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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352817/the-association-between-sexual-behaviours-and-initiation-of-post-secondary-education-in-south-africa
#1
Annah V Bengesai, Hafiz T A Khan, Russell Dube
Although young people in South Africa are growing up in an era where their socioeconomic circumstances are seemingly better than those of their parents' generation, they face greater risks in their trajectory to adulthood. This is mainly because the environment in which they are making sexual decisions is also rapidly evolving. Currently, South Africa has the highest prevalence of HIV and AIDS in the world among young people aged 15-24. This study examined the effect of sexual behaviours initiated in adolescence on enrolment in post-secondary education...
January 21, 2018: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351639/call-to-action-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hepatitis-b-in-africa
#2
Peyton Wilson, Jonathan B Parr, Ravi Jhaveri, Steve R Meshnick
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a significant public health issue that has not been adequately addressed, especially in the high-prevalence region of Africa. Despite the incorporation of HBV vaccines into the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI), children continue to be infected with HBV through maternal-to-child transmission (MTCT). The addition of a birth dose of HBV vaccine would be a cost-effective method to reduce MTCT. Birth-dose HBV vaccine policies have been adopted in the Western Pacific region but have yet to be implemented in the African region...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351311/the-quality-of-voluntary-medical-male-circumcision-done-by-mid-level-workers-in-tshwane-district-south-africa-a-retrospective-analysis
#3
Sanele Ngcobo, Jacqueline Elizabeth Wolvaardt, Martin Bac, Elize Webb
BACKGROUND: Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) reduces the acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in heterosexual men by up to 60%. One HIV infection is averted for every 5 to 15 VMMCs. To conduct VMMCs in large populations, large numbers of trained healthcare professionals are needed. Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa have a high burden of HIV and a shortage of healthcare professionals, creating a healthcare conundrum. To bridge this gap, South Africa launched a new cadre of mid-level medical worker called Clinical Associates (CA)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350144/emergomyces-africanus-in-soil-south-africa
#4
Ilan S Schwartz, Barbra Lerm, J Claire Hoving, Chris Kenyon, William G Horsnell, W Joan Basson, Patricia Otieno-Odhiambo, Nelesh P Govender, Robert Colebunders, Alfred Botha
We detected Emergomyces africanus, a thermally dimorphic fungus that causes an HIV-associated systemic mycosis, by PCR in 18 (30%) of 60 soil samples from a wide range of habitats in South Africa. Direct and indirect culture techniques were unsuccessful. Experimental intraperitoneal inoculation of conidia induced murine disease.
February 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349254/prevalence-of-psychological-distress-and-its-association-with-socio-demographic-and-hiv-risk-factors-in-south-africa-findings-of-the-2012-hiv-prevalence-incidence-and-behaviour-survey
#5
J C Mthembu, M L H Mabaso, G Khan, L C Simbayi
Background: In South Africa, there are limited nationally representative data on the prevalence and factors associated with psychological distress. This study used a 2012 nationally representative population-based household survey to investigate factors associated with psychological distress in South Africa. Methods: The survey is based on a multistage stratified cross-sectional design. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to identify factors associated with psychological distress...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347828/change-in-hiv-related-stigma-in-south-africa-between-2004-and-2016-a-cross-sectional-community-study
#6
Maretha J Visser
A critical component of an AIDS-free generation is to reduce HIV-related stigma. Previous research predicted that stigma would decline over time with increased contact with PLWH, understanding of the disease and availability of treatment. The aim of the research was to explore change in stigma over a 12-year period, by comparing data collected from two large cross-sectional samples from South African communities in 2004 (before the roll-out of antiretroviral treatment (ART)) and in 2016. Students recruited respondents according to criteria related to age, gender, race and area of living...
January 18, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346413/genetic-diversity-and-potential-routes-of-transmission-of-mycobacterium-bovis-in-mozambique
#7
Adelina Machado, Teresa Rito, Solomon Ghebremichael, Nuelma Muhate, Gabriel Maxhuza, Custodia Macuamule, Ivania Moiane, Baltazar Macucule, Angelica Suzana Marranangumbe, Jorge Baptista, Joaquim Manguele, Tuija Koivula, Elizabeth Maria Streicher, Robin Mark Warren, Gunilla Kallenius, Paul van Helden, Margarida Correia-Neves
Bovine tuberculosis is a zoonotic disease with largely unknown impact in Africa, with risk factors such as HIV and direct contact with animals or consumption of Mycobacterium bovis infected animal products. In order to understand and quantify this risk and design intervention strategies, good epidemiological studies are needed. Such studies can include molecular typing of M. bovis isolates. The aim of this study was to apply these tools to provide novel information concerning the distribution of bovine tuberculosis in cattle in Mozambique and thereby provide relevant information to guide policy development and strategies to contain the disease in livestock, and reduce the risk associated with transmission to humans...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346384/histoplasmosis-in-africa-an-emerging-or-a-neglected-disease
#8
REVIEW
Rita O Oladele, Olusola O Ayanlowo, Malcolm D Richardson, David W Denning
Histoplasmosis in Africa has markedly increased since the advent of the HIV/AIDS epidemic but is under-recognised. Pulmonary histoplasmosis may be misdiagnosed as tuberculosis (TB). In the last six decades (1952-2017), 470 cases of histoplasmosis have been reported. HIV-infected patients accounted for 38% (178) of the cases. West Africa had the highest number of recorded cases with 179; the majority (162 cases) were caused by Histoplasma capsulatum var. dubuosii (Hcd). From the Southern African region, 150 cases have been reported, and the majority (119) were caused by H...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346085/performance-of-the-bioplex-2200-hiv-ag-ab-assay-for-identifying-acute-hiv-infection
#9
Susan H Eshleman, Estelle Piwowar-Manning, Mariya V Sivay, Barbara Debevec, Stephanie Veater, Laura McKinstry, Linda-Gail Bekker, Sharon Mannheimer, Robert M Grant, Margaret A Chesney, Thomas J Coates, Beryl A Koblin, Jessica M Fogel
BACKGROUND: Assays that detect HIV antigen (Ag) and antibody (Ab) can be used to screen for HIV infection. OBJECTIVES: To compare the performance of the BioPlex 2200 HIV Ag-Ab assay and two other Ag/Ab combination assays for detection of acute HIV infection. STUDY DESIGN: Samples were obtained from 24 individuals (18 from the US, 6 from South Africa); these individuals were classified as having acute infection based on the following criteria: positive qualitative RNA assay; two negative rapid tests; negative discriminatory test...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344084/the-strengths-and-difficulties-questionnaire-sdq-in-africa-a-scoping-review-of-its-application-and-validation
#10
REVIEW
Nikhat Hoosen, Eugene Lee Davids, Petrus J de Vries, Maylene Shung-King
Background: Child and adolescent mental health in Africa remains largely neglected. Quick and cost-effective ways for early detection may aid early intervention. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is globally used to screen for mental health problems, but little is known about its use in Africa. We set out to perform a scoping review to examine existing studies that have used the SDQ in Africa. Methods: A comprehensive scoping review methodology was used to identify all peer-reviewed studies ever published that have used the SDQ in Africa...
2018: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343268/time-homogeneous-markov-process-for-hiv-aids-progression-under-a-combination-treatment-therapy-cohort-study-south-africa
#11
Claris Shoko, Delson Chikobvu
BACKGROUND: As HIV enters the human body, its main target is the CD4 cell which it turns into a factory that produces millions of other HIV particles. These HIV particles target new CD4 cells resulting in the progression of HIV infection to AIDS. A continuous depletion of CD4 cells results in opportunistic infections, for example tuberculosis (TB). The purpose of this study is to model and describe the progression of HIV/AIDS disease in an individual on antiretroviral therapy (ART) follow up using a continuous time homogeneous Markov process...
January 18, 2018: Theoretical Biology & Medical Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342283/non-typhoidal-salmonella-serovars-associated-with-invasive-and-non-invasive-disease-in-the-lao-people-s-democratic-republic
#12
Tu Le Thi Phuong, Sayaphet Rattanavong, Manivanh Vongsouvath, Viengmon Davong, Nguyen Phu Huong Lan, James I Campbell, Thomas C Darton, Guy E Thwaites, Paul N Newton, David A B Dance, Stephen Baker
Background: Invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease is a well-described cause of mortality in children and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults in sub-Saharan Africa. Additionally, there is an ill-defined burden of iNTS disease in Southeast Asia. Methods: Aiming to investigate the causative serovars of non-invasive and iNTS disease and their associated antimicrobial susceptibility profiles in the Lao People's Democratic Republic, we performed multilocus sequence typing and antimicrobial susceptibility profiling on 168 NTS (63 blood and 105 faecal) organisms isolated in Lao between 2000 and 2012...
January 12, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342180/increased-prevalence-of-pregnancy-and-comparative-risk-of-program-attrition-among-individuals-starting-hiv-treatment-in-east-africa
#13
Charles B Holmes, Constantin T Yiannoutsos, Batya Elul, Elizabeth Bukusi, John Ssali, Andrew Kambugu, Beverly S Musick, Craig Cohen, Carolyn Williams, Lameck Diero, Nancy Padian, Kara K Wools-Kaloustian
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization now recommends initiating all pregnant women on life-long antiretroviral therapy (ART), yet there is limited information about the characteristics and program outcomes of pregnant women already on ART in Africa. Our hypothesis was that pregnant women comprised an increasing proportion of those starting ART, and that sub-groups of these women were at higher risk for program attrition. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used the International Epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS- East Africa (IeDEA-EA) to conduct a retrospective cohort study including HIV care and treatment programs in Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340585/spinal-tuberculosis-clinicoradiological-findings-in-274-patients
#14
Suzaan Marais, Izanne Roos, Ayesha Mitha, Sepelong J Mabusha, Vinod Patel, Ahmed I Bhigjee
Background: Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a major cause of myelopathy and radiculopathy in high TB/HIV prevalent settings. However, a paucity of publications exists on the spectrum of neurological and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of spinal tuberculosis in these populations. Methods: A retrospective study of adults with spinal tuberculosis conducted at a referral center for patients with spinal disease without bony involvement on plain film radiography in South Africa...
January 11, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338730/factors-associated-with-hiv-positive-sero-status-among-exposed-infants-attending-care-at-health-facilities-a-cross-sectional-study-in-rural-uganda
#15
Methuselah Muhindo Kahungu, Julius Kiwanuka, Frank Kaharuza, Rhoda K Wanyenze
BACKGROUND: East and South Africa contributes 59% of all pediatric HIV infections globally. In Uganda, HIV prevalence among HIV exposed infants was estimated at 5.3% in 2014. Understanding the remaining bottlenecks to elimination of mother-to-child transmission (eMTCT) is critical to accelerating efforts towards eMTCT. This study determined factors associated with HIV positive sero-status among exposed infants attending mother-baby care clinics in rural Kasese so as to inform enhancement of interventions to further reduce MTCT...
January 16, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334886/factors-associated-with-recent-unsuppressed-viral-load-in-hiv-1-infected-patients-in-care-on-first-line-antiretroviral-therapy-in-south-africa
#16
D Joseph Davey, Z Abrahams, M Feinberg, M Prins, C Serrao, B Medeossi, E Darkoh
Unsuppressed viral load (VL) in patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) occurs when treatment fails to suppress a person's VL and is associated with decreased survival and increased HIV transmission. The objective of this study was to evaluate factors associated with unsuppressed VL (VL > 400 copies/ml) in patients currently in care on first-line ART for ≥ 6 months attending South African public healthcare facilities. We analysed electronic medical records of ART patients with a VL result on record who started ART between January 2004 and April 2016 from 271 public health facilities...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334883/renal-outcomes-in-patients-initiated-on-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-based-antiretroviral-therapy-at-a-community-health-centre-in-malawi
#17
Bongani Chikwapulo, Bagrey Ngwira, Jean Baptiste Sagno, Rhys Evans
Tenofovir-based antiretroviral therapy (TDF ART) is the first-line regimen for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Africa. However, contemporary data on nephrotoxicity are lacking. We determined the renal outcomes of patients commenced on TDF ART in Malawi. ART-naïve patients initiated on TDF ART at a community health centre between 1 July 2013 and 31 December 2015 were included. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, Cockcroft-Gault) was recorded at the initiation of therapy and over 18 months thereafter...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334546/impact-of-early-antiretroviral-therapy-eligibility-on-hiv-acquisition-household-level-evidence-from-rural-south-africa
#18
Catherine E Oldenburg, Jacob Bor, Guy Harling, Frank Tanser, Tinofa Mutevedzi, Maryam Shahmanesh, George R Seage, Victor De Gruttola, Matthew J Mimiaga, Kenneth H Mayer, Deenan Pillay, Till Bärnighausen
OBJECTIVES: We investigate the effect of immediate ART eligibility on HIV incidence among HIV-uninfected household members. DESIGN: Regression discontinuity study arising from a population-based cohort. METHODS: Household members of patients seeking care at the Hlabisa HIV Treatment and Care Programme in rural KwaZulu-Natal South Africa between January 2007 and August 2011 with CD4 counts up to 350 cells/μl were eligible for inclusion if they had at least two HIV tests and were HIV-uninfected at the time the index patient linked to care (N = 4,115)...
January 13, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330339/hiv-positive-kidney-donor-selection-for-hiv-positive-transplant-recipients
#19
Elmi Muller, Zunaid Barday
The risks associated with transplanting HIV-positive kidneys into HIV-positive recipients have not been well studied. Since 2008, 43 kidneys from 25 HIV-positive deceased donors have been transplanted into patients who are HIV positive in Cape Town, South Africa. Among the donors, 19 (76%) died secondary to trauma. The average age for donors was 34 (interquartile range, 19-52) years old. In some donors, only one kidney was used because of a limited number of suitable recipients on the waiting list. Only two donors had been previously exposed to antiretroviral triple therapy...
January 12, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330173/seasonal-variations-in-tuberculosis-diagnosis-among-hiv-positive-individuals-in-southern-africa-analysis-of-cohort-studies-at-antiretroviral-treatment-programmes
#20
Marie Ballif, Kathrin Zürcher, Stewart E Reid, Andrew Boulle, Matthew P Fox, Hans W Prozesky, Cleophas Chimbetete, Marcel Zwahlen, Matthias Egger, Lukas Fenner
OBJECTIVES: Seasonal variations in tuberculosis diagnoses have been attributed to seasonal climatic changes and indoor crowding during colder winter months. We investigated trends in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) diagnosis at antiretroviral therapy (ART) programmes in Southern Africa. SETTING: Five ART programmes participating in the International Epidemiology Database to Evaluate AIDS in South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe. PARTICIPANTS: We analysed data of 331 634 HIV-positive adults (>15 years), who initiated ART between January 2004 and December 2014...
January 11, 2018: BMJ Open
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