xia, Yi-Shan Lu, Yong-An Zhang
The gut-associated lymphoid tissue, connected with liver via bile and blood, constructs a local immune environment of both defense and tolerance. The gut-liver immunity has been well-studied in mammals, yet in fish remains largely unknown, even though enteritis as well as liver and gallbladder syndrome emerged as a limitation in aquaculture. In this study, we performed integrative bioinformatic analysis for both transcriptomic (gut and liver) and proteomic (intestinal mucus and bile) data, in both healthy and infected tilapias...
November 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808086/vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-promotes-the-activation-of-hepatic-stellate-cells-in-chronic-schistosomiasis
#19
Jie Luo, Yuejin Liang, Fanping Kong, Jingfan Qiu, Xinjian Liu, Ailing Chen, Bruce A Luxon, Hannah W Wu, Yong Wang
BACKGROUND: The activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is a key event in fibrotic pathogenesis. However, the mechanism involving activation of HSCs in chronic schistosomiasis is not entirely clear. METHODS: Human HSC LX-2 and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (ECs) were cultured with Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum) antigens (SA) in vitro. Fibrosis-associated genes and cell proliferation were analyzed. HSCs were isolated from mice of chronic schistosomiasis with or without praziquantel (PZQ) treatment, followed by the microarray analysis for the liver fibrosis-associated pathways...
November 3, 2016: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799068/recurrent-purpura-due-to-alcohol-related-schamberg-s-disease-and-its-association-with-serum-immunoglobulins-a-longitudinal-observation-of-a-heavy-drinker
#20
Udo Bonnet, Claudia Selle, Katrin Isbruch, Katrin Isbruch
BACKGROUND: It is unusual for purpura to emerge as a result of drinking alcohol. Such a peculiarity was observed in a 55-year-old man with a 30-year history of heavy alcohol use. CASE PRESENTATION: The Caucasian patient was studied for 11 years during several detoxification treatments. During the last 2 years of that period, purpuric rashes were newly observed. The asymptomatic purpura was limited to both lower limbs, self-limiting with abstinence, and reoccurring swiftly with alcohol relapse...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
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