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Chronic kidney disease immune

Nadia Gildeh, Panagis Drakatos, Sean Higgins, Ivana Rosenzweig, Brian D Kent
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) causes daytime fatigue and sleepiness, and has an established relationship with cardiovascular and metabolic disease. Recent years have seen the emergence of an evidence base linking OSA with an increased risk of degenerative neurological disease and associated cognitive impairment, an accelerated rate of decline in kidney function with an increased risk of clinically significant chronic kidney disease (CKD), and with a significantly higher rate of cancer incidence and death. This review evaluates the evidence base linking OSA with these seemingly unrelated co-morbidities, and explores potential mechanistic links underpinning their development in patients with OSA, including intermittent hypoxia (IH), sleep fragmentation, sympathetic excitation, and immune dysregulation...
September 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Inés Olaizola, Hena Caorsi, Laura Fajardo, Alejandro Ferreiro, Nieves Campistrus, Deyanira Dolinsky, Alicia Petraglia, Pablo Ambrosoni
Introduction: The mineral bone disorder, particularly secondary hyperparathyroidism, in chronic kidney disease (CKD) has a systemic impact affecting not only bone metabolism. Therefore its correction is important to prevent cardiovascular, inflammatory and immune diseases. Objective: To assess the effectiveness and safety of intravenous paricalcitol administered over a 6 month period for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) in patients undergoing conventional hemodialysis, with close follow-up of treatment response...
July 2016: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
Priya S Verghese
Successful renal transplantation is the optimal treatment for chronic kidney failure, but this was not always so for children. Beginning with the first kidney transplants in the 1950s, children experienced poorer patient and graft survival rates than adult patients. But over the last 6 decades, an improved understanding of the immune system which has steered pediatric multi-center clinical / pharmacokinetic and mechanistic studies that have sculpted our immunosuppression with markedly better patient and graft survivals...
October 12, 2016: Pediatric Research
Tomas Ganz
Hepcidin is an iron-regulating peptide hormone made in the liver. It controls the delivery of iron to blood plasma from intestinal cells absorbing iron, from erythrocyte-recycling macrophages, and from iron-storing hepatocytes. Hepcidin acts by binding to and inactivating the sole cellular iron exporter, ferroportin, which delivers iron to plasma from all iron-transporting cells. In a classical endocrine feedback system, hepcidin production is stimulated by plasma iron and iron stores. Reflecting a likely role of hepcidin in innate immunity, hepcidin is also induced by inflammation...
2016: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
Anna Julie Peired, Alessandro Sisti, Paola Romagnani
Mesenchymal stem cells form a population of self-renewing, multipotent cells that can be isolated from several tissues. Multiple preclinical studies have demonstrated that the administration of exogenous MSC could prevent renal injury and could promote renal recovery through a series of complex mechanisms, in particular via immunomodulation of the immune system and release of paracrine factors and microvesicles. Due to their therapeutic potentials, MSC are being evaluated as a possible player in treatment of human kidney disease, and an increasing number of clinical trials to assess the safety, feasibility, and efficacy of MSC-based therapy in various kidney diseases have been proposed...
2016: Stem Cells International
Olga N Ivanova, Natalia A Savvina, Victoria E Egorova
INTRODUCTION: chronic renal disease (CKD) is the inevitable outcome of many chronic diseases of the kidneys, which not all survive. The number of patients with chronic renal diseases is constantly growing. Aim to study the level osteocalcin and calcitonin and parathyroid hormone and immunological features in patients with chronic renal diseases. Materials and method The study involved 10 children with chronic renal failure at the age from 7 to 14 years in the initial stage - GFR 60-40 ml/min, creatinine blood increased to 180 μmol/l, and 20 healthy patients as a control group...
2016: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Dieter Haffner, Maren Leifheit-Nestler
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality, infections, and impaired cognitive function. It is characterized by excessively increased levels of the phosphaturic hormone fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) and a deficiency of its co-receptor Klotho. Despite the important physiological effect of FGF23 in maintaining phosphate homeostasis, there is increasing evidence that higher FGF23 levels are a risk factor for mortality and cardiovascular disease. FGF23 directly induces left ventricular hypertrophy via activation of the FGF receptor 4/calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T cells signaling pathway...
October 4, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Sandra Lemesch, Werner Ribitsch, Gernot Schilcher, Walter Spindelböck, Hildegard Hafner-Gießauf, Gunther Marsche, Lisa Pasterk, Doris Payerl, Bianca Schmerböck, Monika Tawdrous, Alexander R Rosenkranz, Philipp Stiegler, Gerd Kager, Seth Hallström, Karl Oettl, Katharina Eberhard, Angela Horvath, Bettina Leber, Vanessa Stadlbauer
Bacterial infection and sepsis are common complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD). A vicious cycle of increased gut permeability, endotoxemia, inadequate activation of the innate immune system and resulting innate immune dysfunction is hypothesized. We assessed endotoxemia, neutrophil function and its relation to oxidative stress, inflammation and gut permeability in patients with CKD grade 3-5 without renal replacement therapy (CKD group, n = 57), patients with CKD stage 5 undergoing haemodialysis (HD, n = 32) or peritoneal dialysis (PD, n = 28) and patients after kidney transplantation (KT, n = 67) in a cross-sectional observational study...
October 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
Tue Kruse Rasmussen
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are lifelong diseases with increased mortality and chronic pains. They are both characterized by immunological imbalances causing the immune system attack and destroy the bodies own tissues (called autoimmune disease). The best treatment, we are currently able to offer these patients, cause significant side-effects and can not prevent significant loss of quality of life. At the heart of the disease mechanisms in RA and SLE are subsets of immune cells called T and B cells...
October 2016: Danish Medical Journal
Ling-I Hsu, Yu-Wen Cheng, Chien-Jen Chen, Meei-Maan Wu, Kuang-Hung Hsu, Hung-Yi Chiou, Chih-Hung Lee
Long-term arsenic exposure results in atherosclerosis and cancers, along with aberrant immune responses. Animal-based and epidemiological studies indicate that arsenic exposure increases susceptibility to viral and bacterial infections. This study aimed to assess whether arsenic exposure is associated with the development of fungal infection, which is substantially attributed to as a cause of aberrant immunity. Based on two well-established cohorts from two basins in southwestern (SW; high arsenic area) and northeastern (NE; low arsenic area) Taiwan (n=297 and 2738, respectively), the arsenic exposure in well water was estimated using HPLC-ICP-MS...
September 29, 2016: Environment International
Periklis Dousdampanis, Kostantina Trigka, Athanasia Mouzaki
Kidney transplantation is recognised as the most effective treatment for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Kidney transplantation continues to face several challenges including long-term graft and patient survival, and the side effects of immunosuppressive therapy. The tendency in kidney transplantation is to avoid the side effects of immunosuppresants and induce immune tolerance. Regulatory T-cells (Tregs) contribute to self-tolerance, tolerance to alloantigen and transplant tolerance, mainly by suppressing the activation and function of reactive effector T-cells...
September 24, 2016: World Journal of Transplantation
M Esrefoglu, O E Tok, M S Aydin, M Iraz, O F Ozer, S Selek, M Iraz
BACKGROUND: Ischemia-reperfusion injury is one of the leading causes of acute renal failure which is a common clinical event leading to development of chronic kidney disease and a high mortality; especially in elderly people. β-glucans are glucose polymer groups with free-radical scavenger, macrophage activator, and immune defense inducer functions. We designed this study to determine the possible protective effects of β-glucan against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury comparatively in young and aged rats...
2016: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
Rosanna Coppo
IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is a common chronic glomerular disease that, in most patients, slowly progresses to ESRD. The immune and autoimmune responses that characterize IgAN indicate a potential benefit for corticosteroids. The 2012 Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcome (KDIGO) guidelines suggest giving corticosteroids to patients with rather preserved renal function (GFR>50 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)) and persistent proteinuria >1 g/d, despite 3-6 months of optimized supportive care with renin-angiotensin system blockers...
September 26, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Francesca Saccon, Mariele Gatto, Anna Ghirardello, Luca Iaccarino, Leonardo Punzi, Andrea Doria
Galectins are evolutionary conserved β-galactoside binding proteins with a carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD) of approximately 130 amino acids. In mammals, 15 members of the galectin family have been identified and classified into three subtypes according to CRD organization: prototype, tandem repeat-type and chimera-type galectins. Galectin-3 (gal-3) is the only chimera type galectin in vertebrates containing one CRD linked to an unusual long N-terminal domain which displays non-lectin dependent activities...
September 23, 2016: Autoimmunity Reviews
Giuseppe Barilaro, Claudia Spaziani Testa, Antonella Cacciani, Giuseppe Donato, Mira Dimko, Amalia Mariotti
An immunologic adjuvant is a substance that enhances the antigen-specific immune response preferably without triggering one on its own. Silicone, a synthetic polymer used for reconstructive and cosmetic purposes, can cause, once injected, local and/or systemic reactions and trigger manifestations of autoimmunity, occasionally leading to an overt autoimmune disease. Siliconosis, calcinosis cutis with hypercalcemia and chronic kidney disease have all been reported in association with silicone injection. Here, we describe a case of autoimmune/auto-inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants, calcinosis cutis and chronic kidney disease after liquid silicone multiple injections in a young man who underwent a sex reassignment surgery, followed by a review of the literature...
September 24, 2016: Immunologic Research
Liliana Simões-Silva, Inês Correia, Joana Barbosa, Carla Santos-Araujo, Maria João Sousa, Manuel Pestana, Isabel Soares-Silva, Benedita Sampaio-Maia
Currently, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health problem. Considering the impaired immunity of CKD patients, the relevance of infection in peritoneal dialysis (PD), and the increased prevalence of parasites in CKD patients, protozoa colonization was evaluated in PD effluent from CKD patients undergoing PD. Overnight PD effluent was obtained from 49 asymptomatic stable PD patients. Protozoa analysis was performed microscopically by searching cysts and trophozoites in direct wet mount of PD effluent and after staining smears...
September 2016: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
Jan Rossaint, Mark Unruh, Alexander Zarbock
During chronic kidney disease (CKD), bone mineral metabolism is disturbed owing in part to the endogenous hormone fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). Elevated FGF23 levels are seen in CKD patients. Current research has demonstrated that FGF23 directly modulates the immune response and host defense to bacterial infections. FGF23 also impairs the activation and recruitment of neutrophils, which are the main immune effector cells required for host defense against bacterial infections. In addition, while FGF23 levels reduce leukocyte recruitment and functions, inflammatory conditions may also-in a reverse fashion-contribute to elevated FGF23 levels in the circulation...
September 22, 2016: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Farook Thameem, Sobha Puppala, Vidya S Farook, Balakuntalam S Kasinath, John Blangero, Ravindranath Duggirala, Hanna E Abboud
BACKGROUND/AIM: Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is one of the regulators of the innate immune response. Genetic variations in TLR4 have been associated with inflammatory diseases, including type 2 diabetes. However, to our knowledge, there are no reports on the role of variations in TLR4 in chronic kidney disease susceptibility. The objective of this study is to determine whether the genetic variants in TLR4 are associated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), a measure of renal function...
August 2016: Cardiorenal Medicine
Mohan Raizada
Hypertension (HTN) is the most prevalent modifiable risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and disorders directly influencing CVD (i.e. obesity, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, obstructive sleep apnea, etc.). About one billion people worldwide have HTN, with American adults having 90% lifetime risk of developing HTN. Despite aggressive campaign for lifestyle changes and advances in drug therapy, HTN remains an immense health, emotional, and economic challenge. This is due, in part, to the fact that ∼50% of HTN patients' blood pressure remains uncontrolled and ∼20% of HTN patients are resistant to or require > antihypertensive drugs...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
David Harrison
Hypertension remains an enormous health care burden that affects one third of the population. Despite its prevalence the cause of most cases of hypertension remains unknown. Our laboratory has defined a novel mechanism for hypertension involving adaptive immunity. We found that mice lacking lymphocytes (RAG-1 mice) develop blunted hypertensive responses to a variety of stimuli including chronic angiotensin II infusion, DOCA-salt challenge and norepinephrine infusion. Adoptive transfer of T cells, but not B cells, restores the hypertensive responses to these stimuli...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
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