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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453441/circulating-cell-free-mitochondrial-dna-but-not-leukocyte-mitochondrial-dna-copy-number-is-elevated-in-major-depressive-disorder
#1
Daniel Lindqvist, Owen M Wolkowitz, Martin Picard, Lars Ohlsson, Francesco S Bersani, Johan Fernström, Åsa Westrin, Christina M Hough, Jue Lin, Victor I Reus, Elissa S Epel, Synthia H Mellon
Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been linked to mitochondrial defects, which could manifest in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymorphisms or mutations. Additionally, copy number of mtDNA (mtDNA-cn) can be quantified in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)s, indirectly reflecting cellular energetics, or in the circulating cell-free mtDNA (ccf-mtDNA) levels, which may reflect a fraction of the mitochondrial genome released during cellular stress. Few studies have examined ccf-mtDNA in MDD, and no studies have tested its relationship with intracellular mtDNA-cn or with antidepressant treatment response...
January 30, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452261/maternal-betaine-administration-modulates-hepatic-type-1-iodothyronine-deiodinase-dio1-expression-in-chicken-offspring-through-epigenetic-modifications
#2
Zhen Hou, Qinwei Sun, Yun Hu, Shu Yang, Yibo Zong, Ruqian Zhao
As a feed additive, betaine is widely used in livestock production for its ability to promote growth. Our previous studies had reported that maternal betaine supplementation altered hepatic metabolism in offspring. But it remains unknown whether and how maternal betaine modulates metabolism of thyroid hormones in the offspring chickens by epigenetic modification. In this study, one hundred and twenty Rugao yellow-feathered laying hens were randomly divided into two groups, and were fed basal diet with or without 0...
February 13, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451897/selective-identification-of-somatic-mutations-in-pancreatic-cancer-cells-through-a-combination-of-next-generation-sequencing-of-plasma-dna-using-molecular-barcodes-and-a-bioinformatic-variant-filter
#3
Yoji Kukita, Kazuyoshi Ohkawa, Ryoji Takada, Hiroyuki Uehara, Kazuhiro Katayama, Kikuya Kato
The accuracy of next-generation sequencing (NGS) for detecting tumor-specific mutations in plasma DNA is hindered by errors introduced during PCR/sequencing, base substitutions caused by DNA damage, and pre-existing mutations in normal cells that are present at a low frequency. Here, we performed NGS of genes related to pancreatic cancer (comprising 2.8 kb of genomic DNA) in plasma DNA (average 4.5 ng) using molecular barcodes. The average number of sequenced molecules was 900, and the sequencing depth per molecule was 100 or more...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450198/parvovirus-b19-what-is-the-relevance-in-transfusion-medicine
#4
REVIEW
David Juhl, Holger Hennig
Parvovirus B19 (B19V) has been discovered in 1975. The association with a disease was unclear in the first time after the discovery of B19V, but meanwhile, the usually droplet transmitted B19V is known as the infectious agent of the "fifth disease," a rather harmless children's illness. But B19V infects erythrocyte progenitor cells and thus, acute B19V infection in patients with a high erythrocyte turnover may lead to a life-threatening aplastic crisis, and acutely infected pregnant women can transmit B19V to their unborn child, resulting in a hydrops fetalis and fetal death...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448896/circulating-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-are-elevated-in-patients-with-deep-infiltrating-endometriosis
#5
Jordina Munrós, Dolors Tàssies, Joan Carles Reverter, Lidia Martin, Amelia Pérez, Francisco Carmona, María Ángeles Martínez-Zamora
Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have been described to be related to the pathogenesis of inflammatory and autoimmune conditions. Endometriosis is currently considered a chronic inflammatory condition. Therefore, we performed a preliminary case-control study to compare the circulating plasma NET levels in patients with surgically confirmed endometriosis (E group, n = 82) and those of patients without surgical findings of endometriosis (C group, n = 35). Venous blood samples were obtained at the time of surgery...
January 1, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447211/malaria-severity-possible-influence-of-the-e670g-pcsk9-polymorphism-a-preliminary-case-control-study-in-malian-children
#6
Charles Arama, Issa Diarra, Bourèma Kouriba, Francine Sirois, Olesya Fedoryak, Mahamadou A Thera, Drissa Coulibaly, Kirsten E Lyke, Christopher V Plowe, Michel Chrétien, Ogobara K Doumbo, Majambu Mbikay
AIM: Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin Type 9 (PCSK9) is a hepatic secretory protein which promotes the degradation of low-density lipoprotein receptors leading to reduced hepatic uptake of plasma cholesterol. Non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms in its gene have been linked to hypo- or hyper- cholesterolemia, depending on whether they decrease or increase PCSK9 activity, respectively. Since the proliferation and the infectivity of Plasmodium spp. partially depend on cholesterol from the host, we hypothesize that these PCSK9 genetic polymorphisms could influence the course of malaria infection in individuals who carry them...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445802/pulsatile-plasma-filtration-and-cell-free-dna-amplification-using-a-water-head-driven-point-of-care-testing-chip
#7
Yonghun Lee, Dong-Min Kim, Zhenglin Li, Dong-Eun Kim, Sung-Jin Kim
We demonstrate a microfiltration chip that separates blood plasma by using water-head-driven pulsatile pressures rather than any external equipment and use it for on-chip amplification of nucleic acids. The chip generates pulsatile pressures to significantly reduce filter clogging without hemolysis, and consists of an oscillator, a plasma-extraction pump, and filter units. The oscillator autonomously converts constant water-head pressure to pulsatile pressure, and the pump uses the pulsatile pressure to extract plasma through the filter...
February 15, 2018: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444691/affinity-proteomic-profiling-of-plasma-for-proteins-associated-to-area-based-mammographic-breast-density
#8
Sanna Byström, Martin Eklund, Mun-Gwan Hong, Claudia Fredolini, Mikael Eriksson, Kamila Czene, Per Hall, Jochen M Schwenk, Marike Gabrielson
BACKGROUND: Mammographic breast density is one of the strongest risk factors for breast cancer, but molecular understanding of how breast density relates to cancer risk is less complete. Studies of proteins in blood plasma, possibly associated with mammographic density, are well-suited as these allow large-scale analyses and might shed light on the association between breast cancer and breast density. METHODS: Plasma samples from 1329 women in the Swedish KARMA project, without prior history of breast cancer, were profiled with antibody suspension bead array (SBA) assays...
February 14, 2018: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442545/novel-compound-heterozygous-clcnkb-gene-mutations-c-1755a-g-c-848_850deltct-cause-classic-bartter-syndrome
#9
Chunli Wang, Ying Chen, Bixia Zheng, Mengshu Zhu, Jia Fan, Juejin Wang, Zhanjun Jia, Songming Huang, Aihua Zhang
Inactivated variants in CLCNKB gene encoding the basolateral chloride channel ClC-Kb cause classic Bartter syndrome characterized by hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis and hyperreninemic hyperaldosteronism. Here we identified two cBS siblings presenting hypokalemia in a Chinese family due to novel compound heterozygous CLCNKB mutations (c.848_850delTCT/c.1755A>G). Compound heterozygosity was confirmed by amplifying and sequencing the patient's genomic DNA. The synonymous mutation c.1755A>G (Thr585Thr) was located at +2bp from the 5' splice donor site in exon 15, further transcript analysis demonstrated that this single nucleotide mutation causes exclusion of exon 15 in the cDNA from the proband and his mother...
February 14, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442269/effects-of-carvacrol-on-human-fibroblast-ws-1-and-gastric-adenocarcinoma-ags-cells-in-vitro-and-on-wistar-rats-in-vivo
#10
Ayse Günes-Bayir, Abdurrahim Kocyigit, Eray Metin Güler, Mehmet Gültekin Bilgin, İlyas Samet Ergün, Agnes Dadak
Carvacrol is a natural phenolic compound found in essential oils of Lamiaceae species. In the present study, an attempt has been made to elucidate the mechanism behind the anti-cancer potential of carvacrol on human gastric adenocarcinomas (AGS) by comparing its effects on cancer cells AGS to those on normal human fibroblast (WS-1) cells, in vitro. Cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, glutathione (GSH) levels, genotoxicity, and apoptotic effects of carvacrol (0-600 µM) were studied in both cell lines...
February 13, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441568/evaluation-of-the-benefits-harms-and-cost-effectiveness-of-potential-alternatives-to-ifobt-testing-for-colorectal-cancer-screening-in-australia
#11
Jie-Bin Lew, D James, B St John, Finlay A Macrae, Jon D Emery, Hooi C Ee, Mark A Jenkins, Emily He, Paul Grogan, Michael Caruana, Diana Sarfati, Marjolein Je Greuter, Veerle Mh Coupé, Karen Canfell
The Australian National Bowel Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP) will fully roll-out 2-yearly screening using immunochemical Faecal Occult Blood Test (iFOBT) in people aged 50-74 years by 2020. In this study, we aimed to estimate the comparative health benefits, harms, and cost-effectiveness of screening with iFOBT, versus other potential alternative or adjunctive technologies. A comprehensive validated microsimulation model, Policy1-Bowel, was used to simulate a total of 13 screening approaches involving use of iFOBT, colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, computed tomographic colonography (CTC), faecal DNA (fDNA) and plasma DNA (pDNA), in people aged 50-74 years...
February 14, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440752/one-step-noninvasive-prenatal-testing-nipt-for-autosomal-recessive-homozygous-point-mutations-using-digital-pcr
#12
Mun Young Chang, Soyeon Ahn, Min Young Kim, Jin Hee Han, Hye-Rim Park, Han Kyu Seo, Jinsun Yoon, Seungmin Lee, Doo-Yi Oh, Changsoo Kang, Byung Yoon Choi
Previously, we introduced a noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) protocol for diagnosing compound heterozygous autosomal recessive point mutations via maternal plasma DNA and simulated control genomic DNA sampling based on fetal DNA fraction. In our present study, we have improved our NIPT protocol to make it possible to diagnose homozygous autosomal recessive point mutations without the need to acquire fetal DNA fraction. Moreover, chi-squared test and empirical statistical range based on the proportion of mutant allele reads among the total reads served as the gatekeeping method...
February 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438900/sperm-quality-biomarkers-complement-reproductive-and-endocrine-parameters-in-investigating-environmental-contaminants-in-common-carp-cyprinus-carpio-from-the-lake-mead-national-recreation-area
#13
Jill A Jenkins, Michael R Rosen, Rassa O Draugelis-Dale, Kathy R Echols, Leticia Torres, Carla M Wieser, Constance A Kersten, Steven L Goodbred
Lake Mead National Recreational Area (LMNRA) serves as critical habitat for several federally listed species and supplies water for municipal, domestic, and agricultural use in the Southwestern U.S. Contaminant sources and concentrations vary among the sub-basins within LMNRA. To investigate whether exposure to environmental contaminants is associated with alterations in male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) gamete quality and endocrine- and reproductive parameters, data were collected among sub-basins over 7 years (1999-2006)...
February 10, 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438522/ras-mutation-analysis-in-circulating-tumor-dna-from-patients-with-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-the-ageo-rasanc-prospective-multicenter-study
#14
J B Bachet, O Bouché, J Taieb, O Dubreuil, M L Garcia, A Meurisse, C Normand, J M Gornet, P Artru, S Louafi, F Bonnetain, A Thirot-Bidault, I Baumgaertner, R Coriat, D Tougeron, T Lecomte, F Mary, T Aparicio, L Marthey, V Taly, H Blons, D Vernerey, P Laurent-Puig
Background: RAS mutations are currently sought for in tumor samples, which takes a median of almost 3 weeks in western European countries. This creates problems in clinical situations that require urgent treatment and for inclusion in therapeutic trials that need RAS status for randomization. Analysis of circulating tumor DNA might help to shorten the time required to determine RAS mutational status prior to anti-EGFR antibody therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer. Here we compared plasma versus tissue RAS analysis in a large prospective multicenter cohort...
February 9, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437753/dynamic-changes-of-circulating-tumour-dna-in-surgical-lung-cancer-patients-protocol-for-a-prospective-observational-study
#15
Kezhong Chen, Heng Zhao, Fan Yang, Bengang Hui, Tianyang Wang, Lieu Tu Wang, Yanbin Shi, Jun Wang
INTRODUCTION: Circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) has potential applications in cancer management. Most previous studies about ctDNA focused on advanced stage cancer patients. We have completed a clinical prospective study (NCT02645318) and showed the feasibility and clinical application of ctDNA detection in early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. The aim of this study is to investigate the elimination rate of ctDNA level after surgery. This is the first prospective study to evaluate the perioperative dynamic changes of ctDNA in surgical lung cancer patients...
February 6, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436707/the-molecular-pathology-of-cancer-from-pan-genomics-to-post-genomics
#16
REVIEW
David G Huntsman, Marc Ladanyi
As the cancer genomics of most major cancer types have been comprehensively catalogued over the past decade through a variety of national and international efforts, the delineation of cancer subtypes has been refined, and our understanding of critical cancer drivers and of the potentially targetable vulnerabilities they create has grown tremendously. The 2018 Annual Review Issue of The Journal of Pathology provides in-depth assessments of how these pan-genomic approaches have enabled advances in cancer classification, targeted therapy selection, and assessment of cancer progression, all of which are now genomically informed, using several cancer types as examples...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436685/anti-angiogenic-and-pro-apoptotic-effects-of-a-small-molecule-jfd-ws-in-in-vitro-and-breast-cancer-xenograft-mouse-models
#17
Appu Rathinavelu, Thanigaivelan Kanagasabai, Sivanesan Dhandayuthapani, Khalid Alhazzani
A small molecule that was developed for blocking vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) has been tested and confirmed for its anti-angiogenic activity. Subsequently, it was modified into a water soluble salt form (JFD-WS) to increase bioavailability and distribution during in vivo pre-clinical testing. The present study was designed to further evaluate the anti-angiogenic and pro-apoptotic effects of JFD-WS in monotherapy as well as in combination with paclitaxel (Taxol) using a mouse xenograft model...
February 9, 2018: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436050/osnac2-positively-affects-salt-induced-cell-death-and-binds-to-the-osap37-and-oscox11-promoters
#18
Chanjuan Mao, Jialin Ding, Bin Zhang, Dandan Xi, Feng Ming
Plant development and adaptations to environmental stresses are intimately associated with programmed cell death (PCD). Although some of the mechanisms regulating PCD [e.g., accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS)] are common among responses to different abiotic stresses, the pathways mediating salt-induced PCD remain largely uncharacterized. We herein report that overexpressing OsNAC2, which encodes a plant-specific transcription factor, promotes salt-induced cell death accompanied by the loss of plasma membrane integrity, nuclear DNA fragmentation, and changes to caspase-like activity...
February 12, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435829/an-siv-macaque-model-of-siv-and-hand-the-need-for-adjunctive-therapies-in-hiv-that-target-activated-monocytes-and-macrophages
#19
REVIEW
Jaclyn Mallard, Kenneth Williams
Non-human primate models of AIDS and neuroAIDS are critical to study HIV infection of the CNS, neuropathology, and immune activation and macrophage accumulation that occurs in HAND. SIV, similar to HIV, infects CD4+ T lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Virus enters the CNS early, and macrophage activation correlates with CNS disease, as well as inflammation outside of the CNS. Antiretroviral in HIV+ humans and SIV+ Rhesus macaques results in non-detectable plasma virus, decreased or non-detectable viral RNA or protein in the CNS...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435124/adduction-to-arginine-detoxifies-aflatoxin-b1-by-eliminating-genotoxicity-and-altering-in-vitro-toxicokinetic-profiles
#20
Blake R Rushing, Mustafa I Selim
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a class 1 carcinogen and prominent food contaminant, is highly linked to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and plays a causative role in a large portion of global HCC cases. We have demonstrated that a mixture of common organic acids (citric and phosphoric acid) along with arginine can eliminate >99% of AFB1 in solution as well as on corn kernels and convert it to the AFB2a-Arg adduct, acting as a potential detoxification process for contaminated foods. Evaluation of toxicokinetic changes after AFB2a-Arg formation show that the product is highly stable in biological fluids, is not metabolized by P450 enzymes, is highly plasma protein bound, has low lipid solubility, and has poor intestinal permeability/high intestinal efflux compared to AFB1...
January 12, 2018: Oncotarget
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