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Sensory relearning

Pernilla Vikström, Birgitta Rosén, Ingela K Carlsson, Anders Björkman
Twenty patients randomized to early sensory relearning (nine patients) or traditional relearning (11 patients) were assessed regarding sensory recovery 4 to 9 years after median or ulnar nerve repair. Outcomes were assessed with the Rosen score, questionnaires, and self-reported single-item questions regarding function and activity. The patients with early sensory relearning had significantly better sensory recovery in the sensory domain of the Rosen score, specifically, discriminative touch or tactile gnosis and dexterity...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery, European Volume
Shashank Ghai, Ishan Ghai, Alfred O Effenberg
Fear can propagate parallelly through both cortical and subcortical pathways. It can instigate memory consolidation habitually and might allow internal simulation of movements independent of the cortical structures. This perspective suggests delivery of subliminal, aversive and kinematic audiovisual stimuli via neuroprosthetics in patients with neocortical dysfunctions. We suggest possible scenarios by which these stimuli might bypass damaged neocortical structures and possibly assisting in motor relearning...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Pélagie M Beeson, Chelsea Bayley, Christine Shultz, Kindle Rising
Maximal recovery from acquired language impairment may require progression from one behavioural treatment protocol to the next in order to build upon residual and relearned cognitive-linguistic and sensory-motor processes. We present a five-stage treatment sequence that was initiated at one year post stroke in a woman with acquired impairments of spoken and written language. As is typical of individuals with left perisylvian damage, she demonstrated marked impairment of phonological retrieval and sublexical phonology, but she also faced additional challenges due to impaired letter shape knowledge and visual attention...
January 3, 2018: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
Pernilla Vikström, Ingela Carlsson, Birgitta Rosén, Anders Björkman
STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive study. INTRODUCTION: Early sensory relearning where the dynamic capacity of the brain is used has been shown to improve sensory outcome after nerve repair. However, no previous studies have examined how patients experience early sensory relearning. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: To describe patient's views on early sensory relearning. METHODS: Statements' scores were analyzed by factor analysis. RESULTS: Thirty-seven consecutive adult patients with median and/or ulnar nerve repair who completed early sensory relearning were included...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Hand Therapy: Official Journal of the American Society of Hand Therapists
Emily A Keshner, Joyce Fung
The papers that follow stem from a symposium presented at the International Society for Posture and Gait Research (ISPGR) in Seville, Spain, in July 2015. Four speakers were charged with presenting their methods of applying virtual reality (VR) technology to obtain meaningful rehabilitation outcomes. The symposium aims to explore characteristics of VR that modify mechanisms supporting motor relearning. Common impairments in posture and gait that can be modulated within virtual environments by employing motor learning concepts, including sensory augmentation and repetition, were examined...
2017: Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium & Orientation
Reza Shadmehr
When we hold an object in our hand, the mass of the object alters the physics of our arm, changing the relationship between motor commands that our brain sends to our arm muscles and the resulting motion of our hand. If the object is unfamiliar to us, our first movement will exhibit an error, producing a trajectory that is different from the one we had intended. This experience of error initiates learning in our brain, making it so that on the very next attempt our motor commands partially compensate for the unfamiliar physics, resulting in smaller errors...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Li-Jie Jia, Pei Tang, Nicole R Brandon, Yan Luo, Buwei Yu, Yan Xu
How general anesthesia interferes with sensory processing to cause amnesia remains unclear. Here, we show that activation of a learning-associated immediate early gene in rat olfactory cortices is uninterrupted by propofol, an intravenous general anesthetic with putative actions on the inhibitory GABAA receptors. Once learned under anesthesia, a novel odor can no longer re-activate the same high-level transcription programming during subsequent conscious relearning. Behavioral tests indicate that the animals' ability to consciously relearn a pure odorant, first experienced under general anesthesia, is indeed compromised...
September 15, 2016: Scientific Reports
C Jerosch-Herold, J Houghton, L Miller, L Shepstone
Despite surgery for carpal tunnel syndrome being effective in 80%-90% of cases, chronic numbness and hand disability can occur. The aim of this study was to investigate whether sensory relearning improves tactile discrimination and hand function after decompression. In a multi-centre, pragmatic, randomized, controlled trial, 104 patients were randomized to a sensory relearning ( n = 52) or control ( n = 52) group. A total of 93 patients completed a 12-week follow-up. Primary outcome was the shape-texture identification test at 6 weeks...
November 2016: Journal of Hand Surgery, European Volume
Elisabeth Bravo-Esteban, Eduardo López-Larraz
INTRODUCTION: Most of the stroke survivors do not recover the basal state of the affected upper limb, suffering from a severe disability which remains during the chronic phase of the illness. This has an extremely negative impact in the quality of life of these patients. Hence, neurorehabilitation strategies aim at the minimization of the sensorimotor dysfunctions associated to stroke, by promoting neuroplasticity in the central nervous system. DEVELOPMENT: Brain reorganization can facilitate motor and functional recovery in stroke subjects...
March 16, 2016: Revista de Neurologia
Jan Fridén, Andreas Gohritz
Tetraplegia is a profound impairment of mobility manifesting as a paralysis of all 4 extremities owing to cervical spinal cord injury. The purpose of this article is to provide an update and analyze current management, treatment options, and outcomes of surgical reconstruction of arm and hand function. Surgical restoration of elbow and wrist extension or handgrip has tremendous potential to improve autonomy, mobility, and critical abilities, for example, eating, personal care, and self-catheterization and productive work in at least 70% of tetraplegic patients...
December 2015: Journal of Hand Surgery
Michael J Fu, Jayme S Knutson, John Chae
This review covers the rationale, mechanisms, and availability of commercially available virtual environment-based interventions for stroke rehabilitation. It describes interventions for motor, speech, cognitive, and sensory dysfunction. Also discussed are the important features and mechanisms that allow virtual environments to facilitate motor relearning. A common challenge is the inability to translate success in small trials to efficacy in larger populations. The heterogeneity of stroke pathophysiology has been blamed, and experts advocate for the study of multimodal approaches...
November 2015: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
Elyse Norton, Stephen Fleming, Nathaniel Daw, Michael Landy
Humans often make decisions based on uncertain sensory information. Signal detection theory describes detection and discrimination decisions as a comparison of stimulus "strength" to a fixed decision criterion. How is the criterion set? We examine how observers learn to set a decision criterion in an orientation-discrimination task. To investigate mechanisms underlying trial-by-trial criterion placement, we compared two tasks. (1) The typical covert-criterion task: Observers make binary discrimination decisions and the underlying criterion is unobservable...
2015: Journal of Vision
Rui Ponte Costa, Robert C Froemke, P Jesper Sjöström, Mark Cw van Rossum
Although it is well known that long-term synaptic plasticity can be expressed both pre- and postsynaptically, the functional consequences of this arrangement have remained elusive. We show that spike-timing-dependent plasticity with both pre- and postsynaptic expression develops receptive fields with reduced variability and improved discriminability compared to postsynaptic plasticity alone. These long-term modifications in receptive field statistics match recent sensory perception experiments. Moreover, learning with this form of plasticity leaves a hidden postsynaptic memory trace that enables fast relearning of previously stored information, providing a cellular substrate for memory savings...
August 26, 2015: ELife
Gottfried Schlaug
Playing a musical instrument is an intense, multisensory, and motor experience that usually commences at an early age and requires the acquisition and maintenance of a range of sensory and motor skills over the course of a musician's lifetime. Thus, musicians offer an excellent human model for studying behavioral-cognitive as well as brain effects of acquiring, practicing, and maintaining these specialized skills. Research has shown that repeatedly practicing the association of motor actions with specific sound and visual patterns (musical notation), while receiving continuous multisensory feedback will strengthen connections between auditory and motor regions (e...
2015: Progress in Brain Research
Mindy F Levin, Patrice L Weiss, Emily A Keshner
The primary focus of rehabilitation for individuals with loss of upper limb movement as a result of acquired brain injury is the relearning of specific motor skills and daily tasks. This relearning is essential because the loss of upper limb movement often results in a reduced quality of life. Although rehabilitation strives to take advantage of neuroplastic processes during recovery, results of traditional approaches to upper limb rehabilitation have not entirely met this goal. In contrast, enriched training tasks, simulated with a wide range of low- to high-end virtual reality-based simulations, can be used to provide meaningful, repetitive practice together with salient feedback, thereby maximizing neuroplastic processes via motor learning and motor recovery...
March 2015: Physical Therapy
Simon Carlile
The auditory system of adult listeners has been shown to accommodate to altered spectral cues to sound location which presumably provides the basis for recalibration to changes in the shape of the ear over a life time. Here we review the role of auditory and non-auditory inputs to the perception of sound location and consider a range of recent experiments looking at the role of non-auditory inputs in the process of accommodation to these altered spectral cues. A number of studies have used small ear molds to modify the spectral cues that result in significant degradation in localization performance...
2014: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Jia-Ching Chen, Fu-Zen Shaw
Impaired motor and functional activity following stroke often has negative impacts on the patient, the family and society. The available rehabilitation programs for stroke patients are reviewed. Conventional rehabilitation strategies (Bobath, Brunnstrom, proprioception neuromuscular facilitation, motor relearning and function-based principles) are the mainstream tactics in clinical practices. Numerous advanced strategies for sensory-motor functional enhancement, including electrical stimulation, electromyographic biofeedback, constraint-induced movement therapy, robotics-aided systems, virtual reality, intermittent compression, partial body weight supported treadmill training and thermal stimulation, are being developed and incorporated into conventional rehabilitation programs...
August 16, 2014: World Journal of Clinical Cases
Yutaka Oouchida, Shinichi Izumi
The discovery of the mirror neuron system has dramatically changed the study of motor control in neuroscience. The mirror neuron system provides a conceptual framework covering the aspects of motor as well as sensory functions in motor control. Previous studies of motor control can be classified as studies of motor or sensory functions, and these two classes of studies appear to have advanced independently. In rehabilitation requiring motor learning, such as relearning movement after limb paresis, however, sensory information of feedback for motor output as well as motor command are essential...
June 2014: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
Max F K Happel, Hartmut Niekisch, Laura L Castiblanco Rivera, Frank W Ohl, Matthias Deliano, Renato Frischknecht
During brain maturation, the occurrence of the extracellular matrix (ECM) terminates juvenile plasticity by mediating structural stability. Interestingly, enzymatic removal of the ECM restores juvenile forms of plasticity, as for instance demonstrated by topographical reconnectivity in sensory pathways. However, to which degree the mature ECM is a compromise between stability and flexibility in the adult brain impacting synaptic plasticity as a fundamental basis for learning, lifelong memory formation, and higher cognitive functions is largely unknown...
February 18, 2014: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Christopher N Hansen, Lesley C Fisher, Rochelle J Deibert, Lyn B Jakeman, Haoqian Zhang, Linda Noble-Haeusslein, Susan White, D Michele Basso
Spinal cord injury results in distant pathology around putative locomotor networks that may jeopardize the recovery of locomotion. We previously showed that activated microglia and increased cytokine expression extend at least 10 segments below the injury to influence sensory function. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is a potent regulator of acute neuroinflammation. Whether MMP-9 is produced remote to the injury or influences locomotor plasticity remains unexamined. Therefore, we characterized the lumbar enlargement after a T9 spinal cord injury in C57BL/6 (wild-type [WT]) and MMP-9-null (knock-out [KO]) mice...
August 7, 2013: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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