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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214960/axonal-disruption-in-white-matter-underlying-cortical-sulcus-tau-pathology-in-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy
#1
Laurena Holleran, Joong Hee Kim, Mihika Gangolli, Thor Stein, Victor Alvarez, Ann McKee, David L Brody
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive degenerative disorder associated with repetitive traumatic brain injury. One of the primary defining neuropathological lesions in CTE, based on the first consensus conference, is the accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau in gray matter sulcal depths. Post-mortem CTE studies have also reported myelin loss, axonal injury and white matter degeneration. Currently, the diagnosis of CTE is restricted to post-mortem neuropathological analysis. We hypothesized that high spatial resolution advanced diffusion MRI might be useful for detecting white matter microstructural changes directly adjacent to gray matter tau pathology...
February 18, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214626/green-synthesis-of-a-novel-flower-like-cerium-vanadate-microstructure-for-electrochemical-detection-of-tryptophan-in-food-and-biological-samples
#2
J Vinoth Kumar, R Karthik, Shen-Ming Chen, S Marikkani, A Elangovan, V Muthuraj
In this present investigation, we introduced a novel electrochemical sensor for the detection of tryptophan (TRP) based on green pompoms flower-like cerium vanadate (CeVO4). The flower-like CeVO4 microstructure was prepared by the simple hydrothermal treatment with the assistance of urea for the first time. The as-prepared flower-like CeVO4 microstructure was characterized by various analytical and spectroscopic techniques such as X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy studies...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214623/rheology-and-microstructure-of-aqueous-suspensions-of-nanocrystalline-cellulose-rods
#3
Yuan Xu, Aleks D Atrens, Jason R Stokes
HYPOTHESIS: Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) is a negatively charged rod-like colloid obtained from the hydrolysis of plant material. It is thus expected that NCC suspensions display a rich set of phase behaviour with salt and pH because of its anisotropic shape and electrical double layer that gives rise to liquid crystallinity and self-assembly respectively. It should thus be possible to tune the rheological properties of NCC suspensions for a wide variety of end-use applications. EXPERIMENTS: Rheology and structural analysis techniques are used to characterise surface-sulphated NCC suspensions as a function of pH, salinity (NaCl) and NCC concentration...
February 12, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213907/optimizing-the-analysis-of-dental-enamel-microstructure-in-intact-teeth
#4
Zulieth López Arrieta, Sergio Roberto Peres Line
In most mammalian species enamel prisms are regularly arranged in layers of alternating directions forming an angle of approximately 90°. These successive layers of prisms are known as Hunter-Schreger bands (HSBs). The analysis of HSBs may provide valuable information regarding the species life history, taxon and personal identification, with evident applicability in physical anthropology and forensics. Obtaining good quality digital images of HSBs in intact specimens is not always a feasible task. The major problems are the low contrast of images; the reflection of incident light, which may create areas of intense shine in digital images; and the abrupt decrease in the degree of illumination that occurs after light crosses the vertical cracks, frequently present in enamel...
February 17, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213204/a-description-of-an-obesogenic-eating-style-that-promotes-higher-energy-intake-and-is-associated-with-greater-adiposity-in-4-5year-old-children-results-from-the-gusto-cohort
#5
Anna Fogel, Ai Ting Goh, Lisa R Fries, Suresh Anand Sadananthan, S Sendhil Velan, Navin Michael, Mya Thway Tint, Marielle Valerie Fortier, Mei Jun Chan, Jia Ying Toh, Yap-Seng Chong, Kok Hian Tan, Fabian Yap, Lynette P Shek, Michael J Meaney, Birit F P Broekman, Yung Seng Lee, Keith M Godfrey, Mary Foong Fong Chong, Ciarán G Forde
Recent findings confirm that faster eating rates support higher energy intakes within a meal and are associated with increased body weight and adiposity in children. The current study sought to identify the eating behaviours that underpin faster eating rates and energy intake in children, and to investigate their variations by weight status and other individual differences. Children (N=386) from the Growing Up in Singapore towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) cohort took part in a video-recorded ad libitum lunch at 4...
February 14, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213098/gelatin-based-3d-conduits-for-transdifferentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-into-schwann-cell-like-phenotypes
#6
Metin Uz, Melda Buyukoz, Anup D Sharma, Donald S Sakaguchi, Sacide Alsoy Altinkaya, Surya K Mallapragada
: In this study, gelatin-based 3D conduits with three different microstructures (nanofibrous, macroporous and ladder-like) were fabricated for the first time via combined molding and thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) technique for peripheral nerve regeneration. The effects of conduit microstructure and mechanical properties on the transdifferentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into Schwann cell (SC) like phenotypes were examined to help facilitate neuroregeneration and understand material-cell interfaces...
February 14, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212706/sclerostin-antibody-inhibits-skeletal-deterioration-in-mice-exposed-to-partial-weight-bearing
#7
J M Spatz, R Ellman, A M Cloutier, L Louis, M van Vliet, D Dwyer, M Stolina, H Z Ke, M L Bouxsein
Whereas much is known regarding the musculoskeletal responses to full unloading, little is known about the physiological effects and response to pharmacological agents in partial unloading (e.g. Moon and Mars) environments. To address this, we used a previously developed ground-based model of partial weight-bearing (PWB) that allows chronic exposure to reduced weight-bearing in mice to determine the effects of murine sclerostin antibody (SclAbII) on bone microstructure and strength across different levels of mechanical unloading...
February 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212336/the-influence-of-anion-shape-on-the-electrical-double-layer-microstructure-and-capacitance-of-ionic-liquids-based-supercapacitors-by-molecular-simulations
#8
Ming Chen, Song Li, Guang Feng
Room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are an emerging class of electrolytes for supercapacitors. In this work, we investigate the effects of different supercapacitor models and anion shape on the electrical double layers (EDLs) of two different RTILs: 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([Emim][Tf₂N]) and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium 2-(cyano)pyrrolide ([Emim][CNPyr]) by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The EDL microstructure is represented by number densities of cations and anions, and the potential drop near neutral and charged electrodes reveal that the supercapacitor model with a single electrode has the same EDL structure as the model with two opposite electrodes...
February 16, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211933/enhanced-bone-tissue-regeneration-using-a-3d-printed-microstructure-incorporated-with-a-hybrid-nano-hydrogel
#9
Dong Nyoung Heo, Nathan J Castro, Se-Jun Lee, Hanaul Noh, Wei Zhu, Lijie Grace Zhang
Three-dimensional (3D) functional constructs with biomimetic mechanical and chemical properties are ideal for various regenerative medicine applications. These properties of 3D fabricated constructs mainly depend on the intrinsic characteristics of the materials and fabrication method. In this respect, the current use of hydrogels for musculoskeletal tissue repair is not ideal due to the lack of suitable mechanical properties, as well as the high biomimetic requirement for success. To overcome this limitation, we developed a novel functionalized hydrogel with bioactive gold nanoparticles (GNPs), reinforcing a 3D printed microstructure via fused deposition modeling (FDM) for bone tissue regeneration...
February 17, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211454/harnessing-catalytic-pumps-for-directional-delivery-of-microparticles-in-microchambers
#10
Sambeeta Das, Oleg E Shklyaev, Alicia Altemose, Henry Shum, Isamar Ortiz-Rivera, Lyanne Valdez, Thomas E Mallouk, Anna C Balazs, Ayusman Sen
The directed transport of microparticles in microfluidic devices is vital for efficient bioassays and fabrication of complex microstructures. There remains, however, a need for methods to propel and steer microscopic cargo that do not require modifying these particles. Using theory and experiments, we show that catalytic surface reactions can be used to deliver microparticle cargo to specified regions in microchambers. Here reagents diffuse from a gel reservoir and react with the catalyst-coated surface. Fluid density gradients due to the spatially varying reagent concentration induce a convective flow, which carries the suspended particles until the reagents are consumed...
February 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210542/dynamic-association-between-perfusion-and-white-matter-integrity-across-time-since-injury-in-veterans-with-history-of-tbi
#11
Alexandra L Clark, Katherine J Bangen, Scott F Sorg, Dawn M Schiehser, Nicole D Evangelista, Benjamin McKenna, Thomas T Liu, Lisa Delano-Wood
OBJECTIVE: Cerebral blood flow (CBF) plays a critical role in the maintenance of neuronal integrity, and CBF alterations have been linked to deleterious white matter changes. Although both CBF and white matter microstructural alterations have been observed within the context of traumatic brain injury (TBI), the degree to which these pathological changes relate to one another and whether this association is altered by time since injury have not been examined. The current study therefore sought to clarify associations between resting CBF and white matter microstructure post-TBI...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209580/white-matter-tract-pathology-in-pediatric-anoxic-brain-injury-from-drowning
#12
M Ishaque, J H Manning, M D Woolsey, C G Franklin, F S Salinas, P T Fox
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although drowning is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in young children, the neuropathologic consequences have not been fully determined. The purpose of this article was to quantitatively characterize white matter microstructural abnormalities in pediatric anoxic brain injury from nonfatal drowning and investigate the correlation with motor function. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Whole-brain T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted MR imaging datasets were acquired in 11 children with chronic anoxic brain injury and 11 age- and sex-matched neurotypical controls (4-12 years of age)...
February 16, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209059/phase-behavior-of-aqueous-suspension-of-laponite-new-insights-with-microscopic-evidence
#13
Shweta Jatav, Yogesh M Joshi
Investigating microstructure of suspensions with particles having anisotropic shape that share complex interactions is a challenging task leading to competing claims. This work investigates phase behavior of one such system: aqueous Laponite suspension, which is highly contested in the literature, using rheological and microscopic tools. Remarkably, we observe that over a broad range of Laponite (1.4 to 4 weight %) and salt concentrations (0 to 7 mM), the system overwhelmingly demonstrates all the rheological characteristics of the sol-gel transition leading to a percolated network...
February 17, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208490/geometrical-model-for-martensitic-phase-transitions-understanding-criticality-and-weak-universality-during-microstructure-growth
#14
Genís Torrents, Xavier Illa, Eduard Vives, Antoni Planes
A simple model for the growth of elongated domains (needle-like) during a martensitic phase transition is presented. The model is purely geometric and the only interactions are due to the sequentiality of the kinetic problem and to the excluded volume, since domains cannot retransform back to the original phase. Despite this very simple interaction, numerical simulations show that the final observed microstructure can be described as being a consequence of dipolar-like interactions. The model is analytically solved in 2D for the case in which two symmetry related domains can grow in the horizontal and vertical directions...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208468/colloidal-polycrystalline-monolayers-under-oscillatory-shear
#15
Ivo Buttinoni, Mathias Steinacher, Hendrik Th Spanke, Juho Pokki, Severin Bahmann, Bradley Nelson, Giuseppe Foffi, Lucio Isa
In this paper we probe the structural response to oscillatory shear deformations of polycrystalline monolayers of soft repulsive colloids with varying area fraction over a broad range of frequencies and amplitudes. The particles are confined at a fluid interface, sheared using a magnetic microdisk, and imaged through optical microscopy. The structural and mechanical response of soft materials is highly dependent on their microstructure. If crystals are well understood and deform through the creation and mobilization of specific defects, the situation is much more complex for disordered jammed materials, where identifying structural motifs defining plastically rearranging regions remains an elusive task...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208260/simultaneous-enhancement-of-bioactivity-and-stability-of-laccase-by-cu-2-paa-ppega-matrix-for-efficient-biosensing-and-recyclable-decontamination-of-pyrocatechol
#16
Tao Chen, Yuanhong Xu, Zhi Peng, Aihua Li, Jingquan Liu
Simultaneously enhancing the catalytic bioactivity and stability of enzyme is still an intractable issue in the enzymatic study. Herein, a facile and effective approach was designed to immobilize and modify laccase on a Cu(2+)-adsorbed pyrene-terminated block copolymer [poly(acrylic acid)/poly(poly(ethylene glycol) acrylate)] (PAA/PPEGA), which was prepared via well-controlled reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. PAA provided the supporting matrix for firm immobilization of Cu(2+), an enzyme bioactivity inducer, onto the microstructure of laccase, while avoiding any contamination of the heavy metal Cu(2+) into the following application system...
February 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207506/higher-subcortical-and-white-matter-cerebral-blood-flow-in-perinatally-hiv-infected-children
#17
Charlotte Blokhuis, Henri J M M Mutsaerts, Sophie Cohen, Henriëtte J Scherpbier, Matthan W A Caan, Charles B L M Majoie, Taco W Kuijpers, Peter Reiss, Ferdinand W N M Wit, Dasja Pajkrt
This study aimed to evaluate cerebral blood flow (CBF) in pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infection, and its role in HIV-related cerebral injury and cognitive impairment.This cross-sectional observational study compared 28 perinatally HIV-infected children (8-18 years) to 34 healthy controls matched for age, sex, ethnicity, and socio-economic status. All participants underwent 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging, using arterial spin labeling to assess CBF in gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), basal ganglia, and thalamus...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207187/a-robust-method-to-generate-mechanically-anisotropic-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-sheets-for-vascular-tissue-engineering
#18
Daniel E Backman, Bauer L LeSavage, Shivem B Shah, Joyce Y Wong
In arterial tissue engineering, mimicking native structure and mechanical properties is essential because compliance mismatch can lead to graft failure and further disease. With bottom-up tissue engineering approaches, designing tissue components with proper microscale mechanical properties is crucial to achieve the necessary macroscale properties in the final implant. This study develops a thermoresponsive cell culture platform for growing aligned vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) sheets by photografting N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) onto micropatterned poly(dimethysiloxane) (PDMS)...
February 16, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206983/an-immutable-array-of-tio2-nanotubes-to-pressures-over-30-gpa
#19
Yanyan Zhang, Qinglin Wang, Junkai Zhang, Xiaoxin Wu, Yanzhang Ma
We report the successful formation of an immutable array of α-PbO2-phase TiO2 nanotubes by compression of a TiO2 nanotube array in an anatase phase. During compression to 31.3 GPa, the TiO2 nanotubes started to directly transform from an anatase phase to a baddeleyite phase at ~15 GPa and completed the transition at ~23 GPa. Under decompression, the baddeleyite phase transformed to a α-PbO2 phase at 4.6 GPa, which was quenchable to ambient pressure. Notably the tubular array microstructure was retained after the application of ultrahigh pressure and undergoing a series of phase transformations...
February 16, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205341/spatiotemporal-microstructural-white-matter-changes-in-diffusion-tensor-imaging-after-transient-focal-ischemic-stroke-in-rats
#20
Won-Beom Jung, Yong Hee Han, Julius Juhyun Chung, Sun Young Chae, Sung Hoon Lee, Geun Ho Im, JiHoon Cha, Jung Hee Lee
Structural reorganization in white matter (WM) after stroke is a potential contributor to substitute or to newly establish the functional field on the injured brain in nature. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is an imaging modality that can be used to evaluate damage and recovery within the brain. This method of imaging allows for in vivo assessment of the restricted movements of water molecules in WM and provides a detailed look at structural connectivity in the brain. For longitudinal DTI studies after a stroke, the conventional region of interest method and voxel-based analysis are highly dependent on the user-hypothesis and parameter settings for implementation...
February 16, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
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