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Infective diseases dialysis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676846/generic-sofosbuvir-based-direct-acting-antivirals-in-hepatitis-c-virus-infected-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#1
Manoj Kumar Sharma, Suman Lata Nayak, Ekta Gupta, Ashish Kataria, Shiv K Sarin
BACKGROUND & AIMS: There is scant data on use of sofosbuvir containing directly acting anti-viral (DAA) regimens in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Recently generic versions of DAAs have become available in low income countries including India. The aim of this study was to study the efficacy and safety of generic sofosbuvir in combination with generic ribavirin, ledipasvir, or daclatasvir in HCV infected patients with CKD including patients with advanced CKD (CKD stage 4 or 5 with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <30 mL/min or those on dialysis)...
April 20, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644070/intravenous-drug-users-who-require-dialysis-causes-of-renal-failure-and-outcomes
#2
Jemima K Scott, Dominic M Taylor, Chris R K Dudley
Background: Intravenous drug use is associated with progressive kidney disease of several aetiologies. It is associated with behavioural and lifestyle characteristics that make the provision of renal replacement therapies (RRTs) challenging. We observed that patients who use intravenous drugs [people who inject drugs (PWID)] present late to renal services and struggle to engage with treatment. We describe the experience of a UK centre providing renal services to a mixed city and rural population...
April 2018: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629273/korean-clinical-practice-guidelines-for-preventing-the-transmission-of-infections-in-hemodialysis-facilities
#3
Hayne Cho Park, Young-Ki Lee, Kyung Don Yoo, Hee Jung Jeon, Seung Jun Kim, Ajin Cho, Jacob Lee, Yang-Gyun Kim, Sang-Ho Lee, Sang-Oh Lee
Patients receiving hemodialysis are vulnerable to infectious diseases due to their impaired immunity and high risk of exposure to pathogens. To protect patients, staff, and visitors from potential infections, each hemodialysis unit should establish and follow standard infection control and prevention measures. Therefore, clinical practice guidelines were developed by a working group of nephrologists and infection control specialists to provide evidence-based guidance for dialysis physicians and nurses, with the aim of preventing infection transmission and controlling infection sources in hemodialysis facilities...
March 2018: Kidney Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616470/peritoneal-dialysis-as-initial-dialysis-modality-a-viable-option-for-late-presenting-end-stage-renal-disease
#4
REVIEW
Muhammad Masoom Javaid, Behram Ali Khan, Srinivas Subramanian
Late-presenting end-stage renal disease is a significant problem worldwide. Up to 70% of patients start dialysis in an unplanned manner without a definitive dialysis access in place. Haemodialysis via a central venous catheter is the default modality for the majority of such patients, and peritoneal dialysis is usually not considered as a feasible option. However, in the recent years, some reports on urgent-start peritoneal dialysis in the late-presenting end-stage renal disease have been published. The collective experience shows that PD can be a safe, efficient and cost-effective alternative to haemodialysis in late-presenting end-stage renal disease with comparable outcomes to the conventional peritoneal dialysis and urgent-start haemodialysis...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607544/outcome-of-pediatric-heart-transplantation-in-blood-culture-positive-donors-in-the-united-states
#5
Shahnawaz M Amdani, Wei Du, Sanjeev Aggarwal
Active donor infection at time of organ procurement poses a potential infection risk and may increase post-transplant morbidity and mortality in recipients. Our hypothesis was that pediatric heart transplant recipients from blood culture positive donors (BCPD) would have increased morbidity and mortality compared to non-blood culture positive donors (NBCPD). A retrospective analyses of pediatric heart transplant recipients using the Organ Procurement and Transplant Network (OPTN) between 1987 and 2015 were conducted...
April 1, 2018: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588907/disseminated-toxoplasmosis-in-a-patient-with-advanced-acquired-immunodeficiency-syndrome
#6
Ricardo Garcia Pastorello, Anderson da Costa Lino Costa, Marcio Valente Yamada Sawamura, Antonio Carlos Nicodemo, Amaro Nunes Duarte-Neto
Extracerebral toxoplasmosis, with pulmonary involvement and shock, is a rare form of toxoplasmosis in patients with advanced AIDS. It can mimic pneumocystosis, histoplasmosis, and disseminated tuberculosis, and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of causes of respiratory failure and fulminant disease in this group of individuals, especially in areas where the Toxoplasma gondii infection is highly prevalent and in those without proper use of antimicrobial prophylaxis. We report the case of a 46-year-old male patient who presented to the emergency department with uremia, requiring urgent dialysis...
January 2018: Autopsy & case reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582683/incidence-risk-factors-and-treatment-of-achilles-tendon-rupture-in-patients-with-end-stage-renal-disease
#7
Casey Jo Humbyrd, Sunjae Bae, Lauren M Kucirka, Dorry L Segev
BACKGROUND: Dialysis-dependent patients and kidney transplant recipients may be at increased risk for Achilles tendon rupture (ATR). METHODS: We studied Medicare patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) from 1999 through 2013. Patients were categorized as waitlisted for a transplant, not waitlisted, or received a transplant. We performed multivariate negative binomial regression using demographic characteristics, comorbidities, and year of study entry to estimate adjusted incidence rate ratios (aIRRs), identify ATR risk factors, and determine treatment patterns and outcomes...
March 1, 2018: Foot & Ankle International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582680/catheter-related-complications-and-survival-among-incident-hemodialysis-patients-in-singapore
#8
Hao-Yun Yap, Suh-Chien Pang, Chieh-Suai Tan, Yi-Liang Tan, Nicholette Goh, Shaam Achudan, Kian-Guan Lee, Ru-Yu Tan, Lina Hui-Lin Choong, Tze-Tec Chong
INTRODUCTION: Hemodialysis is the main modality of renal replacement therapy in Singapore. However, a majority of the patients in Singapore are initiated on hemodialysis via a catheter. This study examines the complication rates and factors predicting catheter-related bloodstream infections and mortality rates in patients who were initiated on hemodialysis at our institution. METHODS: This is a single-center retrospective analysis of incident hemodialysis patients who were initiated on renal replacement therapy between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2012...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vascular Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579873/long-term-survival-and-evolution-of-the-kidney-function-for-liver-transplant-patients-who-required-postoperative-dialysis
#9
F Rosique, J B Cabezuelo, D Ferreras, M R González-Sánchez, J Ros, J A Pons, P A Cascales-Campos, F Sánchez-Bueno, R Robles, P Ramírez, P Parrilla
Patients who underwent orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) frequently develop chronic kidney disease, with those who present postoperative acute kidney failure and require renal replacement therapy (RRT) at higher risk. The objective of the study was to assess the kidney function and long-term survival of patients who underwent OLT and required RRT during or in the immediate postoperative period. Medical records of OLT and postoperative RRT patients with over 6-month survival were reviewed between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2015...
March 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567864/systems-thinking-and-leadership-how-nephrologists-can-transform-dialysis-safety-to-prevent-infections
#10
REVIEW
Leslie P Wong
Infections are the second leading cause of death for patients with ESKD. Despite multiple efforts, nephrologists have been unable to prevent infections in dialysis facilities. The American Society of Nephrology and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have partnered to create Nephrologists Transforming Dialysis Safety to promote nephrologist leadership and engagement in efforts to "Target Zero" preventable dialysis infections. Because traditional approaches to infection control and prevention in dialysis facilities have had limited success, Nephrologists Transforming Dialysis Safety is reconceptualizing the problem in the context of the complexity of health care systems and organizational behavior...
March 22, 2018: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567355/hepatitis-b-vaccine-non-responders-possible-mechanisms-and-solutions
#11
REVIEW
Tara Vinyette Saco, Alexandra T Strauss, Dennis K Ledford
OBJECTIVE: Hepatitis B (HBV) is a viral illness that chronically infects 240 million people worldwide, leads to cirrhotic liver disease, and increases risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. The HBV vaccine has decreased HBV infection and along with human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine are the only vaccines that prevent cancer. Despite the effectiveness of HBV vaccine, some populations do not develop protective responses. The risk groups for poor response include those with immunosuppression or dialysis-dependent, end-stage renal disease...
March 19, 2018: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567029/through-knee-amputation-is-a-feasible-alternative-to-above-knee-amputation
#12
Sungho Lim, Michael J Javorski, Pegge M Halandras, Bernadette Aulivola, Paul R Crisostomo
OBJECTIVE: Through-knee amputation (TKA) is a rare amputation performed in <2% of all major lower extremity amputations in the United States. Despite biomechanical benefits and improved rehabilitation compared with above-knee amputation (AKA), TKA has largely been abandoned by vascular surgeons because of concerns for poor wound healing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate surgical outcomes of TKA. METHODS: The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program between 2005 and 2012 was queried using Current Procedural Terminology codes indicating AKA and TKA...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567027/a-prospective-randomized-study-of-bovine-carotid-artery-biologic-graft-and-expanded-polytetrafluoroethylene-for-permanent-hemodialysis-access
#13
Hanaa Dakour Aridi, Isibor Arhuidese, Melissa Scudder, Thomas Reifsnyder, Mahmoud B Malas
OBJECTIVE: Arteriovenous grafts (AVGs) remain reliable substitutes for permanent hemodialysis access in scenarios that preclude the placement of native arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs). The majority of AVGs are constructed of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE), which is relatively inexpensive and readily available, but synthetic AVGs have poor patency rates. On the other hand, biologic grafts confer an advantage by virtue of their inherent similarity to the native human vasculature...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564624/echocardiography-has-low-utility-in-cancer-patients-with-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteraemia-findings-from-a-retrospective-study
#14
Zoe Loh, Ortis Estacio, Andrew Grigg, Natasha E Holmes, Geoff Chong, Eliza A Hawkes
AIM: To describe the incidence of infective endocarditis (IE) detected on echocardiography in cancer patients with confirmed Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB). METHODS: We retrospectively identified 95 cases of SAB in cancer patients from January 2007-March 2016. Echocardiography was ordered at the discretion of the treating team, and positive findings defined according to the Modified Duke Criteria. Complicated bacteraemia was defined by prolonged bacteraemia, presence of intracardiac device/prosthetic valve, or signs of metastatic infection...
March 21, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563819/a-case-of-brucella-melitensis-endocarditis-in-a-patient-with-cardiovascular-implantable-electronic-device
#15
Wasl Al-Adsani, Ali Ahmad, Mohammad Al-Mousa
Background: Brucellosis is a bacterial infection, caused by the nonmotile gram-negative aerobic coccobacilli. The clinical manifestation of brucellosis is variable, ranging from mild disease to severe disease. The gold standard test to confirm the diagnosis of brucellosis is assaying blood, bone marrow, or other body fluids or by tissue culture. Preferred first-line treatment in adults with uncomplicated, nonlocalized disease consists of doxycycline-aminoglycoside combination. The recommended duration of treatment is 6 weeks...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543897/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-elbasvir-grazoprevir-regimen-for-treating-hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-1-infection-in-stage-4-5-chronic-kidney-disease-patients-in-france
#16
Franck Maunoury, Aurore Clément, Chizoba Nwankwo, Laurie Levy-Bachelot, Armand Abergel, Vincent Di Martino, Eric Thervet, Isabelle Durand-Zaleski
OBJECTIVE: To assess the cost-effectiveness of the elbasvir/grazoprevir (EBR/GZR) regimen in patients with genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with severe and end-stage renal disease compared to no treatment. DESIGN: This study uses a health economic model to estimate the cost-effectiveness of treating previously untreated and treatment experienced chronic hepatitis C patients who have severe and end stage renal disease with the elbasvir-grazoprevir regimen versus no treatment in the French context...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529965/after-peritoneal-dialysis-discontinuation-when-will-we-remove-peritoneal-dialysis-catheter
#17
Hirotake Kasuga
Most of the peritoneal dialysis patients stop their peritoneal dialysis therapy and transfer to hemodialysis or kidney transplantation. In Japan, most end-stage kidney disease patients select hemodialysis after peritoneal dialysis discontinuation. Peritoneal dialysis catheter will be removed after stopping peritoneal dialysis. If peritoneal dialysis patients suffer from refractory peritonitis or severe tunnel infection, we remove the peritoneal dialysis catheter immediately. However, the causes of peritoneal dialysis discontinuation are ultrafiltration failure or peritoneal membrane dysfunction, and we have to consider the timing of peritoneal dialysis catheter removal...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vascular Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527982/transplant-patients-with-failing-renal-allografts
#18
Ali Riza Ucar, Erol Demir, Mehmet Sukru Sever
Progress in patient care and immunosuppressive medications has resulted in improved allograft survival in the early posttransplant period; however, substantial graft loss continues in the long term. Therefore, the number of dialysis patients with failed allografts is increasing progressively. These patients have a worse prognosis than naive dialysis patients. Cardiovascular causes are the leading cause of death, followed by infections and malignancies. Delay in return to dialysis, a chronic inflammatory state, infections, and cancer are contributing factors to mortality, whereas type of dialysis modality does not have a significant effect on outcomes...
March 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514287/mannose-binding-lectin-genotypes-and-outcome-in-end-stage-renal-disease-a-prospective-cohort-study
#19
Therese Adrian, Mads Hornum, Frank Eriksson, Jesper M Hansen, Katrine Pilely, Peter Garred, Bo Feldt-Rasmussen
Background: Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have high morbidity and mortality rates, with cardiovascular diseases and infections being the major causes of death. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) has been suggested to play a protective role in this regard. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible clinical association of MBL genotypes (MBL2) with outcome among patients on dialysis or with a functioning graft. Methods: A total of 98 patients with ESRD accepted for living-donor renal transplantation or on the waiting list for transplantation were included and prospectively followed for an average of 9 years (range 7...
March 3, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507971/direct-acting-antiviral-prophylaxis-in-kidney-transplantation-from-hepatitis-c-virus-infected-donors-to-noninfected-recipients-an-open-label-nonrandomized-trial
#20
Christine M Durand, Mary G Bowring, Diane M Brown, Michael A Chattergoon, Guido Massaccesi, Nichole Bair, Russell Wesson, Ashraf Reyad, Fizza F Naqvi, Darin Ostrander, Jeremy Sugarman, Dorry L Segev, Mark Sulkowski, Niraj M Desai
Background: Given the high mortality rate for patients with end-stage kidney disease receiving dialysis and the efficacy and safety of hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatments, discarded kidneys from HCV-infected donors may be a neglected public health resource. Objective: To determine the tolerability and feasibility of using direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) as prophylaxis before and after kidney transplantation from HCV-infected donors to non-HCV-infected recipients (that is, HCV D+/R- transplantation)...
March 6, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
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