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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449183/noninferiority-trial-investigating-the-efficacy-of-a-nonantibiotic-intramammary-therapy-in-the-treatment-of-mild-to-moderate-clinical-mastitis-in-dairy-cows-with-longer-lasting-udder-diseases
#1
M Ziesch, N Wente, Y Zhang, W Zaremba, S Engl, V Krömker
A nonblinded, positively controlled, noninferiority trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of an alternative, nonantibiotic therapy with Masti Veyxym(®) to reduce ineffective antibiotic usage in the treatment of nonsevere clinical mastitis (CM) in cows with longer lasting udder diseases. The solely intramammary treatment with Masti Veyxym(®) (three applications, 12 hr apart) and the combined treatment with Masti Veyxym(®) and antibiotics as usual on the farm according to label of the respective product were compared with the reference treatment of solely antibiotic therapy...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442922/inhibition-of-pcsk9-protects-against-radiation-induced-damage-of-prostate-cancer-cells
#2
Si-Shun Gan, Jian-Qing Ye, Lei Wang, Fa-Jun Qu, Chuan-Min Chu, Yi-Jun Tian, Wei Yang, Xin-Gang Cui
BACKGROUND: Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a protein expressed primarily in the liver, formerly known to maintain plasma lipid homeostasis by regulating low-density lipoprotein receptor levels, and its exact role in the radioresistance of prostate cancer (PCa) remains unclear. We aim to investigate the function of PCSK9 in the radioresistance of PCa cells. METHODS: PCSK9 small interfering RNA (siRNA) was introduced into the PCa cells by transient transfection...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439892/cerebrospinal-fluid-cyto-chemokine-profile-during-acute-herpes-simplex-virus-induced-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis-and-in-chronic-neurological-sequelae
#3
Kavitha Kothur, Deepak Gill, Melanie Wong, Shekeeb S Mohammad, Sushil Bandodkar, Susan Arbunckle, Louise Wienholt, Russell C Dale
AIM: To examine the cytokine/chemokine profile of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) during acute herpes simplex virus-induced N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) autoimmunity and in chronic/relapsing post-herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSE) neurological syndromes. METHOD: We measured longitudinal serial CSF cyto-/chemokines (n=34) and a glial marker (calcium-binding astroglial protein, S100B) in one patient during acute HSE and subsequent anti-NMDAR encephalitis, and compared the results with those from two patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis without preceding HSE...
April 25, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439496/bethesda-system-for-reporting-thyroid-cytopathology-a-three-year-study-at-a-tertiary-care-referral-center-in-saudi-arabia
#4
Mohamed Abdulaziz Al Dawish, Asirvatham Alwin Robert, Aljuboury Muna, Alkharashi Eyad, Abdullah Al Ghamdi, Khalid Al Hajeri, Mohammed A Thabet, Rim Braham
AIM: To stratify the malignancy risks in thyroid nodules in a tertiary care referral center using the Bethesda system. METHODS: From January, 2012 to December, 2014, a retrospective analysis was performed among 1188 patients (15-90 years) who had 1433 thyroid nodules and fine-needle aspiration at Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Saudi Arabia. All thyroid cyto-pathological slides and ultra sound reports were reviewed and classified according to the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology...
April 10, 2017: World Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437248/protective-effect-of-calretinin-on-testicular-leydig-cells-via-the-inhibition-of-apoptosis
#5
Wendan Xu, Qian Zhu, Bei Zhang, Shan Liu, Xiaonan Dai, Chao Gao, Li Gao, Yugui Cui
The core mechanism of Late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) is the deficiency of androgen due to the functional and quantitative decline of testicular Leydig cells. Here we explored the protective effect of calretinin, a Ca(2+)-binding protein, on Leydig cells. We found in MLTC-1 cells transfected with LV-calb2, the cell viability and optical density (OD) were higher (p<0.05), cells in the S phase of the cell cycle were increased (p<0.01) and p-ERK1/2 and p-AKT levels were significantly higher (p<0.01 and p<0...
April 24, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435065/influence-of-er-leak-on-resting-cytoplasmic-ca-2-and-receptor-mediated-ca-2-signalling-in-human-macrophage
#6
Janice A Layhadi, Samuel J Fountain
Mechanisms controlling endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) homeostasis are important regulators of resting cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]cyto) and receptor-mediated Ca(2+) signalling. Here we investigate channels responsible for ER Ca(2+) leak in THP-1 macrophage and human primary macrophage. In the absence of extracellular Ca(2+) we employ ionomycin action at the plasma membrane to stimulate ER Ca(2+) leak. Under these conditions ionomycin elevates [Ca(2+)]cyto revealing a Ca(2+) leak response which is abolished by thapsigargin...
April 20, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429857/ndufa4l2-protects-against-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-cardiomyocyte-apoptosis-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction-by-inhibiting-complex-i
#7
Jianhua Li, Caiyan Bai, Junxia Guo, Wanqian Liang, Jingning Long
Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury may cause the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes as well as mitochondrial dysfunction. The aims of the present study were to investigate whether NADH dehydrogenase 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 4-like 2 (NDUFA4L2) on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and the underlying molecular mechanism. The hypoxia-reperfusion (H/R) model was established in vitro using H9c2 cells to simulate I/R injury. NDUFA4L2 and complex I expression levels were detected using RT-PCR and western blot...
April 21, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419086/low-birth-weight-is-associated-with-impaired-murine-kidney-development-and-function
#8
Christina Barnett, Oluwadara Nnoli, Wasan Abdulmahdi, Lauren Nesi, Michael Shen, Joseph A Zullo, David L Payne, Tala Azar, Parth Dwivedi, Kunzah Syed, Jonathan Gromis, Mark Lipphardt, Edson Jules, Eric L Maranda, Amy Patel, May M Rabadi, Brian B Ratliff
BACKGROUND: Low birth weight (LBW) neonates have impaired kidney development that leaves them susceptible to kidney disease and hypertension during adulthood. The study here identifies events that blunt nephrogenesis and kidney development in the murine LBW neonate. METHODS: We examined survival, kidney development, GFR, gene expression, and cyto-/chemokines in the LBW offspring of malnourished (caloric and protein restricted) pregnant mice. RESULTS: Malnourished pregnant mothers gave birth to LBW neonates that had 40% reduced body weight and 54% decreased survival...
April 18, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412297/dysferlinopathy-promotes-an-intramuscle-expansion-of-macrophages-with-a-cyto-destructive-phenotype
#9
Jea-Hyun Baek, Gina M Many, Frances J Evesson, Vicki R Kelley
Dysferlinopathies are a group of muscular dystrophies resulting from a genetic deficiency in Dysf. Macrophages, highly plastic cells capable of mediating tissue repair and destruction, are prominent within dystrophic skeletal muscles of dysferlinopathy patients. In this study, we hypothesized that Dysf-deficient muscle promotes recruitment, proliferation, and skewing of macrophages toward a cyto-destructive phenotype in dysferlinopathy. To track macrophage dynamics in dysferlinopathy, we adoptively transferred enhanced green fluorescent protein-labeled monocytes into Dysf-deficient BLA/J mice with age-related (2 to 10 months) muscle disease and Dysf-intact (C57BL/6 [B6]) mice...
April 13, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406989/escdl-1-a-new-cell-line-derived-from-chicken-embryonic-stem-cells-supports-efficient-replication-of-mardiviruses
#10
Jean-François Vautherot, Christian Jean, Laetitia Fragnet-Trapp, Sylvie Rémy, Danièle Chabanne-Vautherot, Guillaume Montillet, Aurélie Fuet, Caroline Denesvre, Bertrand Pain
Marek's disease virus is the etiological agent of a major lymphoproliferative disorder in poultry and the prototype of the Mardivirus genus. Primary avian somatic cells are currently used for virus replication and vaccine production, but they are largely refractory to any genetic modification compatible with the preservation of intact viral susceptibility. We explored the concept of induction of viral replication permissiveness in an established pluripotent chicken embryonic stem cell-line (cES) in order to derive a new fully susceptible cell-line...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398868/susceptibility-of-salmonella-enterica-isolates-from-tomato-farm-environments-to-fatty-acids-naturally-found-on-tomato-fruit
#11
Govindaraj Dev Kumar, Shirley A Micallef
Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica can colonize tomato fruit as it interacts with fruit surface compounds. The exometabolome of tomato fruit contains a mixture of compounds, including fatty acids, which could affect Salmonella fitness. Fatty acids detected in fruit exudates were investigated for Salmonella inhibition. Pelargonic, lauric, myristic, palmitic, margaric, stearic, and oleic acids were suspended in water dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or emulsified in water and quillaja saponin to assess how bioavailability impacted Salmonella growth...
February 22, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397152/neuroprotective-effect-of-moringa-oleifera-leaf-extract-on-aluminium-induced-temporal-cortical-degeneration
#12
Moses B Ekong, Mfon M Ekpo, Edet O Akpanyung, Dennis U Nwaokonko
Aluminium (Al), one of the metals implicated in neurodegeneration easily gain access to the nervous system through its presence in many manufactured foods, medicines and drinking water, and causes neurotoxicity utilizing the reactive oxygen specie pathway. The need to curtail these effects on the nervous system motivated the use of the plant Moringa oleifera (MO). This study thus, investigated the neuroprotective effects of MO leaf extract on aluminium-induced temporal cortical degeneration in rats. 24 male albino Wistar rats were grouped (n = 6) into control (1 ml/kg distilled water), l00 mg/kg aluminium chloride (AlCl3), 300 mg/kg MO, and 100 mg/kg AlCl3 and 300 mg/kg MO groups...
April 11, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396716/tumor-reactive-stroma-in-cholangiocarcinoma-the-fuel-behind-cancer-aggressiveness
#13
EDITORIAL
Simone Brivio, Massimiliano Cadamuro, Mario Strazzabosco, Luca Fabris
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a highly aggressive epithelial malignancy still carrying a dismal prognosis, owing to early lymph node metastatic dissemination and striking resistance to conventional chemotherapy. Although mechanisms underpinning CCA progression are still a conundrum, it is now increasingly recognized that the desmoplastic microenvironment developing in conjunction with biliary carcinogenesis, recently renamed tumor reactive stroma (TRS), behaves as a paramount tumor-promoting driver. Indeed, once being recruited, activated and dangerously co-opted by neoplastic cells, the cellular components of the TRS (myofibroblasts, macrophages, endothelial cells and mesenchymal stem cells) continuously rekindle malignancy by secreting a huge variety of soluble factors (cyto/chemokines, growth factors, morphogens and proteinases)...
March 28, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391166/chikusetsu-chi-triggers-mitochondria-regulated-apoptosis-in-human-prostate-cancer-via-reactive-oxygen-species-ros-production
#14
Wen-Bin Zhu, Fu-Jun Tian, Li-Qian Liu
The prostate cancer prognosis is still not fully understood. Chikusetsu saponin Iva (CHI), isolated from Aralia taibaiensis, shows anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties. Here, in our study, we attempted to explore the efficiency and the possible molecular mechanism by which CHI may suppress prostate cancer. CHI was found to inhibit prostate cancer cell proliferation and induce cell death without cytotoxicity in prostate normal cells. CHI resulted in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and induced apoptosis regulated by mitochondria in vitro studies...
April 5, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382923/a-compliant-and-biomimetic-three-layered-vascular-graft-for-small-blood-vessels
#15
Yi Zhang, Xiangshun Li, Géraldine Guex, Shanshan Liu, Eike Müller, Riccardo Innocenti Malini, Huijing Zhao, Markus Rottmar, Katharina Maniura, Rene Rossi, Fabrizio Spano
Engineering a small diameter vascular graft with mechanical and biological properties comparable to living tissues remains challenging. Often, current devices lead to thrombosis and unsatisfactory long-term patency as a result of poor blood compatibility and a mismatch between the mechanical properties of the living tissue and the implanted biomaterial. Address-ing all these requirements is essential to produce scaffolds able to survive throughout the life of the patient. For this purpose, we fabricated a novel three-layered vascular graft by combining electrospinning and braiding...
April 6, 2017: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380436/classification-of-pediatric-acute-myeloid-leukemia-based-on-mirna-expression-profiles
#16
Askar Obulkasim, Jenny E Katsman-Kuipers, Lonneke Verboon, Mathijs Sanders, Ivo Touw, Mojca Jongen-Lavrencic, Rob Pieters, C Michel Zwaan, Marry M van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Maarten Fornerod
Pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous disease with respect to biology as well as outcome. In this study, we investigated whether known biological subgroups of pediatric AML are reflected by a common microRNA (miRNA) expression pattern. We assayed 665 miRNAs on 165 pediatric AML samples. First, unsupervised clustering was performed to identify patient clusters with common miRNA expression profiles. Our analysis unraveled 14 clusters, seven of which had a known (cyto-)genetic denominator. Finally, a robust classifier was constructed to discriminate six molecular aberration groups: 11q23-rearrangements, t(8;21)(q22;q22), inv(16)(p13q22), t(15;17)(q21;q22), NPM1 and CEBPA mutations...
March 23, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378121/toxification-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-by-commensal-bacteria-from-human-skin
#17
Juliane Sowada, Lisa Lemoine, Karsten Schön, Christoph Hutzler, Andreas Luch, Tewes Tralau
The ubiquitous occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) leads to constant human exposure at low levels. Toxicologically relevant are especially the high-molecular weight substances due to their (pro-)carcinogenic potential. Following ingestion or uptake, the eukaryotic phase I metabolism often activates these substances to become potent DNA binders, and unsurprisingly metabolism and DNA-adduct formation of model substances such as benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) are well studied. However, apart from being subjected to eukaryotic transformations PAHs are also carbon and energy sources for the myriads of commensal microbes inhabiting man's every surface...
April 4, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378120/comprehensive-analysis-of-the-in-vitro-and-ex-ovo-hemocompatibility-of-surface-engineered-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-for-biomedical-applications
#18
Florian Schlenk, Sebastian Werner, Martin Rabel, Franziska Jacobs, Christian Bergemann, Joachim H Clement, Dagmar Fischer
A set of biomedically relevant iron oxide nanoparticles with systematically modified polymer surfaces was investigated regarding their interaction with the first contact partners after systemic administration such as blood cells, blood proteins, and the endothelial blood vessels, to establish structure-activity relationships. All nanoparticles were intensively characterized regarding their physicochemical parameters. Cyto- and hemocompatibility tests showed that (1) the properties of the core material itself were not relevant in short-term incubation studies, and (2) toxicities increased with higher polymer mass, neutral = anionic < cationic surface charge and charge density, as well as agglomeration...
April 4, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373535/dantrolene-requires-mg-2-to-arrest-malignant-hyperthermia
#19
Rocky H Choi, Xaver Koenig, Bradley S Launikonis
Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a clinical syndrome of skeletal muscle that presents as a hypermetabolic response to volatile anesthetic gases, where susceptible persons may develop lethally high body temperatures. Genetic predisposition mainly arises from mutations on the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor (RyR). Dantrolene is administered to alleviate MH symptoms, but its mechanism of action and its influence on the Ca(2+) transients elicited by MH triggers are unknown. Here, we show that Ca(2+) release in the absence of Mg(2+) is unaffected by the presence of dantrolene but that dantrolene becomes increasingly effective as cytoplasmic-free [Mg(2+)] (free [Mg(2+)]cyto) passes mM levels...
April 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371930/in-planta-genotoxicity-of-nzvi-influence-of-colloidal-stability-on-uptake-dna-damage-oxidative-stress-and-cell-death
#20
Ilika Ghosh, Amitava Mukherjee, Anita Mukherjee
Nanoremediation of soil, ground and surface water using nanoscale zerovalent iron particles (nZVI) has facilitated their direct environmental exposure posing ecotoxicological concerns. Numerous studies elucidate their phytotoxicity in terms of growth and their fate within the plant system. However, their potential genotoxicity and cytotoxicity mechanisms are not known in plants. This study encompasses the physico-chemical characterisation of two forms of nZVI (nZVI-1 and nZVI-2) with different surface chemistries and their influence on uptake, root morphology, DNA damage, oxidative stress and cell death in Allium cepa roots after 24 h...
March 24, 2017: Mutagenesis
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