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Caloric restriction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212626/a-global-characterization-of-the-translational-and-transcriptional-programs-induced-by-methionine-restriction-through-ribosome-profiling-and-rna-seq
#1
Ke Zou, Qi Ouyang, Hao Li, Jiashun Zheng
BACKGROUND: Among twenty amino acids, methionine has a special role as it is coded by the translation initiation codon and methionyl-tRNAi (Met-tRNAi) is required for the assembly of the translation initiation complex. Thus methionine may play a special role in global gene regulation. Methionine has also been known to play important roles in cell growth, development, cancer, and aging. In this work, we characterize the translational and transcriptional programs induced by methionine restriction (MetR) and investigate the potential mechanisms through which methionine regulates gene expression, using the budding yeast S...
February 17, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203479/metformin-impairs-spatial-memory-and-visual-acuity-in-old-male-mice
#2
Nopporn Thangthaeng, Margaret Rutledge, Jessica M Wong, Philip H Vann, Michael J Forster, Nathalie Sumien
Metformin is an oral anti-diabetic used as first-line therapy for type 2 diabetes. Because benefits of metformin extend beyond diabetes to other age-related pathology, and because its effect on gene expression profiles resembles that of caloric restriction, metformin has a potential as an anti-aging intervention and may soon be assessed as an intervention to extend healthspan. However, beneficial actions of metformin in the central nervous system have not been clearly established. The current study examined the effect of chronic oral metformin treatment on motor and cognitive function when initiated in young, middle-aged, or old male mice...
February 2017: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203206/mild-and-short-term-caloric-restriction-prevents-obesity-induced-cardiomyopathy-in-young-zucker-rats-without-changing-in-metabolites-and-fatty-acids-cardiac-profile
#3
Gema Ruiz-Hurtado, Concha F García-Prieto, Helena Pulido-Olmo, Juan P Velasco-Martín, Palmira Villa-Valverde, María E Fernández-Valle, Lisardo Boscá, María Fernández-Velasco, Javier Regadera, Beatriz Somoza, María S Fernández-Alfonso
Caloric restriction (CR) ameliorates cardiac dysfunction associated with obesity. However, most of the studies have been performed under severe CR (30-65% caloric intake decrease) for several months or even years in aged animals. Here, we investigated whether mild (20% food intake reduction) and short-term (2-weeks) CR prevented the obese cardiomyopathy phenotype and improved the metabolic profile of young (14 weeks of age) genetically obese Zucker fa/fa rats. Heart weight (HW) and HW/tibia length ratio was significantly lower in fa/fa rats after 2 weeks of CR than in counterparts fed ad libitum...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178201/rett-syndrome-a-focus-on-gut-microbiota
#4
Elisa Borghi, Francesca Borgo, Marco Severgnini, Miriam Nella Savini, Maria Cristina Casiraghi, Aglaia Vignoli
Rett syndrome (RTT) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder affecting 1 in 10,000 live female births. Changes in microbiota composition, as observed in other neurological disorders such as autism spectrum disorders, may account for several symptoms typically associated with RTT. We studied the relationship between disease phenotypes and microbiome by analyzing diet, gut microbiota, and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production. We enrolled eight RTT patients and 10 age- and sex-matched healthy women, all without dietary restrictions...
February 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166977/caloric-restriction-and-igf-i-administration-promote-rabbit-fecundity-possible-interrelationships-and-mechanisms-of-action
#5
Alexander V Sirotkin, Iveta Koničková Florkovičová, Olga Østrup Švarcová, Jan Rafay, Jozef Laurincik, Abdel Halim Harrath
The aim of these in vivo and in vitro studies was to examine the influence of caloric restriction (CR), and the administration of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I), on rabbit fecundity and to understand the interrelationships between CR and IGF-I, as well as the endocrine and intracellular mechanisms of their effects. Female rabbits were subjected to 50% CR, injections of IGF-I (20 μg/animal/day) and a combination of the two for 10 d before and 2 d after ovulation induced by 25 IU PMSG and 0.25 IU hCG...
March 1, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164457/isometric-thermogenesis-at-rest-and-during-movement-a-neglected-variable-in-energy-expenditure-and-obesity-predisposition
#6
REVIEW
A G Dulloo, J L Miles-Chan, J-P Montani, Y Schutz
Isometric thermogenesis as applied to human energy expenditure refers to heat production resulting from increased muscle tension. While most physical activities consist of both dynamic and static (isometric) muscle actions, the isometric component is very often essential for the optimal performance of dynamic work given its role in coordinating posture during standing, walking and most physical activities of everyday life. Over the past 75 years, there has been sporadic interest into the relevance of isometric work to thermoregulatory thermogenesis and to adaptive thermogenesis pertaining to body-weight regulation...
February 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156058/aging-and-caloric-restriction-impact-adipose-tissue-adiponectin-and-circulating-lipids
#7
Karl N Miller, Maggie S Burhans, Josef P Clark, Porsha R Howell, Michael A Polewski, Tyler M DeMuth, Kevin W Eliceiri, Mary J Lindstrom, James M Ntambi, Rozalyn M Anderson
Adipose tissue expansion has been associated with system-wide metabolic dysfunction and increased vulnerability to diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. A reduction in adiposity is a hallmark of caloric restriction (CR), an intervention that extends longevity and delays the onset of these same age-related conditions. Despite these parallels, the role of adipose tissue in coordinating the metabolism of aging is poorly defined. Here, we show that adipose tissue metabolism and secretory profiles change with age and are responsive to CR...
February 3, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155616/crosstalk-between-oxidative-and-nitrosative-stress-and-arterial-stiffness
#8
Ioana Mozos, Constantin Tudor Luca
Arterial stiffness, the expression of reduced arterial elasticity, is an effective predictor of cardiovascular disorders. Oxidative stress is an imbalance between exposure to toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant systems. The increase in reactive nitrogen species (RNS) is termed nitrosative stress. We review the main mechanisms and products linking arterial stiffness with oxidative and nitrosative stress in several disorders, focusing on recent experimental and clinical data, and the mechanisms explaining benefits of antioxidant therapy...
February 1, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151828/nutrition-in-the-critically-ill-patient
#9
Kristine W A C Koekkoek, Arthur R H van Zanten
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize recent relevant studies regarding nutrition during critical illness and provide recommendations for clinical practice. RECENT FINDINGS: Recently acquired knowledge regarding nutritional status and risk assessment, body composition, gastric residual volume, prokinetics, tube positioning, enteral vs parenteral nutrition, nutritional dose and timing of initiation, pharmaconutrition, dysbiosis and probiotics are discussed. SUMMARY: Body composition especially lean body mass is associated with clinical outcomes...
February 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138261/the-effects-of-exercise-training-and-caloric-restriction-on-the-cardiac-oxytocin-natriuretic-peptide-system-in-the-diabetic-mouse
#10
Tom L Broderick, Marek Jankowski, Jolanta Gutkowska
BACKGROUND: Regular exercise training (ET) and caloric restriction (CR) are the frontline strategies in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus with the aim at reducing cardiometabolic risk. ET and CR improve body weight and glycemic control, and experimental studies indicate that these paradigms afford cardioprotection. In this study, the effects of combined ET and CR on the cardioprotective oxytocin (OT)-natriuretic peptide (NP) system were determined in the db/db mouse, a model of type 2 diabetes associated with insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and obesity...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134018/caloric-restriction-in-grouped-rats-aggregate-influence-on-behavioural-and-hormonal-data
#11
Mikel Moneo, Jesús Martín Zúñiga, Ignacio Morón
The majority of studies in short- and middle-term caloric restriction (CR) have been primarily focused on physiological parameters, improvements in aging, modulation of oxidative stress, and long-term negative effects on cognitive functions. However, single-housing associated with CR may pose many logistical problems. Thus, it is necessary to study the effects of CR under conditions in which animals are group-housed. The aims of this study were to (i) observe the possible differences in the proportion of the weights and social behaviour under ad libitum and CR (at 70%) conditions; (ii) examine the eventual inequalities in the proportion of the weights and social behaviour (the time spent eating under the feeder as an indicator of dominance and empathy, and the number of 'pushes' as an indicator of aggressiveness) in sibling and non-sibling rats under CR conditions; and (iii) compare the concentrations of corticosterone (stress biomarker) in serum under ad libitum and CR conditions...
January 1, 2017: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133767/the-human-longevity-gene-homolog-indy-and-interleukin-6-interact-in-hepatic-lipid-metabolism
#12
Christian von Loeffelholz, Stefanie Lieske, Frank Neuschäfer-Rube, Diana M Willmes, Nathanael Raschzok, Igor M Sauer, Jörg König, Martin Fromm, Paul Horn, Antonis Chatzigeorgiou, Andrea Pathe-Neuschäfer-Rube, Jens Jordan, Andreas F H Pfeiffer, Geltrude Mingrone, Stefan R Bornstein, Peter Stroehle, Christoph Harms, F Thomas Wunderlich, Stephen L Helfand, Michel Bernier, Rafael de Cabo, Gerald I Shulman, Triantafyllos Chavakis, Gerhard P Püschel, Andreas L Birkenfeld
Reduced expression of the Indy ('I am Not Dead, Yet') gene in lower organisms promotes longevity in a manner akin to caloric restriction. Deletion of the mammalian homolog of Indy (mIndy, Slc13a5) encoding for a plasma membrane associated citrate transporter expressed highly in the liver, protects mice from high-fat diet and aging-induced obesity and hepatic fat accumulation through a mechanism resembling caloric restriction. We aimed to study a possible role of mIndy in human hepatic fat metabolism. In obese, insulin resistant patients with NAFLD, hepatic mIndy expression was increased and mIndy expression was also independently associated with hepatic steatosis...
January 30, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132874/glycation-inhibitors-extend-yeast-chronological-lifespan-by-reducing-advanced-glycation-end-products-and-by-back-regulation-of-proteins-involved-in-mitochondrial-respiration
#13
Rubina S Kazi, Reema M Banarjee, Arati B Deshmukh, Gouri V Patil, Mashanipalya G Jagadeeshaprasad, Mahesh J Kulkarni
: Advanced Glycation End products (AGEs) are implicated in aging process.Thus, reducing AGEs by using glycation inhibitors may help in attenuating the aging process. In this study using Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast system, we show that Aminoguanidine (AMG), a well-known glycation inhibitor, decreases the AGE modification of proteins in non-calorie restriction (NR) (2% glucose) and extends chronological lifespan (CLS) similar to that of calorie restriction (CR) condition (0.5% glucose)...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131761/sirt3-mediates-decrease-of-oxidative-damage-and-prevention-of-ageing-in-porcine-fetal-fibroblasts
#14
Xiaoxian Xie, Liangliang Wang, Binggong Zhao, Yangyang Chen, Jiaqi Li
AIMS: Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) is a mitochondria-specific protein required for the deacetylation of metabolic enzymes and the action of oxidative phosphorylation by acting as a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+))-dependent deacetylase. SIRT3 increases oxidative stress resistance and prevents mitochondrial decay associated with ageing in response to caloric restriction. However, the effects of SIRT3 on oxidative damage and ageing are not well understood. We investigated the physiological functions of porcine SIRT3 on the damage and ageing in porcine fetal fibroblasts (PFFs)...
January 25, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128635/dietary-interventions-to-contrast-the-onset-and-progression-of-diabetic-nephropathy-a-critical-survey-of-new-data
#15
Stefano Menini, Carla Iacobini, Giuseppe Pugliese, Carlo Pesce
This article is a critical overview of recent contributions on the dietary corrections and the foods that have been claimed to delay or hinder the onset of diabetic nephropathy (DN) and its progression to end-stage renal disease. Innovative dietary and behavioral approaches to the prevention and therapy of DN appear the more captivating in consideration of the rather well established protocols for glucose and blood pressure control in use. In addition to restricted caloric intake to contrast obesity and the metabolic syndrome, adjustments in the patient's macronutrients intake, and in particular some degree of reduction in protein, have been long considered in the prevention of DN progression...
January 27, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123934/circulating-fgf21-in-humans-is-potently-induced-by-short-term-overfeeding-of-carbohydrates
#16
Anne-Marie Lundsgaard, Andreas M Fritzen, Kim A Sjøberg, Lene S Myrmel, Lise Madsen, Jørgen F P Wojtaszewski, Erik A Richter, Bente Kiens
OBJECTIVE: Fibroblast-growth factor 21 (FGF21) is thought to be important in metabolic regulation. Recently, low protein diets have been shown to increase circulating FGF21 levels. However, when energy contribution from dietary protein is lowered, other macronutrients, such as carbohydrates, must be increased to meet eucaloric balance. This raises the possibility that intake of a diet rich in carbohydrates may induce an increase in plasma FGF21 levels per se. Here we studied the role of dietary carbohydrates on the levels of circulating FGF21 and concomitant physiologic effects by feeding healthy men a carbohydrate rich diet without reducing protein intake...
January 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122665/expression-of-adenosine-5-monophosphate-activated-protein-kinase-ampk-in-ovine-testis-ovis-aries-in-vivo-regulation-by-nutritional-state
#17
N Taibi, J Dupont, Z Bouguermouh, P Froment, C Ramé, A Anane, Z Amirat, F Khammar
In the present study, we identified AMPK and investigated its potential role in steroidogenesis in vivo in the ovine testis in response to variation in nutritional status (fed control vs. restricted). We performed immunoblotting to show that both active and non-active forms of AMPK exist in ovine testis and liver. In testis, we confirmed these results by immunohistochemistry. We found a correlation between ATP (Adenosine-Triphosphate) levels and the expression of AMPK in liver. Also, low and high caloric diets induce isoform-dependent AMPK expression, with an increase in α2, ß1ß2 and γ1 activity levels...
January 19, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122051/low-cytochrome-oxidase-1-links-mitochondrial-dysfunction-to-atherosclerosis-in-mice-and-pigs
#18
Paul Holvoet, Maarten Vanhaverbeke, Benjamine Geeraert, Dieuwke De Keyzer, Maarten Hulsmans, Stefan Janssens
BACKGROUND: Cytochrome oxidase IV complex regulates energy production in mitochondria. Therefore, we determined the relation of COX genes with atherosclerosis in mice and pigs. METHODS AND RESULTS: First, we compared atherosclerosis in the aortic arch of age-matched (24 weeks) C57BL/6J control (n = 10), LDL-receptor deficient (n = 8), leptin-deficient ob/ob (n = 10), and double knock-out (lacking LDL-receptor and leptin) mice (n = 12). Low aortic mitochondria-encoded cytochrome oxidase 1 in obese diabetic double knock-out mice was associated with a larger plaque area and higher propensity of M1 macrophages and oxidized LDL...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118636/energy-metabolism-and-ageing-in-the-mouse-a-mini-review
#19
Vian Azzu, Teresa G Valencak
The mouse has rapidly become the mammalian model organism of choice in ageing research due to its relatively short lifespan, the proximity of its genome and physiology to humans, and most importantly due to its genetic pliability and the availability of mutant strains. Mouse models have provided great insights into the ageing process, which in its broadest sense is the progressive decline of body functions over time. In this mini-review, we briefly cover the historical views on the link between ageing and metabolic rate, highlight genetically modified transgenic mouse models of extended lifespan, discuss endocrine pathways linked to senescence and ageing, and then examine pathways by which caloric restriction is postulated to result in longevity...
January 25, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114897/erratum-to-feasibility-outcomes-of-a-presurgical-randomized-controlled-trial-exploring-the-impact-of-caloric-restriction-and-increased-physical-activity-versus-a-wait-list-control-on-tumor-characteristics-and-circulating-biomarkers-in-men-electing-prostatectomy
#20
Wendy Demark-Wahnefried, Jeffery W Nix, Gary R Hunter, Soroush Rais-Bahrami, Renee A Desmond, Balu Chacko, Casey D Morrow, Maria Azrad, Andrew D Frugé, Yuko Tsuruta, Travis Ptacek, Scott A Tully, Roanne Segal, William E Grizzle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 23, 2017: BMC Cancer
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