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Sensory relearning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628686/effects-of-propofol-general-anesthesia-on-olfactory-relearning
#1
Li-Jie Jia, Pei Tang, Nicole R Brandon, Yan Luo, Buwei Yu, Yan Xu
How general anesthesia interferes with sensory processing to cause amnesia remains unclear. Here, we show that activation of a learning-associated immediate early gene in rat olfactory cortices is uninterrupted by propofol, an intravenous general anesthetic with putative actions on the inhibitory GABAA receptors. Once learned under anesthesia, a novel odor can no longer re-activate the same high-level transcription programming during subsequent conscious relearning. Behavioral tests indicate that the animals' ability to consciously relearn a pure odorant, first experienced under general anesthesia, is indeed compromised...
September 15, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27402282/does-sensory-relearning-improve-tactile-function-after-carpal-tunnel-decompression-a-pragmatic-assessor-blinded-randomized-clinical-trial
#2
C Jerosch-Herold, J Houghton, L Miller, L Shepstone
: Despite surgery for carpal tunnel syndrome being effective in 80%-90% of cases, chronic numbness and hand disability can occur. The aim of this study was to investigate whether sensory relearning improves tactile discrimination and hand function after decompression. In a multi-centre, pragmatic, randomized, controlled trial, 104 patients were randomized to a sensory relearning (n = 52) or control (n = 52) group. A total of 93 patients completed a 12-week follow-up. Primary outcome was the shape-texture identification test at 6 weeks...
July 8, 2016: Journal of Hand Surgery, European Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26961426/-enhancement-of-motor-relearning-and-functional-recovery-in-stroke-patients-non-invasive-strategies-for-modulating-the-central-nervous-system
#3
Elisabeth Bravo-Esteban, Eduardo López-Larraz
INTRODUCTION: Most of the stroke survivors do not recover the basal state of the affected upper limb, suffering from a severe disability which remains during the chronic phase of the illness. This has an extremely negative impact in the quality of life of these patients. Hence, neurorehabilitation strategies aim at the minimization of the sensorimotor dysfunctions associated to stroke, by promoting neuroplasticity in the central nervous system. DEVELOPMENT: Brain reorganization can facilitate motor and functional recovery in stroke subjects...
March 16, 2016: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26537454/tetraplegia-management-update
#4
REVIEW
Jan Fridén, Andreas Gohritz
Tetraplegia is a profound impairment of mobility manifesting as a paralysis of all 4 extremities owing to cervical spinal cord injury. The purpose of this article is to provide an update and analyze current management, treatment options, and outcomes of surgical reconstruction of arm and hand function. Surgical restoration of elbow and wrist extension or handgrip has tremendous potential to improve autonomy, mobility, and critical abilities, for example, eating, personal care, and self-catheterization and productive work in at least 70% of tetraplegic patients...
December 2015: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26522910/stroke-rehabilitation-using-virtual-environments
#5
REVIEW
Michael J Fu, Jayme S Knutson, John Chae
This review covers the rationale, mechanisms, and availability of commercially available virtual environment-based interventions for stroke rehabilitation. It describes interventions for motor, speech, cognitive, and sensory dysfunction. Also discussed are the important features and mechanisms that allow virtual environments to facilitate motor relearning. A common challenge is the inability to translate success in small trials to efficacy in larger populations. The heterogeneity of stroke pathophysiology has been blamed, and experts advocate for the study of multimodal approaches...
November 2015: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26325729/criterion-learning-in-an-orientation-discrimination-task
#6
Elyse Norton, Stephen Fleming, Nathaniel Daw, Michael Landy
Humans often make decisions based on uncertain sensory information. Signal detection theory describes detection and discrimination decisions as a comparison of stimulus "strength" to a fixed decision criterion. How is the criterion set? We examine how observers learn to set a decision criterion in an orientation-discrimination task. To investigate mechanisms underlying trial-by-trial criterion placement, we compared two tasks. (1) The typical covert-criterion task: Observers make binary discrimination decisions and the underlying criterion is unobservable...
2015: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26308579/unified-pre-and-postsynaptic-long-term-plasticity-enables-reliable-and-flexible-learning
#7
Rui Ponte Costa, Robert C Froemke, P Jesper Sjöström, Mark C W van Rossum
Although it is well known that long-term synaptic plasticity can be expressed both pre- and postsynaptically, the functional consequences of this arrangement have remained elusive. We show that spike-timing-dependent plasticity with both pre- and postsynaptic expression develops receptive fields with reduced variability and improved discriminability compared to postsynaptic plasticity alone. These long-term modifications in receptive field statistics match recent sensory perception experiments. Moreover, learning with this form of plasticity leaves a hidden postsynaptic memory trace that enables fast relearning of previously stored information, providing a cellular substrate for memory savings...
2015: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25725909/musicians-and-music-making-as-a-model-for-the-study-of-brain-plasticity
#8
REVIEW
Gottfried Schlaug
Playing a musical instrument is an intense, multisensory, and motor experience that usually commences at an early age and requires the acquisition and maintenance of a range of sensory and motor skills over the course of a musician's lifetime. Thus, musicians offer an excellent human model for studying behavioral-cognitive as well as brain effects of acquiring, practicing, and maintaining these specialized skills. Research has shown that repeatedly practicing the association of motor actions with specific sound and visual patterns (musical notation), while receiving continuous multisensory feedback will strengthen connections between auditory and motor regions (e...
2015: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25212522/emergence-of-virtual-reality-as-a-tool-for-upper-limb-rehabilitation-incorporation-of-motor-control-and-motor-learning-principles
#9
Mindy F Levin, Patrice L Weiss, Emily A Keshner
The primary focus of rehabilitation for individuals with loss of upper limb movement as a result of acquired brain injury is the relearning of specific motor skills and daily tasks. This relearning is essential because the loss of upper limb movement often results in a reduced quality of life. Although rehabilitation strives to take advantage of neuroplastic processes during recovery, results of traditional approaches to upper limb rehabilitation have not entirely met this goal. In contrast, enriched training tasks, simulated with a wide range of low- to high-end virtual reality-based simulations, can be used to provide meaningful, repetitive practice together with salient feedback, thereby maximizing neuroplastic processes via motor learning and motor recovery...
March 2015: Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25147497/the-plastic-ear-and-perceptual-relearning-in-auditory-spatial-perception
#10
REVIEW
Simon Carlile
The auditory system of adult listeners has been shown to accommodate to altered spectral cues to sound location which presumably provides the basis for recalibration to changes in the shape of the ear over a life time. Here we review the role of auditory and non-auditory inputs to the perception of sound location and consider a range of recent experiments looking at the role of non-auditory inputs in the process of accommodation to these altered spectral cues. A number of studies have used small ear molds to modify the spectral cues that result in significant degradation in localization performance...
2014: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25133141/progress-in-sensorimotor-rehabilitative-physical-therapy-programs-for-stroke-patients
#11
REVIEW
Jia-Ching Chen, Fu-Zen Shaw
Impaired motor and functional activity following stroke often has negative impacts on the patient, the family and society. The available rehabilitation programs for stroke patients are reviewed. Conventional rehabilitation strategies (Bobath, Brunnstrom, proprioception neuromuscular facilitation, motor relearning and function-based principles) are the mainstream tactics in clinical practices. Numerous advanced strategies for sensory-motor functional enhancement, including electrical stimulation, electromyographic biofeedback, constraint-induced movement therapy, robotics-aided systems, virtual reality, intermittent compression, partial body weight supported treadmill training and thermal stimulation, are being developed and incorporated into conventional rehabilitation programs...
August 16, 2014: World Journal of Clinical Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24899347/-the-mirror-neuron-system-in-motor-and-sensory-rehabilitation
#12
REVIEW
Yutaka Oouchida, Shinichi Izumi
The discovery of the mirror neuron system has dramatically changed the study of motor control in neuroscience. The mirror neuron system provides a conceptual framework covering the aspects of motor as well as sensory functions in motor control. Previous studies of motor control can be classified as studies of motor or sensory functions, and these two classes of studies appear to have advanced independently. In rehabilitation requiring motor learning, such as relearning movement after limb paresis, however, sensory information of feedback for motor output as well as motor command are essential...
June 2014: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24550310/enhanced-cognitive-flexibility-in-reversal-learning-induced-by-removal-of-the-extracellular-matrix-in-auditory-cortex
#13
Max F K Happel, Hartmut Niekisch, Laura L Castiblanco Rivera, Frank W Ohl, Matthias Deliano, Renato Frischknecht
During brain maturation, the occurrence of the extracellular matrix (ECM) terminates juvenile plasticity by mediating structural stability. Interestingly, enzymatic removal of the ECM restores juvenile forms of plasticity, as for instance demonstrated by topographical reconnectivity in sensory pathways. However, to which degree the mature ECM is a compromise between stability and flexibility in the adult brain impacting synaptic plasticity as a fundamental basis for learning, lifelong memory formation, and higher cognitive functions is largely unknown...
February 18, 2014: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23926264/elevated-mmp-9-in-the-lumbar-cord-early-after-thoracic-spinal-cord-injury-impedes-motor-relearning-in-mice
#14
Christopher N Hansen, Lesley C Fisher, Rochelle J Deibert, Lyn B Jakeman, Haoqian Zhang, Linda Noble-Haeusslein, Susan White, D Michele Basso
Spinal cord injury results in distant pathology around putative locomotor networks that may jeopardize the recovery of locomotion. We previously showed that activated microglia and increased cytokine expression extend at least 10 segments below the injury to influence sensory function. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is a potent regulator of acute neuroinflammation. Whether MMP-9 is produced remote to the injury or influences locomotor plasticity remains unexamined. Therefore, we characterized the lumbar enlargement after a T9 spinal cord injury in C57BL/6 (wild-type [WT]) and MMP-9-null (knock-out [KO]) mice...
August 7, 2013: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23575862/cortical-cholinergic-input-is-required-for-normal-auditory-perception-and-experience-dependent-plasticity-in-adult-ferrets
#15
Nicholas D Leach, Fernando R Nodal, Patricia M Cordery, Andrew J King, Victoria M Bajo
The nucleus basalis (NB) in the basal forebrain provides most of the cholinergic input to the neocortex and has been implicated in a variety of cognitive functions related to the processing of sensory stimuli. However, the role that cortical acetylcholine release plays in perception remains unclear. Here we show that selective loss of cholinergic NB neurons that project to the cortex reduces the accuracy with which ferrets localize brief sounds and prevents them from adaptively reweighting auditory localization cues in response to chronic occlusion of one ear...
April 10, 2013: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23018869/sensory-relearning-after-surgical-treatment-for-carpal-tunnel-syndrome-a-pilot-clinical-trial
#16
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Christina Jerosch-Herold, Lee Shepstone, Leanne Miller
INTRODUCTION: Surgical treatment for carpal tunnel syndrome does not always alleviate sensory deficits, especially in patients with severe disease. No proven treatment is currently available for these patients. METHODS: We conducted a pilot randomized, controlled trial to evaluate the feasibility, patient acceptability, and efficacy of a sensory relearning (SR) program in patients who have ongoing sensory deficits after carpal tunnel decompression. Patients were randomized to receive either: (i) a 4-week sensory relearning home program; or (ii) no further treatment...
December 2012: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23000782/what-is-evidence-based-in-the-reconstruction-of-digital-nerves-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Willem D Rinkel, Bionka M A Huisstede, Dirk-Jan J C van der Avoort, J Henk Coert, Steven E R Hovius
BACKGROUND: An intact digital nerve is obligatory for hand function. When transected, the hand surgeon has several options. However, there is no hard evidence which technique to choose. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to provide an evidence-based overview of the effectiveness of interventions used in reconstruction and post-surgical management of digital nerve injuries. METHODS: The Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL and PEDro databases were searched...
February 2013: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22906099/active-robotic-training-improves-locomotor-function-in-a-stroke-survivor
#18
Chandramouli Krishnan, Rajiv Ranganathan, Shailesh S Kantak, Yasin Y Dhaher, William Z Rymer
BACKGROUND: Clinical outcomes after robotic training are often not superior to conventional therapy. One key factor responsible for this is the use of control strategies that provide substantial guidance. This strategy not only leads to a reduction in volitional physical effort, but also interferes with motor relearning. METHODS: We tested the feasibility of a novel training approach (active robotic training) using a powered gait orthosis (Lokomat) in mitigating post-stroke gait impairments of a 52-year-old male stroke survivor...
2012: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22514305/different-properties-of-visual-relearning-after-damage-to-early-versus-higher-level-visual-cortical-areas
#19
Anasuya Das, Margaret Demagistris, Krystel R Huxlin
The manipulation of visual perceptual learning is emerging as an important rehabilitation tool following visual system damage. Specificity of visual learning for training stimulus and task attributes has been used in prior work to infer a differential contribution of higher-level versus lower-level visual cortical areas to this process. The present study used a controlled experimental paradigm in felines to examine whether relearning of motion discrimination and the specificity of such relearning are differently influenced by damage at lower versus higher levels of the visual cortical hierarchy...
April 18, 2012: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22461337/the-cortical-control-of-cycling-exercise-in-stroke-patients-an-fnirs-study
#20
Pei-Yi Lin, Jia-Jin Jason Chen, Sang-I Lin
Stroke survivors suffering from deficits in motor control typically have limited functional abilities, which could result in poor quality of life. Cycling exercise is a common training paradigm for restoring locomotion rhythm in patients. The provision of speed feedback has been used to facilitate the learning of controlled cycling performance and the neuromuscular control of the affected leg. However, the central mechanism for motor relearning of active and passive pedaling motions in stroke patients has not been investigated as extensively...
October 2013: Human Brain Mapping
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