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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786136/temporal-trends-in-the-epidemiology-of-cervical-cancer-in-south-africa-1994-2012
#1
Gbenga Olorunfemi, Ntombizodwa Ndlovu, Gwinyai Masukume, Admire Chikandiwa, Pedro T Pisa, Elvira Singh
Cervical cancer (CC) is the leading cause of cancer death among female South Africans (SA). Improved access to reproductive health services following multi-ethnic democracy in 1994, HIV epidemic, and the initiation of CC population-based screening in early 2000's have influenced the epidemiology of CC in SA. We therefore evaluated the trends in CC age-standardized incidence (ASIR) (1994 - 2009) and mortality rates (ASMR) (2004 - 2012) using data from the South African National Cancer Registry and the Statistics South Africa, respectively...
May 22, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784696/why-are-we-failing-to-address-the-issue-of-access-to-insulin-a-national-and-global-perspective
#2
David Beran, Irl B Hirsch, John S Yudkin
Insulin was discovered in 1921 and soon became widely available in high-income countries. However, many people currently in need of this life-saving medicine are unable to access it. This is a global phenomenon, impacting not only populations of low- and middle-income countries but low-income populations in the U.S. In the U.S., the rate of diabetic ketoacidosis remains high in certain subpopulations, the cost of insulin being the main precipitating factor. On a global level the main cause of mortality for a child with type 1 diabetes is a lack of access to insulin, and in sub-Saharan Africa the life expectancy of a child with type 1 diabetes can be as low as 1 year...
June 2018: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784521/breaking-down-barriers-to-tell-a-mixed-methods-study-of-health-worker-involvement-in-disclosing-to-children-that-they-are-living-with-hiv-in-rural-south-africa
#3
Hanlie Myburgh, Esmé Calitz, Jean P Railton, Christina Maluleke, Elizabeth Mashao, Patiswa Ketelo, Geoff Jobson, Cornelius J Grobbelaar, Helen E Struthers, Remco P H Peters
Disclosing to a child that s/he is living with HIV is necessary to promote adherence to treatment and improve health outcomes. Facilitating disclosure between caregivers and children remains a challenge for health workers. Understanding how health workers are involved in and perceive the disclosure process is integral to engaging with such challenges. We held group discussions with and surveyed 73 physicians, nurses, and counselors across 16 randomly selected facilities in two rural South African health districts, exploring their experiences of supporting disclosure between caregivers and children...
April 25, 2018: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783848/integrated-access-to-care-and-treatment-i-act-support-groups-for-adolescents-living-with-hiv-in-public-healthcare-facilities-in-south-africa-feasibility-and-acceptability-for-scaling-up
#4
Shamagonam James, Catherine E Martin, Bafentse Moalusi, Moira Beery, Shenaaz Pahad, John Imrie
Integrated Access to Care and Treatment (I ACT) for adolescents is an educational support group initiative conducted monthly by trained healthcare providers (counsellors/health promoters). It follows a defined educational curriculum of six topics including, HIV/AIDS, disclosure, sexual and reproductive and mental health. Qualitative assessments, conducted midway of I ACT implementation at four primary healthcare facilities in North West province, South Africa, aimed to explore the perceptions of healthcare providers and the experiences of adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV)...
May 21, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781696/barriers-to-tuberculosis-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-treatment-guidelines-adherence-among-nurses-initiating-and-managing-anti-retroviral-therapy-in-kwazulu-natal-and-north-west-provinces
#5
Lufuno Makhado, Mashudu Davhana-Maselesele, Jason E Farley
BACKGROUND:  Nurses, as front-line care providers in the South Africa's health care system, are called upon to deliver integrated interventions for tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (TB and HIV) including nurse-initiated management of anti-retroviral therapy (NIMART) and anti-TB treatment. Adherence to treatment guidelines and factors associated with non-adherence to treatment guidelines among nurses remain under explored. PURPOSE:  To explore and describe barriers to treatment guidelines adherence among nurses initiating and managing anti-retroviral therapy and anti-TB treatment in KwaZulu-Natal and North West provinces...
March 26, 2018: Curationis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781693/collaborative-postgraduate-training-in-family-medicine-and-primary-care-reflections-on-my-visit-to-south-africa
#6
Felicity Goodyear-Smith
This reflection describes my funded visit to South Africa to assist in primary care research capacity building as Chair, WONCA Working Party on Research (WP-R). The trip included time at the Universities of Walter Sisulu, Limpopo and Stellenbosch to mentor postgraduate students working on master's and PhD theses. I held one-on-one and group sessions and ran interactive scientific writing workshops. I assisted with the establishment of a Stellenbosch University Family Physician Research Network of faculty academics and family physicians (FP) which will generate research questions from community stakeholders...
April 26, 2018: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781680/provision-of-antiretroviral-therapy-for-children-in-nelson-mandela-bay-health-care-professionals-challenges
#7
Margaret Williams, Dalena R M Van Rooyen, Esmeralda J Ricks
BACKGROUND:  The human immunodeficiency virus and/or acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) pandemic continues to increase in prevalence worldwide, particularly in South Africa, and includes the often overlooked paediatric population. The provision of paediatric antiretroviral treatment (ART) is as essential for children as for adults, and has numerous obstacles, not least of which is lack of decentralisation of facilities to provide essential treatment. Optimising ART, care and support for HIV-positive children, and their caregivers, at public sector primary health care (PHC) clinics is crucial to improve morbidity and mortality rates in children...
March 12, 2018: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781359/rhabdoviruses-as-vaccine-platforms-for-infectious-disease-and-cancer
#8
Franz Zemp, Jahanara Rajwani, Douglas J Mahoney
The family Rhabdoviridae (RV) comprises a large, genetically diverse collection of single-stranded, negative sense RNA viruses from the order Mononegavirales. Several RV members are being developed as live-attenuated vaccine vectors for the prevention or treatment of infectious disease and cancer. These include the prototype recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (rVSV) and the more recently developed recombinant Maraba Virus, both species within the genus Vesiculoviridae. A relatively strong safety profile in humans, robust immunogenicity and genetic malleability are key features that make the RV family attractive vaccine platforms...
May 21, 2018: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779415/male-circumcision-for-hiv-prevention-female-risk-compensatory-behaviour-in-south-africa
#9
Clare Greevy, Rebecca King, Firoza Haffejee
South Africa promotes male circumcision (MC) as an HIV prevention method and implemented a national plan to scale-up MC in the country from 2012 to 2016. Literature has suggested that female risk compensatory behaviours (RCBs) are occurring in countries where these programmes have been implemented. Behaviours such as decreased condom use, concurrent sexual partners and sexual activity during the circumcision wound-healing period have the potential to jeopardise the campaigns' objectives. Literature has shown that directly providing women with MC information results in correct knowledge however, previous studies have not directly sought women's views and ideas on engagement with the information...
May 20, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779162/beyond-social-desirability-bias-investigating-inconsistencies-in-self-reported-hiv-testing-and-treatment-behaviors-among-hiv-positive-adults-in-north-west-province-south-africa
#10
Alyssa C Mooney, Chadwick K Campbell, Mary-Jane Ratlhagana, Jessica S Grignon, Sipho Mazibuko, Emily Agnew, Hailey Gilmore, Scott Barnhart, Adrian Puren, Starley B Shade, Teri Liegler, Sheri A Lippman
This mixed-methods study used qualitative interviews to explore discrepancies between self-reported HIV care and treatment-related behaviors and the presence of antiretroviral medications (ARVs) in a population-based survey in South Africa. ARV analytes were identified among 18% of those reporting HIV-negative status and 18% of those reporting not being on ART. Among participants reporting diagnosis over a year prior, 19% reported multiple HIV tests in the past year. Qualitative results indicated that participant misunderstandings about their care and treatment played a substantial role in reporting inaccuracies...
May 19, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779161/empowering-lay-counsellors-with-technology-masivukeni-a-standardized-multimedia-counselling-support-tool-to-deliver-art-counselling
#11
H Gouse, R N Robbins, C A Mellins, A Kingon, J Rowe, M Henry, R H Remien, A Pearson, F Victor, J A Joska
Lay-counsellors in resource-limited settings convey critical HIV- and ART-information, and face challenges including limited training and variable application of counselling. This study explored lay-counsellors and Department of Health (DoH) perspectives on the utility of a multimedia adherence counselling program. Masivukeni, an mHealth application that provides scaffolding for delivering standardized ART counselling was used in a 3-year randomized control trail at two primary health care clinics in Cape Town, South Africa...
May 19, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777420/what-role-do-masculine-norms-play-in-men-s-hiv-testing-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-scoping-review
#12
REVIEW
Katelyn M Sileo, Rebecca Fielding-Miller, Shari L Dworkin, Paul J Fleming
Men living with HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa are less likely to test for HIV than women. We conducted a scoping review in May of 2016 to identify how masculine norms influence men's HIV testing in sub-Saharan Africa. Our review yielded a total of 13 qualitative studies from 8 countries. Masculine norms create both barriers and facilitators to HIV testing. Barriers included emotional inexpression, gendered communication, social pressures to be strong and self-reliant, and the fear that an HIV positive result would threaten traditional social roles (i...
May 18, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776353/depression-and-its-psychosocial-risk-factors-in-pregnant-kenyan-adolescents-a-cross-sectional-study-in-a-community-health-centre-of-nairobi
#13
Judith Osok, Pius Kigamwa, Ann Vander Stoep, Keng-Yen Huang, Manasi Kumar
BACKGROUND: Adolescent pregnancies within urban resource-deprived settlements predispose young girls to adverse mental health and psychosocial adversities, notably depression. Depression in sub-Saharan Africa is a leading contributor to years lived with disability (YLD). The study's objective was to determine the prevalence of depression and related psychosocial risks among pregnant adolescents reporting at a maternal and child health clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. METHODS: A convenient sample of 176 pregnant adolescents attending antenatal clinic in Kangemi primary healthcare health facility participated in the study...
May 18, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771871/trends-in-antiretroviral-therapy-eligibility-and-coverage-among-children-aged-15-years-with-hiv-infection-20-pepfar-supported-sub-saharan-african-countries-2012-2016
#14
Amanda Burrage, Monita Patel, Kelsey Mirkovic, Eric Dziuban, Wondimu Teferi, Laura Broyles, Emilia Rivadeneira
Rapid disease progression and associated opportunistic infections contribute to high mortality rates among children aged <15 years with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (1). Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has decreased childhood HIV-associated morbidity and mortality rates over the past decade (2). As accumulating evidence revealed lower HIV-associated mortality with early ART initiation, the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines broadened ART eligibility for children with HIV infection (2)...
May 18, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771787/point-of-care-cryptococcal-antigen-screening-pipetting-finger-prick-blood-improves-performance-of-immuno-mycologics-lateral-flow-assay
#15
Rachel M Wake, Joseph N Jarvis, Thomas S Harrison, Nelesh P Govender
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) screening at point of care could improve cryptococcal meningitis prevention where laboratory resources are limited. We evaluated the accuracy of Immuno-Mycologics (IMMY, Norman, OK) CrAg lateral flow assay (LFA) using different techniques at point of care. SETTING: Two tertiary-level hospitals in Johannesburg and a community health clinic in Soweto, South Africa. METHODS: A case-control diagnostic validation study, and a prospective clinic-based implementation study using the IMMY CrAg LFA on finger-prick blood...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771784/zika-virus-exposure-in-an-hiv-infected-cohort-in-ghana
#16
K E Sherman, S D Rouster, L X Kong, T M Shata, T Archampong, A Kwara, M T Aliota, J T Blackard
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and epidemiologic associations of Zika Virus (ZIKV) in HIV-infected patients in Ghana, West Africa. METHODS: We examined the seroprevalence of ZIKV in HIV/HBV co-infected persons in Ghana from sera samples collected from 2012 to 2014 using ELISA assays and plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNT). RESULTS: Overall, ZIKV antibody was detected in 12.9% of 236 tested samples, though the true estimate of exposure is probably less due cross-reactions with other related viruses...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771780/biomarkers-of-aging-in-hiv-infected-children-on-suppressive-antiretroviral-therapy
#17
Stephanie Shiau, Renate Strehlau, Jing Shen, Avy Violari, Faeezah Patel, Afaaf Liberty, Marc Foca, Shuang Wang, Mary Beth Terry, Michael T Yin, Ashraf Coovadia, Elaine J Abrams, Stephen M Arpadi, Louise Kuhn
BACKGROUND: Data on accelerated aging in HIV-infected children are limited. In this study we assess two biomarkers of aging - telomere length and DNA methylation (DNAm) age - in a cohort of early-treated HIV-infected children and compare these aging biomarkers to HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) and HIV-unexposed uninfected (HUU) children. SETTING: Cross-sectional study of 120 HIV-infected, 33 HEU, and 25 HUU children enrolled in a cohort study in Johannesburg, South Africa...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771779/cost-of-integrating-non-communicable-disease-screening-into-home-based-hiv-testing-and-counseling-in-south-africa
#18
Ilya Golovaty, Monisha Sharma, Alastair Van Heerden, Heidi van Rooyen, Jared M Baeten, Connie Celum, Ruanne V Barnabas
INTRODUCTION: Integrated HIV-non-communicable disease (NCD) services have the potential to avert death and disability, but require data on program costs to assess the impact of integrated services on affordability. METHODS: We estimated the incremental costs of NCD screening as part of home-based HIV testing and counseling (HTC) and referral to care in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. All adults in the households were offered integrated HIV-NCD screening (for HIV, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, obesity, depression, tobacco and alcohol use), counseling, and linkage to care...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771268/hiv-disease-is-associated-with-increased-biomarkers-of-endothelial-dysfunction-despite-viral-suppression-on-long-term-antiretroviral-therapy-in-botswana
#19
Mosepele Mosepele, Terence Mohammed, Lucy Mupfumi, Sikhulile Moyo, Kara Bennett, Shahin Lockman, Linda C Hemphill, Virginia A Triant
BACKGROUND: Untreated HIV infection is associated with increased biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction. However, the predictors and degree of endothelial dysfunction among virally suppressed HIV-infected adults on long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) have not been well studied in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). METHODS: We enrolled 112 HIV-infected adults with virological suppression on long-term ART and 84 HIV-uninfected controls in Botswana. We measured plasma levels of markers of endothelial injury [soluble vascular adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and E-selectin] and plasma levels of biomarkers of inflammation [interleukin 6 (IL-6)] and monocyte activation (sCD163)...
May 14, 2018: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770721/drivers-of-patient-costs-in-accessing-hiv-aids-services-in-tanzania
#20
Thomas Mnzava, Eunice Mmari, Andres Berruti
BACKGROUND: Patient costs pose a challenge in accessing antiretroviral therapy for people living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. The study aimed at identifying drivers for out-of-pocket (OOP) costs in Tanzania. METHODS: In 2009, 500 adult patients who attended 10 HIV clinics across 7 regions of Tanzania were asked about time and resources consumed to access HIV services. Bivariate and multivariate median regression models were used to determine the main drivers for OOP costs...
January 2018: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
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