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Caloric restriction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922100/evaluation-of-candidate-reference-genes-for-rt-qpcr-studies-in-three-metabolism-related-tissues-of-mice-after-caloric-restriction
#1
Huan Gong, Liang Sun, Beidong Chen, Yiwen Han, Jing Pang, Wei Wu, Ruomei Qi, Tie-Mei Zhang
Reverse transcription quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a routine method for gene expression analysis, and reliable results depend on proper normalization by stable reference genes. Caloric restriction (CR) is a robust lifestyle intervention to slow aging and delay onset of age-associated diseases via inducing global changes in gene expression. Reliable normalization of RT-qPCR data becomes crucial in CR studies. In this study, the expression stability of 12 candidate reference genes were evaluated in inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT), skeletal muscle (Sk...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903152/obesity-and-cancer-mechanisms-cancer-metabolism
#2
Benjamin D Hopkins, Marcus D Goncalves, Lewis C Cantley
Obesity is a risk factor for cancer development and is associated with poor prognosis in multiple tumor types. The positive energy balance linked with obesity induces a variety of systemic changes including altered levels of insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, leptin, adiponectin, steroid hormones, and cytokines. Each of these factors alters the nutritional milieu and has the potential to create an environment that favors tumor initiation and progression. Although the complete ramifications of obesity as it relates to cancer are still unclear, there is convincing evidence that reducing the magnitude of the systemic hormonal and inflammatory changes has significant clinical benefits...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902456/long-term-caloric-restriction-in-apoe-deficient-mice-results-in-neuroprotection-via-fgf21-induced-ampk-mtor-pathway
#3
Claire Rühlmann, Tjark Wölk, Tobias Blümel, Laura Stahn, Brigitte Vollmar, Angela Kuhla
Caloric restriction (CR) decelerates the aging process, extends lifespan and exerts neuroprotective effects in diverse species by so far unknown mechanisms. Based on known neuroprotective effects of fibroblastic growth factor 21 (Fgf21) we speculate that CR upregulates Fgf21, which phosphorylates neuronal AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), leading to a decrease of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling activity and an inhibition of tau-hyperphosphorylation. This in turn reduces the formation of neurofibrillary tangles, a neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer´s disease...
November 29, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897089/anti-aging-effect-of-metformin-on-brain-in-naturally-aged-and-accelerated-senescence-model-of-rat
#4
Geetika Garg, Sandeep Singh, Abhishek Kumar Singh, Syed Ibrahim Rizvi
Metformin, a biguanide, is a widely used anti-diabetic drug which inhibits gluconeogenesis and is used to treat hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes. Through activation of AMPK pathway, metformin also mimics caloric restriction health benefits. Aging causes substantial molecular to morphological changes in brain, the brain cells being more susceptible towards oxidative stress mediated damages due to the presence of high lipid content and higher oxygen consumption. Wistar rats (naturally aged and D Galactose induced rat model) were supplemented with metformin (300 mg/kg b...
November 29, 2016: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894742/metabolic-state-defines-the-response-of-rabbit-ovarian-cells-to-leptin
#5
Abdel Halim Harrath, Olga Østrup, Jan Rafay, Iveta Koničková Florkovičová, Jozef Laurincik, Alexander V Sirotkin
Leptin is a hormone that mediates the effect of the metabolic state on several biological functions, including reproduction. Leptin affects reproductive functions via alterations in the release of hormonal regulators. However, the extent to which caloric restriction (CR) can affect the complex processes of reproduction by other mechanisms, such as altering ovarian functions via direct binding/response to leptin, is unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to show basic ovarian cell functions and CR on the response of ovarian cells to leptin...
November 25, 2016: Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894065/evaluation-of-csf-and-plasma-biomarkers-of-brain-melanocortin-activity-in-response-to-caloric-restriction-in-humans
#6
Gabrielle Page-Wilson, Kim T Nguyen, Deniz Atalayer, Kana Meece, Heather A Bainbridge, Judith Korner, Rebecca J Gordon, Sunil K Panigrahi, Anne White, Richard Smiley, Sharon L Wardlaw
The melanocortin neuronal system, comprised of hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and agouti-related protein (AgRP) neurons, is a leptin target that regulates energy balance and metabolism, but studies in humans are limited by lack of reliable biomarkers for brain melanocortin activity. The objective of this study was to measure the POMC prohormone and its processed peptide, ß-endorphin (ß-EP), in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and AgRP in CSF and plasma after calorie restriction to validate their utility as biomarkers of brain melanocortin activity...
November 15, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885007/circadian-physiology-of-metabolism
#7
REVIEW
Satchidananda Panda
A majority of mammalian genes exhibit daily fluctuations in expression levels, making circadian expression rhythms the largest known regulatory network in normal physiology. Cell-autonomous circadian clocks interact with daily light-dark and feeding-fasting cycles to generate approximately 24-hour oscillations in the function of thousands of genes. Circadian expression of secreted molecules and signaling components transmits timing information between cells and tissues. Such intra- and intercellular daily rhythms optimize physiology both by managing energy use and by temporally segregating incompatible processes...
November 25, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884780/regulation-of-metabolic-health-and-aging-by-nutrient-sensitive-signaling-pathways
#8
Nicole E Cummings, Dudley W Lamming
All organisms need to be capable of adapting to changes in the availability and composition of nutrients. Over 75 years ago, researchers discovered that a calorie restricted (CR) diet could significantly extend the lifespan of rats, and since then a CR diet has been shown to increase lifespan and healthspan in model organisms ranging from yeast to non-human primates. In this review, we discuss the effects of a CR diet on metabolism and healthspan, and highlight emerging evidence that suggests that dietary composition - the precise macronutrients that compose the diet - may be just as important as caloric content...
November 22, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884761/assessment-of-the-motivation-to-use-artificial-sweetener-among-individuals-with-an-eating-disorder
#9
Janet Schebendach, Diane A Klein, Laurel E S Mayer, Evelyn Attia, Michael J Devlin, Richard W Foltin, B Timothy Walsh
Eating disorders are associated with a range of abnormalities in eating behavior. Some individuals consume large amounts of non-caloric artificial sweeteners, suggesting abnormalities in appetitive responding. The current study aimed to quantify hedonic and motivating effects of artificial sweetener in individuals with and without an eating disorder. Two laboratory studies were conducted. Hedonic preference was estimated using the number of artificial sweetener packets (0-10) added to unsweetened cherry flavored Kool-Aid (study 1)...
November 21, 2016: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884680/caloric-restriction-ameliorates-cardiomyopathy-in-animal-model-of-diabetes
#10
Keren Cohen, Maayan Waldman, Nader G Abraham, Michal Laniado-Schwartzman, Danny Gurfield, Dan Aravot, Michael Arad, Edith Hochhauser
BACKGROUND: The db/db mouse is an animal model of diabetes in which leptin receptor activity is deficient resulting accelerated cardiomyopathy when exposed to angiotensin (AT). Toll-like receptors 4 and 2 (TLR4, TLR2) are pattern recognition receptors, that recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns and exacerbate and release inflammatory cytokines. Fetuin A (Fet A) is a fatty acid carrier which affects inflammation and insulin resistance in obese humans and animals through TLRs...
November 21, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882110/intermittent-fasting-is-neuroprotective-in-focal-cerebral-ischemia-by-minimizing-autophagic-flux-disturbance-and-inhibiting-apoptosis
#11
Ji Heun Jeong, Kwang Sik Yu, Dong Ho Bak, Je Hun Lee, Nam Seob Lee, Young Gil Jeong, Dong Kwan Kim, Jwa-Jin Kim, Seung-Yun Han
Previous studies have demonstrated that autophagy induced by caloric restriction (CR) is neuroprotective against cerebral ischemia. However, it has not been determined whether intermittent fasting (IF), a variation of CR, can exert autophagy-related neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia. Therefore, the neuroprotective effect of IF was evaluated over the course of two weeks in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia, which was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion (MCAO/R). Specifically, the role of autophagy modulation as a potential underlying mechanism for this phenomenon was investigated...
November 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881670/the-effect-of-alternate-day-caloric-restriction-on-the-metabolic-consequences-of-eight-days-bed-rest-in-healthy-lean-men-a-randomized-trial
#12
Nina Majlund Harder-Lauridsen, Signe Tellerup Nielsen, Sebastian Porsdam Mann, Mark Preben Lyngbæk, Fabiana Braga Benatti, Annika Reynberg Langkilde, Ian Law, Anne-Sophie Wedell-Neergaard, Carsten Thomsen, Kirsten Moller, Kristian Karstoft, Bente Klarlund Pedersen, Rikke Krogh-Madsen
BACKGROUND: Physical activity and alternate-day fasting/caloric restriction may both ameliorate aspects of the metabolic syndrome, such as insulin resistance, visceral fat mass accumulation, and cognitive impairment, by overlapping mechanisms. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that alternate-day caloric restriction (ADCR) with overall energy balance would reduce insulin resistance and accumulation of visceral fat, in addition to improving cognitive functions, after eight consecutive days in bed...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881466/caloric-restriction-improves-health-related-quality-of-life-in-healthy-normal-weight-and-overweight-individuals
#13
W Scott Butsch, Fatima Stanford
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 23, 2016: Evidence-based Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879627/dietary-intake-body-composition-and-menstrual-cycle-changes-during-competition-preparation-and-recovery-in-a-drug-free-figure-competitor-a-case-study
#14
Tanya M Halliday, Jeremy P Loenneke, Brenda M Davy
Physique competitions are events in which competitors are judged on muscular appearance and symmetry. The purpose of this retrospective case study was to describe changes in dietary intake, body mass/composition, and the menstrual cycle during the 20-week competition preparation (PREP) and 20-week post competition recovery (REC) periods of a drug-free amateur female figure competitor (age = 26-27, BMI = 19.5 kg/m²). Dietary intake (via weighed food records) and body mass were assessed daily and averaged weekly...
November 20, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878417/neurobehavioural-evaluation-of-resveratrol-in-murine-models-of-anxiety-and-schizophrenia
#15
Mohammed Garba Magaji, Loretta Oghenekome Iniaghe, Mutiat Abolarin, Opeyemi Isa Abdullahi, Rabiu Abdusalam Magaji
Resveratrol, a caloric restriction mimetic, is a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the etiology of a number of neuropsychiatric disorders including generalized anxiety and schizophrenia. This study investigated the anxiolytic and antipsychotic potentials of resveratrol in murine models of anxiety and schizophrenia. Mice were pretreated with resveratrol (200 and 400 mg/kg) in 1% carboxymethyl cellulose for 14 days and subjected to behavioural tests on the 15th day...
November 22, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875248/vildagliptin-and-caloric-restriction-for-cardioprotection-in-pre-diabetic-rats
#16
Pongpan Tanajak, Hiranya Pintana, Natthaphat Siri-Angkul, Juthamas Khamseekaew, Nattayaporn Apaijai, Siriporn C Chattipakorn, Nipon Chattipakorn
Long-term high-fat diet (HFD) consumption causes cardiac dysfunction. Although calorie restriction (CR) has been shown to be useful in obesity, we hypothesized that combined CR with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor provides greater efficacy than monotherapy in attenuating cardiac dysfunction and metabolic impairment in HFD-induced obese-insulin resistant rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups to be fed on either a normal diet (ND, n = 6) or a HFD (n = 24) for 12 weeks. Then, HFD rats were divided into 4 subgroups (n = 6/subgroup) to receive just the vehicle, CR diet (60% of mean energy intake and changed to ND), vildagliptin (3 mg/kg/day) or combined CR and vildagliptin for 4 weeks...
February 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871964/caloric-restriction-a-promising-anti-cancer-approach-from-molecular-mechanisms-to-clinical-trials
#17
REVIEW
Gelina S Kopeina, Vyacheslav V Senichkin, Boris Zhivotovsky
Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide and the morbidity is growing in developed countries. According to WHO, >14 million people per year are diagnosed with cancer and about 8 million die. Anti-cancer strategy includes chemo-, immune- and radiotherapy or their combination. Unfortunately, these widely used strategies often have insufficient efficacy and significant toxic effects on healthy cells. Consequently, the improvement of treatment approaches is an important goal. One of promising schemes to enhance the effect of therapy is the restriction of calorie intake or some nutrients...
November 19, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865348/nutrient-restriction-of-glucose-or-serum-results-in-similar-proteomic-expression-changes-in-3d-colon-cancer-cell-cultures
#18
Monica M Schroll, Xin Liu, Sarah K Herzog, Susan B Skube, Amanda B Hummon
Nutrient restriction, also known as caloric restriction, has been extensively examined for its positive impact on lifespan, immune system boost, and aging. In addition, nutrient restriction is implicated in decreasing cancer initiation and progression. Given the phenotypic changes associated with nutrient restriction, we hypothesized significant protein expression alterations must be associated with caloric restriction. To compare the molecular and phenotypic changes caused by glucose restriction and fetal bovine serum restriction there is need for an efficient model system...
October 2016: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853235/intestinal-ppar%C3%AE-signalling-is-required-for-sympathetic-nervous-system-activation-in-response-to-caloric-restriction
#19
Kalina Duszka, Alexandre Picard, Sandrine Ellero-Simatos, Jiapeng Chen, Marianne Defernez, Eeswari Paramalingam, Anna Pigram, Liviu Vanoaica, Cécile Canlet, Paolo Parini, Arjan Narbad, Hervé Guillou, Bernard Thorens, Walter Wahli
Nuclear receptor PPARγ has been proven to affect metabolism in multiple tissues, and has received considerable attention for its involvement in colon cancer and inflammatory disease. However, its role in intestinal metabolism has been largely ignored. To investigate this potential aspect of PPARγ function, we submitted intestinal epithelium-specific PPARγ knockout mice (iePPARγKO) to a two-week period of 25% caloric restriction (CR), following which iePPARγKO mice retained more fat than their wild type littermates...
November 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847471/maternal-caloric-restriction-implemented-during-the-preconceptional-and-pregnancy-period-alters-hypothalamic-and-hippocampal-endocannabinoid-levels-at-birth-and-induces-overweight-and-increased-adiposity-at-adulthood-in-male-rat-offspring
#20
María Teresa Ramírez-López, Mariam Vázquez, Laura Bindila, Ermelinda Lomazzo, Clementine Hofmann, Rosarío Noemí Blanco, Francisco Alén, María Antón, Juan Decara, Rocío Arco, Daniel Ouro, Laura Orio, Juan Suárez, Beat Lutz, Raquel Gómez de Heras, Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca
Exposure to inadequate nutritional conditions in critical windows of development has been associated to disturbances on metabolism and behavior in the offspring later in life. The role of the endocannabinoid system, a known regulator of energy expenditure and adaptive behaviors, in the modulation of these processes is unknown. In the present study, we investigated the impact of exposing rat dams to diet restriction (20% less calories than standard diet) during pre-gestational and gestational periods on: (a) neonatal outcomes; (b) endocannabinoid content in hypothalamus, hippocampus and olfactory bulb at birth; (c) metabolism-related parameters; and (d) behavior in adult male offspring...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
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