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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453439/working-memory-and-brain-tissue-microstructure-white-matter-tract-integrity-based-on-multi-shell-diffusion-mri
#1
Sohae Chung, Els Fieremans, Nuri E Kucukboyaci, Xiuyuan Wang, Charles J Morton, Dmitry S Novikov, Joseph F Rath, Yvonne W Lui
Working memory is a complex cognitive process at the intersection of sensory processing, learning, and short-term memory and also has a general executive attention component. Impaired working memory is associated with a range of neurological and psychiatric disorders, but very little is known about how working memory relates to underlying white matter (WM) microstructure. In this study, we investigate the association between WM microstructure and performance on working memory tasks in healthy adults (right-handed, native English speakers)...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453375/self-supporting-co-3-o-4-graphene-hybrid-films-as-binder-free-anode-materials-for-lithium-ion-batteries
#2
Shouling Wang, Ronghua Wang, Jie Chang, Ning Hu, Chaohe Xu
A self-supporting Co 3 O 4 /graphene hybrid film has been constructed via vacuum filtration of Co(OH) 2 nanosheet and graphene, followed by a two-step thermal treatment. Within the hybrid film, Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles with size of 40~60 nm uniformly in-situ grew on the surface of graphene, forming a novel porous and interleaved structure with strong interactions between Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles and graphene. Such fascinating microstructures can greatly facilitate interfacial electron transportation and accommodate the volume changes upon Li ions insertion and extraction...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453027/effects-of-microstructure-transformation-on-mechanical-properties-corrosion-behaviors-of-mg-zn-mn-ca-alloys-in-simulated-body-fluid
#3
Yuan Zhang, Jianxing Li, Jingyuan Li
Magnesium and its alloys have unique advantages to act as resorbable bone fixation materials, due to their moderate mechanical properties and biocompatibility, which are similar to those of human tissue. However, early resorption and insufficient mechanical strength are the main problems that hinder their application. Herein, the effects of microstructure transformation on the mechanical properties and corrosion performance of Mg-Zn-Mn-Ca were investigated with electrochemical and immersion measurements at 37 °C in a simulated body fluid (SBF)...
February 2, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453026/assessment-of-titanium-metallization-thin-film-deposited-on-alumina-substrate-microstructure-and-nano-indentation
#4
Xuegang Xing, Hefeng Wang, Gesheng Xiao, Shangyu Yang, Xuefeng Shu
Surface titanium (Ti) metallization was conducted on alumina (Al 2 O 3 ) through chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method derived from non-contact pack cementation. The effects of different deposition temperature (1000 °C, 1050 °C, and 1100 °C) were examined in this scenario. The morphology, phase composition, and interfacial defects of the resulting films were systematically investigated through scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry, and X-ray diffraction. The nanomechanical characterization of the proposed thin films was evaluated by conducting nano-indentation tests at different depths...
February 1, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452785/the-risks-of-sarcopenia-falls-and-fractures-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#5
REVIEW
C Sarodnik, S P G Bours, N C Schaper, J P van den Bergh, T A C M van Geel
Fracture risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increased, and the mechanism is multifactorial. Recent research on T2DM-induced bone fragility shows that bone mineral density (BMD) is often normal or even slightly elevated. However, bone turnover may be decreased and bone material and microstructural properties are altered, especially when microvascular complications are present. Besides bone fragility, extra-skeletal factors leading to an increased propensity to experience falls may also contribute to the increased fracture risk in T2DM, such as peripheral neuropathy, retinopathy and diabetes medication (e...
March 2018: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452154/study-of-petrolatum-structure-explaining-its-variable-rheological-behavior
#6
A J P van Heugten, J Landman, A V Petukhov, H Vromans
The rheological properties of petrolatum are dependent on both temperature and thermal history. How this thermal dependency can be explained is unclear. In the past it has been suggested that the structure of petrolatum consists of a three-dimensional crystalline network. This has been established using old microscopic techniques only. Therefore a study on the microstructure of petrolatum was conducted using rheometry, DSC, pulsed NMR, polarized light microscopy and synchrotron X-ray. The combination of these techniques show that petrolatum is composed of 21% solid material at room temperature...
February 13, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451955/relationship-between-subchondral-bone-microstructure-and-articular-cartilage-in-the-osteoarthritic-knee-using-3t-mri
#7
Chenglei Liu, Chang Liu, Liping Si, Hao Shen, Qian Wang, Weiwu Yao
BACKGROUND: The importance of subchondral bone in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA) has drawn interest. PURPOSE: To investigate subregional trabecular bone microstructural features and to determine the relationship between cartilage and trabecular bone in the osteoarthritic human knee. STUDY TYPE: Prospective study. SUBJECTS: In all, 92 knees were enrolled and divided into three groups: without OA, mild OA, and severe OA...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451808/implications-of-recent-research-on-microstructure-modifications-through-heat-related-processing-and-trait-alteration-to-bio-functions-molecular-thermal-stability-and-mobility-metabolic-characteristics-and-nutrition-in-cool-climate-cereal-grains-and-other-types
#8
Yuguang Ying, Huihua Zhang, Peiqiang Yu
The cutting-edge synchrotron radiation based and globar-sourced vibrational infrared microspectroscopy have recently been developed. These novel techniques are able to reveal structure features at cellular and molecular levels with the tested tissues being intact. However, to date, the advanced techniques are unfamiliar or unknown to food and feed scientists and have not been used to study the molecular structure changes in cool-climate cereal grain seeds and other types of bio-oil and bioenergy seeds. This article aims to provide some recent research in cool-climate cereal grains and other types of seeds on molecular structures and metabolic characteristics of carbohydrate and protein, and implication of microstructure modification through heat-related processing and trait alteration to bio-functions, molecular thermal stability and mobility, and nutrition with advanced molecular techniques- synchrotron radiation based and globar-sourced vibrational infrared microspectroscopy in the areas of (1) Inherent microstructure of cereal grain seeds; (2) The nutritional values of cereal grains; (3) Impact and modification of heat-related processing to cereal grain; (4) Conventional nutrition evaluation methodology; (5) Synchrotron radiation-based and globar-sourced vibrational (micro)-spectroscopy for molecular structure study and molecular thermal stability and mobility, and (6) Recent molecular spectroscopic technique applications in research on raw, traits altered and processed cool-climate cereal grains and other types of seeds...
February 16, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451359/assessment-of-narrative-writing-by-persian-speaking-students-with-hearing-impairments
#9
Peyman Zamani, Zahra Soleymani, Seyedeh Maryam Mousavi, Negar Akbari
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have highlighted that narrative skill is critical to the development of the literacy skills by children. Children with cochlear implants (CI) and hearing-aids (HA) may have problems in narrative development compared to peers with healthy hearing (HH). There is no exact data about the narrative writing ability of Persian-speaking students who are hearing-impaired. The current study was undertaken to compare the microstructure and macrostructure scores for narrative writing of Persian-speaking students who are hearing-impaired and peers with HH...
February 16, 2018: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451285/modeling-solvent-evaporation-during-thin-film-formation-in-phase-separating-polymer-mixtures
#10
John Cummings, John S Lowengrub, Bobby G Sumpter, Steven M Wise, Rajeev Kumar
Preparation of thin films by dissolving polymers in a common solvent followed by evaporation of the solvent has become a routine processing procedure. However, modeling of thin film formation in an evaporating solvent has been challenging due to a need to simulate processes at multiple length and time scales. In this work, we present a methodology based on the principles of linear non-equilibrium thermodynamics, which allows systematic study of various effects such as the changes in the solvent properties due to phase transformation from liquid to vapor and polymer thermodynamics resulting from such solvent transformations...
February 16, 2018: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451128/signal-amplifying-nanoparticle-hydrogel-hybrid-microarray-biosensor-for-metal-enhanced-fluorescence-detection-of-organophosphorus-compounds
#11
Minsu Kim, Kangwon Lee, Ji Eon Kwon, Won Gun Koh
In this study, we developed an enzyme-based miniaturized fluorescence biosensor to detect paraoxon, one of the most well-known neurotoxic organophosphorus compounds (OPs). The biosensor was fabricated with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel microarrays that entrapped acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and quantum dots (QDs) as fluorescence reporters. Metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF) was utilized to amplify the fluorescence signal, which was achieved by decorating QDs on the surface of silica-coated silver nanoparticles (Ag@Silica)...
February 16, 2018: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451121/influences-of-au-ion-radiation-on-microstructure-and-surface-enhanced-raman-scattering-of-nanoporous-copper
#12
Jing Wang, Zhaoyi Hu, Rui Li, Xiongjun Liu, Chuan Xu, Hui Wang, Yuan Wu, Engang Fu, Zhaoping Lu
In this work, effects of Au ion irradiation on microstructure and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) performance of nanoporous copper (NPC) were investigated. It is found that the microstructure of NPC could be tailored by the ion irradiation dose, i.e., the pore size decreases while the ligament size significantly coarsens with the increase of the irradiation dose. In addition, the SERS enhancement for rhodamine 6G molecules was improved by Au ions irradiation at an appropriate dose. The underlying mechanism of the increase of SERS enhancement resulted from ion irradiation was discussed...
February 16, 2018: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451033/control-release-of-mitochondria-targeted-antioxidant-by-injectable-self-assembling-peptide-hydrogel-ameliorated-persistent-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-inflammation-after-acute-kidney-injury
#13
Meng Zhao, Yijie Zhou, Shuyun Liu, Lan Li, Younan Chen, Jingqiu Cheng, Yanrong Lu, Jingping Liu
Persistent mitochondrial injury occurs after acute kidney injury (AKI) and mitochondria-targeted antioxidant Mito-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl (TEMPO) (MT) has shown benefits for AKI, but its efficiency is limited by short half-life and side effect in vivo. Self-assembling peptide (SAP) hydrogel is a robust platform for drug delivery. This study aims to develop an SAP-based carrier to slow release MT for enhancing its long-term therapeutic potency on AKI. The KLD with aspartic acid (KLDD) was designed...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450773/influence-of-mn-2-ions-on-the-corrosion-mechanism-of-lead-based-anodes-and-the-generation-of-heavy-metal-anode-slime-in-zinc-sulfate-electrolyte
#14
Chenmu Zhang, Ning Duan, Linhua Jiang, Fuyuan Xu, Jin Luo
The influence of Mn 2+ ions on the generation of heavy metal anode slime during zinc electrolysis industry was extensively investigated using several electrochemical methods, electron microscope technologies, and particle size analysis. Results showed that the Mn 2+ could obviously promote oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and thereby weaken oxidation efficiency of Mn 2+ (η MnO2 ) and dissolution of Pb 2+ . The significant improvement in kinetic parameters for OER was found in electrolytes of 1 and 3 g/L Mn 2+ , but became unstable as the Mn 2+ concentration increased to 10 g/L...
February 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450539/retinothalamic-white-matter-abnormalities-in-amblyopia
#15
Brian Allen, Melanie A Schmitt, Burton J Kushner, Bas Rokers
Purpose: Amblyopia is associated with a broad array of perceptual and neural abnormalities in the visual system, particularly in untreated or unsuccessfully treated populations. Traditionally, it has been believed that the neural abnormalities are confined to the visual cortex and subcortex (e.g., lateral geniculate nucleus). Here, we investigate the presence of neuroanatomical abnormalities earlier in the visual stream, in the optic nerves and tracts, of participants with two predominant forms of amblyopia...
February 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450409/microstructurally-anchored-cardiac-kinematics-by-combining-in-vivo-dense-mri-and-cdti
#16
Luigi E Perotti, Patrick Magrath, Ilya A Verzhbinsky, Eric Aliotta, Kévin Moulin, Daniel B Ennis
Metrics of regional myocardial function can detect the onset of cardiovascular disease, evaluate the response to therapy, and provide mechanistic insight into cardiac dysfunction. Knowledge of local myocardial microstructure is necessary to distinguish between isotropic and anisotropic contributions of local deformation and to quantify myofiber kinematics, a microstructurally anchored measure of cardiac function. Using a computational model we combine in vivo cardiac displacement and diffusion tensor data to evaluate pointwise the deformation gradient tensor and isotropic and anisotropic deformation invariants...
June 2017: Functional Imaging and Modeling of the Heart: ... International Workshop, FIMH ..., Proceedings. FIMH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449027/suberized-transport-barriers-in-arabidopsis-barley-and-rice-roots-from-the-model-plant-to-crop-species
#17
Tino Kreszies, Lukas Schreiber, Kosala Ranathunge
Water is the most important prerequisite for life and plays a major role during uptake and transport of nutrients. Roots are the plant organs that take up the major part of water, from the surrounding soil. Water uptake is related to the root system architecture, root growth, age and species dependent complex developmental changes in the anatomical structures. The latter is mainly attributed to the deposition of suberized barriers in certain layers of cell walls, such as endo- and exodermis. With respect to water permeability, changes in the suberization of roots are most relevant...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448794/short-time-dynamics-of-lysozyme-solutions-with-competing-short-range-attraction-and-long-range-repulsion-experiment-and-theory
#18
Jonas Riest, Gerhard Nägele, Yun Liu, Norman J Wagner, P Douglas Godfrin
Recently, atypical static features of microstructural ordering in low-salinity lysozyme protein solutions have been extensively explored experimentally and explained theoretically based on a short-range attractive plus long-range repulsive (SALR) interaction potential. However, the protein dynamics and the relationship to the atypical SALR structure remain to be demonstrated. Here, the applicability of semi-analytic theoretical methods predicting diffusion properties and viscosity in isotropic particle suspensions to low-salinity lysozyme protein solutions is tested...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448757/effect-of-inductively-coupled-plasma-on-the-properties-of-nanocrystalline-vanadium-nitride-films-for-corrosion-resistant-surface
#19
Sung-Yong Chun
Single-phase cubic (FCC) vanadium nitride (VN) coatings with different preferential orientations and residual stresses were obtained as a function of ICP power. Microstructural, crystallographic and mechanical characterizations were performed by FE-SEM, AFM, XRD and nanoindentation. The results show that ICP has significant effects on coating's microstructure, structural and mechanical properties of VN coatings. With an increase in ICP power, coating microstructure evolved from a porous columnar structure to a highly dense one...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448749/nanosized-particle-dispersion-strengthened-al-matrix-composites-fabricated-by-the-double-mechanical-alloying-process
#20
Chungseok Kim
The objective of this study was to fabricate an Al metal matrix composite strengthened by nanosized Al3Ti particles via double mechanical alloying process. Several Al-xTi alloys were fabricated, including Al-12%Ti, Al-15%Ti, and Al-12%Ti-1%Y2O3. The lattice parameter of as-milled state was calculated to be 4.0485 Å; after a milling time of 540 min, it was 4.0401 Å. This decrease was induced by Ti solutionizing into the Al matrix. The equivalent size of a coarse Al3Ti particle was 200-500 nm after the heat treatment; however, the particles were uniformly distributed and were refined through the MA2 process...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
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