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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735215/estimation-of-individual-axon-bundle-properties-by-a-multi-resolution-discrete-search-method
#1
Ricardo Coronado-Leija, Alonso Ramirez-Manzanares, Jose Luis Marroquin
A stable, accurate and robust-to-noise method for the estimation of the intra-voxel bundle-wise diffusion properties for diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging is presented. The proposed method overcomes some of the limitations of most of the multi-fiber algorithms in the literature and extends them to estimate the diffusion profiles, improving the estimation of the intra-voxel geometry at challenging microstructure configurations, that is to say: relatively small crossing angles, different voxel-wise anisotropic diffusion profiles and low SNR...
June 29, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734996/the-design-of-novel-visible-light-driven-ag-cdo-as-smart-nanocomposite-for-photodegradation-of-different-dye-contaminants
#2
K Saravanakumar, V Muthuraj, M Jeyaraj
In this paper, we report a novel visible light driven Ag/CdO photocatalyst, fabricated for the first time via one pot hydrothermal method and further applied for the photodegradation of two important exemplar water contaminants, Malachite green and Acid Orange 7. The microstructure, composition and optical properties of Ag/CdO nanocomposites were thoroughly investigated by various techniques. Scanning electron microscopy clearly shows that Ag NPs were strongly embedded between the CdO nanoparticles. Among the series of synthesized Ag/CdO nanocomposites, (5%) Ag/CdO nanocomposite possesses enhanced photocatalytic activity...
July 17, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734568/antibacterial-properties-of-nano-silver-coated-peek-prepared-through-magnetron-sputtering
#3
Xiuju Liu, Kang Gan, Hong Liu, Xiaoqing Song, Tianjie Chen, Chenchen Liu
OBJECTVE: We aimed to investigate the cytotoxicity and antibacterial properties of nano-silver-coated polyetheretherketone (PEEK) produced through magnetron sputtering and provide a theoretical basis for its use in clinical applications. METHODS: The surfaces of PEEKs were coated with nano-silver at varying thicknesses (3, 6, 9, and 12nm) through magnetron sputtering technology. The resulting coated PEEK samples were classified into the following groups according to the thickness of the nano-silver coating: PEEK-3 (3nm), PEEK-6 (6nm), PEEK-9 (9nm), PEEK-12 (12nm), and PEEK control group...
July 19, 2017: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733941/assessment-of-gray-and-white-matter-structural-alterations-in-migraineurs-without-aura
#4
Jilei Zhang, Yi-Lan Wu, Jingjing Su, Qian Yao, Mengxing Wang, Ge-Fei Li, Rong Zhao, Yan-Hui Shi, Ying Zhao, Qiting Zhang, Haifeng Lu, Shuai Xu, Zhaoxia Qin, Guo-Hong Cui, Jianqi Li, Jian-Ren Liu, Xiaoxia Du
BACKGROUND: Migraine constitute a disorder characterized by recurrent headaches, and have a high prevalence, a high socio-economic burden and severe effects on quality of life. Our previous fMRI study demonstrated that some brain regions are functional alterations in migraineurs. As the function of the human brain is related to its structure, we further investigated white and gray matter structural alterations in migraineurs. METHODS: In current study, we used surface-based morphometry, voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging analyses to detect structural alterations of the white matter and gray matter in 32 migraineurs without aura compared with 32 age- and gender-matched healthy controls...
December 2017: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733586/study-of-microstructure-and-fracture-properties-of-blunt-notched-and-sharp-cracked-high-density-polyethylene-specimens
#5
Huanyu Pan, Sheila Devasahayam, Sri Bandyopadhyay
This paper examines the effect of a broad range of crosshead speed (0.05 to 100 mm/min) and a small range of temperature (25 °C and 45 °C) on the failure behaviour of high density polyethylene (HDPE) specimens containing a) standard size blunt notch and b) standard size blunt notch plus small sharp crack - all tested in air. It was observed that the yield stress properties showed linear increase with the natural logarithm of strain rate. The stress intensity factors under blunt notch and sharp crack conditions also increased linearly with natural logarithm of the crosshead speed...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732996/nanostructured-%C3%AE-type-titanium-alloy-fabricated-by-ultrasonic-nanocrystal-surface-modification
#6
Mehdi Kheradmandfard, Seyed Farshid Kashani-Bozorg, Chang-Lae Kim, Abbas Zarei Hanzaki, Young-Shik Pyoun, Jung-Hyong Kim, Auezhan Amanov, Dae-Eun Kim
The surface of β-type Ti-Nb-Ta-Zr (TNTZ) alloy, which is a promising material for biomedical applications, was treated with the ultrasonic nanocrystal surface modification (UNSM) technique to enhance its hardness. As a result, a gradient nanostructured (GNS) layer was generated in the surface; the microstructure of the top surface layer consisted of nanoscale lamellae with a width of about 60-200nm. In addition, there were lamellar grains consisting of nanostructured subgrains having unclear and wavy boundaries...
November 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732971/application-of-airborne-ultrasound-in-the-convective-drying-of-fruits-and-vegetables-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Kai Fan, Min Zhang, Arun S Mujumdar
The application of airborne ultrasound is a promising technology in the drying of foods, particularly to fruits and vegetables. In this paper, designs of dryers using ultrasound to combine the convective drying process are described. The main factors affecting the drying kinetics with the ultrasound application are discussed. The results show that the ultrasound application accelerated the drying kinetics. Ultrasound application during the convective drying of fruits and vegetables shorten the drying time. Ultrasound application can produce an increase of the effective moisture diffusivity and the mass transfer coefficient...
November 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732962/grain-fragmentation-in-ultrasonic-assisted-tig-weld-of-pure-aluminum
#8
Qihao Chen, Sanbao Lin, Chunli Yang, Chenglei Fan, Hongliang Ge
Under the action of acoustic waves during an ultrasonic-assisted tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding process, a grain of a TIG weld of aluminum alloy is refined by nucleation and grain fragmentation. Herein, effects of ultrasound on grain fragmentation in the TIG weld of aluminum alloy are investigated via systematic welding experiments of pure aluminum. First, experiments involving continuous and fixed-position welding are performed, which demonstrate that ultrasound can break the grain of the TIG weld of pure aluminum...
November 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732960/relationships-between-spray-parameters-microstructures-and-ultrasonic-cavitation-erosion-behavior-of-hvof-sprayed-fe-based-amorphous-nanocrystalline-coatings
#9
Lei Qiao, Yuping Wu, Sheng Hong, Jianfeng Zhang, Wei Shi, Yugui Zheng
Fe-based amorphous/nanocrystalline coatings were prepared on the AISI 321 steel substrate by the high-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) thermal spraying technology. The effect of selected parameters (oxygen flow, kerosene flow and spray distance) on the cavitation erosion resistance (denoted as Rc) of the coating were investigated by using the Taguchi method. Statistical tools such as design of experiments (DOE), signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to meet the expected objective...
November 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732932/ultrasound-assisted-synthesis-of-performic-acid-in-a-continuous-flow-microstructured-reactor
#10
P D Jolhe, B A Bhanvase, V S Patil, S H Sonawane, I Potoroko
The present work establishes in depth study of ultrasound assisted preparation of performic acid (PFA) in a continuous flow microstructured reactor. The influence of various parameters viz. formic acid: hydrogen peroxide molar ratio, flow rate, temperature and catalyst loading on the PFA formation were studied in a continuous flow microstructured reactor. In a continuous microstructured reactor in the presence of ultrasonic irradiation, the formation of PFA was found to be dependent on the molar ratio of formic acid: hydrogen peroxide, flow rate of reactants, temperature and catalyst loading (Amberlite IR-120H)...
November 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732310/achieving-directional-propagation-of-elastic-waves-via-topology-optimization
#11
Jingjie He, Zhan Kang
This paper presents a study on topology optimization of novel material microstructural configurations to achieve directional elastic wave propagation through maximization of partial band gaps. A waveguide incorporating a periodic-microstructure material may exhibit different propagation properties for the plane elastic waves incident from different inlets. A topology optimization problem is formulated to enhance such a property with a gradient-based mathematical programming algorithm. For alleviating the issue of local optimum traps, the random morphology description functions (RMDFs) are introduced to generate random initial designs for the optimization process...
July 12, 2017: Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732266/effect-of-heat-treatments-on-the-microstructure-and-formability-of-al-mg-mn-sc-zr-alloy
#12
Yudai Miyake, Yukio Sato, Ryo Teranishi, Kenji Kaneko
Microstructures and formability of scandium and zirconium added Al-Mg-Mn alloy sheets with various heating conditions were examined to improve their mechanical properties. Formability of these samples were judged by the Lankford value, r-value. It was possible to fabricate mechanically balanced Al-Mg-Mn-Sc-Zr alloy with high hardness 76.2 Hv and with high formability with r=1.2, by not only adding scandium and zirconium but also optimizing the heat treatment conditions.
July 11, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731617/in-vivo-diagnosis-of-early-stage-gastric-cancer-found-after-helicobacter-pylori-eradication-using-probe-based-confocal-laser-endomicroscopy
#13
Noriyuki Horiguchi, Tomomitsu Tahara, T Hyuga Yamada, Dai Yoshida, Masaaki Okubo, Mitsuo Nagasaka, Yoshihito Nakagawa, Tomoyuki Shibata, Tetsuya Tsukamoto, Makoto Kuroda, Naoki Ohmiya
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Early-stage gastric cancer (EGC) found after Helicobacter pylori (Hp) eradication often displays non-tumorous regenerative epithelium and/or maturated tumorous epithelium overlying the cancerous tissue, which may confuse endoscopic and histologic diagnosis. Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) enables in vivo real-time optical biopsy. We compared the diagnostic yields for these EGC cases using conventional white light endoscopy (WL), magnifying endoscopy with narrow-band imaging (ME-NBI), pCLE, and endoscopic biopsy; we also compared the accuracy of the horizontal extent diagnosis between ME-NBI and pCLE...
July 21, 2017: Digestive Endoscopy: Official Journal of the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731088/laser-engraved-carbon-nanotube-paper-for-instilling-high-sensitivity-high-stretchability-and-high-linearity-in-strain-sensors
#14
Yangyang Xin, Jian Zhou, Xuezhu Xu, Gilles Lubineau
There is an increasing demand for strain sensors with high sensitivity and high stretchability for new applications such as robotics or wearable electronics. However, for the available technologies, the sensitivity of the sensors varies widely. These sensors are also highly nonlinear, making reliable measurement challenging. Here we introduce a new family of sensors composed of a laser-engraved carbon nanotube paper embedded in an elastomer. A roll-to-roll pressing of these sensors activates a pre-defined fragmentation process, which results in a well-controlled, fragmented microstructure...
July 21, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730720/microstructural-white-matter-brain-abnormalities-in-patients-with-idiopathic-fecal-incontinence
#15
J Muthulingam, S Haas, T M Hansen, S Laurberg, L Lundby, H S Jørgensen, A M Drewes, K Krogh, J B Frøkjaer
BACKGROUND: Abnormal central nervous system processing of visceral sensation may be a part of the pathogenesis behind idiopathic fecal incontinence (IFI). Our aim was to characterize brain differences in patients with IFI and healthy controls by means of structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). METHODS: In 21 female patients with IFI and 15 female healthy controls, whole-brain structural differences in gray matter volume (GMV), cortical thickness, and white matter tracts fractional anisotropy (FA) were quantified...
July 21, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730614/synchrotron-tomographic-images-from-human-lung-adenocarcinoma-three-dimensional-reconstruction-and-histologic-correlations
#16
Eunjue Yi, Sung-Mi Han, Ji-Eun Chang, Hong-Tae Kim, Jong-Ki Kim, Seung-Jun Seo, Jin-Haeng Chung, Sanghoon Jheon
High-resolution tomographic images using synchrotron X-rays are expected to provide detailed reflection of microstructures, thereby allowing for the examination of histologic structures without destruction of the specimen. This study aims to evaluate the synchrotron tomographic images of mixed ground-glass opacity excised on 5-mm sections in comparison to pathologic examination. The Institutional Review Board of our institute approved this retrospective study, and written informed consent was obtained from each patient whose lung tissue would be used...
July 21, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730531/comparing-different-tissue-engineered-repair-materials-for-the-treatment-of-pelvic-organ-prolapse-and-urinary-incontinence-which-material-is-better
#17
Xiaojuan Wang, Yisong Chen, Zhongyong Fan, Keqin Hua
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Synthetic non-absorbable meshes are widely used to augment surgical repair of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and stress urinary incontinence (SUI), but these meshes are associated with serious complications. This study compares the attachment and extracellular matrix (ECM) production of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) on different biodegradable nanomaterials to develop tissue engineered repair materials. METHODS: Rat ADSCs were isolated and cultured on electrospun poly-L-lactic acid (PLA) and electrospun poly(L-lactide)-trimethylene carbonate-gycolide (PLTG) terpolymers for 1 and 2 weeks...
July 20, 2017: International Urogynecology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730462/nd-induced-honeycomb-structure-of-intermetallic-phase-enhances-the-corrosion-resistance-of-mg-alloys-for-bone-implants
#18
Cijun Shuai, Youwen Yang, Shuping Peng, Chengde Gao, Pei Feng, Jian Chen, Yong Liu, Xin Lin, Sheng Yang, Fulai Yuan
Mg-5.6Zn-0.5Zr alloy (ZK60) tends to degrade too rapid for orthopedic application, in spite of its natural degradation, suitable strength and good biocompatibility. In this study, Nd was alloyed with ZK60 via laser melting method to enhance its corrosion resistance. The microstructure features, mechanical properties and corrosion behaviors of ZK60-xNd (x = 0, 1.8, 3.6, 5.4 wt.%) were investigated. Results showed that laser melted ZK60-xNd were composed of fine ɑ-Mg grains and intermetallic phases along grain boundaries...
September 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730309/a-simple-and-rapid-infrared-assisted-self-enzymolysis-extraction-method-for-total-flavonoid-aglycones-extraction-from-scutellariae-radix-and-mechanism-exploration
#19
Liping Wang, Haotian Duan, Jiebing Jiang, Jiakun Long, Yingjia Yu, Guiliang Chen, Gengli Duan
A new, simple, and fast infrared-assisted self enzymolysis extraction (IRASEE) approach for the extraction of total flavonoid aglycones (TFA) mainly including baicalein, wogonin, and oroxylin A from Scutellariae Radix is presented to enhance extraction yield. Extraction enzymolysis temperature, enzymolysis liquid-to-solid ratio, enzymolysis pH, enzymolysis time and infrared power, the factors affecting IRASEE procedure, were investigated in a newly designed, temperature-controlled infrared-assisted extraction (TC-IRAE) system to acquire the optimum analysis conditions...
July 20, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730203/growth-study-of-hierarchical-ag3po4-laco3oh-heterostructures-and-their-efficient-photocatalytic-activity-for-rhb-degradation
#20
Virendrakumar G Deonikar, Santosh S Patil, Mohaseen S Tamboli, Jalindar D Ambekar, Milind V Kulkarni, Rajendra P Panmand, Govind G Umarji, Manish D Shinde, Sunit B Rane, Nagegownivari R Munirathnam, Deepak R Patil, Bharat B Kale
We have demonstrated the synthesis of Ag3PO4/LaCO3OH (APO/LCO) heterostructured photocatalysts by an in situ wet chemical method. From pre-screening evaluations of photocatalysts with APO/(x wt% LCO) composites with mass ratios of x = 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 wt%, we found that the APO/LCO (20 wt%) exhibited a superior photocatalytic activity for organic pollutant remediation. Therefore, an optimised photocatalyst APO/LCO (20 wt%) is selected for the present study and we investigate the effect of a mixed solvent system (H2O:THF) on the morphology, which has a direct effect on the photocatalytic performance...
July 21, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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