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Viviana P Ribeiro, Sandra Pina, J Miguel Oliveira, Rui L Reis
Osteochondral lesions treatment and regeneration demands biomimetic strategies aiming physicochemical and biological properties of both bone and cartilage tissues, with long-term clinical outcomes. Hydrogels and scaffolds appeared as assertive approaches to guide the development and structure of the new osteochondral engineered tissue. Moreover, these structures alone or in combination with cells and bioactive molecules bring the mechanical support after in vitro and in vivo implantation. Moreover, multilayered structures designed with continuous interfaces furnish appropriate features of the cartilage and subchondral regions, namely microstructure, composition, and mechanical properties...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Wenjing Zhu, Yuzhen Wang, Fang Yan, Ruiteng Song, Zhijian Li, Yiqing Li, Bo Song
A high yield of exopolysaccharides bacteria isolated from mangrove system was identified as Bacillus atrophaeus by 16S rDNA and named as WYZ strain. An exopolysaccharide (BPS) was obtained from this strain after purification with a yield of about 0.58 g/L. Then some physical and chemical properties of BPS, such as weight average molecular weight (Mw), monosaccharide composition, intrinsic viscosity and water retention capacity were studied. The microstructure (SEM) showed that BPS was porous wound three-dimensional spider web structure...
July 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Seyed Amir Oleyaei, Seyed Mohammad Ali Razavi, Kirsi S Mikkonen
In this study, the physico-chemical and rheo-mechanical properties of sage seed gum hydrogel, reinforced by various ratios (0-25 wt.%) of Laponite, were investigated. Particles size measurements indicated the formation of large SSG-Laponite microstructures upon nanoparticle adding, due to the interactions generated between the anionic SSG and the charged surfaces of clay platelets. Laponite affected the surface tension and density of the SSG-based systems significantly, but only influenced the ζ-potential above 20 wt...
July 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Wenjie Wang, Mingyue Shen, Suchen Liu, Lian Jiang, Qianqian Song, Jianhua Xie
Effect of different salt ions on the gel properties and microstructure of Mesona blumes polysaccharide (MBP)-soy protein isolates (SPI) mixed gels were investigated. Sodium and calcium ions were chosen to explore their effects on the rheological behavior and gel properties of MBP-SPI mixed gels were evaluated by using rheological, X-ray diffraction, protein solubility determination, and microstructure analysis. Results showed that the addition of salt ions change the crystalline state of gels system, the crystal of gel was enhanced at low ion concentrations (0...
July 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Tatiana Porto Santos, Rosiane Lopes Cunha
Gellan gels were produced using different approaches forming structures with varied potential applications. Gels were characterized from appearance, mechanical properties, water holding capacity (WHC) and microstructure. In addition, in vitro digestibility of these gels was evaluated to understand the effect of gastrointestinal environment on their structure stability. All gels presented high WHC (>80% w/w) but gels were stronger with salt or acid addition, which was associated to the reduction of double helices repulsion of the negatively charged carboxyl groups of gellan...
July 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Xianyang Bao, Long Yu, George P Simon, Shirley Shen, Fengwei Xie, Hongsheng Liu, Ling Chen, Lei Zhong
A widely recognized challenge in starch chemistry is to manipulate the graft copolymerization onto starch melt by reactive extrusion (REX). To understand the complex in-situ graft copolymerization in highly concentrated systems, we firstly used a mixer to achieve a homogeneous viscous starch melt, and then undertook dynamic rheological measurements to study the rheokinetics of the reaction. The in-situ synthesis also facilitated the characterization of the microstructures of reaction products. The melt mixture could be regarded to be completely micromixed since the rheokinetics was predominated by the reaction kinetics...
July 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
H Zhang, F Yang, A F Wang, P Jia, X Wang, Y Yuan, P Zhang, Y J Xu
Objective: To investigate the effects of hepcidin on iron, osteoclasts and bone mass in iron accumulation mice. Methods: Eight-week old C57/BL6 male mice were divided into control group (CTR group), high iron group (Fe group) and iron reduction group (Hepc group). CTR group and Fe group were wild-type mice, Hepc group were hepcidin gene overexpression mice.Fe group and Hepc group were injected intraperitoneally with iron, and the mice in the CTR group were injected intraperitoneally with the same amount of saline...
April 17, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Minjung Kang, Heung Nam Han, Cheolhee Kim
Oscillating laser beam welding for Al 6014 alloy was performed using a single mode fiber laser and two-axis scanner system. Its effect on the microstructural evolution of the fusion zone was investigated. To evaluate the influence of oscillation parameters, self-restraint test specimens were fabricated with different beam patterns, widths, and frequencies. The behavior of hot cracking propagation was analyzed by high-speed camera and electron backscatter diffraction. The behavior of crack propagation was observed to be highly correlated with the microstructural evolution of the fusion zone...
April 23, 2018: Materials
Xiaoyang Chen, Qiao Dai, Xingcheng Li, Yalin Lu, Yang Zhang
In this study, as-cast Mg⁻6Sn⁻2Zn (wt.%) alloy was subjected to friction stir processing (FSP) and the microstructure and tensile properties of FSP Mg⁻6Sn⁻2Zn samples were investigated. It was found that, in the stir zone (SZ) of FSP Mg⁻6Sn⁻2Zn samples, α-Mg grains were significantly refined via dynamic recrystallization (DRX) and the Mg₂Sn phase was broken and partially dissolved. The microstructure in SZ was nonuniform and DRXed grains in the SZ-up regions were coarser than those in the SZ-down regions...
April 23, 2018: Materials
Yan Sun, Zhiwei Zhang, Shiqing Wang
Atmospheric-pressure low-temperature plasma (APLTP) was used to study the bactericidal mechanism against Escherichia coli ( E. coli ) and its application in the sterilization of fresh-cut cucumbers. The morphological changes of E. coli cells subjected to APLTP were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cell death was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy (FM). Cell membrane permeability was measured by conductivity changes, and the amount of soluble protein leakage in the bacterial supernatant was determined by measurement of protein concentration...
April 22, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Elena Makovac, Laura Serra, Carlotta Di Domenico, Camillo Marra, Carlo Caltagirone, Mara Cercignani, Marco Bozzali
Patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) have higher probability to develop Alzheimer's disease (AD) than elderly controls. The detection of subtle changes in brain structure associated with disease progression and the development of tools to identify patients at high risk for dementia in a short time is crucial. Here, we used probabilistic white matter (WM) tractography to explore microstructural alterations within the main association, limbic, and commissural pathways in aMCI patients who converted to AD after 1 year follow-up (MCIconverters) and those who remained stable (MCIstable)...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Monika Ostapiuk, Bożena Tarczydło, Barbara Surowska, Mirosław Orłowski, Barbara Tymczyna, Teresa Bachanek, Anna Rzepecka, Anna Mróz
PURPOSE: In this study the comparative results obtained from examinations of two different restorative composites with different cavities filling method are presented. Micro-CT was used for the evaluation of the marginal integrity and quality of composite fillings in connection with microstructural investigations made by both optical and scanning electron microscopy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The examinations of dental tooth filings in bulk-fill technique were based on micro-CT and microscopy observations...
April 24, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Yo Shinoda, Tetsushi Sadakata, Takumi Akagi, Yuriko Sakamaki, Tsutomu Hashikawa, Yoshitake Sano, Teiichi Furuichi
Hippocampal mossy fibers (MFs) project from dentate gyrus granule cells onto the CA2-CA3 region. MF-mediated synaptic transmission plays an important role in hippocampal learning and memory. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying MF synaptic development and subsequent functional organization are not fully understood. We previously reported that calcium-dependent activator protein for secretion 2 (CADPS2, also known as CAPS2) regulates the secretion of dense-core vesicles (DCVs). Because CADPS2 is strongly expressed in MF terminals, we hypothesized that CADPS2 regulates the development and functional organization of MF synapses by controlling the secretion of DCVs and their contents...
April 21, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Stine K Krogsrud, Anders M Fjell, Christian K Tamnes, Håkon Grydeland, Paulina Due-Tønnessen, Atle Bjørnerud, Cassandra Sampaio-Baptista, Jesper Andersson, Heidi Johansen-Berg, Kristine B Walhovd
Working memory capacity is pivotal for a broad specter of cognitive tasks and develops throughout childhood. This must in part rely on development of neural connections and white matter microstructure maturation, but there is scarce knowledge of specific relations between this and different aspects of working memory. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) enables us to study development of brain white matter microstructure. In a longitudinal DTI study of 148 healthy children between 4 and 11 years scanned twice with an on average 1...
2018: PloS One
Shifeng Yan, Pengfei Xia, Shenghua Xu, Kunxi Zhang, Guifei Li, Lei Cui, Jingbo Yin
Porous microcarriers have aroused increasing attention recently, which can create a protected environment for sufficient cell seeding density, facilitate oxygen and nutrient transfer, and well support the cell attachment and growth. In this study, porous microcarriers fabricated from the strontium-substituted hydroxyapatite-graft-poly(γ-benzyl-L-glutamate) (Sr10-HA-g-PBLG) hybrid nanocomposite were developed. The surface grating of PBLG, the micromorphology and element distribution, mechanical strength, in vitro degradation and Sr2+ ion release of the obtained Sr10-HA-g-PBLG porous microcarriers were investigated, respectively...
April 24, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Xiaoli Liu, Gang Zhao, Zhongrong Chen, Fazil Panhwar, Xiaoming He
Stem cells microencapsulated in hydrogel as stem cell-hydrogel constructs have wide applications in the burgeoning cell-based medicine. Due to their short shelf life at ambient temperature, long-term storage or banking of the constructs is essential to their "off-the-shelf" ready availability needed for their widespread applications. As a high-efficiency, easy-to-operate, low-toxic and low-cost method for long-term storage of the constructs, low-cryoprotectant (CPA) vitrification has attracted tremendous attention recently...
April 24, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Xiaojie Song, Hongzhi Cui, Ye Han, Lei Ding, Qiang Song
In this work, Ti2Al(C, N) solid solution with lamellar structure enhanced TiAl matrix composites were synthesized by vacuum arc melting, using bulk g-C3N4, Ti and Al powders as raw materials. The phases, microstructures, interfaces and mechanical properties were investigated. MAX phase of Ti2Al(C, N) solid solution with lamellar structure was formed. During the melting process, firstly, C3N4 reacted with Ti to form Ti(C, N) by Ti + C3N4 → Ti(C, N). And then, Ti2Al(C, N) was formed by a peritectic reaction of TiAl(l) + Ti(C, N)(s)→Ti2Al(C, N)...
April 24, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yongxiang Luo, Xin Lin, Peng Huang
It is promising that artificial tissues/organs for clinical application can be produced via 3D bioprinting of living cells and biomaterials. The construction of microstructures biomimicking native tissues is crucially important to create artificial tissues with biological functions. For instance, the fabrication of vessel-like networks to supply cells with initial nutrient and oxygen, and the arrangement of multiple types of cells for creating lamellar/complex tissues through 3D bioprinting are widely reported...
April 24, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Shuai Ye, Wei Yan, Mengjie Zhao, Xiao Peng, Jun Song, Junle Qu
Stimulated emission depletion (STED) nanoscopy is one of the most promising super-resolution imaging techniques for microstructure imaging. Commercial CdSe@ZnS quantum dots are used as STED probes and ≈50 nm lateral resolution is obtained. Compared with other quantum dots, perovskite CsPbBr3 nanoparticles (NPs) possess higher photoluminescence quantum yield and larger absorption cross-section, making them a more effective probe for STED nanoscopy. In this study, CsPbBr3 NPs are used as probes for STED nanoscopy imaging...
April 24, 2018: Advanced Materials
Zhijie Wang, Yanyan Wang, Wenhui Wang, Xiaoliang Yu, Wei Lv, Bin Xiang, Yan-Bing He
In this work, high-level heteroatom doped two-dimensional hierarchical carbon architectures (H-2D-HCA) are developed for highly efficient Li-ion storage applications. The achieved H-2D-HCA possesses a hierarchical 2D morphology consisting of tiny carbon nanosheets vertically grown on carbon nanoplates and containing a hierarchical porosity with multiscale pore size. More importantly, the H-2D-HCA shows abundant heteroatom functionality, with sulfur (S) doping of 0.9% and nitrogen (N) doping of as high as 15...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
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