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Chronic kidney disease immune

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093357/are-the-innate-and-adaptive-immune-systems-setting-hypertension-on-fire
#1
REVIEW
Gisele F Bomfim, Fernanda Luciano Rodrigues, Fernando S Carneiro
Hypertension is the most common chronic cardiovascular disease and is associated with several pathological states, being an important cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. Low-grade inflammation plays a key role in hypertension and the innate and adaptive immune systems seem to contribute to hypertension development and maintenance. Hypertension is associated with vascular inflammation, increased vascular cytokines levels and infiltration of immune cells in the vasculature, kidneys and heart. However, the mechanisms that trigger inflammation and immune system activation in hypertension are completely unknown...
January 13, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090081/metabolic-reprogramming-and-tolerance-during-sepsis-induced-aki
#2
REVIEW
Hernando Gómez, John A Kellum, Claudio Ronco
The host defence against infection is an adaptive response in which several mechanisms are deployed to decrease the pathogen load, limit tissue injury and restore homeostasis. In the past few years new evidence has suggested that the ability of the immune system to limit the microbial burden - termed resistance - might not be the only defence mechanism. In fact, the capacity of the host to decrease its own susceptibility to inflammation- induced tissue damage - termed tolerance - might be as important as resistance in determining the outcome of the infection...
January 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075404/advanced-oxidation-protein-products-modified-albumin-induces-differentiation-of-raw264-7-macrophages-into-dendritic-like-cells-which-is-modulated-by-cell-surface-thiols
#3
Silvano Garibaldi, Chiara Barisione, Barbara Marengo, Pietro Ameri, Claudio Brunelli, Manrico Balbi, Giorgio Ghigliotti
Local accumulation of Advanced Oxidation Protein Products (AOPP) induces pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic processes in kidneys and is an independent predictor of renal fibrosis and of rapid decline of eGFR in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In addition to kidney damage, circulating AOPP may be regarded as mediators of systemic oxidative stress and, in this capacity, they might play a role in the progression of atherosclerotic damage of arterial walls. Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease that involves activation of innate and adaptive immunity...
January 10, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071653/prophylactic-orthosteric-inhibition-of-leukocyte-integrin-cd11b-cd18-prevents-long-term-fibrotic-kidney-failure-in-cynomolgus-monkeys
#4
Abbas Dehnadi, A Benedict Cosimi, Rex Neal Smith, Xiangen Li, José L Alonso, Terry K Means, M Amin Arnaout
Ischaemic acute kidney injury (AKI), an inflammatory disease process, often progresses to chronic kidney disease (CKD), with no available effective prophylaxis. This is in part due to lack of clinically relevant CKD models in non-human primates. Here we demonstrate that inhibition of the archetypal innate immune receptor CD11b/CD18 prevents progression of AKI to CKD in cynomolgus monkeys. Severe ischaemia-reperfusion injury of the right kidney, with subsequent periods of the left ureter ligation, causes irreversible right kidney failure 3, 6 or 9 months after AKI...
January 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064418/novel-antiretroviral-drugs-in-patients-with-renal-impairment-clinical-and-pharmacokinetic-considerations
#5
Dario Cattaneo, Cristina Gervasoni
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has dramatically increased the survival of HIV-infected patients from Western countries reducing the incidence of opportunistic infections and AIDS-related malignancies, and improving the patients' quality of life compared with the pre-HAART era. HIV is thus now considered in the West as a chronic disease, with the majority of HIV-infected patients successfully reaching an optimal immune and virological outcome a few months after starting HAART. However, this switch from acute to chronic disease has been accompanied by an increased incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD), reported in up to 60% of HIV-infected patients...
January 7, 2017: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058019/clinical-features-of-acute-hepatitis-e-super-infections-on-chronic-hepatitis-b
#6
Chong Chen, Shu-Ye Zhang, Dan-Dan Zhang, Xin-Yan Li, Yu-Ling Zhang, Wei-Xia Li, Jing-Jing Yan, Min Wang, Jing-Na Xun, Chuan Lu, Yun Ling, Yu-Xian Huang, Liang Chen
AIM: To examine the clinical features and risk factors for adverse outcomes in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) superimposed with hepatitis E virus (HEV). METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included 228 patients with acute HEV infection (showing clinical acute hepatitis symptomology and positivity for anti-HEV immunoglobulin M) with underlying CHB (confirmed by positivity for hepatitis B surface antigen and/or hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA over 6 mo) who had been admitted to the Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center, which represents the regional tertiary hospital for infectious diseases in Shanghai city, China...
December 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052876/pericyte-and-immune-cells-contribute-to-complement-activation-in-tubulointerstitial-fibrosis
#7
Sandhya Xavier, Ranjit K Sahu, Susan G Landes, Jing Yu, Ronald P Taylor, Srinivas Ayyadevara, Judit Megyesi, William B Stallcup, Jeremy S Duffield, Edimara S Reis, John D Lambris, Didier Portilla
We have examined the pathogenic role of increased complement expression and activation during kidney fibrosis. Here we show that PDGFRβ positive pericytes isolated from mice subjected to obstructive or folic acid injury secrete C1q. This was associated with increased production of proinflammatory cytokines, extracellular matrix components, collagens and increased Wnt3a-mediated activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, that are hallmarks of myofibroblast activation. Real-time PCR, immunoblots, immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry analysis performed in whole kidney tissue confirmed increased expression of C1q, C1r, C1s as well as complement activation measured as increased synthesis of C3 fragments predominantly in the interstitial compartment...
January 4, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049587/response-to-active-hepatitis-b-vaccination-and-mortality-in-incident-dialysis-patients
#8
Emanuel Zitt, Hildegard Hafner-Giessauf, Birgitta Wimmer, Alexander Herr, Sabine Horn, Claudia Friedl, Hannelore Sprenger-Mähr, Reinhard Kramar, Alexander R Rosenkranz, Karl Lhotta
All patients with advanced chronic kidney disease or on renal replacement therapy should receive active hepatitis B vaccination. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to investigate the association between the immune response to hepatitis B vaccination and all-cause, cardiovascular or infection-related mortality in incident dialysis patients starting dialysis between 2001 and 2008 (n=426) in two Austrian dialysis centers. Vaccination response was defined as follows: absent anti-HBs antibody titer or a titer <10IU/L was classified as non-response, seroconversion (SC) was defined as a titer ⩾10IU/L, and seroprotection (SP) as a titer ⩾100IU/L...
December 31, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044233/management-of-secondary-hyperparathyroidism-how-and-why
#9
REVIEW
Hirotaka Komaba, Takatoshi Kakuta, Masafumi Fukagawa
Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is a common complication in chronic kidney disease. Currently, various treatment options are available, including vitamin D receptor activators, cinacalcet hydrochloride, and parathyroidectomy. These treatment options have contributed to the successful control of SHPT, and recent clinical studies have provided evidence suggesting that effective treatment of SHPT leads to improved survival. Although bone disease is the most widely recognized consequence of SHPT and remains a major target for treatment of SHPT, there is increasing evidence that parathyroid hormone (PTH) and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), both of which are markedly elevated in SHPT, have multiple adverse effects on extraskeletal tissues...
January 2, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012378/systemic-inflammation-before-and-after-antiretroviral-therapy-initiation-as-a-predictor-of-immune-response-among-hiv-infected-individuals-in-manitoba
#10
Quinlan Richert, Adriana Trajtman, Luisa Arroyave, Julia Toews, Marissa Becker, Ken Kasper, Paul McLaren, Zulma Rueda, Yoav Keynan
INTRODUCTION: Despite the life-prolonging effects of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART), persons with HIV are still prone to higher rates of non-AIDS related morbidity (such as heart, kidney, and liver disease) than the general public. This is likely due to chronic immune activation and inflammation that persists in HIV-positive persons despite virological suppression. What remains undetermined, however, is whether a link exists between chronic inflammation/immune activation and suboptimal immune recovery on HAART...
December 21, 2016: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005031/-follow-up-of-patients-with-ixodes-tick-borne-borrelioses-caused-by-borrelia-miyamotoi-or-borrelia-burgdorferi-sensu-lato
#11
L I Bagautdinova, A E Platonov, D S Sarksyan, O V Stukolova, G A Shipulin, V V Maleev, M V Dudarev
: Ixodes tick-borne borrelioses (ITBB) are caused by two different spirochetes: Borrelia from the group of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the agents of the classic Lyme borreliosis (LB), and Borrelia miyamotoi that belongs to the group of Borrelia causing tick-borne relapsing fevers. ITBB caused by B. miyamotoi (BM-ITBB) is a previously unknown infectious disease discovered in Russia. It is known that the LB sequelae may reduce the long-term life guality of convalescents. AIM: To study the follow-up of those who have recovered from new BM-ITBB infection in comparison with persons who have had LB...
2016: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000536/immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-renal-side-effects-and-management
#12
Elie El Rassy, Hampig R Kourie, Jamale Rizkallah, Fadi El Karak, Colette Hanna, Dania N Chelala, Marwan Ghosn
The choice of immunotherapy in the treatment of cancer has improved the prognosis of many patients affected by various malignancies. The high expectations foreseen with immunotherapy have led to fast approvals despite the incomplete understanding of the toxicity profiles in the different organs, including the kidneys. The high prevalence of chronic kidney disease in cancer patients complicates the issue further and requires a better knowledge of the renal safety profile to ensure an optimal safe treatment. This review summarizes the present knowledge of renal adverse events secondary to immune checkpoint inhibitors and discusses their pathophysiology, clinical presentation and adequate management...
December 2016: Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994853/hiv-and-kidney-diseases-35-years-of-history-and-consequences
#13
REVIEW
Pedro Campos, Alberto Ortiz, Karina Soto
Kidney diseases in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients are often misdiagnosed. Despite reductions in morbidity and mortality owing to widespread use of highly effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are still more common in these patients than in the general population, and are associated with poor health outcomes. HIV-associated nephropathy and HIV immune complex kidney diseases are the more recognizable HIV-related kidney diseases...
December 2016: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986660/dendritic-cells-and-isolevuglandins-in-immunity-inflammation-and-hypertension
#14
Kala Brooke Dixon, Sean S Davies, Annet Kirabo
Hypertension is the major risk factor for morbidity and mortality from myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease. Despite its importance, the pathogenesis of essential hypertension is poorly understood. During the past several years, it has become evident that T cells contribute to hypertension. Activated T cells accumulate in the perivascular space and the kidney and release cytokines which promote vascular dysfunction and end organ damage. Although dendritic cells play a pivotal role in initiating adaptive immune responses, T cells have taken center stage in studies implicating the immune system in the genesis of hypertension...
December 16, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960238/drug-induced-nephropathies
#15
REVIEW
Paisit Paueksakon, Agnes B Fogo
Drugs are associated frequently with the development of various types of acute and chronic kidney diseases. Nephrotoxicity is associated most commonly with injury in the tubulointerstitial compartment manifested as either acute tubular injury or acute interstitial nephritis. A growing number of reports has also highlighted the potential for drug-induced glomerular disease, including direct cellular injury and immune-mediated injury. Recognition of drug-induced nephropathies and rapid discontinuation of the offending agents are critical to maximizing the likelihood of renal function recovery...
January 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956907/lymphocyte-kv1-3-channels-in-the-pathogenesis-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-novel-therapeutic-implications-of-targeting-the-channels-by-commonly-used-drugs
#16
REVIEW
Itsuro Kazama, Tsutomu Tamada
In patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), over-activated T-lymphocytes produce pro-inflammatory cytokines and proliferate in situ in the lower airways and pulmonary parenchyma, contributing substantially to the pathogenesis of the disease. Despite our understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which lymphocytes are activated, we know little about the physiological mechanisms. T-lymphocytes predominantly express delayed rectifier K(+)-channels (Kv1.3) in their plasma membranes and these channels play crucial roles in inducing the lymphocyte activation and proliferation...
2016: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942582/pentraxin-2-suppresses-c-jun-ap-1-signaling-to-inhibit-progressive-fibrotic-disease
#17
Naoki Nakagawa, Luke Barron, Ivan G Gomez, Bryce G Johnson, Allie M Roach, Sei Kameoka, Richard M Jack, Mark L Lupher, Sina A Gharib, Jeremy S Duffield
Pentraxin-2 (PTX-2), also known as serum amyloid P component (SAP/APCS), is a constitutive, antiinflammatory, innate immune plasma protein whose circulating level is decreased in chronic human fibrotic diseases. Here we show that recombinant human PTX-2 (rhPTX-2) retards progression of chronic kidney disease in Col4a3 mutant mice with Alport syndrome, reducing blood markers of kidney failure, enhancing lifespan by 20%, and improving histological signs of disease. Exogenously delivered rhPTX-2 was detected in macrophages but also in tubular epithelial cells, where it counteracted macrophage activation and was cytoprotective for the epithelium...
December 8, 2016: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938815/acrally-distributed-dermatoses-vascular-dermatoses-purpura-and-vasculitis
#18
Jana Kazandjieva, Dimitar Antonov, Jivko Kamarashev, Nikolai Tsankov
Purpuric lesions appear in acral distribution in a variety of conditions and often provide clues to the clinical diagnosis. Purpuric means "hemorrhagic"-that is, the lesions do not blanch from pressure. This review focuses on dermatoses that produce hemorrhagic lesions in acral distribution from the large groups of the vasculitic diseases and their mimics. Cutaneous small vessel vasculitis is confined to the skin, involves mainly postcapillary venules, and has the hallmark manifestation of palpable purpura...
January 2017: Clinics in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938472/post-transplant-immune-activation-innocent-bystander-or-insidious-culprit-of-post-transplant-accelerated-atherosclerosis
#19
Didier Ducloux, Jamal Bamoulid, Thomas Crepin, Jean-Michel Rebibou, Cecile Courivaud, Philippe Saas
Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity, disability, and mortality in kidney transplant patients. Cumulative reports indicate that the excessive risk of cardiovascular events is not entirely explained by the increased prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease and it has been postulated that post-transplant immune disturbances may explain the gap between the predicted and observed risks of cardiovascular events. However, whereas concordant data suggest that innate immunity contributes to the posttransplant accelerated atherosclerosis, only few arguments plead for a role of adaptive immunity...
27, 2016: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935698/tailoring-nanostructure-morphology-for-enhanced-targeting-of-dendritic-cells-in-atherosclerosis
#20
Sijia Yi, Sean David Allen, Yu-Gang Liu, Brian Zhou Ouyang, Xiaomo Li, Punn Augsornworawat, Edward Benjamin Thorp, Evan Alexander Scott
Atherosclerosis, a leading cause of heart disease, results from chronic vascular inflammation that is driven by diverse immune cell populations. Nanomaterials may function as powerful platforms for diagnostic imaging and controlled delivery of therapeutics to inflammatory cells in atherosclerosis, but efficacy is limited by nonspecific uptake by cells of the mononuclear phagocytes system (MPS). MPS cells located in the liver, spleen, blood, lymph nodes, and kidney remove from circulation the vast majority of intravenously administered nanomaterials regardless of surface functionalization or conjugation of targeting ligands...
December 27, 2016: ACS Nano
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