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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922055/limited-hiv-1-reactivation-in-resting-cd4-t-cells-from-aviremic-patients-under-protease-inhibitors
#1
Amit Kumar, Wasim Abbas, Sophie Bouchat, Jean-Stéphane Gatot, Sébastien Pasquereau, Kabamba Kabeya, Nathan Clumeck, Stéphane De Wit, Carine Van Lint, Georges Herbein
A latent viral reservoir that resides in resting CD4(+) T cells represents a major barrier for eradication of HIV infection. We test here the impact of HIV protease inhibitor (PI) based combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART) over nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based cART on HIV-1 reactivation and integration in resting CD4(+) T cells. This is a prospective cohort study of patients with chronic HIV-1 infection treated with conventional cART with an undetectable viremia. We performed a seven-year study of 47 patients with chronic HIV-infection treated with cART regimens and with undetectable plasma HIV-1 RNA levels for at least 1 year...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921220/increased-cell-free-mitochondrial-dna-is-a-marker-of-ongoing-inflammation-and-better-neurocognitive-function-in-virologically-suppressed-hiv-infected-individuals
#2
Josué Pérez-Santiago, Michelli F De Oliveira, Susanna R Var, Tyler R C Day, Steven P Woods, Sara Gianella, Sanjay R Mehta
Cell-free mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a highly immunogenic molecule that is associated with several inflammatory conditions and with neurocognitive impairment during untreated HIV infection. Here, we investigate how cell-free mtDNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is associated with inflammation, neuronal damage, and neurocognitive functioning in the context of long-term suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART). We quantified the levels of cell-free mtDNA in the CSF from 41 HIV-infected individuals with completely suppressed HIV RNA levels in blood plasma (<50 copies/mL) by droplet digital PCR...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920275/hypermethylation-of-brain-natriuretic-peptide-bnp-gene-is-associated-with-the-risk-of-rheumatic-heart-disease
#3
Ni Li, Dawei Zheng, Lebo Sun, Huoshun Shi, Xiuying Zhu, Guodong Xu, Qinning Wang, Caimin Zhu, Guofeng Shao
To investigate the contribution of BNP promoter DNA methylation to the risk of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) and the influence of warfarin anticoagulant therapy on BNP methylation levels for RHD patients after surgery.BNP methylation levels were determined by bisulfite pyrosequencing from plasma samples of RHD patients compared with healthy controls. Several factors influencing the RHD patients were included age, smoking, and cholesterol levels. A fragment of 5 CG sites (CpG1-5) in the promoter region of BNP gene was measured...
December 5, 2016: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919911/in-vitro-activation-of-coagulation-by-human-neutrophil-dna-and-histone-proteins-but-not-neutrophil-extracellular-traps
#4
Denis F Noubouossie, Matthew F Whelihan, Yuan-Bin Yu, Erica Sparkenbaugh, Rafal Pawlinski, Dougald M Monroe, Nigel S Key
NETosis is a physiological process in which neutrophils release their nuclear material in the form of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETs have been reported to directly promote thrombosis in animal models. Although the effects of purified NET components including DNA, histone proteins and neutrophil enzymes on coagulation have been characterized, the mechanism by which intact NETs promote thrombosis is largely unknown. In this study, human neutrophils were stimulated to produce NETs in platelet-free plasma (PFP) or in buffer using PMA or calcium ionophore...
December 5, 2016: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919364/double-heterozygous-autosomal-dominant-hypercholesterolemia-clinical-characterization-of-an-underreported-disease
#5
Barbara Sjouke, Joep C Defesche, Merel L Hartgers, Albert Wiegman, Jeanine E Roeters van Lennep, John J Kastelein, G Kees Hovingh
INTRODUCTION: Autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia (ADH), characterized by high-plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and premature cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, is caused by mutations in LDLR, APOB, and/or PCSK9. OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical characteristics of "double-heterozygous carriers," with 2 mutations in 2 different ADH causing genes, that is, LDLR and APOB or LDLR and PCSK9. METHODS: Double heterozygotes were identified in the database of the national referral laboratory for DNA diagnostics of inherited dyslipidemias...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917295/circulating-human-papillomavirus-dna-detected-using-droplet-digital-pcr-in-the-serum-of-patients-diagnosed-with-early-stage-human-papillomavirus-associated-invasive-carcinoma
#6
Emmanuelle Jeannot, Véronique Becette, Maura Campitelli, Marie-Ange Calméjane, Emmanuelle Lappartient, Evelyne Ruff, Stéphanie Saada, Allyson Holmes, Dominique Bellet, Xavier Sastre-Garau
Specific human papillomavirus genotypes are associated with most ano-genital carcinomas and a large subset of oro-pharyngeal carcinomas. Human papillomavirus DNA is thus a tumour marker that can be detected in the blood of patients for clinical monitoring. However, data concerning circulating human papillomavirus DNA in cervical cancer patients has provided little clinical value, due to insufficient sensitivity of the assays used for the detection of small sized tumours. Here we took advantage of the sensitive droplet digital PCR method to identify circulating human papillomavirus DNA in patients with human papillomavirus-associated carcinomas...
October 2016: Journal of Pathology. Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917263/changes-in-cellular-proliferation-and-plasma-products-are-associated-with-liver-failure
#7
Juliana Gil Melgaço, Frederico Marianetti Soriani, Pedro Henrique Ferreira Sucupira, Leonardo Assaf Pinheiro, Yasmine Rangel Vieira, Jaqueline Mendes de Oliveira, Lia Laura Lewis-Ximenez, Cristina Carvalho Vianna Araújo, Lúcio Filgueiras Pacheco-Moreira, Gustavo Batista Menezes, Oswaldo Gonçalves Cruz, Claudia Lamarca Vitral, Marcelo Alves Pinto
AIM: To study the differences in immune response and cytokine profile between acute liver failure and self-limited acute hepatitis. METHODS: Forty-six patients with self-limited acute hepatitis (AH), sixteen patients with acute liver failure (ALF), and twenty-two healthy subjects were involved in this study. The inflammatory and anti-inflammatory products in plasma samples were quantified using commercial enzyme-linked immunoassays and quantitative real-time PCR...
November 18, 2016: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915499/first-trimester-contingent-screening-for-trisomies-21-18-13-is-this-model-cost-efficient-and-feasible-in-pubblic-health-system
#8
Enrico Colosi, Valentina D'Ambrosio, Enrico Periti
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effectiveness of three different first trimester screening models for trisomies 21, 18 and 13, in terms of detection rate, invasive test rate and final costs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analyzed the distribution of risk for trisomies 21, 18 and 13 in a population of 20.831 singleton pregnancies based on maternal age, fetal heart rate, nuchal translucency, free beta human chorionic gonadotropin and pregnancy associated plasma protein A (Combined test)...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911915/marathon-race-affects-neutrophil-surface-molecules-role-of-inflammatory-mediators
#9
Vinicius Coneglian Santos, Ana Paula Renno Sierra, Rodrigo Oliveira, Kim Guimarães Caçula, César Miguel Momesso, Fabio Takeo Sato, Maysa Braga Barros Silva, Heloisa Helena Oliveira, Maria Elizabeth Pereira Passos, Diego Ribeiro de Souza, Olivia Santos Gondim, Marino Benetti, Adriana Cristina Levada-Pires, Nabil Ghorayeb, Maria Augusta Peduti Dal Molin Kiss, Renata Gorjão, Tânia Cristina Pithon-Curi, Maria Fernanda Cury-Boaventura
The fatigue induced by marathon races was observed in terms of inflammatory and immunological outcomes. Neutrophil survival and activation are essential for inflammation resolution and contributes directly to the pathogenesis of many infectious and inflammatory conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of marathon races on surface molecules related to neutrophil adhesion and extrinsic apoptosis pathway and its association with inflammatory markers. We evaluated 23 trained male runners at the São Paulo International Marathon 2013...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909844/design-and-fabrication-a-gold-nanoparticle-dna-based-nanobiosensor-for-detection-of-microrna-involved-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Shokoufeh Delkhahi, Mahdi Rahaie, Fereshteh Rahimi
MicroRNAs are small RNAs which regulate gene expression by translational repression or degradation of messenger RNAs. Regards to important role of these biomolecules in human disease progress, to produce sensitive, simple and cost-effective assays for microRNAs are in urgent demand. miR-137 in Alzheimer's patients has demonstrated its potential as non-invasive biomarkers in blood for Alzheimer's disease diagnosis and prognosis. This paper describes a novel, sensitive and specific microRNA assay based on Colorimetric detection of gold nanoparticles and hybridization chain reaction amplification (HCR)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Fluorescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909733/nitrogen-gas-plasma-treatment-of-bacterial-spores-induces-oxidative-stress-that-damages-the-genomic-dna
#11
Akikazu Sakudo, Yoichi Toyokawa, Tetsuji Nakamura, Yoshihito Yagyu, Yuichiro Imanishi
Gas plasma, produced by a short high‑voltage pulse generated from a static induction thyristor power supply [1.5 kilo pulse/sec (kpps)], was demonstrated to inactivate Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores (decimal reduction time at 15 min, 2.48 min). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assays further indicated that nitrogen gas plasma treatment for 15 min decreased the level of intact genomic DNA and increased the level of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, a major product of DNA oxidation...
November 29, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908685/royal-jelly-supplemented-soybean-lecithin-based-extenders-improve-post-thaw-quality-and-incubation-resilience-of-goat-spermatozoa
#12
Selim Alcay, M Berk Toker, N Tekin Onder, Elif Gokce
The aim of the present study was to evaluate different concentrations of royal jelly (RJ) supplemented extenders for post-thaw quality and incubation resilience of goat spermatozoa. Semen samples were collected from five goats. Pooled semen were diluted with soybean lecithin-based extender without RJ (control) or supplemented with different concentrations (0.25, 0.5 and 0.75%) of RJ (RJ0.25, RJ0.5, RJ0.75 respectively), at a final concentration of 150 × 10(6) spermatozoon/mL. Semen samples were assessed for sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity using hypoosmotic swelling test (HOST) damaged acrosome using FITC-Pisum sativum agglutinin (PSA-FITC) and DNA integrity using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL)...
November 28, 2016: Cryobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903892/methylation-sensitive-enrichment-of-minor-dna-alleles-using-a-double-strand-dna-specific-nuclease
#13
Yibin Liu, Chen Song, Ioannis Ladas, Mariana Fitarelli-Kiehl, G Mike Makrigiorgos
Aberrant methylation changes, often present in a minor allelic fraction in clinical samples such as plasma-circulating DNA (cfDNA), are potentially powerful prognostic and predictive biomarkers in human disease including cancer. We report on a novel, highly-multiplexed approach to facilitate analysis of clinically useful methylation changes in minor DNA populations. Methylation Specific Nuclease-assisted Minor-allele Enrichment (MS-NaME) employs a double-strand-specific DNA nuclease (DSN) to remove excess DNA with normal methylation patterns...
November 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903712/the-myeloma-stem-cell-concept-revisited-from-phenomenology-to-operational-terms
#14
REVIEW
Hans Erik Johnsen, Martin Bøgsted, Alexander Schmitz, Julie Støve Bødker, Tarec Christoffer El-Galaly, Preben Johansen, Peter Valent, Niklas Zojer, Els Van Valckenborgh, Karin Vanderkerken, Mark van Duin, Pieter Sonneveld, Martin Perez-Andres, Alberto Orfao, Karen Dybkær
The concept of the myeloma stem cell may have important therapeutic implications, yet its demonstration has been hampered by a lack of consistency in terms and definitions. Here, we summarize the current documentation and propose single-cell in vitro studies for future translational studies. By the classical approach, a CD19(-)/CD45(low/-)/CD38(high)/CD138(+) malignant plasma cell, but not the CD19(+)/CD38(low/-) memory B cell compartment, is enriched for tumorigenic cells that initiate myeloma in xenografted immunodeficient mice, supporting that myeloma stem cells are present in the malignant PC compartment...
December 2016: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902343/the-frequency-and-significance-of-the-parvovirus-b19-infection-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#15
Milda Naciute, Diana Mieliauskaite, Rita Rugiene, Rita Nikitenkiene, Ligita Jancoriene, Mykolas Mauricas, Zaiga Nora-Krukle, Modra Murovska, Irute Girkontaite
The present study aims to clarify the possible involvement of parvovirus B19 (B19V) infection in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathogenesis by investigating the presence of B19V infection markers (genomic sequences and virus-specific antibodies) in association with the level of cytokines and RA clinical activity and aggressiveness. 118 RA patients and 49 age and sex matched healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study. Nested PCR was used to detect B19V sequences in whole blood and cell free plasma DNA, ELISA to detect virus-specific antibodies and cytokine levels in plasma, and recomLine dot blot assay for antibodies to separate B19V antigens...
October 14, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901112/depletion-of-trna-halves-enables-effective-small-rna-sequencing-of-low-input-murine-serum-samples
#16
Alan Van Goethem, Nurten Yigit, Celine Everaert, Myrthala Moreno-Smith, Liselot M Mus, Eveline Barbieri, Frank Speleman, Pieter Mestdagh, Jason Shohet, Tom Van Maerken, Jo Vandesompele
The ongoing ascent of sequencing technologies has enabled researchers to gain unprecedented insights into the RNA content of biological samples. MiRNAs, a class of small non-coding RNAs, play a pivotal role in regulating gene expression. The discovery that miRNAs are stably present in circulation has spiked interest in their potential use as minimally-invasive biomarkers. However, sequencing of blood-derived samples (serum, plasma) is challenging due to the often low RNA concentration, poor RNA quality and the presence of highly abundant RNAs that dominate sequencing libraries...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900724/suppression-of-osvpe3-enhances-salt-tolerance-by-attenuating-vacuole-rupture-during-programmed-cell-death-and-affects-stomata-development-in-rice
#17
Wenyun Lu, Minjuan Deng, Fu Guo, Mingqiang Wang, Zhanghui Zeng, Ning Han, Yinong Yang, Muyuan Zhu, Hongwu Bian
BACKGROUND: Vacuolar processing enzymes (VPEs) are cysteine proteinases that act as crucial mediators of programmed cell death (PCD) in plants. In rice, however, the role of VPEs in abiotic stress-induced PCD remains largely unknown. In this study, we generated OsVPE3 overexpression and suppression transgenic lines to elucidate the function of this gene in rice. RESULTS: Survival rate and chlorophyll retention analyses showed that suppression of OsVPE3 clearly enhanced salt stress tolerance in transgenic rice compared with wild type...
December 2016: Rice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900402/effects-of-ugt1a9-genetic-polymorphisms-on-monohydroxylated-derivative-of-oxcarbazepine-concentrations-and-oxcarbazepine-monotherapeutic-efficacy-in-chinese-patients-with-epilepsy
#18
Yao Lu, Youxin Fang, Xunyi Wu, Chunlai Ma, Yue Wang, Lan Xu
AIM: The human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase which is genetically polymorphic catalyzes glucuronidations of various drugs. The interactions among UGT1A4, UGT1A6, UGT1A9, and UGT2B15 genetic polymorphisms, monohydroxylated derivative (MHD) of oxcarbazepine (OXC) plasma concentrations, and OXC monotherapeutic efficacy were explored in 124 Chinese patients with epilepsy receiving OXC monotherapy. METHOD: MHD is the major active metabolite of OXC, and its plasma concentration was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography when patients reached their maintenance dose of OXC...
November 29, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900199/effects-of-exercise-on-markers-of-oxidative-stress-an-ancillary-analysis-of-the-alberta-physical-activity-and-breast-cancer-prevention-trial
#19
Christine M Friedenreich, Vincent Pialoux, Qinggang Wang, Eileen Shaw, Darren R Brenner, Xavier Waltz, Shannon M Conroy, Rhys Johnson, Christy G Woolcott, Marc J Poulin, Kerry S Courneya
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress may contribute to cancer aetiology through several mechanisms involving damage to DNA, proteins and lipids leading to genetic mutations and genomic instability. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of aerobic exercise on markers of oxidative damage and antioxidant enzymes in postmenopausal women. METHODS: The Alberta Physical Activity and Breast Cancer Prevention Trial (ALPHA) was a two-centre, two-armed randomised trial of 320 inactive, healthy, postmenopausal women aged 50-74 years...
2016: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899805/circulating-tumour-dna-analysis-demonstrates-spatial-mutational-heterogeneity-that-coincides-with-disease-relapse-in-myeloma
#20
S Mithraprabhu, T Khong, M Ramachandran, A Chow, D Klarica, L Mai, S Walsh, D Broemeling, A Marziali, M Wiggin, J Hocking, A Kalff, B Durie, A Spencer
Mutational characterisation in multiple myeloma (MM) currently relies on bone marrow (BM) biopsy, which fails to capture the putative spatial and genetic heterogeneity of this multi-focal disease. Analysis of plasma (PL)-derived circulating free tumour DNA (ctDNA) as an adjunct to BM biopsy, for mutational characterisation and tracking disease progression, was evaluated. Paired BM MM cell DNA and ctDNA from 33 relapsed [RR] and 15 newly diagnosed [ND] patients were analysed for KRAS, NRAS, BRAF and TP53 mutations using the OnTarget™ Mutation Detection (OMD) platform...
November 30, 2016: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
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