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Uremia immune

Erminio Trevisi, Federica Riva, Joel Fernando Soares Filipe, Matteo Massara, Andrea Minuti, Paolo Bani, Massimo Amadori
Many production diseases of dairy cows are related to digestive troubles. The rumen subacute acidosis is the most relevant one, albeit not easily recognized. Recent studies suggest that forestomachs can perform regulatory actions at both regional and systemic levels, since forestomach walls express immune receptors and cytokines, and the rumen liquor is infiltrated by leukocytes. Therefore, the rumen fluid could be conveniently collected for investigating metabolic production diseases. Thus, we investigated the origin of the leukocytes of the rumen fluid and demonstrated that they partly derive from saliva...
April 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Magdalena Jankowska, Gabriela Cobo, Bengt Lindholm, Peter Stenvinkel
Inflammation is normally a protective and physiological response to harmful stimuli, but typically becomes an uncontrolled, maladaptive, and persistent process in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Through a deleterious cascade of poorly controlled reactions mediated by biologically active molecules (also called middle molecular weight uremia retention solutes), inflammation associates with a range of complications including cardiovascular disease and protein-energy wasting (PEW). Persistent inflammation, which is central to the conceptual etiological models of PEW and the malnutrition, inflammation, and atherosclerosis syndrome, induces and reignites processes leading to PEW in a number of ways including stimulation of both direct and indirect mechanisms of muscle proteolysis...
2017: Contributions to Nephrology
Jennifer A Juno, Jillian L M Waruk, Angela Harris, Christine Mesa, Carmen Lopez, Joe Bueti, T Blake Ball, Sandra A Kiazyk
Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are at elevated risk of acquiring infectious diseases, including tuberculosis (TB). Inflammation and uremia negatively impact immune function in this population, but specific pathways involved in TB immunity have not been identified. Although γδ T cells are known to contribute to protection from TB, their phenotype and function in patients with ESRD is relatively unknown. To determine this we recruited 20 patients with and 20 without ESRD (controls), with or without latent TB infection to assess γδ T cell frequency, surface phenotype, and cytokine production by flow cytometry in response to stimulation...
June 24, 2017: Kidney International
Hee Young Kim, Tae-Hyun Yoo, Yuri Hwang, Ga Hye Lee, Bonah Kim, Jiyeon Jang, Hee Tae Yu, Min Chang Kim, Joo-Youn Cho, Chan Joo Lee, Hyeon Chang Kim, Sungha Park, Won-Woo Lee
Progressive renal failure causes uremia-related immune dysfunction, which features a chronic inflammatory milieu. Given the central role of end-stage renal disease (ESRD)-related immune dysfunction in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), much attention has been focused on how uremic toxins affect cellular immunity and the mechanisms underlying pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in ESRD patients. Here, we investigated the characteristics of monocytes and CD4(+) T cells in ESRD patients and the immune responses induced by indoxyl sulfate (IS), a key uremic toxin, in order to explore the pathogenic effects of these cells on vascular endothelial cells...
June 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
Tarcila Maria Bonfim Ferreira, Tácio Giordano Santana Guimarães, Andrea Martins Melo Fontenele, Natalino Salgado, Adalgisa de Souza Paiva Ferreira, Alessandra Porto de Macedo Costa
INTRODUCTION: Vaccination is the most effective tool in preventing transmission of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV). The patient with chronic kidney disease (CKD) on dialysis appear to be at greater risk of becoming infected with this virus and does not show the same vaccine response when compared to patients without uremia. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the results related to the HBV vaccine and identify factors associated with the response in patients with CKD on hemodialysis...
April 2017: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
Nynke R Oosterhuis, Diana A Papazova, Hendrik Gremmels, Jaap A Joles, Marianne C Verhaar
BACKGROUND: The pathological condition of chronic kidney disease may not be adequately recapitulated in immunocompromised mice due to the lack of T-cells, which are important for the development of hypertension and renal injury. We studied the role of the immune system in relation to salt-sensitive hypertension and renal injury in mice with subtotal nephrectomy (SNX). METHODS: Wild-type immunocompetent (WT) and Foxn1nu/nu athymic immunodeficient (AT) CD-1 mice underwent SNX to induce renal injury after which they received standard chow or a high salt diet (HSD)...
May 8, 2017: BMC Nephrology
Guus A M Kortman, Dorien Reijnders, Dorine W Swinkels
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and loss of kidney function are at increased risk for morbidity and mortality. The risks of CKD are attributed to "uremia," an increased concentration of uremic retention solutes (toxins) in the plasma. Recently, a colo-renal axis became clearly apparent and uremia has been associated with an altered gut microbiome composition and metabolism. There is a high prevalence of anemia in patients with CKD, for which patients are often treated with oral or intravenous iron...
June 2017: Hemodialysis International
Rhett L Peterson, Kate C Parkinson, Jeffrey B Mason
Proper immune functioning is necessary to maximize reproductive success. In addition, age-associated uremia in women is often associated with hypothalamic--pituitary-gonadal dysfunction. In the present experiments, we tested immune and renal function to determine if exposure of postreproductive mice to young, reproductively cycling ovaries would influence non-reproductive physiological functions. Control female CBA/J mice were evaluated at 6, 13 and 16 months of age. Additional mice received new (60-day-old) ovaries at 12 months of age and were evaluated at 16 months of age...
February 10, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Daniela Verzola, Alice Bonanni, Antonella Sofia, Fabrizio Montecucco, Elena D'Amato, Valeria Cademartori, Emanuele Luigi Parodi, Francesca Viazzi, Chiara Venturelli, Giuliano Brunori, Giacomo Garibotto
BACKGROUND: Inflammation in skeletal muscle is implicated in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and cachexia but why uremia up-regulates pro-inflammatory cytokines is unknown. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) regulate locally the innate immune responses, but it is unknown whether in chronic kidney disease (CKD) TLR4 muscle signalling is altered. The aim of the study is to investigate whether in CKD muscle, TLRs had abnormal function and may be involved in transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokine...
February 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Nathalie Foray, Tamer Hudali, Muralidhar Papireddy, John Gao
Background . Renal-limited myeloperoxidase vasculitis with simultaneous rheumatoid arthritis is reported as a rare occurrence. Review of literature suggests that most patients had a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis for several years prior to presenting with renal failure from myeloperoxidase vasculitis. Case Presentation . A 58-year-old Caucasian male presented to the hospital experiencing malaise, fevers, decreased oral intake, nausea, and vomiting for one week duration. His past medical history consisted of newly diagnosed but untreated rheumatoid arthritis, hypertension, and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus...
2016: Case Reports in Nephrology
Ines Rama, Ines Llaudó, Pere Fontova, Gema Cerezo, Carlos Soto, Casimiro Javierre, Miguel Hueso, Nuria Montero, Alberto Martínez-Castelao, Juan Torras, Josep M Grinyó, Josep M Cruzado, Nuria Lloberas
BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing conventional hemodialysis (C-HD) present a greater immuno-inflammatory state probably related to uremia, sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation and /or membrane bioincompatibility, which could improve with a technique-switching to online hemodiafiltration (OL-HD). The antigen-independent pathway activation of this modified immunologic state turns dendritic cells (DC) into an accurate cell model to study these patients. The aim of this study is to further evaluate the immune-inflammatory state of patients in C-HD assessed by DC maturation...
2016: PloS One
E L Wu, H X Cui
The prevention and treatment of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and diabetic nephropathy (DN), which are disorders with high incidence rates, is of primary importance. In this study, we analyzed the effect of 1,25-(OH)2D3 and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in combination with interleukin (IL)-15 on the inflammatory immune response and expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR) in mononuclear cells of T2DM and DN uremia (DNU) patients. The human acute monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1 was treated with peripheral blood serum isolated from 30 healthy controls and T2DM and DNU patients each, cultured in the presence or absence of 1,25-(OH)2D3, and subsequently treated with LPS and IL-15...
August 29, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Sarwat Ahmad, Jonathan S Bromberg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: An imbalance between pathogenic and protective microbiota characterizes dysbiosis. Presence of dysbiosis may affect immunity, tolerance, or disease depending on a variety of conditions. In the transplant patient population, the need for immunosuppression and widespread use of prophylactic and therapeutic antimicrobial agents create new posttransplant microbiota communities that remain to be fully defined. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies in mice have demonstrated significant bidirectional interactions between microbiota-derived products and host immune cells...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Dorota Kamińska, Katarzyna Kościelska-Kasprzak, Paweł Chudoba, Oktawia Mazanowska, Mirosław Banasik, Marcelina Żabinska, Maria Boratyńska, Agnieszka Lepiesza, Agnieszka Gomółkiewicz, Piotr Dzięgiel, Marian Klinger
Renal transplant candidates present immune dysregulation, caused by chronic uremia. The aim of the study was to investigate whether pretransplant peripheral blood gene expression of immune factors affects clinical outcome of renal allograft recipients. Methods. In a prospective study, we analyzed pretransplant peripheral blood gene expression in87 renal transplant candidates with real-time PCR on custom-designed low density arrays (TaqMan). Results. Immediate posttransplant graft function (14-day GFR) was influenced negatively by TGFB1 (P = 0...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Kotaro Nagase, Hiromi Kimura, Shizuka Ogawa, Akiko Tara-Hashimoto, Shinichi Koba, Takuya Inoue, Yutaka Narisawa
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare but aggressive cutaneous malignancy associated with the Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV). Multiple studies have shown that the incidence of MCC is higher among immunocompromised individuals than among the general population. In fact, immunosuppressed individuals account for approximately 10% of the MCC patient population. In this report, we describe two cases of MCPyV-related MCC in Japanese patients on hemodialysis. In both the cases, MCC was present on the face. Both cellular and humoral immunities have been shown to be decreased in uremic patients, and dialysis patients have a high risk of viral-mediated cancers, including human papillomavirus-associated cancers...
November 2016: Journal of Dermatology
Georgios Liappas, Guadalupe Tirma González-Mateo, Raquel Sánchez-Díaz, Juan José Lazcano, Sandra Lasarte, Adela Matesanz-Marín, Rafal Zur, Evelina Ferrantelli, Laura García Ramírez, Abelardo Aguilera, Elena Fernández-Ruiz, Robert H J Beelen, Rafael Selgas, Francisco Sánchez-Madrid, Pilar Martín, Manuel López-Cabrera
Patients with ESRD undergoing peritoneal dialysis develop progressive peritoneal fibrosis, which may lead to technique failure. Recent data point to Th17-mediated inflammation as a key contributor in peritoneal damage. The leukocyte antigen CD69 modulates the setting and progression of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases by controlling the balance between Th17 and regulatory T cells (Tregs). However, the relevance of CD69 in tissue fibrosis remains largely unknown. Thus, we explored the role of CD69 in fibroproliferative responses using a mouse model of peritoneal fibrosis induced by dialysis fluid exposure under either normal or uremic status...
December 2016: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
E Merlot, H Gilbert, N Le Floc'h
Selection for residual feed intake (RFI), which is used to select animals for feed efficiency, also influences nutrient partitioning between growth and maintenance functions. This study was designed to investigate if selection for reduced RFI can alter the trade-off between growth and immunity and contributes to differences in metabolic responses to an inflammatory challenge. Piglets from 2 lines divergently selected on RFI (low: RFI, = 10, and high: RFI, = 11) were challenged at 55 d of age (on d 0) with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) to induce a noninfectious pneumonia...
February 2016: Journal of Animal Science
Adam M Zawada, Jenny S Schneider, Anne I Michel, Kyrill S Rogacev, Björn Hummel, Nicolas Krezdorn, Soeren Müller, Björn Rotter, Peter Winter, Rima Obeid, Jürgen Geisel, Danilo Fliser, Gunnar H Heine
Human monocytes are a heterogeneous cell population consisting of 3 subsets: classical CD14++CD16-, intermediate CD14++CD16+ and nonclassical CD14+CD16++ monocytes. Via poorly characterized mechanisms, intermediate monocyte counts rise in chronic inflammatory diseases, among which chronic kidney disease is of particular epidemiologic importance. DNA methylation is a central epigenetic feature that controls hematopoiesis. By applying next-generation Methyl-Sequencing we now tested how far the 3 monocyte subsets differ in their DNA methylome and whether uremia induces DNA methylation changes in differentiating monocytes...
April 2, 2016: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
Alexandra Helmke, Sibylle von Vietinghoff
Vascular inflammation is a common cause of renal impairment and a major cause of morbidity and mortality of patients with kidney disease. Current studies consistently show an increase of extracellular vesicles (EVs) in acute vasculitis and in patients with atherosclerosis. Recent research has elucidated mechanisms that mediate vascular wall leukocyte accumulation and differentiation. This review addresses the role of EVs in this process. Part one of this review addresses functional roles of EVs in renal vasculitis...
March 6, 2016: World Journal of Nephrology
Ángel García
In recent years, proteomics has been applied to platelet clinical research. Platelets are small enucleated cells that play a fundamental role in hemostasis. In a pathological context, unwanted platelet activation is related to various diseases, primarily thrombosis, but also cancer metastasis, inflammation, immunity, and neurodegenerative diseases. The absence of a nucleus is one of the reasons why proteomics can be considered an ideal analytical tool for platelet research. Indeed, platelet proteomics has allowed the identification of many novel signaling proteins and receptors, several of which are being pursued as potential therapeutic targets...
August 2016: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
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