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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899102/community-based-antiretroviral-treatment-in-rural-zimbabwe
#1
Benjamin Chimukangara, Justen Manasa, Rebecca Mitchell, Georgina Nyabadza, David Katzenstein, Collen Masimirembwa
INTRODUCTION: Treatment of HIV has reduced HIV/AIDS-related mortality. Sustaining >90% virologic suppression in sub-Saharan Africa requires decentralized care and prevention services to rural communities. In Zimbabwe, the number of people receiving ART has increased rapidly. However, access to treatment monitoring tools such as viral load and drug resistance testing is limited. We assessed virologic treatment outcomes among ART recipients in Nyamutora, a rural community receiving bimonthly ART and prevention services...
September 13, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842163/validated-spectrophotometric-and-chromatographic-methods-for-analysis-of-the-recently-approved-hepatitis-c-antiviral-combination-ledipasvir-and-sofosbuvir
#2
M M Baker, D S El-Kafrawy, M S Mahrous, T S Belal
This work describes five simple and reliable spectrophotometric and chromatographic methods for analysis of hepatitis C antiviral binary mixture of ledipasvir (LPV) and sofosbuvir (SBV). Method I is based on the use of Amax and derivative spectrophotometry with the zero-crossing technique where LPV was determined using its Amax and (1)D amplitudes at 324 and 338nm respectively, while SBV was determined by measuring the (1)D amplitudes at 276nm. Method II involves the application of the ratio spectra derivative spectrophotometry...
August 22, 2017: Annales Pharmaceutiques Françaises
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805656/magnetically-tuned-photoelectric-response-observed-in-nanoscale-co-sio2-si-structures
#3
Qian Zhang, Jieqiong Hu, Diyuan Zheng, Anhua Dong, Hui Wang
We report a large magnetically tuned lateral photovoltaic effect (LPE) observed in nanoscale Co-SiO2-Si structures. This tunable effect strongly depends on the location of two electrodes. The change ratio of lateral photovoltage (LPV) can reach up to a considerable value of 94.15% under external magnetic field of 1.77 Teslas. This phenomenon is mainly ascribed to the asymmetric Lorentz force acting on the photo-current in the region of edge area of the nanostructure. It adds a new functionality to the traditional LPE-based devices, and provides a potential prospect for the development of multifunctional high-sensitive photoelectric devices or sensors...
August 14, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805110/lack-of-interaction-of-lopinavir-solid-drug-nanoparticles-with-cells-of-the-immune-system
#4
Neill J Liptrott, Marco Giardiello, Tom O McDonald, Steven P Rannard, Andrew Owen
AIM: We previously demonstrated that solid drug nanoparticles (SDNs) lopinavir (LPV) dispersed into aqueous media display favorable pharmacokinetics. METHODS: The impact of LPV SDNs on the function and phenotype of primary human T cells and macrophages (primary sites of HIV replication) was investigated. RESULTS: LPV significantly increased IL-1β (ninefold higher than untreated cells; p = 0.045) and TNF-α (sixfold higher than untreated cells; p = 0...
August 14, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783807/comparative-safety-of-antiretroviral-treatment-regimens-in-pregnancy
#5
Rebecca Zash, Denise L Jacobson, Modiegi Diseko, Gloria Mayondi, Mompati Mmalane, Max Essex, Chipo Petlo, Shahin Lockman, Joseph Makhema, Roger L Shapiro
Importance: Maternal antiretroviral treatment (ART) started before conception may increase the risk for adverse birth outcomes among women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, but whether the risk differs by ART regimen is unknown. Objective: To compare the risk for selected birth outcomes by maternal ART regimen. Design, Setting, and Participants: This observational birth outcomes surveillance study compared all live births and stillbirths with a gestational age of at least 24 weeks in 8 geographically dispersed government hospitals throughout Botswana (approximately 45% of births nationwide)...
August 7, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770596/high-rates-of-viral-suppression-in-adults-and-children-with-high-cd4-counts-using-a-streamlined-art-delivery-model-in-the-search-trial-in-rural-uganda-and-kenya
#6
Dalsone Kwarisiima, Moses R Kamya, Asiphas Owaraganise, Florence Mwangwa, Dathan M Byonanebye, James Ayieko, Albert Plenty, Doug Black, Tamara D Clark, Bridget Nzarubara, Katherine Snyman, Lillian Brown, Elizabeth Bukusi, Craig R Cohen, Elvin H Geng, Edwin D Charlebois, Theodore D Ruel, Maya L Petersen, Diane Havlir, Vivek Jain
INTRODUCTION: The 2015 WHO recommendation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all HIV-positive persons calls for treatment initiation in millions of persons newly eligible with high CD4+ counts. Efficient and effective care models are urgently needed for this population. We evaluated clinical outcomes of asymptomatic HIV-positive adults and children starting ART with high CD4+ counts using a novel streamlined care model in rural Uganda and Kenya. METHODS: In the 16 intervention communities of the HIV test-and-treat Sustainable East Africa Research for Community Health Study (NCT01864603), all HIV-positive individuals irrespective of CD4 were offered ART (efavirenz [EFV]/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate + emtricitabine (FTC) or lamivudine (3TC)...
July 21, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758024/serum-lipid-and-glucose-profiles-in-hiv-positive-nigerian-children
#7
EDITORIAL
Olukemi O Ige, Christopher S Yilgwan, Augustine O Ebonyi, Ruth Adah, Idris Adedeji, Esther S Yiltok, Stephen Oguche, Fidelia Bode-Thomas
OBJECTIVES: To describe the fasting serum lipid and glucose profiles of HIV-positive Nigerian children and determine the prevalence and risk factors for dyslipidaemia and hyperglycaemia, which are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. METHODS: This was a comparative cross-sectional study carried out at the Paediatric Infectious Disease Clinic (PIDC) of the Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH) for HIV-positive children and at two primary schools in Jos for HIV-negative children as controls...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757912/lung-protective-ventilation-strategies-for-relief-from-ventilator-associated-lung-injury-in-patients-undergoing-craniotomy-a-bicenter-randomized-parallel-and-controlled-trial
#8
Chaoliang Tang, Juan Li, Shaoqing Lei, Bo Zhao, Zhetao Zhang, Wenting Huang, Si Shi, Xiaoqing Chai, Chaoshi Niu, Zhongyuan Xia
Current evidence indicates that conventional mechanical ventilation often leads to lung inflammatory response and oxidative stress, while lung-protective ventilation (LPV) minimizes the risk of ventilator-associated lung injury (VALI). This study evaluated the effects of LPV on relief of pulmonary injury, inflammatory response, and oxidative stress among patients undergoing craniotomy. Sixty patients undergoing craniotomy received either conventional mechanical (12 mL/kg tidal volume [VT] and 0 cm H2O positive end-expiratory pressure [PEEP]; CV group) or protective lung (6 mL/kg VT and 10 cm H2O PEEP; PV group) ventilation...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718515/impact-of-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-on-plasma-concentrations-of-efavirenz-and-lopinavir-ritonavir-in-chinese-children-infected-with-the-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#9
Xia Liu, Qing Ma, Yan Zhao, Weiwei Mu, Xin Sun, Yuewu Cheng, Huiping Zhang, Ye Ma, Fujie Zhang
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes that encode the cytochrome P450 (CYP) drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters have been reported to influence antiretroviral drug pharmacokinetics. Although primarily metabolized by CYP2B6 and -3A, efavirenz (EFV) and lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) are substrates of P-glycoprotein and the solute carrier organic (SLCO) anion transporter, respectively. We investigated the association between SNPs and efavirenz (EFV) or lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) concentrations in Chinese children infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...
September 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688951/non-contrast-enhanced-3d-mr-portography-within-a-breath-hold-using-compressed-sensing-acceleration-a-prospective-noninferiority-study
#10
Ayako Ono, Shigeki Arizono, Koji Fujimoto, Thai Akasaka, Rikiya Yamashita, Akihiro Furuta, Hiroyoshi Isoda, Kaori Togashi
PURPOSE: To evaluate images of non-contrast-enhanced 3D MR portography within a breath-hold (BH) using compressed sensing (CS) compared to standard respiratory-triggered (RT) sequences. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-nine healthy volunteers underwent MR portography using two sequences of balanced steady-state free-precession (bSSFP) with time-spatial labeling inversion pulses (Time-SLIP): BH bSSFP-CS and RT bSSFP. Two radiologists independently scored the diagnostic acceptability to delineate the portal branches (MPV: main portal vein; RPV: right portal vein; LPV: left portal vein; RPPV: right posterior portal vein; and P4 and P8: portal branch of segment 4 and segment 8, respectively) and the overall image quality on a four-point scale...
July 5, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687361/combined-effects-of-diets-and-temperature-on-mitochondrial-function-growth-and-nutrient-efficiency-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#11
Jonathan C Eya, Rodrigue Yossa, Dayan Perera, Olasupo Okubajo, Ann Gannam
A 4×3 factorial experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of two dietary protein sources (mixed fishmeal/plant protein-, and plant protein- based diet), two dietary lipid levels (10% and 20%) and three water temperatures (10°C, 14°C, and 18°C) on the growth performance, nutrient utilization efficiencies and mitochondrial enzyme complex activities in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (average weight±SD, 39.5±5g) over a 180day rearing period. At the end of the experiment, weight gain (WG), condition factor (CF), and feed efficiency (FE) were significantly affected by diet×temperature interaction (P<0...
October 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649306/decreasing-prevalence-of-transmitted-drug-resistance-among-art-naive-hiv-1-infected-patients-in-iceland-1996-2012
#12
Malik Sallam, Gülşen Özkaya Şahin, Hlynur Indriðason, Joakim Esbjörnsson, Arthur Löve, Anders Widell, Magnus Gottfreðsson, Patrik Medstrand
Introduction: Resistance to antiretroviral drugs can complicate the management of HIV-1 infection and impair control of its spread. The aim of the current study was to investigate the prevalence and transmission of HIV-1 drug resistance among 106 antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve patients diagnosed in Iceland (1996-2012). Methods: HIV-1 polymerase sequences were analysed using the Calibrated Population Resistance tool. Domestic spread of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) was investigated through maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches...
2017: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643575/combined-rex-bypass-shunt-with-pericardial-devascularization-alleviated-prehepatic-portal-hypertension-caused-by-cavernomatous-transformation-of-portal-vein
#13
Ruo-Yi Wang, Jun-Feng Wang, Qian Liu, Nan Ma, Wei-Xiu Chen, Jin-Liang Li
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of combined Rex-bypass shunt and pericardial devascularization on prehepatic portal hypertension secondary to cavernomatous transformation of portal vein (CTPV). METHODS: Forty-two patients aged from 3 years to 49 years (divided into 3 groups), 26 cases male and 16 female, with prehepatic vascular hepertention were treated with Rex-bypass shunt combined with pericardial devascularization. In each patient, preoperative assessment included ultrasound and computed tomographic angiography of the portal vein and blood analysis...
September 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591025/neurocognitive-development-in-hiv-positive-children-is-correlated-with-plasma-viral-loads-in-early-childhood
#14
Valentin Weber, Daniel Radeloff, Bianca Reimers, Emilia Salzmann-Manrique, Peter Bader, Dirk Schwabe, Christoph Königs
Because of neurocognitive impairments in perinatally human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children and adolescents, this study aimed to demonstrate the effect of plasma viral loads and early initiation of sufficient combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) on neurocognitive development.In total, 14 perinatally infected HIV-positive children (median age 8.24 years [range: 6.0-16.74]) receiving lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r)-based ART underwent neurocognitive testing using the Wechsler Intelligence Score for Children, 4th Edition (WISC-IV)...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579954/linear-parameter-varying-identification-of-dynamic-joint-stiffness-during-time-varying-voluntary-contractions
#15
Mahsa A Golkar, Ehsan Sobhani Tehrani, Robert E Kearney
Dynamic joint stiffness is a dynamic, nonlinear relationship between the position of a joint and the torque acting about it, which can be used to describe the biomechanics of the joint and associated limb(s). This paper models and quantifies changes in ankle dynamic stiffness and its individual elements, intrinsic and reflex stiffness, in healthy human subjects during isometric, time-varying (TV) contractions of the ankle plantarflexor muscles. A subspace, linear parameter varying, parallel-cascade (LPV-PC) algorithm was used to identify the model from measured input position perturbations and output torque data using voluntary torque as the LPV scheduling variable (SV)...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528404/a-direct-comparison-of-the-effects-of-the-antiretroviral-drugs-stavudine-tenofovir-and-the-combination-lopinavir-ritonavir-on-bone-metabolism-in-a-rat-model
#16
M M Conradie, M van de Vyver, E Andrag, M Conradie, W F Ferris
Antiretroviral (ARV) treatment may induce metabolic complications in HIV patients on long-term therapy that can affect bone health. In this study, the effects of the ARVs Stavudine (d4T), Tenofovir (TDF) and Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) on bone metabolism and lipodystrophy were directly compared in rats to negate the consequences of HIV-associated confounding factors. Healthy 12-14-week-old male Wistar rats (n = 40) were divided into four treatment groups and received an oral animal equivalent dose of either Stavudine (6...
May 20, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520611/treatment-outcomes-of-third-line-antiretroviral-regimens-in-hiv-infected-thai-adolescents
#17
Wasana Prasitsuebsai, Jiratchaya Sophonphan, Kulkanya Chokephaibulkit, Jurai Wongsawat, Suparat Kanjanavanit, Pope Kosalaraksa, Chaiwat Ngampiyakul, Pakarat Sangkla, Rawiwan Hansudewechakul, Stephen J Kerr, Thanyawee Puthanakit, Jintanat Ananworanich
BACKGROUND: Efficacy and safety data of third-line antiretroviral (ARV) regimens in adolescents are limited. METHODOLOGY: This study enrolled HIV-infected Thais who were treated with third-line regimens consisting of darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r), etravirine (ETR), tipranavir/ritonavir or raltegravir. RESULTS: Fifty-four adolescents 2-17 years of age were enrolled from 8 sites and followed for 48 weeks. Reasons for switch were second-line failure (n = 44) and toxicity to second-line regimens (n = 10)...
October 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505157/structurally-optimized-analogs-of-the-retrograde-trafficking-inhibitor-retro-2cycl-limit-leishmania-infections
#18
Evan Craig, Charles-Eugene Huyghues-Despointes, Chun Yu, Emma L Handy, Jason K Sello, Peter E Kima
In infected mammalian cells, Leishmania parasites reside within specialized compartments called parasitophorous vacuoles (LPVs). We have previously shown that Retro-2, a member of a novel class of small retrograde pathway inhibitors caused reduced LPV sizes and lower parasite numbers during experimental L. mexicana sp. infections. The purpose of this study was to determine if structural analogs of Retro-2cycl reported to have superior potency in the inhibition of retrograde pathway-dependent phenomena (i.e...
May 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485569/origin-of-the-ultrafast-response-of-the-lateral-photovoltaic-effect-in-amorphous-mos2-si-junctions
#19
Chang Hu, Xianjie Wang, Peng Miao, Lingli Zhang, Bingqian Song, Weilong Liu, Zhe Lv, Yu Zhang, Yu Sui, Jinke Tang, Yanqiang Yang, Bo Song, Ping Xu
The lateral photovoltaic (LPV) effect has attracted much attention for a long time because of its application in position-sensitive detectors (PSD). Here, we report the ultrafast response of the LPV in amorphous MoS2/Si (a-MoS2/Si) junctions prepared by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. Different orientations of the built-in field and the breakover voltages are observed for a-MoS2 films deposited on p- and n-type Si wafers, resulting in the induction of positive and negative voltages in the a-MoS2/n-Si and a-MoS2/p-Si junctions upon laser illumination, respectively...
May 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483965/pharmacokinetics-of-efavirenz-at-a-high-dose-of-25-milligrams-per-kilogram-per-day-in-children-2-to-3-years-old
#20
Claire Pressiat, Madeleine Amorissani-Folquet, Caroline Yonaba, Jean-Marc Treluyer, Désiré Lucien Dahourou, François Eboua, Stéphane Blanche, Véronique Mea-Assande, Naïm Bouazza, Frantz Foissac, Karen Malateste, Sylvie Ouedraogo, Gabrielle Lui, Valériane Leroy, Déborah Hirt
The MONOD ANRS 12206 trial was designated to assess simplification of a successful lopinavir (LPV)-based antiretroviral treatment in HIV-infected children younger than 3 years of age using efavirenz (EFV; 25 mg/kg of body weight/day) to preserve the class of protease inhibitors for children in that age group. In this substudy, EFV concentrations were measured to check the consistency of an EFV dose of 25 mg/kg and to compare it with the 2016 FDA recommended dose. Fifty-two children underwent blood sampling for pharmacokinetic study at 6 months and 12 months after switching to EFV...
July 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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