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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778008/plasma-metabolic-changes-in-chinese-hiv-infected-patients-receiving-lopinavir-ritonavir-based-treatment-implications-for-hiv-precision-therapy
#1
Xiaolin Li, Tong Wu, Yongjun Jiang, Zining Zhang, Xiaoxu Han, Wenqing Geng, Haibo Ding, Jing Kang, Qi Wang, Hong Shang
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study is to profile the metabolic changes in the plasma of HIV patients receiving lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r)-based highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) relative to their treatment-naïve phase, aimed to identify precision therapy for HIV for improving prognosis and predicting dyslipidemia caused by LPV/r. METHODS: 38 longitudinal plasma samples were collected from 19 HIV-infected patients both before and after antiretroviral therapy, and 18 samples from healthy individuals were used as controls...
May 16, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776982/variable-effectiveness-of-stepwise-implementation-of-nudge-type-interventions-to-improve-provider-compliance-with-intraoperative-low-tidal-volume-ventilation
#2
Vikas N O'Reilly-Shah, George S Easton, Craig S Jabaley, Grant C Lynde
BACKGROUND: Identifying mechanisms to improve provider compliance with quality metrics is a common goal across medical disciplines. Nudge interventions are minimally invasive strategies that can influence behavioural changes and are increasingly used within healthcare settings. We hypothesised that nudge interventions may improve provider compliance with lung-protective ventilation (LPV) strategies during general anaesthesia. METHODS: We developed an audit and feedback dashboard that included information on both provider-level and department-level compliance with LPV strategies in two academic hospitals, two non-academic hospitals and two academic surgery centres affiliated with a single healthcare system...
May 18, 2018: BMJ Quality & Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771780/biomarkers-of-aging-in-hiv-infected-children-on-suppressive-antiretroviral-therapy
#3
Stephanie Shiau, Renate Strehlau, Jing Shen, Avy Violari, Faeezah Patel, Afaaf Liberty, Marc Foca, Shuang Wang, Mary Beth Terry, Michael T Yin, Ashraf Coovadia, Elaine J Abrams, Stephen M Arpadi, Louise Kuhn
BACKGROUND: Data on accelerated aging in HIV-infected children are limited. In this study we assess two biomarkers of aging - telomere length and DNA methylation (DNAm) age - in a cohort of early-treated HIV-infected children and compare these aging biomarkers to HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) and HIV-unexposed uninfected (HUU) children. SETTING: Cross-sectional study of 120 HIV-infected, 33 HEU, and 25 HUU children enrolled in a cohort study in Johannesburg, South Africa...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767684/ultrasensitive-hiv-1-viral-load-as-a-marker-of-treatment-choice-for-simplification-strategies
#4
Sidonie Lambert-Niclot, Maxime Grude, Jean-Luc Meynard, Anne-Geneviève Marcelin, Marc-Antoine Valantin, Philippe Flandre, Jacques Izopet, Laetitia Moinot, Vincent Bouteloup, Vincent Calvez, Christine Katlama, Pierre-Marie Girard, Laurence Morand-Joubert
Background: We pooled the results of three randomized trials that compared the efficacy of PI/r monotherapy and standard triple therapy as maintenance therapy and evaluated: 1) the distribution of ultrasensitive viral load (USVL) at week 96 (W96), 2) factors associated with virological success (VL<50 copy/mL) at W96, and 3) factors associated with USVL<1 copy/ml (c/ml) at W96. Methods: Virological failure was defined as two consecutive measurements of HIV-1 RNA viral load >50 copies/mL and was analyzed in intention-to-treat...
May 15, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747123/hiv-aspartyl-protease-inhibitors-modify-the-percentage-of-activated-leukocytes-as-well-as-serum-levels-of-il-17a-and-no-during-experimental-leishmaniasis
#5
Daniele Luísa Ribeiro Alvarenga, Amanda Helen Dos Santos Silva, Jacqueline Araújo Fiuza, Soraya Torres Gaze, Jaquelline Germano de Oliveira, Rodrigo Corrêa Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo Calzavara-Silva, Marcelo Antônio Pascoal-Xavier, Érica Alessandra Rocha Alves
HIV aspartyl protease inhibitors are able to modulate multiple defense mechanisms. However, their influence on the immune response against Leishmania has rarely been investigated. The aim of our study was to investigate whether in vivo treatment with HIV aspartyl protease inhibitors is able to modulate the immune response during Leishmania infection. Using Leishmania (L.) amazonensis-infected mice, we analyzed the disease evolution and parasite load, immunophenotypic profiles of splenic T and B lymphocytes, numbers of lymphoid aggregates in the spleen, percentages of circulating atypical lymphocytes and reactive monocytes, and serum levels of cytokines and nitric oxide (NO) after 30 days of oral treatment with lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/RTV) or atazanavir (ATV)...
May 7, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746705/a-new-method-for-ct-dose-estimation-by-determining-patient-water-equivalent-diameter-from-localizer-radiographs-geometric-transformation-and-calibration-methods-using-readily-available-phantoms
#6
Da Zhang, Georgeta Mihai, Larry G Barbaras, Olga R Brook, Matthew R Palmer
PURPOSE: Water equivalent diameter (Dw) reflects patient's attenuation and is a sound descriptor of patient size, and is used to determine size specific dose estimator from a CT exam. Calculating Dw from CT localizer radiographs makes it possible to utilize Dw before actual scans, and minimizes truncation errors due to limited to utilize Dw before actual scans, and minimizes truncation errors due to limited reconstructed fields of view. One obstacle preventing the user community from implementing this useful tool is the necessity to calibrate localizer pixel values so as to represent water equivalent attenuation...
May 10, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721820/hypothermic-total-liquid-ventilation-after-experimental-aspiration-associated-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#7
Jérôme Rambaud, Fanny Lidouren, Michaël Sage, Matthias Kohlhauer, Mathieu Nadeau, Étienne Fortin-Pellerin, Philippe Micheau, Luca Zilberstein, Nicolas Mongardon, Jean-Damien Ricard, Megumi Terada, Patrick Bruneval, Alain Berdeaux, Bijan Ghaleh, Hervé Walti, Renaud Tissier
BACKGROUND: Ultrafast cooling by total liquid ventilation (TLV) provides potent cardio- and neuroprotection after experimental cardiac arrest. However, this was evaluated in animals with no initial lung injury, whereas out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is frequently associated with early-onset pneumonia, which may lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Here, our objective was to determine whether hypothermic TLV could be safe or even beneficial in an aspiration-associated ARDS animal model...
May 2, 2018: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694825/birth-outcomes-for-pregnant-women-with-hiv-using-tenofovir-emtricitabine
#8
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Kathryn Rough, George R Seage, Paige L Williams, Sonia Hernandez-Diaz, Yanling Huo, Ellen G Chadwick, Judith S Currier, Risa M Hoffman, Emily Barr, David E Shapiro, Kunjal Patel
BACKGROUND: In a previous trial of antiretroviral therapy (ART) involving pregnant women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, those randomly assigned to receive tenofovir, emtricitabine, and ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (TDF-FTC-LPV/r) had infants at greater risk for very premature birth and death within 14 days after delivery than those assigned to receive zidovudine, lamivudine, and ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (ZDV-3TC-LPV/r). METHODS: Using data from two U...
April 26, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683854/increased-cholesterol-absorption-rather-than-synthesis-is-involved-in-boosted-protease-inhibitor-associated-hypercholesterolaemia
#9
Pere Leyes, Montserrat Cofan, Ana González-Cordón, Elisa de Lazzari, Joan Trabal, Pere Domingo, Eugenia Negredo, Francesc Vidal, Maria T Forga, Jose M Gatell, Emili Ros, Esteban Martínez
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the differential effects of first-line efavirenz (EFV)-based vs. boosted lopinavir-based antiretroviral regimens on cholesterol metabolism. DESIGN: Multicentre, open-label, randomized clinical trial. METHODS: Forty-nine naïve HIV-infected patients were randomized (1 : 1) to receive either ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r) or EFV both in combination with tenofovir and emtricitabine (ClinicalTrials...
April 19, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649076/pharmacokinetics-of-tenofovir-alafenamide-when-co-administered-with-other-hiv-antiretrovirals
#10
Rebecca Begley, Moupali Das, Lijie Zhong, John Ling, Brian P Kearney, Joseph M Custodio
BACKGROUND: Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF), a prodrug of the nucleotide analogue tenofovir (TFV), is an antiretroviral (ARV) agent approved either as a complete regimen (elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine (F)/tenofovir alafenamide (TAF), rilpivirine/F/TAF, bictegravir/F/TAF), or for use with other ARVs (F/TAF), for treatment of HIV. TAF is a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) transporters. Disposition of TAF may be altered by co-medications that can inhibit or induce P-gp or BCRP transporters...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623447/decreased-bone-turnover-in-hiv-infected-children-on-antiretroviral-therapy
#11
Stephanie Shiau, Michael T Yin, Renate Strehlau, Faeezah Patel, Ndileka Mbete, Louise Kuhn, Ashraf Coovadia, Stephen M Arpadi
In this study, we evaluated the relationships between immune activation, bone turnover, and bone mass in virally suppressed HIV-infected children and HIV-uninfected children in South Africa. We found that decreased bone mass may occur or persist independent of immune activation and altered bone turnover. PURPOSE: HIV-infected children and adolescents have deficits in skeletal growth which include decreases in bone mass and alterations in bone microarchitecture. However, the mechanism by which HIV infection compromises bone accrual in children and adolescents is unclear...
April 5, 2018: Archives of Osteoporosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606090/application-of-intraoperative-lung-protective-ventilation-varies-in-accordance-with-the-knowledge-of-anaesthesiologists-a-single-centre-questionnaire-study-and-a-retrospective-observational-study
#12
Seung Hyun Kim, Sungwon Na, Woo Kyung Lee, Hyunwoo Choi, Jeongmin Kim
BACKGROUND: The benefits of lung-protective ventilation (LPV) with a low tidal volume (6 mL/kg of ideal body weight [IBW]), limited plateau pressure (< 28-30 cm H2 O), and appropriate positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome have become apparent and it is now widely adopted in intensive care units. Recently evidence for LPV in general anaesthesia has been accumulated, but it is not yet generally applied by anaesthesiologists in the operating room...
April 2, 2018: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603755/impact-of-left-atrial-size-on-isolation-area-in-the-acute-phase-of-pulmonary-vein-isolation-using-28-mm-cryoballoon
#13
Akio Chikata, Takeshi Kato, Kazuo Usuda, Shuhei Fujita, Michiro Maruyama, Yoshiki Nagata, Satoru Sakagami, Naomi Kanamori, Takanori Yaegashi, Takahiro Saeki, Takashi Kusayama, Soichiro Usui, Hiroshi Furusho, Shuichi Kaneko, Masayuki Takamura
BACKGROUND: The impact of left atrial (LA) size on isolation area (ISA) using a 28-mm second-generation cryoballoon (CB) in the acute phase after pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) and the differences of CB from contact force-guided radiofrequency (RF) ablation have not been fully investigated. METHODS: We examined 85 consecutive patients (CB group, 35; RF group, 50) with drug-refractory paroxysmal atrial fibrillation who underwent their first PVI procedure at two institutions...
March 31, 2018: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602711/tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-co-administered-with-lopinavir-ritonavir-is-strongly-associated-with-tubular-damage-and-chronic-kidney-disease
#14
Daisuke Mizushima, Dung Thi Hoai Nguyen, Dung Thi Nguyen, Shoko Matsumoto, Junko Tanuma, Hiroyuki Gatanaga, Nguyen Vu Trung, Nguyen van Kinh, Shinichi Oka
BACKGROUD: With expanding antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a resource-limited setting, the use of second line ART with ritonavir boosted lopinavir (LPV/r) is increasing. However, little is known regarding the renal safety of tenofovir (TDF) co-administered with LPV/r. METHODS: In total 1382 HIV-infected patients were enrolled and data were recorded twice (October 2014 and 2015) in Vietnam. Tubular dysfunction (TD) was defined as urinary beta 2 microglobulin (β2MG) > 1000 μg/L at both timepoints or increase in β2MG by > 2000 μg/L...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593900/the-palatability-of-lopinavir-and-ritonavir-delivered-by-an-innovative-freeze-dried-fast-dissolving-tablet-formulation
#15
David W Pittman, Alexandra M Brantly, Alexandra L Drobonick, Hannah T King, Daniel C Mesta, Caroline G Richards, Manjari Lal, Manshun Lai
Negative hedonic sensory qualities of HIV antiretroviral drugs often reduce patient adherence particularly in pediatric populations requiring oral consumption. This study examines the palatability of an innovative delivery mechanism utilizing a freeze-drying-in-blister approach to create fast-dissolving tablets (FDTs) containing a fixed-dose combination of lopinavir and ritonavir (LPV/r). Consumption patterns of solutions during brief-access and long-term testing and baby foodstuff consumption were analyzed to evaluate the orosensory detection and avoidance of placebo FDTs containing no LPV/r (FDT-) and FDTs containing LPV/r (FDT+)...
2018: AIDS Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561278/protective-ventilation-during-anaesthesia-reduces-major-postoperative-complications-after-lung-cancer-surgery-a-double-blind-randomised-controlled-trial
#16
Emmanuel Marret, Raphael Cinotti, Laurence Berard, Vincent Piriou, Jacques Jobard, Benoit Barrucand, Dragos Radu, Samir Jaber, Francis Bonnet
BACKGROUND: Thoracic surgery for lung resection is associated with a high incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications. Controlled ventilation with a large tidal volume has been documented to be a risk factor for postoperative respiratory complications after major abdominal surgery, whereas the use of low tidal volumes and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) has a protective effect. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of ventilation with low tidal volume and PEEP on major complications after thoracic surgery...
March 19, 2018: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548975/long-acting-profile-of-4-drugs-in-1-anti-hiv-nanosuspension-in-nonhuman-primates-for-5-weeks-after-a-single-subcutaneous-injection
#17
Lisa A McConnachie, Loren M Kinman, Josefin Koehn, John C Kraft, Sarah Lane, Wonsok Lee, Ann C Collier, Rodney J Y Ho
Daily oral antiretroviral therapy regimens produce limited drug exposure in tissues where residual HIV persists and suffer from poor patient adherence and disparate drug kinetics, which all negatively impact outcomes. To address this, we developed a tissue- and cell-targeted long-acting 4-in-1 nanosuspension composed of lopinavir (LPV), ritonavir, tenofovir (TFV), and lamivudine (3TC). In 4 macaques dosed subcutaneously, drug levels over 5 weeks in plasma, lymph node mononuclear cells (LNMCs), and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522076/drug-drug-interactions-studies-between-hcv-antivirals-sofosbuvir-velpatasvir-and-boosted-and-unboosted-hiv-antiretroviral-regimens-in-healthy-volunteers
#18
Erik Mogalian, Luisa M Stamm, Anu Osinusi, Diana M Brainard, Gong Shen, Kah Hiing John Ling, Anita Mathias
Background: Combining antiviral regimens in the HCV/HIV coinfected population can be complex as they share overlapping mechanisms for elimination that may result in potential drug interactions. The pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of concomitantly administered sofosbuvir/velpatasvir (SOF/VEL) with multiple commonly prescribed antiretroviral (ARV) regimens were evaluated. Methods: Healthy volunteers were enrolled into two phase 1, open-label, randomized, multiple-dose, cross-over studies...
March 7, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473485/high-virologic-failure-rates-with-maraviroc-based-salvage-regimens-among-indian-patients-a-preliminary-analysis-maraviroc-effectiveness-in-hiv-1-subtype-c
#19
Sanjay Pujari, Sunil Gaikwad, Vivek Bele, Kedar Joshi, Digamber Dabhade
BACKGROUND: There is no information on the clinical effectiveness of Maraviroc (MVC) amongst People Living with HIV (PLHIV) in India infected with HIV-1 Subtype C viruses. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of adult PLHIV on MVC based Antiretroviral (ARV) regimens for at least 6 months. Maraviroc was initiated amongst PLHIV with documented R5 tropic viruses (determined by in-house population sequencing of the V3 loop in triplicate and interpreted using the Geno2Pheno algorithm) in combination with an Optimized Background regimen (designed using genotypic resistance testing and past ARV history)...
January 2018: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470145/portal-vein-stenosis-preconditioning-of-living-donor-liver-in-swine-early-mechanisms-of-liver-regeneration-and-gain-of-hepatic-functional-mass
#20
Pauline Brige, Geraldine Hery, Anais Palen, Théophile Guilbaud, Christophe Buffat, Anais Moyon, Jean Hardwigsen, Eric Guedj, Benjamin Guillet, Vincent Vidal, Guillaume Gorincour, Sophie Chopinet, Emilie Gregoire
In order to reduce the morbidity and mortality risk for the donor in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), we previously identified 20% left portal vein (LPV) stenosis as the effective preconditioning to induce cell proliferation in the contralateral lobe without the downstream ipsilateral atrophy. We report, here, the pathways involved in the first hours after the preconditioning and investigate the changes in liver volume and function. Fourteen pigs entered this study. Five of them were used to study the genetic, cellular and molecular mechanisms set up in the early hours after the establishment of our preconditioning...
February 22, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
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