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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913042/objective-analysis-of-cancer-stem-cell-marker-expression-using-immunohistochemistry
#1
T J Miller, M J McCoy, C Hemmings, M K Bulsara, B Iacopetta, C F Platell
Analysis of immunohistochemical expression is often a subjective and semiquantitative process that can lead to the inconsistent reporting of results. To assess the effect that region selection and quantification method have on results, five different cancer stem cell markers were used in this study to compare tissue scoring with digital analysis methods that used three different tissue annotation methods. Samples of tumour and normal mucosa were used from 10 consecutive stage II colon cancer patients and stained for the putative cancer stem cell markers ALDH1, CD44v6, CD133, Lgr5 and SOX2...
November 29, 2016: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887719/leucine-rich-repeat-containing-g-protein-coupled%C3%A2-receptor%C3%A2-5-positive%C3%A2-cells%C3%A2-in-the-endometrial-stem-cell-niche
#2
Irene Cervelló, Claudia Gil-Sanchis, Xavier Santamaría, Amparo Faus, Julia Vallvé-Juanico, Patricia Díaz-Gimeno, Oriana Genolet, Antonio Pellicer, Carlos Simón
OBJECTIVE: To study, isolate and characterize leucine-rich repeat-containing heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein-coupled receptor 5 (LGR5)-positive cells from human endometrium to determine their functional relevance. DESIGN: Prospective experimental animal study. SETTING: University research laboratories. ANIMAL(S): Nonobese diabetic mice (NOD-SCID) (strain code 394; NOD.CB17-Prkdc(scid)/NcrCrl). INTERVENTION(S): Human LGR5(+) cells were labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs) and injected under the kidney capsule in immunocompromised mice...
November 22, 2016: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881008/mir-33a-expression-sensitizes-lgr5-hcc-cscs-to-doxorubicin-via-abca1
#3
H Hou, Y Kang, Y Li, Y Zheng, G Ding, J Shang
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for the unrestrained cell growth and chemo-resistance of malignant tumors. Reports about miR-33a in different type of cancer are limited, and it remains elusive whether there is a link between miR-33a and chemo-resistance of CSCs. Here we report that Lgr5+ hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells from primary tissues and cell lines behave similarly to CSCs and are chemo-resistant to doxorubicin. Significantly, reduced miR-33a expression is associated with the chemo-resistance of Lgr5+ HCC-CSCs, accompanied by an overexpression of ABCA1 which is identified as target of miR-33a by mainly using miRNA luciferase assay and western-blotting...
November 24, 2016: Neoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880730/loss-of-zg16-is-regulated-by-mir-196a-and-contributes-to-stemness-and-progression-of-colorectal-cancer
#4
Xiaobing Chen, Peng Du, Junjun She, Liang Cao, Yingchao Li, Hongping Xia
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignant tumour and the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Clarification of the mechanism that underlies CRC tumorigenesis and progression therefore is urgently needed ffor developing novel therapies. Through analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset, we identified an interesting gene, ZG16, which is significantly decreased in CRC samples compared to adjacent non-tumor tissues and associated with prognosis of patients. We found that the expression of ZG16 correlated with CRC related genes which were regulated by APC/CTNNB1 pathway...
November 17, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876791/an-amino-acid-based-oral-rehydration-solution-aa-ors-enhanced-intestinal-epithelial-proliferation-in-mice-exposed-to-radiation
#5
Liangjie Yin, Reshu Gupta, Lauren Vaught, Astrid Grosche, Paul Okunieff, Sadasivan Vidyasagar
Destruction of clonogenic cells in the crypt following irradiation are thought to cause altered gastrointestinal function. Previously, we found that an amino acid-based oral rehydration solution (AA-ORS) improved gastrointestinal function in irradiated mice. However, the exact mechanisms were unknown. Electrophysiology, immunohistochemistry, qPCR, and Western blot analysis were used to determine that AA-ORS increased proliferation, maturation, and differentiation and improved electrolyte and nutrient absorption in irradiated mice...
November 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872404/unique-cellular-lineage-composition-of-the-first-gland-of-the-mouse-gastric-corpus
#6
Andrew O'Neil, Christine P Petersen, Eunyoung Choi, Amy C Engevik, James R Goldenring
The glandular stomach has two major zones: the acid secreting corpus and the gastrin cell-containing antrum. Nevertheless, a single gland lies at the transition between the forestomach and corpus in the mouse stomach. We have sought to define the lineages that make up this gland unit at the squamocolumnar junction. The first gland in mice showed a notable absence of characteristic corpus lineages, including parietal cells and chief cells. In contrast, the gland showed strong staining of Griffonia simplicifolia-II (GSII)-lectin-positive mucous cells at the bases of glands, which were also positive for CD44 variant 9 and Clusterin...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870267/thyroid-hormone-induced-activation-of-notch-signaling-is-required-for-adult-intestinal-stem-cell-development-during-xenopus-laevis-metamorphosis
#7
Takashi Hasebe, Kenta Fujimoto, Mitsuko Kajita, Liezhen Fu, Yun-Bo Shi, Atsuko Ishizuya-Oka
In Xenopus laevis intestine during metamorphosis, the larval epithelial cells are removed by apoptosis, and the adult epithelial stem cells appear concomitantly. They proliferate and differentiate to form the adult epithelium. Thyroid hormone (TH) is well established to trigger this remodeling by regulating the expression of various genes including Notch receptor. To study the role of Notch signaling, we have analyzed the expression of its components, including the ligands (DLL and Jag), receptor (Notch) and targets (Hairy), in the metamorphosing intestine by real-time RT-PCR and in situ hybridization or immunohistochemistry...
November 21, 2016: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868043/enterocyte-progenitors-can-dedifferentiate-to-replace-lost-lgr5-intestinal-stem-cells-revealing-that-many-different-progenitor-populations-can-regain-stemness
#8
EDITORIAL
Jennifer C Jones, Peter J Dempsey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Stem Cell Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865493/genetic-and-genomic-analysis-of-hyperthelia-in-brown-swiss-cattle
#9
Adrien M Butty, Mirjam Frischknecht, Birgit Gredler, Stefan Neuenschwander, Jürg Moll, Anna Bieber, Christine F Baes, Franz R Seefried
Supernumerary teats (SNT) are any abnormal teats found on a calf in addition to the usual and functional 4 teats. The presence of SNT has also been termed hyperthelia since the end of the 19th century. Supernumerary teats can act as an incubator for bacteria, infecting the whole udder, and can interfere with the positioning of the milking machine, and consequently, have economic relevance. Different types of SNT are observed at different positions on the udder. Caudal teats are in the rear, ramal teats are attached to another teat, and intercalary teats are found between 2 regular teats...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856615/epigenetic-regulation-of-intestinal-stem-cells-by-tet1-mediated-dna-hydroxymethylation
#10
Rinho Kim, Karyn L Sheaffer, Inchan Choi, Kyoung-Jae Won, Klaus H Kaestner
Methylated cytosines are associated with gene silencing. The ten-eleven translocation (TET) hydroxylases, which oxidize methylated cytosines to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), are essential for cytosine demethylation. Gene silencing and activation are critical for intestinal stem cell (ISC) maintenance and differentiation, but the potential role of TET hydroxylases in these processes has not yet been examined. Here, we generated genome-wide maps of the 5hmC mark in ISCs and their differentiated progeny. Genes with high levels of hydroxymethylation in ISCs are strongly associated with Wnt signaling and developmental processes...
November 17, 2016: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855654/salinomycin-inhibits-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-growth-and-interferes-with-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-in-cd133-human-colorectal-cancer-cells
#11
Johannes Klose, Jana Eissele, Claudia Volz, Steffen Schmitt, Alina Ritter, Shen Ying, Thomas Schmidt, Ulrike Heger, Martin Schneider, Alexis Ulrich
BACKGROUND: The polyether antibiotic Salinomycin (Sal) is regarded as an inhibitor of cancer stem cells. Its effectiveness on human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells in vitro has been demonstrated before. The aim of this study was to establish a murine model to investigate the effectiveness of Sal in vivo. Furthermore, we investigated the impact of Sal on Wnt/β-catenin signaling in human CD133(+) CRC cells. METHODS: The two murine CRC cell lines MC38 and CT26 were used to analyze the impact of Sal on tumor cell proliferation, viability, migration, cell cycle progression and cell death in vitro...
November 17, 2016: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835894/co-expression-of-lgr5-and-cxcr4-characterizes-cancer-stem-like-cells-of-colorectal-cancer
#12
Weidong Wu, Jun Cao, Zhengyi Ji, Jingjue Wang, Tao Jiang, Honghua Ding
Therapies designed to target cancer stem cells (CSCs) in colorectal cancer (CRC) may improve treatment outcomes. Different markers have been used to identify CSCs or CSC-like cells in CRC, but the enrichment of CSCs using these markers has yet to be optimized. We recently reported the importance of Lgr5-positive CRC cells in cancer growth. Here, we studied the possibility of using Lgr5 and CXCR4 as CSC markers for CRC. We detected high Lgr5 and CXCR4 levels in stage IV CRC specimens. Both high Lgr5 and CXCR4 levels were associated with poor prognosis in stage IV CRC patients...
November 8, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831561/rapidly-cycling-lgr5-stem-cells-are-exquisitely-sensitive-to-extrinsic-dietary-factors-that-modulate-colon-cancer-risk
#13
Eunjoo Kim, Laurie A Davidson, Roger S Zoh, Martha E Hensel, Michael L Salinas, Bhimanagouda S Patil, Guddadarangavvanahally K Jayaprakasha, Evelyn S Callaway, Clinton D Allred, Nancy D Turner, Brad R Weeks, Robert S Chapkin
The majority of colon tumors are driven by aberrant Wnt signaling in intestinal stem cells, which mediates an efficient route toward initiating intestinal cancer. Natural lipophilic polyphenols and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) generally suppress Wnt- and NF-κB- (nuclear factor-κ light-chain enhancer of activated B-cell) related pathways. However, the effects of these extrinsic agents on colonic leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5-positive (Lgr5(+)) stem cells, the cells of origin of colon cancer, have not been documented to date...
November 10, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824146/single-cell-clones-purified-from-human-parotid-glands-display-features-of-multipotent-epitheliomesenchymal-stem-cells
#14
TacGhee Yi, Songyi Lee, Nahyun Choi, Hyun-Soo Shin, Junghee Kim, Jae-Yol Lim
A better understanding of the biology of tissue-resident stem cell populations is essential to development of therapeutic strategies for regeneration of damaged tissue. Here, we describe the isolation of glandular stem cells (GSCs) from a small biopsy specimen from human parotid glands. Single colony-forming unit-derived clonal cells were isolated through a modified subfractionation culture method, and their stem cell properties were examined. The isolated clonal cells exhibited both epithelial and mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like features, including differentiation potential and marker expression...
November 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807078/goblet-cell-ratio-in-combination-with-differentiation-and-stem-cell-markers-in-barrett-esophagus-allow-distinction-of-patients-with-and-without-esophageal-adenocarcinoma
#15
Raphael Schellnegger, Anne Quante, Susanne Rospleszcz, Martina Schernhammer, Bettina Höhl, Moritz Tobiasch, Agnieszka Pastula, Anna Brandtner, Julian A Abrams, Konstantin Strauch, Roland M Schmid, Michael Vieth, Timothy C Wang, Michael Quante
The increasing incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is mirrored by the increasing prevalence of Barrett esophagus, a precursor lesion resulting in a large number of individuals "at risk" for this lethal malignancy. Among patients with Barrett esophagus, only about 0.3% annually will develop EAC. Because large numbers of patients are followed in endoscopic surveillance, there is a need for risk prediction among a growing population of patients with Barrett esophagus. We identified four potential biomarkers from an inflammation (IL1β)-dependent mouse model of Barrett esophagus and tested them in 189 patients with Barrett esophagus with and without high-grade dysplasia (HGD)/early cancer (T1)...
November 2, 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802133/regulation-and-plasticity-of-intestinal-stem-cells-during-homeostasis-and-regeneration
#16
REVIEW
Joep Beumer, Hans Clevers
The intestinal epithelium is the fastest renewing tissue in mammals and has a large flexibility to adapt to different types of damage. Lgr5(+) crypt base columnar (CBC) cells act as stem cells during homeostasis and are essential during regeneration. Upon perturbation, the activity of CBCs is dynamically regulated to maintain homeostasis and multiple dedicated progenitor cell populations can reverse to the stem cell state upon damage, adding another layer of compensatory mechanisms to facilitate regeneration...
October 15, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789624/distinct-capacity-for-differentiation-to-inner-ear-cell-types-by-progenitor-cells-of-the-cochlea-and-vestibular-organs
#17
Will J McLean, Dalton T McLean, Ruth Anne Eatock, Albert S B Edge
Disorders of hearing and balance are most commonly associated with damage to cochlear and vestibular hair cells or neurons. Although these cells are not capable of spontaneous regeneration, progenitor cells in the hearing and balance organs of the neonatal mammalian inner ear have the capacity to generate new hair cells after damage. To investigate whether these cells are restricted in their differentiation capacity, we assessed the phenotypes of differentiated progenitor cells isolated from three compartments of the mouse inner ear - the vestibular and cochlear sensory epithelia and the spiral ganglion - by measuring electrophysiological properties and gene expression...
December 1, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773817/lgr5-regulates-the-regeneration-of-lesioned-nasal-respiratory-epithelium
#18
Yan-Qiang Zhang, Peng Li, Feng-Qin Zhang, Shao-Jun Sun, Yin-Guang Cao
Nasal respiratory epithelium is a ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium. The cellular components of nasal respiratory epithelium include ciliated cells, goblet cells, and basal cells. Until now, our knowledge in the development of nasal respiratory epithelium is still limited and the cellular mechanism of regeneration is still elusive. In this study, we found that adult stem cell marker leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5) is expressed in the mice nasal respiratory epithelium...
October 20, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748935/proton-pump-inhibitor-pantoprazole-inhibits-the-proliferation-self%C3%A2-renewal-and-chemoresistance-of-gastric-cancer-stem-cells-via-the-emt-%C3%AE-%C3%A2-catenin-pathways
#19
Shuitu Feng, Zhigao Zheng, Lihua Feng, Lihong Yang, Zuhong Chen, Yubiao Lin, Yingqin Gao, Yide Chen
The cancer stem cell (CSC) model suggests that a small subset of cancer cells possess stem cell properties and plays a crucial role in tumor initiation, metastasis and resistance to anticancer therapy. Exploration of the specific therapies targeting at CSCs has been a crucial issue in antitumor research. Gastric cancer (GC) cells often exist in an ischemic microenvironment with acidic conditions in vivo, thus maintenance of cellular pH homeostasis is important for the survival and function of GC cells. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) may prevent intracellular proton extrusions which consequently reduce cancer cell survival under acidic conditions...
October 7, 2016: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704362/isolation-and-culture-of-adult-intestinal-gastric-and-liver-organoids-for-cre-recombinase-mediated-gene-deletion
#20
Dustin J Flanagan, Renate H M Schwab, Bang M Tran, Toby J Phesse, Elizabeth Vincan
The discovery of Lgr5 as a marker of adult stem cells meant that stem cell populations could be purified and studied in isolation. Importantly, when cultured under the appropriate conditions these stem cells form organoids in tissue culture that retain many features of the tissue of origin. The organoid cultures are accessible to genetic and biochemical manipulation, bridging the gap between in vivo mouse models and conventional tissue culture. Here we describe robust protocols to establish organoids from gastrointestinal tissues (stomach, intestine, liver) and Cre-recombinase mediated gene manipulation in vitro...
October 5, 2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
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