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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053854/dietary-betaine-supplementation-increases-adrenal-expression-of-steroidogenic-acute-regulatory-protein-and-yolk-deposition-of-corticosterone-in-laying-hens
#1
Halima Abobaker, Yun Hu, Zhen Hou, Qinwei Sun, Abdulrahman A Idriss, Nagmeldin A Omer, Yibo Zong, Ruqian Zhao
Betaine, an important methyl donor, is known to execute epigenetic regulation of gene expression via nutritional reprogramming. Herein, we explore whether feeding a betaine-supplemented diet to laying hens would affect corticosteroid biosynthesis in the adrenal gland and corticosterone deposition in eggs, in correlation with the expression of methyl transfer enzymes and the promoter DNA methylation status of affected genes. Rugao yellow-feathered laying hens at 38 weeks of age were assigned to Control and Betaine groups, fed basal and betaine-supplemented diets, respectively, for four weeks...
September 20, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053628/antioxidant-defence-oxidative-stress-and-oxidative-damage-in-saliva-plasma-and-erythrocytes-of-dementia-patients-can-salivary-age-be-a-marker-of-dementia
#2
Magdalena Choromańska, Anna Klimiuk, Paula Kostecka-Sochoń, Karolina Wilczyńska, Mikołaj Kwiatkowski, Natalia Okuniewska, Napoleon Waszkiewicz, Anna Zalewska, Mateusz Maciejczyk
Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in dementia pathogenesis; however, its impact on salivary secretion and salivary qualities is still unknown. This study included 80 patients with moderate dementia and 80 healthy age- and sex-matched individuals. Salivary flow, antioxidants (salivary peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, uric acid and total antioxidant capacity), and oxidative damage products (advanced oxidation protein products, advanced glycation end products (AGE), 8-isoprostanes, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and total oxidant status) were estimated in non-stimulated and stimulated saliva, as well as in plasma and erythrocytes...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053005/rbcs-homeostatically-bind-mtdna-through-tlr9-to-maintain-quiescence-and-prevent-lung-injury
#3
Meghan J Hotz, Danielle Qing, Michael G S Shashaty, Peggy Zhang, Hilary Faust, Neal Sondheimer, Stefano Rivella, G Scott Worthen, Nilam S Mangalmurti
RATIONALE: Potentially hazardous CpG-containing cell-free mitochondrial DNA (cf-mtDNA) is routinely released into the circulation and is associated with morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. How the body avoids inappropriate innate immune activation by cf-mtDNA remains unknown. Because red blood cells (RBCs) modulate innate immune responses by scavenging chemokines, we hypothesized that RBCs may attenuate CpG-induced lung inflammation through direct scavenging of CpG-containing DNA...
October 20, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052937/targeting-of-c-type-lectin-like-receptor-2-or-p2y12-for-the-prevention-of-platelet-activation-by-immunotherapeutic-cpg-oligodeoxynucleotides-comment
#4
U Flierl, T L Nero, B Lim, R K Andrews, M W Parker, E E Gardiner, K Peter
We read with great interest the article by Delierneux et al. [1] in the Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis. The authors elegantly describe a mechanism of platelet activation by CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) through CLEC-2 mediated binding and uptake. This is the second platelet activation mechanism to be attributed to CpG ODNs, the first being the one described by our group involving platelet-specific collagen receptor glycoprotein VI (GPVI) [2]. CpG ODNs are short single-stranded DNA molecules resembling bacterial DNA and they were developed as potential drug candidates, largely due to their immunostimulatory properties via activation of toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) [3]...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051757/role-of-gut-microbiota-on-cardio-metabolic-parameters-and-immunity-in-coronary-artery-disease-patients-with-and-without-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#5
Lidia Sanchez-Alcoholado, Daniel Castellano-Castillo, Laura Jordán-Martínez, Isabel Moreno-Indias, Pilar Cardila-Cruz, Daniel Elena, Antonio J Muñoz-Garcia, Maria I Queipo-Ortuño, Manuel Jimenez-Navarro
Gut microbiota composition has been reported as a factor linking host metabolism with the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and intestinal immunity. Such gut microbiota has been shown to aggravate CVD by contributing to the production of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), which is a pro-atherogenic compound. Treg cells expressing the transcription factor Forkhead box protein P3 (FoxP3) play an essential role in the regulation of immune responses to commensal microbiota and have an atheroprotective role...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051321/liquid-biopsies-using-plasma-exosomal-nucleic-acids-and-plasma-cell-free-dna-compared-with-clinical-outcomes-of-patients-with-advanced-cancers
#6
Lino Möhrmann, Helen Huang, David S Hong, Apostolia M Tsimberidou, Siqing Fu, Sarina Piha-Paul, Vivek Subbiah, Daniel D Karp, Aung Naing, Anne K Krug, Daniel Enderle, Tina Priewasser, Mikkel Noerholm, Erez Eitan, Christine Coticchia, Georg Stoll, Lisa-Marie Jordan, Cathy Eng, Scott Kopetz, Johan Skog, Funda Meric-Bernstam, Filip Janku
PURPOSE: Blood-based liquid biopsies offer easy access to genomic material for molecular diagnostics in cancer. Commonly used cell-free DNA (cfDNA) originates from dying cells. Exosomal nucleic acids (exoNA) originate from living cells, which can better reflect underlying cancer biology. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) was used to test exosomal nucleic acids (exoNA), and droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) and BEAMing PCR were used to test cfDNA for BRAF V600, KRAS G12/G13, and EGFR exon19del/L858R mutations in 43 patients with progressing advanced cancers...
October 19, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049331/hiv-dynamics-linked-to-memory-cd4-t-cell-homeostasis
#7
John M Murray, John Zaunders, Sean Emery, David A Cooper, William J Hey-Nguyen, Kersten K Koelsch, Anthony D Kelleher
The dynamics of latent HIV is linked to infection and clearance of resting memory CD4+ T cells. Infection also resides within activated, non-dividing memory cells and can be impacted by antigen-driven and homeostatic proliferation despite suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART). We investigated whether plasma viral level (pVL) and HIV DNA dynamics could be explained by HIV's impact on memory CD4+ T cell homeostasis. Median total, 2-LTR and integrated HIV DNA levels per μL of peripheral blood, for 8 primary (PHI) and 8 chronic HIV infected (CHI) individuals enrolled on a raltegravir (RAL) based regimen, exhibited greatest changes over the 1st year of ART...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048375/construction-of-a-bivalent-thrombin-binding-aptamer-and-its-antidote-with-improved-properties
#8
Quintin W Hughes, Bao T Le, Grace Gilmore, Ross I Baker, Rakesh N Veedu
Aptamers are short synthetic DNA or RNA oligonucleotides that adopt secondary and tertiary conformations based on Watson-Crick base-pairing interactions and can be used to target a range of different molecules. Two aptamers, HD1 and HD22, that bind to exosites I and II of the human thrombin molecule, respectively, have been extensively studied due to their anticoagulant potentials. However, a fundamental issue preventing the clinical translation of many aptamers is degradation by nucleases and reduced pharmacokinetic properties requiring higher dosing regimens more often...
October 19, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048129/realgar-nanoparticles-versus-ato-arsenic-compounds-induce-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo-activity-against-multiple-myeloma
#9
Danka Cholujova, Zdenka Bujnakova, Erika Dutkova, Teru Hideshima, Richard W Groen, Constantine S Mitsiades, Paul G Richardson, David M Dorfman, Peter Balaz, Kenneth C Anderson, Jana Jakubikova
Multiple myeloma (MM), a B cell malignancy characterized by clonal proliferation of plasma cells in the bone marrow, remains incurable despite the use of novel and conventional therapies. In this study, we demonstrated MM cell cytotoxicity triggered by realgar (REA; As4 S4 ) nanoparticles (NREA) versus Arsenic trioxide (ATO) against MM cell lines and patient cells. Both NREA and ATO showed in vivo anti-MM activity, resulting in significantly decreased tumour burden. The anti-MM activity of NREA and ATO is associated with apoptosis, evidenced by DNA fragmentation, depletion of mitochondrial membrane potential, cleavage of caspases and anti-apoptotic proteins...
October 19, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046478/cinacalcet-corrects-hypercalcemia-in-mice-with-an-inactivating-g%C3%AE-11-mutation
#10
Sarah A Howles, Fadil M Hannan, Caroline M Gorvin, Sian E Piret, Anju Paudyal, Michelle Stewart, Tertius A Hough, M Andrew Nesbit, Sara Wells, Stephen Dm Brown, Roger D Cox, Rajesh V Thakker
Loss-of-function mutations of GNA11, which encodes G-protein subunit α11 (Gα11), a signaling partner for the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), result in familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia type 2 (FHH2). FHH2 is characterized by hypercalcemia, inappropriately normal or raised parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations, and normal or low urinary calcium excretion. A mouse model for FHH2 that would facilitate investigations of the in vivo role of Gα11 and the evaluation of calcimimetic drugs, which are CaSR allosteric activators, is not available...
October 19, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045530/tracking-evolution-of-aromatase-inhibitor-resistance-with-circulating-tumour-dna-analysis-in-metastatic-breast-cancer
#11
Charlotte Fribbens, Isaac Garcia Murillas, Matthew Beaney, Sarah Hrebien, Ben O'Leary, Lucy Kilburn, Karen Howarth, Michael Epstein, Emma Green, Nitzan Rosenfeld, Alistair Ring, Stephen Johnston, Nicholas Turner
Background: Selection of resistance mutations may play a major role in the development of endocrine resistance. ESR1 mutations are rare in primary breast cancer but have high prevalence in patients treated with aromatase inhibitors (AI) for advanced breast cancer. We investigated the evolution of genetic resistance to first line AI therapy using sequential ctDNA sampling in patients with advanced breast cancer. Patients and Methods: 83 patients on first line AI therapy for metastatic breast cancer were enrolled in a prospective study...
October 4, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043697/revisiting-the-relationship-between-the-ejaculatory-abstinence-period-and-semen-characteristics
#12
Bashir M Ayad, Gerhard Van der Horst, Stefan S Du Plessis
Variation in the ejaculatory abstinence period suggested by different guidance bodies have resulted in a growing concern among researchers and clinicians over what the precise period of ejaculatory abstinence ought to be for an optimal semen sample. Several studies have thus been undertaken to examine the association between the length of sexual abstinence and semen characteristics. Not all studies, however, have arrived at the same conclusions. This study aims to review all existing literature published during the past few decades pertaining to the influence of ejaculatory abstinence on semen quality...
January 2018: International Journal of Fertility & Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042218/interest-of-proviral-hiv-1-dna-genotypic-resistance-testing-in-virologically-suppressed-patients-candidate-for-maintenance-therapy
#13
C Allavena, A Rodallec, A Leplat, N Hall, C Luco, L Le Guen, C Bernaud, S Bouchez, E André-Garnier, D Boutoille, V Ferré, F Raffi
Switch of antiretroviral therapy in virologically suppressed HIV-infected patients is frequent, to prevent toxicities, for simplification or convenience reasons. Pretherapeutic genotypic resistance testing on RNA can be lacking in some patients, which could enhance the risk of virologic failure, if resistance-associated mutations of the new regimen are not taken into account. Proviral DNA resistance testing in 69 virologically suppressed patients on antiretroviral treatment with no history of virological failure were pair-wised compared with pre-ART plasma RNA resistance testing...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041391/ion-sensitive-photonic-crystal-nanolaser-sensors
#14
Takumi Watanabe, Yoshito Saijo, Yu Hasegawa, Keisuke Watanabe, Yoshiaki Nishijima, Toshihiko Baba
In general, biochemical sensors based on photonic cavities are used to detect changes in the refractive index of the environment. In this study, however, a GaInAsP semiconductor photonic-crystal nanolaser sensor that we recently developed was found to detect not only the environmental refractive index but also the surface charge. In contrast to the pH sensitivity we reported previously, this is an ultra-sensitive detection mechanism capable of identifying proteins and deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) at a femtomolar-order or lower concentrations...
October 2, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040604/associations-of-plasma-cytokine-and-microbial-translocation-biomarkers-with-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome
#15
Varghese George, Linda Harrison, Margaret Roach, Xiao-Dong Li, Camlin Tierney, Margaret A Fischl, Judith Aberg, Pablo Tebas, David M Asmuth, Richard B Pollard, Catherine Godfrey, Savita Pahwa
A nested case-cohort study was performed in participants of a clinical trial of first-line human immunodeficiency virus treatments to investigate plasma biomarkers of inflammation and microbial translocation for their association with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). Fifty-one of 1452 participants with baseline CD4 count <350 cells/μL developed IRIS. Plasma from 51 IRIS cases, including 6 stratified by preenrollment CD4 count ≤200 cells/μL, were analyzed and compared to 94 non-IRIS controls...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039166/-detection-of-cell-free-fetal-dna-in-maternal-plasma-for-noninvasive-prenatal-screening-of-fetal-chromosomal-aneuploidies-in-women-of-advanced-maternal-age
#16
Hui Zhu, Zhengyou Miao, Yeqing Qian, Hongge Li, Jinglei Jin, Jing He, Minyue Dong
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficiency of cell-free fetal DNA detection as a non-invasive prenatal screening (NIPS) method for women of advanced maternal age. METHODS: A total of 10 584 women of advanced maternal age who received NIPS were recruited from the Women's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine and Jiaxing Maternal and Child Health Hospital during February 2015 and September 2016. The pregnancy outcome was followed-up. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of fetal chromosomal aneuploidy detected in NIPS were analyzed...
May 25, 2017: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038235/rare-tumor-clinic-the-university-of-california-san-diego-moores-cancer-center-experience-with-a-precision-therapy-approach
#17
Shumei Kato, Kellie Kurasaki, Sadakatsu Ikeda, Razelle Kurzrock
BACKGROUND: Patients with rare tumors may lack approved treatments and clinical trial access. Although each rare tumor is uncommon, cumulatively they account for approximately 25% of cancers. We recently initiated a Rare Tumor Clinic that emphasized a precision medicine strategy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated the first 40 patients presenting at the Rare Tumor Clinic. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) of tissue and plasma-derived, circulating-tumor DNA (ctDNA), and protein markers were assessed...
October 16, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037560/application-of-non-invasive-prenatal-testing-in-late-gestation-in-a-pregnancy-associated-with-intrauterine-growth-restriction-and-trisomy-22-confined-placental-mosaicism
#18
Chih-Ping Chen, Chris Tsai, Ming-Huei Lin, Schu-Rern Chern, Shin-Wen Chen, Shih-Ting Lai, Wen-Lin Chen, Chen-Wen Pan, Wayseen Wang
OBJECTIVE: We present the application of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) in late gestation in a pregnancy associated with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and trisomy 22 confined placental mosaicism (CPM). CASE REPORT: A 35-year-old pregnant woman underwent chorionic villus sampling (CVS) at 12 weeks of gestation. The pregnancy was conceived by in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection. CVS revealed a karyotype of 47,XY,+22 in all of 15 cultured chorionic villi cells...
October 2017: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037559/noninvasive-prenatal-diagnosis-for-x-linked-disease-by-maternal-plasma-sequencing-in-a-family-of-hemophilia-b
#19
Ping Hu, Fengchang Qiao, Yuan Yuan, Ruihong Sun, Yan Wang, Lulu Meng, Ying Lin, Hang Li, Yaoshen Wang, Rui Han, Dong Liang, Dingyuan Ma, Tao Jiang, Hui Jiang, Zhengfeng Xu
OBJECTIVE: To apply a Hidden Markov Model to test Hemophilia B in a fetus by maternal plasma sequencing only employing proband and maternal haplotypes. CASE REPORT: A family at risk for Hemophilia B was recruited in this study. We performed genetic diagnosis on the proband using our targeted capture system (containing F9 gene coding region, highly heterozygous SNPs and a 13-kb chromosome Y specific region), and revealed a causative F9 gene mutation (c.190T>C, p...
October 2017: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037245/reduced-antiretroviral-drug-efficacy-and-concentration-in-hiv-infected-microglia-contributes-to-viral-persistence-in-brain
#20
Eugene L Asahchop, Oussama Meziane, Manmeet K Mamik, Wing F Chan, William G Branton, Lothar Resch, M John Gill, Elie Haddad, Jean V Guimond, Mark A Wainberg, Glen B Baker, Eric A Cohen, Christopher Power
BACKGROUND: In patients with HIV/AIDS receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV-1 persistence in brain tissue is a vital and unanswered question. HIV-1 infects and replicates in resident microglia and trafficking macrophages within the brain although the impact of individual ART drugs on viral infection within these brain myeloid cells is unknown. Herein, the effects of contemporary ART drugs were investigated using in vitro and in vivo models of HIV-1 brain infection. RESULTS: The EC50 values for specific ART drugs in HIV-infected human microglia were significantly higher compared to bone marrow-derived macrophages and peripheral blood mononuclear cells...
October 16, 2017: Retrovirology
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