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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136115/estradiol-levels-are-altered-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-pregnant-women-randomized-to-efavirenz-versus-lopinavir-ritonavir-based-antiretroviral-therapy
#1
Chloe R McDonald, Andrea L Conroy, Joel L Gamble, Eszter Papp, Michael Hawkes, Peter Olwoch, Paul Natureeba, Moses Kamya, Michael Silverman, Deborah Cohan, Catherine A Koss, Grant Dorsey, Kevin C Kain, Lena Serghides
Background: Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) use in pregnancy has been associated with hormonal dysregulation. We performed a secondary retrospective analysis of longitudinal progesterone and estradiol levels in pregnancy using specimens from the Protease Inhibitors to Reduce Malaria Morbidity in HIV-infected Pregnant Women study, which randomized Ugandan human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected ART-naive women to initiate either lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r)-based or efavirenz (EFV)-based cART...
November 10, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098988/evaluating-nanoscale-ultra-thin-metal-films-by-means-of-lateral-photovoltaic-effect-in-metal-semiconductor-structure
#2
Diyuan Zheng, Chongqi Yu, Qian Zhang, Hui Wang
Nanoscale metal-semiconductor (MS) structure materials occupy an important position in semiconductor and microelectronic field due to its abundant physical phenomena and effects. The thickness of metal films is a critical factor in determining characteristics of MS devices. How to detect or evaluate the metal thickness is always a key issue for realizing high performance MS devices. In this work, we propose a direct surface detection by use of the lateral photovoltaic effect (LPE) in MS structure, which can not only measure nanoscale thickness, but also detect the fluctuation of metal films...
November 3, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082657/segmental-branching-pattern-of-the-left-portal-vein-anatomical-characteristics-and-clinical-implications
#3
Haythem Najah, Houssem Ammar, Rahul Gupt, Moncef Hamdoun, Abdelwaheb Morjane, Mongi Mighri, Sadok Sassi
INTRODUCTION: The existing knowledge on anatomy of segmental branches of left portal vein (LPV) is limited. This study aims to describe the surgical anatomy and variations of LPV and its segmental branching pattern. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty fresh cadaveric liver dissections were performed. The dissection of LPV was carried out from its emergence at the level of the portal vein bifurcation to its segmental branches penetrating the left hemiliver. LPV characteristics, the number and situation of its segmental branches were recorded...
October 30, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074102/adherence-to-hiv-post-exposure-prophylaxis-a-multivariate-regression-analysis-of-a-5-years-prospective-cohort
#4
Stefano Malinverni, Anne-Françoise Gennotte, Monica Schuster, Stéphane De Wit, Pierre Mols, Agnès Libois
BACKGROUND: Non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (nPEP) is a recommended public health intervention after a sexual or percutaneous exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study recording consultations for nPEP at a reference HIV center in Brussels, Belgium from January 2011 to December 2015. We recorded attendance to follow-up, reported completion of nPEP and pharmacy records to measure adherence. Multivariate logistic regressions were performed to identify independent risk factors for adherence to nPEP and attendance to first follow-up visit at the STI clinic...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064386/the-role-of-pxr-genotype-and-transporter-expression-in-the-placental-transport-of-lopinavir-in-mice
#5
Sarabjit S Gahir, Micheline Piquette-Miller
Lopinavir (LPV), an antiretroviral protease inhibitor frequently prescribed in HIV-positive pregnancies, is a substrate of Abcb1 and Abcc2. As differences in placental expression of these transporters were seen in Pregnane X Receptor (PXR) -/- mice, we examined the impact of placental transporter expression and fetal PXR genotype on the fetal accumulation of LPV. PXR +/- dams bearing PXR +/+, PXR +/-, and PXR -/- fetuses were generated by mating PXR +/- female mice with PXR +/- males. On gestational day 17, dams were administered 10 mg/kg LPV (i...
October 24, 2017: Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059882/imaging-of-regional-air-distributions-in-porcine-lungs-using-high-performance-electrical-impedance-tomography-system
#6
G Y Jang, Y B Kim, H Wi, T I Oh, C R Chung, G Y Suh, E J Woo
Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) allows functional imaging of regional lung ventilation for real-time bedside monitoring of mechanically ventilated patients. Images showing time-changes of regional air distributions in the lungs can provide valuable diagnostic information for lung protective mechanical ventilation. This paper reports in vivo porcine imaging experiments of regional lung ventilation using a 16-channel parallel EIT system. Real-time time-difference chest images of 10 animals were reconstructed during mechanical ventilations with a temporal resolution of 50 frame/s...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052340/absence-of-neurocognitive-disadvantage-associated-with-paediatric-hiv-subtype-a-infection-in-children-on-antiretroviral-therapy
#7
Paul Bangirana, Theodore D Ruel, Michael J Boivin, Satish K Pillai, Leila B Giron, Alla Sikorskii, Asish Banik, Jane Achan
INTRODUCTION: Infection with HIV subtype A has been associated with poorer neurocognitive outcomes compared to HIV subtype D in Ugandan children not eligible for antiretroviral therapy (ART). In this study, we sought to determine whether subtype-specific differences are also observed among children receiving ART. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Children were recruited from a clinical trial in which they were randomized to receive either lopinavir (LPV)- or non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)- based ART (NCT00978068)...
October 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032020/long-term-impact-of-suboptimal-rotavirus-vaccines-on-acute-gastroenteritis-in-hospitalized-children-in-northern-taiwan
#8
Wan-Ju Yu, Shih-Yen Chen, Chi-Neu Tsai, Hsun-Ching Chao, Man-Shan Kong, Yi-Jung Chang, Cheng-Hsun Chiu
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Rotavirus vaccines were launched in Taiwan since early 2006. Our study was aimed to figure out long-term extended molecular epidemiology in acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in hospitalized young children after rotavirus vaccination in Taiwan. METHODS: During the 10-year period from January 2007 to December 2016, fecal samples from children under 5 years old with AGE hospitalized in Chang Gung Children's Hospital (CGCH) were examined for enteric pathogens and they were divided into two time intervals: early post-vaccine (Jan...
October 11, 2017: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899102/community-based-antiretroviral-treatment-in-rural-zimbabwe
#9
Benjamin Chimukangara, Justen Manasa, Rebecca Mitchell, Georgina Nyabadza, David Katzenstein, Collen Masimirembwa
Treatment of HIV has reduced HIV/AIDS-related mortality. Sustaining >90% virologic suppression in sub-Saharan Africa requires decentralized care and prevention services to rural communities. In Zimbabwe, the number of people receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) has increased rapidly. However, access to treatment monitoring tools such as viral load and drug resistance testing is limited. We assessed virologic treatment outcomes among ART recipients in Nyamutora, a rural community receiving bimonthly ART and prevention services...
October 26, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842163/validated-spectrophotometric-and-chromatographic-methods-for-analysis-of-the-recently-approved-hepatitis-c-antiviral-combination-ledipasvir-and-sofosbuvir
#10
M M Baker, D S El-Kafrawy, M S Mahrous, T S Belal
This work describes five simple and reliable spectrophotometric and chromatographic methods for analysis of hepatitis C antiviral binary mixture of ledipasvir (LPV) and sofosbuvir (SBV). Method I is based on the use of Amax and derivative spectrophotometry with the zero-crossing technique where LPV was determined using its Amax and (1)D amplitudes at 324 and 338nm respectively, while SBV was determined by measuring the (1)D amplitudes at 276nm. Method II involves the application of the ratio spectra derivative spectrophotometry...
August 22, 2017: Annales Pharmaceutiques Françaises
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805656/magnetically-tuned-photoelectric-response-observed-in-nanoscale-co-sio2-si-structures
#11
Qian Zhang, Jieqiong Hu, Diyuan Zheng, Anhua Dong, Hui Wang
We report a large magnetically tuned lateral photovoltaic effect (LPE) observed in nanoscale Co-SiO2-Si structures. This tunable effect strongly depends on the location of two electrodes. The change ratio of lateral photovoltage (LPV) can reach up to a considerable value of 94.15% under external magnetic field of 1.77 Teslas. This phenomenon is mainly ascribed to the asymmetric Lorentz force acting on the photo-current in the region of edge area of the nanostructure. It adds a new functionality to the traditional LPE-based devices, and provides a potential prospect for the development of multifunctional high-sensitive photoelectric devices or sensors...
August 14, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805110/lack-of-interaction-of-lopinavir-solid-drug-nanoparticles-with-cells-of-the-immune-system
#12
Neill J Liptrott, Marco Giardiello, Tom O McDonald, Steven P Rannard, Andrew Owen
AIM: We previously demonstrated that solid drug nanoparticles (SDNs) lopinavir (LPV) dispersed into aqueous media display favorable pharmacokinetics. METHODS: The impact of LPV SDNs on the function and phenotype of primary human T cells and macrophages (primary sites of HIV replication) was investigated. RESULTS: LPV significantly increased IL-1β (ninefold higher than untreated cells; p = 0.045) and TNF-α (sixfold higher than untreated cells; p = 0...
August 14, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783807/comparative-safety-of-antiretroviral-treatment-regimens-in-pregnancy
#13
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Rebecca Zash, Denise L Jacobson, Modiegi Diseko, Gloria Mayondi, Mompati Mmalane, Max Essex, Chipo Petlo, Shahin Lockman, Joseph Makhema, Roger L Shapiro
Importance: Maternal antiretroviral treatment (ART) started before conception may increase the risk for adverse birth outcomes among women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, but whether the risk differs by ART regimen is unknown. Objective: To compare the risk for selected birth outcomes by maternal ART regimen. Design, Setting, and Participants: This observational birth outcomes surveillance study compared all live births and stillbirths with a gestational age of at least 24 weeks in 8 geographically dispersed government hospitals throughout Botswana (approximately 45% of births nationwide)...
October 2, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770596/high-rates-of-viral-suppression-in-adults-and-children-with-high-cd4-counts-using-a-streamlined-art-delivery-model-in-the-search-trial-in-rural-uganda-and-kenya
#14
Dalsone Kwarisiima, Moses R Kamya, Asiphas Owaraganise, Florence Mwangwa, Dathan M Byonanebye, James Ayieko, Albert Plenty, Doug Black, Tamara D Clark, Bridget Nzarubara, Katherine Snyman, Lillian Brown, Elizabeth Bukusi, Craig R Cohen, Elvin H Geng, Edwin D Charlebois, Theodore D Ruel, Maya L Petersen, Diane Havlir, Vivek Jain
INTRODUCTION: The 2015 WHO recommendation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all HIV-positive persons calls for treatment initiation in millions of persons newly eligible with high CD4+ counts. Efficient and effective care models are urgently needed for this population. We evaluated clinical outcomes of asymptomatic HIV-positive adults and children starting ART with high CD4+ counts using a novel streamlined care model in rural Uganda and Kenya. METHODS: In the 16 intervention communities of the HIV test-and-treat Sustainable East Africa Research for Community Health Study (NCT01864603), all HIV-positive individuals irrespective of CD4 were offered ART (efavirenz [EFV]/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate + emtricitabine (FTC) or lamivudine (3TC)...
July 21, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758024/serum-lipid-and-glucose-profiles-in-hiv-positive-nigerian-children
#15
EDITORIAL
Olukemi O Ige, Christopher S Yilgwan, Augustine O Ebonyi, Ruth Adah, Idris Adedeji, Esther S Yiltok, Stephen Oguche, Fidelia Bode-Thomas
OBJECTIVES: To describe the fasting serum lipid and glucose profiles of HIV-positive Nigerian children and determine the prevalence and risk factors for dyslipidaemia and hyperglycaemia, which are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. METHODS: This was a comparative cross-sectional study carried out at the Paediatric Infectious Disease Clinic (PIDC) of the Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH) for HIV-positive children and at two primary schools in Jos for HIV-negative children as controls...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757912/lung-protective-ventilation-strategies-for-relief-from-ventilator-associated-lung-injury-in-patients-undergoing-craniotomy-a-bicenter-randomized-parallel-and-controlled-trial
#16
Chaoliang Tang, Juan Li, Shaoqing Lei, Bo Zhao, Zhetao Zhang, Wenting Huang, Si Shi, Xiaoqing Chai, Chaoshi Niu, Zhongyuan Xia
Current evidence indicates that conventional mechanical ventilation often leads to lung inflammatory response and oxidative stress, while lung-protective ventilation (LPV) minimizes the risk of ventilator-associated lung injury (VALI). This study evaluated the effects of LPV on relief of pulmonary injury, inflammatory response, and oxidative stress among patients undergoing craniotomy. Sixty patients undergoing craniotomy received either conventional mechanical (12 mL/kg tidal volume [VT] and 0 cm H2O positive end-expiratory pressure [PEEP]; CV group) or protective lung (6 mL/kg VT and 10 cm H2O PEEP; PV group) ventilation...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718515/impact-of-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-on-plasma-concentrations-of-efavirenz-and-lopinavir-ritonavir-in-chinese-children-infected-with-the-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#17
Xia Liu, Qing Ma, Yan Zhao, Weiwei Mu, Xin Sun, Yuewu Cheng, Huiping Zhang, Ye Ma, Fujie Zhang
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes that encode the cytochrome P450 (CYP) drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters have been reported to influence antiretroviral drug pharmacokinetics. Although primarily metabolized by CYP2B6 and -3A, efavirenz (EFV) and lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) are substrates of P-glycoprotein and the solute carrier organic (SLCO) anion transporter, respectively. We investigated the association between SNPs and efavirenz (EFV) or lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) concentrations in Chinese children infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...
September 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688951/non-contrast-enhanced-3d-mr-portography-within-a-breath-hold-using-compressed-sensing-acceleration-a-prospective-noninferiority-study
#18
Ayako Ono, Shigeki Arizono, Koji Fujimoto, Thai Akasaka, Rikiya Yamashita, Akihiro Furuta, Hiroyoshi Isoda, Kaori Togashi
PURPOSE: To evaluate images of non-contrast-enhanced 3D MR portography within a breath-hold (BH) using compressed sensing (CS) compared to standard respiratory-triggered (RT) sequences. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-nine healthy volunteers underwent MR portography using two sequences of balanced steady-state free-precession (bSSFP) with time-spatial labeling inversion pulses (Time-SLIP): BH bSSFP-CS and RT bSSFP. Two radiologists independently scored the diagnostic acceptability to delineate the portal branches (MPV: main portal vein; RPV: right portal vein; LPV: left portal vein; RPPV: right posterior portal vein; and P4 and P8: portal branch of segment 4 and segment 8, respectively) and the overall image quality on a four-point scale...
November 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687361/combined-effects-of-diets-and-temperature-on-mitochondrial-function-growth-and-nutrient-efficiency-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#19
Jonathan C Eya, Rodrigue Yossa, Dayan Perera, Olasupo Okubajo, Ann Gannam
A 4×3 factorial experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of two dietary protein sources (mixed fishmeal/plant protein-, and plant protein- based diet), two dietary lipid levels (10% and 20%) and three water temperatures (10°C, 14°C, and 18°C) on the growth performance, nutrient utilization efficiencies and mitochondrial enzyme complex activities in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (average weight±SD, 39.5±5g) over a 180day rearing period. At the end of the experiment, weight gain (WG), condition factor (CF), and feed efficiency (FE) were significantly affected by diet×temperature interaction (P<0...
October 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649306/decreasing-prevalence-of-transmitted-drug-resistance-among-art-naive-hiv-1-infected-patients-in-iceland-1996-2012
#20
Malik Sallam, Gülşen Özkaya Şahin, Hlynur Indriðason, Joakim Esbjörnsson, Arthur Löve, Anders Widell, Magnus Gottfreðsson, Patrik Medstrand
Introduction: Resistance to antiretroviral drugs can complicate the management of HIV-1 infection and impair control of its spread. The aim of the current study was to investigate the prevalence and transmission of HIV-1 drug resistance among 106 antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve patients diagnosed in Iceland (1996-2012). Methods: HIV-1 polymerase sequences were analysed using the Calibrated Population Resistance tool. Domestic spread of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) was investigated through maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches...
2017: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
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