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Caloric restriction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545403/long-lasting-effect-of-obesity-on-skeletal-muscle-transcriptome
#1
Ilhem Messaoudi, Mithila Handu, Maham Rais, Suhas Sureshchandra, Byung S Park, Suzanne S Fei, Hollis Wright, Ashley E White, Ruhee Jain, Judy L Cameron, Kerri M Winters-Stone, Oleg Varlamov
BACKGROUND: Reduced physical activity and increased intake of calorically-dense diets are the main risk factors for obesity, glucose intolerance, and type 2 diabetes. Chronic overnutrition and hyperglycemia can alter gene expression, contributing to long-term obesity complications. While caloric restriction can reduce obesity and glucose intolerance, it is currently unknown whether it can effectively reprogram transcriptome to a pre-obesity level. The present study addressed this question by the preliminary examination of the transcriptional dynamics in skeletal muscle after exposure to overnutrition and following caloric restriction...
May 25, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544365/anti-aging-drugs-reduce-hypothalamic-inflammation-in-a-sex-specific-manner
#2
Marianna Sadagurski, Gillian Cady, Richard A Miller
Aging leads to hypothalamic inflammation, but does so more slowly in mice whose lifespan has been extended by mutations that affect GH/IGF-1 signals. Early-life exposure to GH by injection, or to nutrient restriction in the first 3 weeks of life, also modulate both lifespan and the pace of hypothalamic inflammation. Three drugs extend lifespan of UM-HET3 mice in a sex-specific way: acarbose (ACA), 17-α-estradiol (17αE2), and nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), with more dramatic longevity increases in males in each case...
May 20, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542302/influence-of-catch-up-growth-on-spatial-learning-and-memory-in-a-mouse-model-of-intrauterine-growth-restriction
#3
Cristina Duran Fernandez-Feijoo, Cristina Carrasco Carrasco, Núria Villalmazo Francisco, Judit Cebrià Romero, Jose Ramon Fernández Lorenzo, J C Jiménez-Chillaron, Marta Camprubí Camprubí
BACKGROUND: Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and rapid postnatal weight gain or catch up growth (CUG) increase the susceptibility to metabolic syndrome during adult life. Longitudinal studies have also revealed a high incidence of learning difficulties in children with IUGR. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of nutrition and CUG on learning memory in an IUGR animal model. We hypothesized that synaptic protein expression and transcription, an essential mechanism for memory consolidation, might be affected by intrauterine undernutrition...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537869/a-child-with-kwashiorkor-misdiagnosed-as-atopic-dermatitis
#4
Marcus Henrique de S B Xavier, Eduardo De Magalhães, Gilmar Ferraz Oliveira, Mariana Keltke Magalhães, Cláudio Prates de Almeida E Oliveira, Natália Bragança Oliveira
Although uncommon, kwashiorkor continues to occur in developed, but mainly in developing nations. It is a type of protein-calorie malnutrition that occurs in the setting of insufficient protein intake in the presence of sufficient caloric intake. Skin and hair changes should prompt a thorough dietary history and appropriate dietary intervention. We report a case of a 12-month old girl in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, who presented with diffuse edema, desquamation, and irritability misdiagnosed as atopic dermatitis...
May 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537332/comparison-of-intermittent-fasting-versus-caloric-restriction-in-obese-subjects-a-two-year-follow-up
#5
F B Aksungar, M Sarıkaya, A Coskun, M Serteser, I Unsal
OBJECTIVE: Caloric restriction (CR) is proven to be effective in increasing life span and it is well known that, nutritional habits, sleeping pattern and meal frequency have profound effects on human health. In Ramadan some Muslims fast during the day-light hours for a month, providing us a unique model of intermittent fasting (IF) in humans. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of IF versus CR on the same non-diabetic obese subjects who were followed for two years according to the growth hormone (GH)/Insulin like growth factor (IGF)-1 axis and insulin resistance...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535183/time-caloric-restriction-inhibits-the-neoplastic-transformation-of-cirrhotic-liver-in-rats-treated-with-diethylnitrosamine
#6
Christian Molina-Aguilar, María de Jesús Guerrero-Carrillo, Jesús Javier Espinosa-Aguirre, Sitlali Olguin-Reyes, Thania Castro-Belio, Olivia Vázquez-Martínez, Julieta Berenice Rivera-Zavala, Mauricio Díaz-Muñoz
Hepatocellular cancer is the most common type of primary liver cancer. Cirrhosis is the main risk factor that generates this malady. It has been proven that caloric restriction protocols and restricted feeding schedules are protective in experimental carcinogenic models. We tested the influence of a time-caloric restriction protocol (2 h of food access during the daytime for 18 weeks) in an experimental model of cirrhosis-hepatocarcinoma produced by weekly administration of diethylnitrosamine. Our results indicate that time-caloric restriction reduced hepatomegaly and prevented the increase in blood leukocytes promoted by diethylnitrosamine...
May 23, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531269/change-in-the-rate-of-biological-aging-in-response-to-caloric-restriction-calerie-biobank-analysis
#7
Daniel W Belsky, Kim M Huffman, Carl F Pieper, Idan Shalev, William E Kraus
Biological aging measures have been proposed as proxies for extension of healthy lifespan in trials of geroprotective therapies that aim to slow aging. Several methods to measure biological aging show promise; but it is not known if these methods are sensitive to changes caused by geroprotective therapy. We conducted analysis of two proposed methods to quantify biological aging using data from a recently concluded trial of an established geroprotector, caloric restriction. We obtained data from the National Institute on Aging CALERIE randomized trial through its public-access biobank (https://calerie...
May 22, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523759/role-of-sulfotransferases-in-resveratrol-metabolism-in-human-adipocytes
#8
Nele Gheldof, Sofia Moco, Christian Chabert, Tony Teav, Denis Barron, Jorg Hager
SCOPE: Polyphenols such as resveratrol received interest for their wide-ranging biological benefits, including anti-obesity potential, mimicking effects of caloric restriction with reduced body fat and increased energy expenditure. However, resveratrol is rapidly metabolized, and it is not completely understood which form of resveratrol is responsible for the effects observed within target cells such as adipocytes. Also the role of metabolizing enzymes has not been investigated before...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514891/synergistic-effect-of-rapamycin-and-metformin-against-age-dependent-oxidative-stress-in-rat-erythrocyte
#9
Abhishek Kumar Singh, Geetika Garg, Sandeep Singh, Syed Ibrahim Rizvi
Erythrocytes are particularly vulnerable towards age-dependent oxidative stress mediated damage. Caloric restriction mimetics (CRMs) may provide a novel strategy for the maintenance of redox balance as well as effective treatment of age associated diseases. Herein, we have investigated the beneficial effect of co-treatment of CRM-candidate drugs, rapamycin (an immunosuppressant drug and inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin) and metformin (an anti-diabetic biguanide and activator of adenosine monophosphate kinase) against aging-induced oxidative stress in erythrocytes and plasma of aging rats...
May 17, 2017: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502807/augmenting-brain-metabolism-to-increase-macro-and-chaperone-mediated-autophagy-for-decreasing-neuronal-proteotoxicity-and-aging
#10
REVIEW
Ben Loos, Daniel J Klionsky, Esther Wong
Accumulation of toxic protein aggregates in the nerve cells is a hallmark of neuronal diseases and brain aging. Mechanisms to enhance neuronal surveillance to improve neuronal proteostasis have a direct impact on promoting neuronal health and forestalling age-related decline in brain function. Autophagy is a lysosomal degradative pathway pivotal for neuronal protein quality control. Different types of autophagic mechanisms participate in protein handling in neurons. Macroautophagy targets misfolded and aggregated proteins in autophagic vesicles to the lysosomes for destruction, while chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) degrades specific soluble cytosolic proteins delivered to the lysosomes by chaperones...
May 11, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502193/early-onset-obesity-and-food-restriction-alter-hepatocyte-metabolism-in-adult-wistar-rats
#11
Nayra Thais D Branquinho, Gabriel Henrique P Cruz, Cristian L Borrasca, Lucas de Paula S Alves, Célia Regina de Godoy Gomes, Vilma Aparecida Ferreira de Godoi, Maria Montserrat Diaz Pedrosa
CONTEXT: Caloric restriction (CR) is suggested for overweight control. OBJECTIVE: Systemic and liver glucose metabolism in the reduced-litter (RL) rat model under 30% CR was investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Newborn litters were organised in control (G9); RL with free diet (G3L); and RL with CR (G3R). Assessments were made at the age of 90 d. RESULTS: Higher liver glycogen content and changes in systemic glucose handling were found in the RL groups...
May 13, 2017: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499848/understanding-obesity-in-the-context-of-an-indigenous-population-a-qualitative-study
#12
Ricky Bell, Catherine Smith, Leigh Hale, Geoffrey Kira, Steve Tumilty
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a progressive global phenomenon that is disparately prevalent amongst Indigenous populations. While there is a growing body of literature investigating the extrinsic contributors to obesity, there is a lack of evidence to elucidate intrinsic drivers in the context of an Indigenous population. METHODS: Qualitative research theory, inclusive of Indigenous knowledge systems, was applied to the narratives of 15 Indigenous (Māori) people aged between 18 and 65 to contextualise their understandings of obesity...
May 9, 2017: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496116/antinociceptive-effects-of-caloric-restriction-on-post-incisional-pain-in-nonobese-rats
#13
Yue Liu, Yuan Ni, Wei Zhang, Yu-E Sun, Zhengliang Ma, Xiaoping Gu
Caloric restriction (CR) increases lifespan, retards physiological signs of aging, and delays a variety of diseases. Reduction of inflammatory response was proposed as one of the molecular mechanisms for how CR exerts beneficial effects. The present study investigated the effects of CR on postoperative pain in rats. Adult nonobese rats were divided into two dietary groups, an ad libitum fed group (AL) and a caloric restriction group (CR) that was provided with 60% of the food intake of AL rats. After 6 weeks, the effects of CR on pain behaviors and inflammation induced by plantar incision were examined...
May 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495608/short-term-caloric-restriction-exerts-neuroprotective-effects-following-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-by-promoting-autophagy-and-inhibiting-astrocyte-activation
#14
Yuan Liu, Rong Wang, Zhiwei Zhao, Wen Dong, Xu Zhang, Xi Chen, Lina Ma
Cognitive deficits may occur after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), but effective treatment modalities are presently unavailable. Caloric restriction (CR) has beneficial effects on neurodegenerative diseases and brain injury. However, the underlying mechanisms have not yet been clearly defined. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the short-term effects of CR treatment on cognitive function in mice after mTBI. Forty-five 12-week-old C57/BL6 mice were subjected to closed-head mTBI using a weight drop device...
May 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492544/halofuginone-dually-regulates-autophagic-flux-through-nutrient-sensing-pathways-in-colorectal-cancer
#15
Guo-Qing Chen, Rui-Hong Gong, Da-Jian Yang, Ge Zhang, Ai-Ping Lu, Siu-Cheong Yan, Shu-Hai Lin, Zhao-Xiang Bian
Autophagy has a key role in metabolism and impacts on tumorigenesis. Our previous study found that halofuginone (HF) exerts anticancer activity in colorectal cancer (CRC) by downregulating Akt/mTORC1 (mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1) signaling pathway. But whether and how HF regulates autophagy and metabolism to inhibit cancer growth remains an open question. Here, we unveil that HF activates ULK1 by downregulation of its phosphorylation site at Ser757 through Akt/mTORC1 signaling pathway, resulting in induction of autophagic flux under nutrient-rich condition...
May 11, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476525/the-effects-of-aging-in-the-hippocampus-and-cognitive-decline
#16
REVIEW
Luis E B Bettio, Luckshi Rajendran, Joana Gil-Mohapel
Aging is a natural process that is associated with cognitive decline as well as functional and social impairments. One structure of particular interest when considering aging and cognitive decline is the hippocampus, a brain region known to play an important role in learning and memory consolidation as well as in affective behaviours and mood regulation, and where both functional and structural plasticity (e.g., neurogenesis) occur well into adulthood. Neurobiological alterations seen in the aging hippocampus including increased oxidative stress and neuroinflammation, altered intracellular signalling and gene expression, as well as reduced neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity, are thought to be associated with age-related cognitive decline...
May 2, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475596/long-term-rebaudioside-a-treatment-does-not-alter-circadian-activity-rhythms-adiposity-or-insulin-action-in-male-mice
#17
Thomas H Reynolds, Rachelle A Soriano, Obadi A Obadi, Stanley Murkland, Bernard Possidente
Obesity is a major public health problem that is highly associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, two conditions associated with circadian disruption. To date, dieting is one of the only interventions that result in substantial weight loss, but restricting caloric intake is difficult to maintain long-term. The use of artificial sweeteners, particularly in individuals that consume sugar sweetened beverages (energy drinks, soda), can reduce caloric intake and possibly facilitate weight loss. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of the artificial sweetener, rebaudioside A (Reb-A), on circadian rhythms, in vivo insulin action, and the susceptibility to diet-induced obesity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475159/acute-vitamin-d%C3%A2-supplementation-in-severe-obesity-evaluation-of-multimeric-adiponectin
#18
Stefania Mai, Gillian E Walker, Roberta Vietti, Stefania Cattaldo, Chiara Mele, Lorenzo Priano, Alessandro Mauro, Gianni Bona, Gianluca Aimaretti, Massimo Scacchi, Paolo Marzullo
Obesity predisposes to vitamin D deficiency (VDD) and glucose abnormalities. It is currently debated if vitamin D administration may improve glucose homeostasis by interacting with modulators of insulin sensitivity, such as adiponectin and its oligomers. In a 4-week inpatient study on a metabolic rehabilitation program, consisting of individualized caloric restriction and aerobic physical exercise in obese subjects with VDD, we assessed the acute effects of 600,000 IU cholecalciferol given per os VD group, 12 subjects; body mass index (BMI) 42...
May 5, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461102/effect-of-caloric-restriction-on-plasma-melatonin-levels-in-aged-rhesus-macaques
#19
Nona Aghazadeh-Sanai, Jodi L Downs, Julie A Mattison, Donald K Ingram, Steven G Kohama, Henryk F Urbanski
In this study, we examined the 24-hour plasma melatonin patterns of young adult (∼11 years of age) and old (∼24 years of age) rhesus macaques, and determined how they would be influenced by 30% caloric restriction (CR). Well-defined 24-hour plasma melatonin rhythms were observed in all the males but only the old animals showed significant attenuation of night-time melatonin levels. Moreover, 4.5 years of CR failed to prevent the age-associated decline in plasma melatonin levels in the old males and caused a significant decrease in the young adult males...
July 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460579/management-of-weight-loss-in-obesity-associated-male-infertility-a-spotlight-on-bariatric-surgery
#20
Firass Abiad, Johnny Awwad, Hussein A Abbas, Dina Zebian, Ghina Ghazeeri
In recent years, there has been a paralleled increase between male obesity and infertility rates. Obesity is associated with impaired hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, aberrant semen parameters, and subfertility or infertility. Weight loss is strongly recommended for the management of obesity-associated infertility. Lifestyle modifications that include caloric restriction and increased physical activity have a short-lived impact. Bariatric surgery is a better and more durable weight loss alternative. Comprehensive information about the benefits of weight loss on obesity-associated male infertility following bariatric surgery is still emerging...
May 2, 2017: Human Fertility: Journal of the British Fertility Society
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