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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649145/do-ssris-and-snris-reduce-the-frequency-and-or-severity-of-hot-flashes-in-menopausal-women
#1
Chris Stubbs, Lisa Mattingly, Steven A Crawford, Elizabeth A Wickersham, Jessica L Brockhaus, Laine H McCarthy
CLINICAL QUESTION: In menopausal women who experience regular hot flashes, does treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) reduce the frequency and/or severity of hot flashes? ANSWER: Yes. Review of the literature suggests that treatment with SSRIs or SNRIs reduces the frequency and severity of hot flashes in menopausal and post-menopausal women. Studies demonstrated that paroxetine (Paxil), citalopram (Celexa) and escitolapram (Lexapro) were the most effective SSRIs, and venlafaxine (Effexor) was the most effective first line SNRI, with desvenlafaxine as a second option...
May 2017: Journal of the Oklahoma State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647739/antipsychotic-induced-dopamine-supersensitivity-psychosis-pharmacology-criteria-and-therapy
#2
Guy Chouinard, Anne-Noël Samaha, Virginie-Anne Chouinard, Charles-Siegfried Peretti, Nobuhisa Kanahara, Masayuki Takase, Masaomi Iyo
The first-line treatment for psychotic disorders remains antipsychotic drugs with receptor antagonist properties at D2-like dopamine receptors. However, long-term administration of antipsychotics can upregulate D2 receptors and produce receptor supersensitivity manifested by behavioral supersensitivity to dopamine stimulation in animals, and movement disorders and supersensitivity psychosis (SP) in patients. Antipsychotic-induced SP was first described as the emergence of psychotic symptoms with tardive dyskinesia (TD) and a fall in prolactin levels following drug discontinuation...
June 24, 2017: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647621/hemi-arthroplasty-for-distal-radius-fracture-in-the-independent-elderly
#3
Guillaume Herzberg, Lorenzo Merlini, Marion Burnier
INTRODUCTION: The authors report their experience with hemi-arthroplasty in irreparable fresh distal radius fracture in independent elderly patients as first-line treatment (12 fractures in 11 women; mean age, 74 years) or in second line after clinically disabling primary failure (4 fractures in 4 women; mean age, 78 years). RESULTS: In the 12 primary surgeries, at a mean 32 months' follow-up, there were no complications requiring implant ablation; mean pain score was 1/10, flexion-extension 62°, Lyon Wrist score 75%, and PRWE (Patient-Related Wrist Evaluation) 22 points...
June 21, 2017: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647567/stearoyl-coa-desaturase-regulates-sorafenib-resistance-via-modulation-of-er-stress-induced-differentiation
#4
Mark Kin Fai Ma, Eunice Yuen Ting Lau, Doris Hoi Wing Leung, Jessica Lo, Nicole Pui Yu Ho, Lily Kwan Wai Cheng, Stephanie Ma, Chi Ho Lin, John A Copland, Jin Ding, Regina Cheuk Lam Lo, Irene Oi Lin Ng, Terence Kin Wah Lee
We investigated the functional role and clinical significance of Stearoyl CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) mediated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in regulation of liver tumor-initiating cells (T-ICs) and sorafenib resistance, aiming to develop a novel therapeutic strategy against hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) METHODS We evaluated the clinic-pathological relevance of SCD1 and its correlation with sorafenib resistance in large cohorts of HCC clinical samples by qPCR and immunohistochemical analyses. Lentiviral-based overexpression and knockdown approaches were performed to characterize functional roles of SCD1 in regulation of liver T-ICs and sorafenib resistance...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646854/treatment-delay-and-fatal-outcomes-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-advanced-age-a-retrospective-nationwide-cohort-study
#5
Chih-Hsin Lee, Jann-Yuan Wang, Hsien-Chun Lin, Pai-Yang Lin, Jer-Hwa Chang, Chi-Won Suk, Li-Na Lee, Chou-Chin Lan, Kuan-Jen Bai
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Studies focusing on pulmonary tuberculosis in advanced age (≥80 years) are lacking. This study aimed to explore treatment delay, outcomes and their predictors in this group. METHODS: Adult (≥20 years) patients with pulmonary tuberculosis were identified from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan from 2004 to 2009. Treatment completion and mortality rates were noted at one year after treatment. RESULTS: Among the 81,081 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis identified, 13,923 (17...
June 24, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645491/systematic-review-of-immune-checkpoint-inhibition-in-urological-cancers
#6
REVIEW
Maud Rijnders, Ronald de Wit, Joost L Boormans, Martijn P J Lolkema, Astrid A M van der Veldt
CONTEXT: In patients with advanced and metastatic urological cancers, clinical outcome may be improved by immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). OBJECTIVE: To systematically review relevant literature on efficacy and safety of ICIs in patients with advanced and metastatic urothelial cell cancer (UCC), renal cell cancer (RCC), and prostate cancer. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Relevant databases, including Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library, were searched up to March 16, 2017...
June 20, 2017: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645240/engineered-expression-of-broadly-neutralizing-antibodies-against-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#7
Maham Ahmad, Osama M Ahmed, Bruce Schnepp, Philip R Johnson
This review discusses recent progress made in developing a vaccine and novel treatments for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It highlights the shortcomings of the RV144 vaccination trial [ALVAC-HIV (vCP1521) and AIDSVAX B/E] and the current standard of care and proposes that engineered expression of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) against HIV-1 could overcome these shortcomings. Current developments in three major lines of research on HIV prevention and treatment using bNAbs are reviewed: firstly, the use of sequential immunogens to activate B cells to express bNAbs; secondly, the delivery of novel and extremely potent bNAbs through passive administration; and finally, the use of gene transfer using adeno-associated viral vectors to deliver bNAbs...
June 23, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644343/second-line-agents-in-pediatric-patients-with-autoimmune-hepatitis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Andréanne N Zizzo, Pamela L Valentino, Prakesh S Shah, Binita M Kamath
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Ten percent to 20% of children with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) require second-line therapy to achieve remission. Although current guidelines exist on first-line management, evidence for second-line therapy in treatment-refractory patients is lacking. Our aim was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the efficacy and safety of second-line treatments used in this population. METHODS: Electronic and manual searches were used to identify potential studies for inclusion...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643387/non-gaussian-diffusion-imaging-with-a-fractional-order-calculus-model-to-predict-response-of-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumor-to-second-line-sunitinib-therapy
#9
Lei Tang, Yi Sui, Zheng Zhong, Frederick C Damen, Jian Li, Lin Shen, Yingshi Sun, Xiaohong Joe Zhou
PURPOSE: To demonstrate the clinical value of a non-Gaussian diffusion model using fractional order calculus (FROC) for early prediction of the response of gastrointestinal stromal tumor to second-line sunitinib targeted therapy. METHODS: Fifteen patients underwent sunitinib treatment after imatinib resistance. Diffusion-weighted imaging with multiple b-values was performed before treatment (baseline) and 2 weeks (for early prediction of response) after initiating sunitinib treatment...
June 22, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643126/cancer-stem-cells-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#10
REVIEW
Tamer Yagci, Metin Cetin, Pelin Balcik Ercin
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common cancers and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Only a small proportion of patients benefit from curative treatment and the prognosis is very poor for the majority of cases due to late presentation, resistance to chemotherapy and high recurrence rate. In recent years, progress in stem cell biology allowed us to explain that hierarchically organized cancer stem cells (CSCs) drive histological and functional heterogeneity of hematological malignancies and solid tumors...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641768/disease-reactivation-following-fingolimod-withdrawal-in-multiple-sclerosis-two-case-reports
#11
Benedetta Forci, Alice Mariottini, Claudia Mechi, Luca Massacesi, Anna Repice
BACKGROUND: Severe multiple sclerosis reactivation following second line treatment withdrawal, defined "rebound syndrome", is becoming a prominent issue to consider when deciding to discontinue a treatment. In particular disease recurrence after cessation of fingolimod is actually poorly characterized as to date, only case reports and small case series have been described. CASE PRESENTATION: We herewith describe 2 cases of severe disease reactivation associated to a high number of brain gadolinium enhancing lesions at magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) despite high dose steroid treatment, observed a few weeks after cessation of fingolimod administration, causing a substantial and persistent worsening of patient disability that required long term hospitalization...
July 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641702/-prospect-and-current-situation-of-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-%C3%A2-in-first-line-treatment-in-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients
#12
Haiyang Wang, Xiaoqing Yu, Yun Fan
With the breakthroughs achieved of programmed death-1 (PD-1)/PD-L1 inhibitors monotherapy as first-line and second-line treatment in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the treatment strategy is gradually evolving and optimizing. Immune combination therapy expands the benefit population and improves the curative effect. A series of randomized phase III trials are ongoing. In this review, we discuss the prospect and current situation of immune checkpoint inhibitors in first-line treatment in advanced NSCLC patients...
June 20, 2017: Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641582/a-multicentre-randomised-controlled-trial-of-levetiracetam-versus-phenytoin-for-convulsive-status-epilepticus-in-children-protocol-convulsive-status-epilepticus-paediatric-trial-consept-a-predict-study
#13
Stuart R Dalziel, Jeremy Furyk, Megan Bonisch, Ed Oakley, Meredith Borland, Jocelyn Neutze, Susan Donath, Cynthia Sharpe, Simon Harvey, Andrew Davidson, Simon Craig, Natalie Phillips, Shane George, Arjun Rao, Nicholas Cheng, Michael Zhang, Kam Sinn, Amit Kochar, Christine Brabyn, Franz E Babl
BACKGROUND: Convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) is the most common life-threatening childhood neurological emergency. Despite this, there is a lack of high quality evidence supporting medication use after first line benzodiazepines, with current treatment protocols based solely on non-experimental evidence and expert opinion. The current standard of care, phenytoin, is only 60% effective, and associated with considerable adverse effects. A newer anti-convulsant, levetiracetam, can be given faster, is potentially more efficacious, with a more tolerable side effect profile...
June 22, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640109/efficacy-of-levetiracetam-versus-fosphenytoin-for-the-recurrence-of-seizures-after-status-epilepticus
#14
Kensuke Nakamura, Ryota Inokuchi, Hiroaki Daidoji, Hiromu Naraba, Tomohiro Sonoo, Hideki Hashimoto, Kurato Tokunaga, Takahiro Hiruma, Kent Doi, Naoto Morimura
Benzodiazepines are used as first-line treatments for status epilepticus. Fosphenytoin (FPHT) is recommended for second-line therapy; however, intravenous injection of levetiracetam (LEV) may also be effective against status epilepticus. Herein, we compared the efficacy and safety of LEV as a second-line treatment for status epilepticus with FPHT in Japanese patients.Patients with status epilepticus were selected from the database of the Emergency and Critical Care Center of Hitachi General Hospital. The subjects were patients whose status epilepticus was successfully stopped by diazepam, and in whom FPHT or LEV was administered after diazepam...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639751/gefitinib-or-erlotinib-in-previously-treated-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients-a-cohort-study-in-taiwan
#15
Chia-Hao Chang, Chih-Hsin Lee, Jen-Chung Ko, Lih-Yu Chang, Ming-Chia Lee, Jann-Yuan Wang, Chong-Jen Yu
Among treatment modalities for lung cancer, the most promising therapy is the use of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs). Both erlotinib and gefitinib, the two first-generation EGFR-TKIs, exhibit significant clinical responses for patients with lung adenocarcinoma. However, few studies have compared the effects of these two drugs, and results have been inconclusive because of the small sample sizes in these studies. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate this issue...
June 22, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639717/a-prospective-study-on-transvaginal-ultrasound-of-cervical-length-cl-in-the-first-and-second-trimester-in-a-low-risk-population
#16
C B Wulff, L Rode, S Rosthøj, E Hoseth, O B Petersen, A Tabor
OBJECTIVES: To assess cervical length (CL) longitudinally in the first and second trimester and to determine the proportion of women with a short CL. Further, to assess if women with a short CL at 19-24 weeks could be identified at the combined first-trimester screening (cFTS) at 11-14 weeks in relation to a potential implementation of CL screening in the Danish population. METHODS: We recruited singleton pregnant women attending the combined first-trimester screening from 1 November 2013 to 1 December 2014 to a longitudinal prospective study at three University Hospitals in Denmark...
June 22, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638217/diet-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-what-to-recommend-not-what-to-forbid-to-patients
#17
REVIEW
Anamaria Cozma-Petruţ, Felicia Loghin, Doina Miere, Dan Lucian Dumitraşcu
A substantial proportion of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) associate their symptoms with the ingestion of specific foods. Therefore, in recent years, scientific research has increasingly focused on the role of diet in IBS and dietary management is now considered an important tool in IBS treatment. This article reviews the main dietary approaches in IBS emphasizing evidence from experimental and observational studies and summarizing the main diet and lifestyle recommendations provided by dietary guidelines and scientific literature...
June 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638122/synergistic-effects-of-various-her-inhibitors-in-combination-with-igf-1r-c-met-and-src-targeting-agents-in-breast-cancer-cell-lines
#18
Aryan Stanley, G Hossein Ashrafi, Alan M Seddon, Helmout Modjtahedi
Overexpression of HER2 has been reported in around 25% of human breast cancers. Despite recent advances in HER2 targeted therapy, many patients still experience primary and secondary resistance to such treatments, the mechanisms for which are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the sensitivity of a panel of breast cancer cell lines to treatment with various types of HER-family inhibitors alone or in combination with other tyrosine kinase inhibitors or chemotherapeutic agents. We found that treatment with the second-generation irreversible HER-family inhibitors, particularly afatinib and neratinib, were more effective than treatment with the first-generation reversible inhibitors in inhibiting growth, migration and downstream cell signalling in breast cancer cells...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636427/liver-directed-therapy-in-metastatic-colorectal-cancer
#19
Ciara M Kelly, Nancy E Kemeny
Colorectal cancer is a significant global health issue with over 1 million cases diagnosed annually throughout the world. 15% of patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer will have liver metastases and 60% will develop liver metastases if they have metastatic disease. Oligometastatic colorectal cancer confined to the liver represents an intermediate state in the evolution of metastatic capacity that opens the opportunity for local interventions. Area's covered: The literature supports long-term survival if patients undergo liver resection of colorectal metastases...
June 21, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636293/-treatment-of-advanced-hepatocellular-carcinoma-novel-agents-and-role-of-local-therapy
#20
Louis Parisod, Rafael Duran, Alban Denys, Antonia Digklia
The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is increasing in Switzerland and its treatment is a challenge. The purpose of this article is to summarize the different therapeutic approaches in the metastatic stage, as well as the perspectives of targeted treatments and immunotherapy. Until recently, the only recognized therapeutic standard for these patients with metastatic CHC was sorafenib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor. If the patient was to progress under sorafenib, no other recognized therapeutic option was available as second line...
May 17, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
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