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# Microstructure

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#1
Joseph B Vella, Ryan P Trombetta, Michael D Hoffman, Jason Inzana, Hani Awad, Danielle S W Benoit
Biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds formed via 3D printing technology to exhibit porosity and chemical resorbability to promote osseointegration often lack the strength and toughness required to withstand loading in bone tissue engineering applications. Herein, sintering and CaP:poly(caprolactone) (PCL) composite formation were explored to improve 3D printed scaffold strength and toughness. Hydroxyapatite and α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) biphasic calcium powders were printed using phosphoric acid binder, which generated monetite and hydroxyapatite scaffolds...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
#2
Kanika -, Pawan Kumar, Satbir Singh, Bipin Kumar Gupta
We demonstrate a strategy to protect valuable items such as currency, pharmaceuticals, important documents etc. against counterfeiting by marking them with luminescent security codes. These luminescent security codes were printed by employing luminescent ink formulated from a cost effective dual mode luminescent composite pigment of Gd1.7Yb0.2Er0.1O3 and Zn0.98Mn0.02S phosphors using commercially available PVC Gold medium. In the composite, Gd1.7Yb0.2Er0.1O3 and Zn0.98Mn0.02S accounts for upconversion and downconversion processes, respectively...
October 17, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
#3
Friederike Adams, Philipp Pahl, Bernhard Rieger
Accommodating the increasing demand for tailor-made polymers is a major goal in polymer chemistry. Therefore, the investigation of polymerization techniques, which allow the precise synthesis of macromolecules is of exceptional interest. Ionic or controlled radical polymerization are capable living-type methods for the generation of uniform polymers. However, even these approaches reach their limits in certain issues. In the last decades, group-transfer polymerization (GTP) and especially metal-catalyzed GTP have proven to give access to a plethora of tailor-made homo- and copolymers based on α,β-unsaturated monomers...
October 17, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
#4
G M Campbell, R J Tower, T Damm, P Kneissl, A Rambow, C Schem, S Tiwari, C C Glüer
The metastasis of tumour cells to bone can lead to osteolytic and osteosclerotic lesions, which cause severe, highly-localized bone destruction and abnormal bone apposition, respectively. Accurate quantification of lesion progression is critical to understand underlying mechanisms and assess treatment efficacy; however, standard structural parameters may be insensitive to local changes. We developed methods to quantify osteolytic and osteosclerotic lesions using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) within in vivo mouse datasets...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
#5
Yan Chen, Yizhong Hu, Y Eric Yu, Xingjian Zhang, Tezita Watts, Bin Zhou, Ji Wang, Ting Wang, Weiwei Zhao, Kwong Yuen Chiu, Frankie K L Leung, Xu Cao, William W Lu, William Macaulay, Kyle K Nishiyama, Elizabeth Shane, X Edward Guo
Developing effective treatment for osteoarthritis (OA), a prevalent and disabling disease, has remained a challenge, primarily due to limited understanding of its pathogenesis and late diagnosis. In the subchondral bone, rapid bone loss following traumatic injuries and bone sclerosis at the advanced stage of OA are well-recognized hallmarks of the disease. Recent studies have further demonstrated the crucial contribution of subchondral bone in the development of OA. However, the microstructural basis of these bone changes has not been examined thoroughly, and the paradox of how abnormal resorption can eventually lead to bone sclerosis remains unanswered...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
#6
Isabelle Leguen
The general morphology and surface ultrastructure of the gills of adult and larvae medaka (Oryzias latipes) were studied in freshwater and seawater using scanning electron microscopy. The gills of all examined fish were structurally similar to those of other teleosts and consisted of four pairs of arches supporting (i) filaments bearing lamellae and (ii) rakers containing taste buds. Three cell types, specifically pavement cells, mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs), and mucous cells, constituted the surface layer of the gill epithelium...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Morphology
#7
Bhupendera Prashanth Ramakrishnan, Qian Lei, Amit Misra, Jyoti Mazumder
Bimodal ultrafine eutectic composites (BUECs) exhibit a good combination of strength and plasticity owing to a dual-hierarchy in eutectic length-scales in the microstructure. The present study investigates the variation of phase, morphology, feature length-scales and modality of microstructures obtained in a Al81Cu13Si6 (at. %) ternary alloy after laser surface remelting. A novel approach of varying component bimodal eutectic volume fractions by controlling the cooling rate of the laser solidification process has been presented...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
#8
Dustin A Gilbert, Juan Gabriel Ramírez, T Saerbeck, J Trastoy, Ivan K Schuller, Kai Liu, J de la Venta
We report on a strain-induced and temperature dependent uniaxial anisotropy in V2O3/Ni hybrid thin films, manifested through the interfacial strain and sample microstructure, and its consequences on the angular dependent magnetization reversal. X-ray diffraction and reciprocal space maps identify the in-plane crystalline axes of the V2O3; atomic force and scanning electron microscopy reveal oriented rips in the film microstructure. Quasi-static magnetometry and dynamic ferromagnetic resonance measurements identify a uniaxial magnetic easy axis along the rips...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
#9
Marco Eckhoff, Dmitri Schebarchov, David J Wales
We analyse the structure of model Ni$_{N}$ and Cu$_{N}$ clusters ($N=55$, $147$) supported on a variety of atomically smooth van der Waals surfaces. The global minima are mapped in the space of two parameters: (i) the laterally averaged surface stickiness, $\gamma$, which controls the macroscopic wetting angle; and (ii) the surface microstructure, which produces more subtle but important templating via epitaxial stresses. We find that adjusting the substrate lattice (even at constant $gamma$) can favour different crystal plane orientations in the cluster, stabilise hexagonal close-packed order, or induce various defects, such as stacking faults, twin boundaries, and fivefold disclinations...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
#10
Lanzhong Hao, Yunjie Liu, Yongjun Du, Zhaoyang Chen, Zhide Han, Zhijie Xu, Jun Zhu
A novel few-layer MoS2/SiO2/Si heterojunction is fabricated via DC magnetron sputtering technique, and Pd nanoparticles are further synthesized on the device surface. The results demonstrate that the fabricated sensor exhibits highly enhanced responses to H2 at room temperature due to the decoration of Pd nanoparticles. For example, the Pd-decorated MoS2/SiO2/Si heterojunction shows an excellent response of 9.2 × 10(3)% to H2, which is much higher than the values for the Pd/SiO2/Si and MoS2/SiO2/Si heterojunctions...
October 17, 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
#11
Elena Mancuso, Oana Bretcanu, Martyn Marshall, Kenneth W Dalgarno
Three novel glass compositions, identified as NCL2 (SiO2-based), NCL4 (B2O3-based) and NCL7 (SiO2-based), along with apatite-wollastonite (AW) were processed to form sintered dense pellets, and subsequently evaluated for their in vitro bioactive potential, resulting physico-chemical properties and degradation rate. Microstructural analysis showed the carbonated hydroxyapatite (HCA) precipitate morphology following SBF testing to be composition-dependent. AW and the NCL7 formulation exhibited greater HCA precursor formation than the NCL2 and NCL4-derived pellets...
October 15, 2017: Ceramics International
#12
Peng-Jen Chen, Meng-Chiung Lin, Mei-Ju Lai, Jung-Chun Lin, Henry Horng-Shing Lu, Vincent S Tseng
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Narrow-band imaging (NBI) is an image-enhanced form of endoscopy used to observed microstructures and capillaries of the mucosal epithelium that allows for real-time prediction of histologic features of colorectal polyps. However, NBI expertise is required to differentiate hyperplastic from neoplastic polyps with high levels of accuracy. We developed and tested a system of computer-aided diagnosis with a deep neural network (DNN-CAD) to analyze narrow-band images of diminutive colorectal polyps...
October 14, 2017: Gastroenterology
#13
Ning Zhang, Quan Xu, Shaoxian Li, Chunmei Ouyang, Xueqian Zhang, Yanfeng Li, Jianqiang Gu, Zhen Tian, Jiaguang Han, Weili Zhang
We numerically and experimentally demonstrate polarization-dependent terahertz responses in a proposed metasurface of A-shape resonators. With the horizontal polarization incidence, the observed transmission window is formed by two resonance dips, corresponding to the inductive-capacitive resonance at the lower frequency and the high-order antisymmetric resonance at a higher frequency, respectively. When the incident wave is perpendicularly polarized, the transmission window arises from the plasmon-induced transparency spectral response...
August 21, 2017: Optics Express
#14
Gour M Das, Anil B Ringne, Venkata R Dantham, Raghavan K Easwaran, Ranjit Laha
Finite element method simulations have been carried out on the photonic nanojet (PNJ) mediated surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) technique for the first time, and this technique has been found to provide (i) better Raman scattering enhancement of single molecules and (ii) a long working distance between the microscopic objective lens and sample, as compared with the conventional SERS technique. A PNJ mediated surface enhanced fluorescence (SEF) technique has been proposed to enhance the fluorescence of single molecules using the combination of localized surface plasmons inside nanostructures and the PNJ of a dielectric microsphere (MS), and this technique is numerically proved to be efficient as compared with a conventional SEF technique...
August 21, 2017: Optics Express
#15
Chunjin Wang, Chi Fai Cheung, Mingyu Liu, Wing Bun Lee
This publisher's note amends the funding section of [Opt. Express 25, 22710 (2017)].
September 18, 2017: Optics Express
#16
Chunjin Wang, Chi Fai Cheung, Mingyu Liu, Wing Bun Lee
Optical microstructure array surfaces such as micro-lens array surface, micro-groove array surface etc., are being used in more and more optical products, depending on its ability to produce a unique or particular performance. The geometrical complexity of the optical microstructures array surfaces makes them difficult to be fabricated. In this paper, a novel method named fluid jet-array parallel machining (FJAPM) is proposed to provide a new way to generate the microstructure array surfaces with high productivity...
September 18, 2017: Optics Express
#17
Guangrui Li, Matthias Zeisberger, Markus A Schmidt
We present a single-channel photonic band gap fiber design allowing for guiding light inside a water core, which is surrounded by solid microstructured cladding, consisting of an array of high refractive index strands in silica. We address all relevant properties and show that the microstructure substantially reduces loss. We also introduce a ray reflection model, matching numerical modelling and allowing for time-effective large-scale parameter sweeps. Our single channel fiber concept is particularly valuable for applications demanding fast and reliable injection of liquids into the core, with potential impact in fields such as optofluidics, spectroscopy or bioanalytics...
September 18, 2017: Optics Express
#18
Kunjian Cao, Yi Liu, Shiliang Qu
An optical breakdown-driven micro-pump was reported to deliver the quantitative liquid to the fiber microstructure efficiently. The amount of the pumped liquid can be controlled by adjusting the irradiation time of the femtosecond laser pulses. Such a method of microfluidic delivery has potential for the fabrication of fiber functional devices and the rapid injection of analytes into a lab-in-fiber for chemical and biological analysis. As a demonstration, a fiber spirit level based on a mobile microbubble was achieved by pumping nanoliter scale liquid into a fiber micro-cavity with this method...
October 2, 2017: Optics Express
#19
Jaka Mur, Luka Pirker, Natan Osterman, Rok Petkovšek
Laser ablation and modification using bursts of picosecond pulses and a tightly focused laser beam are used to manufacture structures in the bulk silicon. We demonstrate precise control of the surface crystallinity as well as the structure depth and topography of the processed areas, achieving homogeneous surface properties. The control is achieved with a combination of a well-defined pulse energy, systematic pulse positioning on the material, and the number of pulses in a burst. A custom designed fiber laser source is used to generate bursts of 1, 5, 10, and 20 pulses at a pulse repetition rate of 40 MHz and burst repetition rate of 83...
October 16, 2017: Optics Express
#20
Titas Tičkūnas, Matthieu Perrenoud, Simas Butkus, Roaldas Gadonas, Sima Rekštytė, Mangirdas Malinauskas, Domas Paipulas, Yves Bellouard, Valdas Sirutkaitis
We present a novel hybrid glass-polymer micromechanical sensor by combining two femtosecond laser direct writing processes: laser illumination followed by chemical etching of glass and two-photon polymerization. This incorporation of techniques demonstrates the capability of combining mechanical deformable devices made of silica with an integrated polymer structure for passive chemical sensing application. We demonstrate that such a sensor could be utilized for investigating the elastic properties of polymeric microstructures fabricated via the two-photon polymerization technique...
October 16, 2017: Optics Express
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