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Erik Mogalian, Luisa M Stamm, Anu Osinusi, Diana M Brainard, Gong Shen, Kah Hiing John Ling, Anita Mathias
Background: Combining antiviral regimens in the HCV/HIV coinfected population can be complex as they share overlapping mechanisms for elimination that may result in potential drug interactions. The pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of concomitantly administered sofosbuvir/velpatasvir (SOF/VEL) with multiple commonly prescribed antiretroviral (ARV) regimens were evaluated. Methods: Healthy volunteers were enrolled into two phase 1, open-label, randomized, multiple-dose, cross-over studies...
March 7, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Sanjay Pujari, Sunil Gaikwad, Vivek Bele, Kedar Joshi, Digamber Dabhade
BACKGROUND: There is no information on the clinical effectiveness of Maraviroc (MVC) amongst People Living with HIV (PLHIV) in India infected with HIV-1 Subtype C viruses. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of adult PLHIV on MVC based Antiretroviral (ARV) regimens for at least 6 months. Maraviroc was initiated amongst PLHIV with documented R5 tropic viruses (determined by in-house population sequencing of the V3 loop in triplicate and interpreted using the Geno2Pheno algorithm) in combination with an Optimized Background regimen (designed using genotypic resistance testing and past ARV history)...
January 2018: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
Pauline Brige, Geraldine Hery, Anais Palen, Théophile Guilbaud, Christophe Buffat, Anais Moyon, Jean Hardwigsen, Eric Guedj, Benjamin Guillet, Vincent Vidal, Guillaume Gorincour, Sophie Chopinet, Emilie Gregoire
In order to reduce the morbidity and mortality risk for the donor in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), we previously identified 20% left portal vein (LPV) stenosis as the effective preconditioning to induce cell proliferation in the contralateral lobe without the downstream ipsilateral atrophy. We report, here, the pathways involved in the first hours after the preconditioning and investigate the changes in liver volume and function. Fourteen pigs entered this study. Five of them were used to study the genetic, cellular and molecular mechanisms set up in the early hours after the establishment of our preconditioning...
February 22, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Nicole S Delino, Manabu Aoki, Hironori Hayashi, Shin-Ichiro Hattori, Simon B Chang, Yuki Takamatsu, Cuthbert D Martyr, Debananda Das, Arun K Ghosh, Hiroaki Mitsuya
We identified four novel nonpeptidic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitors (PIs), GRL-078, -079, -077, and -058, containing an alkylamine at the C5 position of P2-tetrahydropyrano-tetrahydrofuran (Tp-THF) and a P2' -cyclopropyl (Cp)(or isopropyl)-aminobenzothiazole (Abt). Their 50% effective concentrations (EC50 s) were 2.5-30 nM against wild-type HIV-1NL4-3 , 0.3-6.7 nM against HIV-2EHO , and 0.9-90 nM against laboratory-selected-PI-resistant HIV-1 and clinical HIV-1 variants resistant to multiple FDA-approved PIs (HIVMDR )...
February 20, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
John C Kraft, Lisa A McConnachie, Josefin Koehn, Loren Kinman, Jianguo Sun, Ann C Collier, Carol Collins, Danny D Shen, Rodney J Y Ho
Existing oral antiretroviral (ARV) agents have been shown in human studies to exhibit limited lymph node penetration and lymphatic drug insufficiency. As lymph nodes are a reservoir of HIV, it is critical to deliver and sustain effective levels of ARV combinations in these tissues. To overcome lymph node drug insufficiency of oral combination ARV therapy (cART), we developed and reported a long-acting and lymphocyte-targeting injectable that contains three ARVs-hydrophobic lopinavir (LPV) and ritonavir (RTV), and hydrophilic tenofovir (TFV)-stabilized by lipid excipients in a nanosuspension...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Annika Antonsson, Rachel E Neale, Peter O'Rourke, Leesa Wockner, Angelika Michel, Michael Pawlita, Tim Waterboer, Adèle C Green
BACKGROUND: Several new members of the human polyomavirus (HPyV) family that infect human skin and are potentially oncogenic have been identified in the last decade. OBJECTIVES: To investigate prospectively the seroprevalence and stability of 13 PyVs, and possible associations with different risk factors and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC). STUDY DESIGN: In this Australian population-based longitudinal study sera were collected at baseline in 1992 or during the next 4 years from 688 people...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
J R Santos, A Cozzi-Lepri, A Phillips, S De Wit, C Pedersen, P Reiss, A Blaxhult, A Lazzarin, M Sluzhynska, C Orkin, C Duvivier, J Bogner, P Gargalianos-Kakolyris, P Schmid, G Hassoun, I Khromova, M Beniowski, V Hadziosmanovic, D Sedlacek, R Paredes, J D Lundgren
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate the long-term response to antiretroviral treatment (ART) based on atazanavir/ritonavir (ATZ/r)-, darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r)-, and lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r)-containing regimens. METHODS: Data were analysed for 5678 EuroSIDA-enrolled patients starting a DRV/r-, ATZ/r- or LPV/r-containing regimen between 1 January 2000 and 30 June 2013. Separate analyses were performed for the following subgroups of patients: (1) ART-naïve subjects (8%) at ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI/r) initiation; (2) ART-experienced individuals (44%) initiating the new PI/r with a viral load (VL) ≤500 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL; and (3) ART-experienced patients (48%) initiating the new PI/r with a VL >500 copies/mL...
February 1, 2018: HIV Medicine
Bum Sik Tae, Hoon Choi, Jae Young Park, Jae Hyun Bae
Minimally invasive laparoscopic surgical procedures are increasingly being used in the management of various urological diseases. In particular, the laparoscopic approach for intravesical surgery using pneumovesicum (LPV) is a minimally invasive alternative with potential advantages including decreased morbidity, shorter hospital stays, and improved cosmesis. We review the applications of LPV in urology, summarize data for different surgical approaches, and provide an overview of patient management, as well as other considerations...
January 2018: International Neurourology Journal
Thiago S Torres, Linda J Harrison, Alberto M La Rosa, Sandra W Cardoso, Lu Zheng, McNeil Ngongondo, Fatma Some, Umesh G Lalloo, Thando Mwelase, Ann C Collier, Michael D Hughes
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated improvement of quality of life (QoL) after one year of second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) use in resource-limited settings (RLS) among adult men and women, comparing two randomized treatment arms. DESIGN: ACTG A5273 was a randomized clinical trial of second-line ART comparing lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) + raltegravir (RAL) with LPV/r + nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) in participants failing a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-containing regimen at 15 sites in 9 RLS...
January 13, 2018: AIDS
Ali Khudhair Al-Jiboory, Guoming Zhu, Sean Shan-Min Swei, Weihua Su, Nhan T Nguyen
One of the earliest approaches in gain-scheduling control is the gridding based approach, in which a set of local linear time-invariant models are obtained at various gridded points corresponding to the varying parameters within the flight envelop. In order to ensure smooth and effective Linear Parameter-Varying control, aligning all the flexible modes within each local model and maintaining small number of representative local models over the gridded parameter space are crucial. In addition, since the flexible structural models tend to have large dimensions, a tractable model reduction process is necessary...
July 2017: Aerospace Science and Technology
Douglas A Colquhoun, Bhiken I Naik, Marcel E Durieux, Amy M Shanks, Sachin Kheterpal, S Patrick Bender, Randal S Blank
BACKGROUND: Lung-protective ventilation (LPV) has been demonstrated to improve clinical outcomes in surgical patients. There are very limited data on the current use of LPV for patients undergoing 1-lung ventilation (1LV) despite evidence that 1LV may be a particularly important setting for its use. In this multicenter study, we report trends in ventilation practice for patients undergoing 1LV. METHODS: The Multicenter Perioperative Outcomes Group database was used to identify patients undergoing 1LV...
February 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Sunny S Chiao, Douglas A Colquhoun, Bhiken I Naik, Jennie Z Ma, Edward C Nemergut, Marcel E Durieux, Randal S Blank, Katherine T Forkin
Perioperative lung-protective ventilation (LPV) can reduce perioperative pulmonary morbidity. We hypothesized that modifying default anesthesia machine ventilator settings would increase the use of intraoperative LPV. Default tidal volume settings on our anesthesia machines were decreased from 600 to 400 mL, and default positive end-expiratory pressure was increased from 0 to 5 cm H2O. This modification increased mean positive end-expiratory pressure from 3.1 to 5.0 cm H2O and decreased mean tidal volume from 8...
November 30, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Konstantia Angelidou, Paul Palumbo, Jane Lindsey, Avy Violary, Moherndran Archary, Linda Barlow, Brian Claggett, Michael Hughes, Lee-Jen Wei
BACKGROUND: Most clinical trials comparing treatments evaluate the separate effects on each of several efficacy and toxicity outcomes. However, population-averaged summary measures of treatment differences may not accurately reflect individual responses to treatment, and drawing conclusions about which treatment is "best" is straightforward if one treatment is superior across all outcomes, but challenging when this is not the case. METHODS: We created a study outcome based on expert opinion, which captures the risk/benefit profile of response to a treatment...
March 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Charlotte V Hobbs, Erin E Gabriel, Portia Kamthunzi, Gerald Tegha, Jean Tauzie, Yonghua Li, Tiina Ilmet, Elena Artimovich, Jillian Neal, Ted Hall, Sunil Parikh, Brian Kirmse, Patrick Jean-Philippe, Jingyang Chen, William R Prescott, Paul Palumbo, Patrick E Duffy, William Borkowsky, For The P S Study Team
Laboratory data and prior pediatric reports indicate that HIV protease inhibitor (PI)-based antiretroviral therapy (ARV) kills gametocytes and reduces rates of gametocytemia, but not asymptomatic parasitemia, in a high malaria-transmission area. To determine whether ARV regimen impacts these rates in areas with less-intense malaria transmission, we compared asymptomatic parasitemia and gametocytemia rates in HIV-infected children by ARV regimen in Lilongwe, Malawi, an area of low-to-moderate transmission intensity...
November 20, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Chloe R McDonald, Andrea L Conroy, Joel L Gamble, Eszter Papp, Michael Hawkes, Peter Olwoch, Paul Natureeba, Moses Kamya, Michael Silverman, Deborah Cohan, Catherine A Koss, Grant Dorsey, Kevin C Kain, Lena Serghides
Background: Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) use in pregnancy has been associated with hormonal dysregulation. We performed a secondary retrospective analysis of longitudinal progesterone and estradiol levels in pregnancy using specimens from the Protease Inhibitors to Reduce Malaria Morbidity in HIV-infected Pregnant Women study, which randomized Ugandan human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected ART-naive women to initiate either lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r)-based or efavirenz (EFV)-based cART...
November 10, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Diyuan Zheng, Chongqi Yu, Qian Zhang, Hui Wang
Nanoscale metal-semiconductor (MS) structure materials occupy an important position in semiconductor and microelectronic field due to its abundant physical phenomena and effects. The thickness of metal films is a critical factor in determining characteristics of MS devices. How to detect or evaluate the metal thickness is always a key issue for realizing high performance MS devices. In this work, we propose a direct surface detection by use of the lateral photovoltaic effect (LPE) in MS structure, which can not only measure nanoscale thickness, but also detect the fluctuation of metal films...
November 3, 2017: Nanotechnology
Haythem Najah, Houssem Ammar, Rahul Gupta, Moncef Hamdoun, Abdelwaheb Morjane, Mohamed Mongi Mighri, Sadok Sassi
The existing knowledge on anatomy of segmental branches of left portal vein (LPV) is limited. This study aims to describe the surgical anatomy and variations of LPV and its segmental branching pattern. Forty fresh cadaveric liver dissections were performed. The dissection of LPV was carried out from its emergence at the level of the portal vein bifurcation to its segmental branches penetrating the left hemiliver. LPV characteristics, the number, and situation of its segmental branches were recorded. LPV comprises two portions: a 28 ± 6...
October 30, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
Stefano Malinverni, Anne-Françoise Gennotte, Monica Schuster, Stéphane De Wit, Pierre Mols, Agnès Libois
BACKGROUND: Non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (nPEP) is a recommended public health intervention after a sexual or percutaneous exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study recording consultations for nPEP at a reference HIV center in Brussels, Belgium from January 2011 to December 2015. We recorded attendance to follow-up, reported completion of nPEP and pharmacy records to measure adherence. Multivariate logistic regressions were performed to identify independent risk factors for adherence to nPEP and attendance to first follow-up visit at the STI clinic...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Infection
Sarabjit S Gahir, Micheline Piquette-Miller
Lopinavir (LPV), an antiretroviral protease inhibitor frequently prescribed in HIV-positive pregnancies, is a substrate of Abcb1 and Abcc2. As differences in placental expression of these transporters were seen in Pregnane X Receptor (PXR) -/- mice, we examined the impact of placental transporter expression and fetal PXR genotype on the fetal accumulation of LPV. PXR +/- dams bearing PXR +/+, PXR +/-, and PXR -/- fetuses were generated by mating PXR +/- female mice with PXR +/- males. On gestational day 17, dams were administered 10 mg/kg LPV (i...
October 24, 2017: Pharmaceutics
G Y Jang, Y B Kim, H Wi, T I Oh, C R Chung, G Y Suh, E J Woo
Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) allows functional imaging of regional lung ventilation for real-time bedside monitoring of mechanically ventilated patients. Images showing time-changes of regional air distributions in the lungs can provide valuable diagnostic information for lung protective mechanical ventilation. This paper reports in vivo porcine imaging experiments of regional lung ventilation using a 16-channel parallel EIT system. Real-time time-difference chest images of 10 animals were reconstructed during mechanical ventilations with a temporal resolution of 50 frame/s...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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