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Caloric restriction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029202/a-metabolomic-signature-of-acute-caloric-restriction
#1
Tinh-Hai Collet, Takuhiro Sonoyama, Elana Henning, Julia M Keogh, Brian Ingram, Sarah Kelway, Lining Guo, I Sadaf Farooqi
Context: The experimental paradigm of acute caloric restriction followed by refeeding can be used to study the homeostatic mechanisms that regulate energy homeostasis, which are relevant to understanding the adaptive response to weight loss. Objective: Metabolomics, the measurement of hundreds of small molecule metabolites, their precursors, derivatives, and degradation products, has emerged as a useful tool for the study of physiology and disease and was used here to study the metabolic response to acute caloric restriction...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028359/complex-interaction-between-circadian-rhythm-and-diet-on-bile-acid-homeostasis-in-male-rats
#2
Hannah M Eggink, Johanneke E Oosterman, Paul de Goede, Emmely M de Vries, Ewout Foppen, Martijn Koehorst, Albert K Groen, Anita Boelen, Johannes A Romijn, Susanne E la Fleur, Maarten R Soeters, Andries Kalsbeek
Desynchronization between the master clock in the brain, which is entrained by (day) light, and peripheral organ clocks, which are mainly entrained by food intake, may have negative effects on energy metabolism. Bile acid metabolism follows a clear day/night rhythm. We investigated whether in rats on a normal chow diet the daily rhythm of plasma bile acids and hepatic expression of bile acid metabolic genes is controlled by the light/dark cycle or the feeding/fasting rhythm. In addition, we investigated the effects of high caloric diets and time-restricted feeding on daily rhythms of plasma bile acids and hepatic genes involved in bile acid synthesis...
October 13, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028112/the-role-of-declining-adaptive-homeostasis-in-ageing
#3
Laura C D Pomatto, Kelvin J A Davies
Adaptive homeostasis is, 'the transient expansion or contraction of the homeostatic range for any given physiological parameter in response to exposure to sub-toxic, non-damaging, signalling molecules or events, or the removal or cessation of such molecules or events (Davies, 2016a)." Adaptive homeostasis enables biological systems to make continuous short-term adjustments for optimal functioning despite ever-changing internal and external environments. Initiation of adaptation in response to an appropriate signal allows organisms to successfully cope with much greater, normally toxic, stresses...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024552/current-pharmacotherapies-for-obesity-a-practical-perspective
#4
Angela Golden
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To review the currently available pharmacotherapies for obesity management with a particular focus on the United States. METHODS: Narrative review based on literature searches and the latest prescribing information (up to July 2017). CONCLUSIONS: Obesity pharmacotherapies may assist those individuals who have obesity, or overweight with comorbidities, who have failed to maintain weight loss with lifestyle modifications alone (caloric restriction and increased physical activity)...
October 2017: Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021349/activation-of-autophagy-ameliorates-cardiomyopathy-in-mybpc3-targeted-knockin-mice
#5
Sonia R Singh, Antonia T L Zech, Birgit Geertz, Silke Reischmann-Düsener, Hanna Osinska, Maksymilian Prondzynski, Elisabeth Krämer, Qinghang Meng, Charles Redwood, Jolanda van der Velden, Jeffrey Robbins, Saskia Schlossarek, Lucie Carrier
BACKGROUND: Alterations in autophagy have been reported in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) caused by Danon disease, Vici syndrome, or LEOPARD syndrome, but not in HCM caused by mutations in genes encoding sarcomeric proteins, which account for most of HCM cases. MYBPC3, encoding cMyBP-C (cardiac myosin-binding protein C), is the most frequently mutated HCM gene. METHODS AND RESULTS: We evaluated autophagy in patients with HCM carrying MYBPC3 mutations and in a Mybpc3-targeted knockin HCM mouse model, as well as the effect of autophagy modulators on the development of cardiomyopathy in knockin mice...
October 2017: Circulation. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021272/combined-salt-and-caloric-restrictions-potential-adverse-outcomes
#6
Tsuyoshi Homma, Mika Homma, Yuefei Huang, Korapat Mayurasakorn, Nurul Mahamad Rodi, Anis Amalina Abdul Hamid, Shelley Hurwitz, Tham Yao, Gail K Adler, Luminita H Pojoga, Gordon H Williams, Jose R Romero
BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that caloric restriction (CR) and salt restriction (ResS) would have similar effects on reducing cardiovascular risk markers and that combining CR and ResS would be synergistic in modulating these markers. METHODS AND RESULTS: To test our hypothesis, rats were randomized into 2 groups: ad libitum liberal salt diet (ad libitum/high-sodium, 1.6% sodium) or ResS diet (ad libitum/ResS, 0.03% sodium). CR was initiated in half of the rats in each group by reducing caloric intake to 60% while maintaining sodium intake constant (CR/high-sodium, 2...
October 11, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021174/nutritional-geometry-of-paternal-effects-on-embryo-mortality
#7
Michal Polak, Leigh W Simmons, Joshua B Benoit, Kari Ruohonen, Stephen J Simpson, Samantha M Solon-Biet
Well-established causal links exist between maternal nutritional deficits and embryo health and viability. By contrast, environmental effects operating through the father that could influence embryo mortality have seldom been examined. Yet, ejaculates can require non-trivial resource allocation, and seminal plasma components are increasingly recognized to exert wide-ranging effects on females and offspring, so paternal dietary effects on the embryo should be expected. We test for effects of varying levels of protein (P), carbohydrate (C) and caloric load in adult male diet on embryo mortality in Drosophila melanogaster We demonstrate that macronutrient balance and caloric restriction exert significant effects, and that nutritional effects are more impactful when a prior mating has occurred...
October 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020416/fructose-metabolism-cardiometabolic-risk-and-the-epidemic-of-coronary-artery-disease
#8
Peter Mirtschink, Cholsoon Jang, Zoltan Arany, Wilhelm Krek
Despite strong indications that increased consumption of added sugars correlates with greater risks of developing cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), independent of the caloric intake, the worldwide sugar consumption remains high. In considering the negative health impact of overconsumption of dietary sugars, increased attention is recently being given to the role of the fructose component of high-sugar foods in driving CMS. The primary organs capable of metabolizing fructose include liver, small intestine, and kidneys...
September 7, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989978/the-therapeutic-potential-of-resveratrol-a-review-of-clinical-trials
#9
Adi Y Berman, Rachel A Motechin, Maia Y Wiesenfeld, Marina K Holz
Resveratrol is a nutraceutical with several therapeutic effects. It has been shown to mimic effects of caloric restriction, exert anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects, and affect the initiation and progression of many diseases through several mechanisms. While there is a wealth of in vitro and in vivo evidence that resveratrol could be a promising therapeutic agent, clinical trials must confirm its potential. In this work, we reviewed the current clinical data available regarding the pharmacological action of resveratrol...
2017: NPJ Precis Oncol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987323/the-longevity-gene-indy-i-m-not-dead-yet-in-metabolic-control-potential-as-pharmacological-target
#10
REVIEW
Diana M Willmes, Anica Kurzbach, Christine Henke, Grit Zahn, Alexander Heifetz, Jens Jordan, Stephen L Helfand, Andreas L Birkenfeld
The regulation of metabolic processes by the Indy (I'm Not Dead Yet) (SLC13A5/NaCT) gene was revealed through studies in Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans. Reducing the expression of Indy in these species extended their life span by a mechanism resembling caloric restriction, without reducing food intake. In D. melanogaster, mutating the Indy gene reduced body fat content, insulin-like proteins and reactive oxygen species production. Subsequent studies indicated that Indy encodes a citrate transporter located on the cell plasma membrane...
October 4, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979265/impact-of-age-caloric-restriction-and-influenza-infection-on-mouse-gut-microbiome-an-exploratory-study-of-the-role-of-age-related-microbiome-changes-on-influenza-responses
#11
Jenna M Bartley, Xin Zhou, George A Kuchel, George M Weinstock, Laura Haynes
Immunosenescence refers to age-related declines in the capacity to respond to infections such as influenza (flu). Caloric restriction represents a known strategy to slow many aging processes, including those involving the immune system. More recently, some changes in the microbiome have been described with aging, while the gut microbiome appears to influence responses to flu vaccination and infection. With these considerations in mind, we used a well-established mouse model of flu infection to explore the impact of flu infection, aging, and caloric restriction on the gut microbiome...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978933/comment-please-make-the-changes-marked-up-in-the-attached-pdf-sex-dependent-effects-of-caloric-restriction-on-the-ageing-of-an-ambush-feeding-copepod
#12
Enric Saiz, Albert Calbet, Kaiene Griffell
Planktonic copepods are a very successful group in marine pelagic environments, with a key role in biogeochemical cycles. Among them, the genus Oithona is one of the more abundant and ubiquitous. We report here on the effects of caloric (food) restriction on the ageing patterns of the copepod Oithona davisae. The response of O. davisae to caloric restriction was sex dependent: under food limitation, females have lower age-specific mortality rates and longer lifespans and reproductive periods; male mortality rates and life expectancy were not affected...
October 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977341/caloric-restriction-study-design-limitations-in-rodent-and-nonhuman-primate-studies
#13
Kelli L Vaughan, Tamzin Kaiser, Robert Peaden, R Michael Anson, Rafael de Cabo, Julie A Mattison
For a century, we have known that caloric restriction influences aging in many species. However, only recently it was firmly established that the effect is not entirely dependent on the calories provided. Instead, rodent and nonhuman primate models have shown that the rate of aging depends on other variables, including the macronutrient composition of the diet, the amount of time spent in the restricted state, age of onset, the gender and genetic background, and the particular feeding protocol for the control group...
June 13, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972881/alzheimer-s-disease-in-humans-and-other-animals-a-consequence-of-postreproductive-life-span-and-longevity-rather-than-aging
#14
Danièlle Gunn-Moore, Oksana Kaidanovich-Beilin, María Carolina Gallego Iradi, Frank Gunn-Moore, Simon Lovestone
Two diseases of the modern world-Alzheimer's and diabetes mellitus-are linked by epidemiology, genetics, and molecular pathogenesis. They may also be linked by the remarkable observation that insulin signaling sets the limits on longevity. In worms, flies, and mice, disrupting insulin signaling increases life span leading some to speculate that caloric restriction might extend life span in man. It is our contention that man is already a long-lived organism, specifically with a remarkably high postfertility life span, and that it is the reason that results in the high prevalence of Alzheimer's and diabetes...
September 30, 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967025/theoretical-investigation-of-the-solid-liquid-phase-transition-in-protonated-water-clusters
#15
Kseniia Korchagina, Aude Simon, Mathias Rapacioli, Fernand Spiegelman, Jean-Marc L'Hermite, Isabelle Braud, Sébastien Zamith, Jérôme Cuny
Protonated water clusters have received a lot of attention as they offer tools to bridge the gap between molecular and bulk scales of water. However, their properties are still not fully understood and deserve further theoretical and experimental investigations. In this work, we simulate the caloric curves of protonated water clusters (H2O)nH(+) (n = 20-23). These curves, which have recently been measured experimentally, are characteristic of the phase changes occurring in the aggregates with respect to temperature...
October 2, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966904/dietary-regulation-of-adult-stem-cells
#16
Miyeko D Mana, Elaine Yih-Shuen Kuo, Ömer H Yilmaz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dietary intake is a critical regulator of organismal physiology and health. Tissue homeostasis and regeneration are dependent on adult tissue stem cells that self-renew and differentiate into the specialized cell types. As stem cells respond to cues from their environment, dietary signals and nutrients influence tissue biology by altering the function and activity of adult stem cells. In this review, we highlight recent studies that illustrate how diverse diets such as caloric restriction, fasting, high fat diets, and ketogenic diets impact stem cell function and their microenvironments...
March 2017: Current Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966881/neuroimaging-biomarkers-of-caloric-restriction-on-brain-metabolic-and-vascular-functions
#17
Ai-Ling Lin, Ishita Parikh, Jared D Hoffman, David Ma
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Non-invasive neuroimaging methods have been developed as powerful tools for identifying in vivo brain functions for studies in humans and animals. Here we review the imaging biomarkers that are being used to determine the changes within brain metabolic and vascular functions induced by caloric restriction (CR), and their potential usefulness for future studies with dietary interventions in humans. RECENT FINDINGS: CR causes an early shift in brain metabolism of glucose to ketone bodies, and enhances ATP production, neuronal activity and cerebral blood flow (CBF)...
March 2017: Current Nutrition Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961383/caloric-restriction-stabilizes-body-weight-and-accelerates-behavioral-recovery-in-aged-rats-after-focal-ischemia
#18
Ovidiu Ciobanu, Raluca Elena Sandu, Adrian Tudor Balseanu, Alexandra Zavaleanu, Andrei Gresita, Eugen Bogdan Petcu, Adriana Uzoni, Aurel Popa-Wagner
Obesity and hyperinsulinemia are risk factors for stroke. We tested the hypothesis that caloric restriction, which reduces the incidence of age-related obesity and metabolic syndrome, may represent an efficient and cost-effective strategy for preventing stroke and its devastating consequences. To this end, we placed aged, obese Sprague-Dawley aged rats on a calorie-restricted diet for 8 weeks prior to the experimental infarction. Stroke in this animal model caused a progressive decrease in weight that reached a minimum at day 6 for the young rats, and at day 10 for the aged, ad libitum-fed rats...
September 29, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958900/effects-of-3-week-total-meal-replacement-vs-typical-food-based-diet-on-human-brain-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-food-cue-reactivity-and-functional-connectivity-in-people-with-obesity
#19
Chanaka Nadeeshan Kahathuduwa, Tyler Davis, Michael O'Boyle, Lori Ann Boyd, Shao-Hua Chin, Dmitrii Paniukov, Martin Binks
OBJECTIVES: Calorie restriction via total meal replacement (TMR) results in greater reduction of food cravings compared to reduced-calorie typical diet (TD). Direct evidence of the impact of these interventions on human brain fMRI food-cue reactivity (fMRI-FCR) and functional connectivity is absent. We examined the effects of a 3-week 1120 kcal/d TMR intervention as compared to an iso-caloric TD intervention using an fMRI-FCR paradigm. METHODS: Thirty-two male and female subjects with obesity (19-60 years; 30-39...
September 25, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954437/isocaloric-dietary-changes-and-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-high-cardiometabolic-risk-individuals
#20
REVIEW
Giuseppe Della Pepa, Claudia Vetrani, Gianluca Lombardi, Lutgarda Bozzetto, Giovanni Annuzzi, Angela Albarosa Rivellese
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) incorporates an extensive spectrum of histologic liver abnormalities, varying from simple triglyceride accumulation in hepatocytes non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and it is the most frequent chronic liver disease in the industrialized world. Beyond liver related complications such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, NAFLD is also an emerging risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Currently, lifestyle intervention including strategies to reduce body weight and to increase regular physical activity represents the mainstay of NAFLD management...
September 26, 2017: Nutrients
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