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Caloric restriction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715436/use-of-water-turnover-method-to-measure-mother-s-milk-flow-in-a-rat-model-application-to-dams-receiving-a-low-protein-diet-during-gestation-and-lactation
#1
Thomas Sevrin, Marie-Cécile Alexandre-Gouabau, Dominique Darmaun, Antoine Palvadeau, Agnès André, Patrick Nguyen, Khadija Ouguerram, Clair-Yves Boquien
Assessment of milk production is of utmost relevance for pediatricians and scientists interested in early life nutrition. The weight-suckle-weight (WSW) method, which consists of weighing babies before and after they suckle their mother, uses the difference in body weight as an estimate of milk intake. However, this is prone to many sources of error. In the current study, we used for the first time the water turnover method and compartmental analysis with deuterated water (D2O) as a non-toxic tracer to quantify in vivo milk production in a rat model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713531/the-effects-of-fasting-during-ramadan-on-the-concentration-of-serotonin-dopamine-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-and-nerve-growth-factor
#2
Abdolhossein Bastani, Sadegh Rajabi, Fatemeh Kianimarkani
Neurotransmitters and neurotrophic factors are signaling molecules that play a crucial role in cell proliferation, differentiation, survival and functions of neurons. It is believed that caloric restriction could help the health of the nervous system by affecting the synthesis of neurotrophins and neurotransmitter and oxygen radical metabolism. The objective was to investigate the plasma levels of serotonin, dopamine, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and nerve growth factor (NGF) in 29 healthy fasted subjects (22 women and 7 men) during the month of fasting in Ramadan...
June 23, 2017: Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711659/exercise-initiated-after-the-onset-of-insulin-resistance-improves-trabecular-microarchitecture-and-cortical-bone-biomechanics-of-the-tibia-in-hyperphagic-otsuka-long-evans-tokushima-fatty-rats
#3
Laura C Ortinau, Melissa A Linden, Rebecca K Dirkes, R Scott Rector, Pamela S Hinton
The present study extends our previous findings that exercise, which prevents the onset of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D), also prevents the detrimental effects of T2D on whole-bone and tissue-level strength. Our objective was to determine whether exercise improves bone's structural and material properties if insulin resistance is already present in the Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat. The OLETF rat is hyperphagic due to a loss-of-function mutation in cholecystokinin-1 receptor (CCK-1 receptor), which leads to progressive obesity, insulin resistance and T2D after the majority of skeletal growth is complete...
July 12, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704966/the-role-of-ghrelin-and-ghrelin-signaling-in-aging
#4
REVIEW
Marie Amitani, Haruka Amitani, Kai-Chun Cheng, Timothy Sean Kairupan, Nanami Sameshima, Ippei Shimoshikiryo, Kimiko Mizuma, Natasya Trivena Rokot, Yasuhito Nerome, Tetsuhiro Owaki, Akihiro Asakawa, Akio Inui
With our aging society, more people hope for a long and healthy life. In recent years, researchers have focused on healthy longevity factors. In particular, calorie restriction delays aging, reduces mortality, and extends life. Ghrelin, which is secreted during fasting, is well known as an orexigenic peptide. Because ghrelin is increased by caloric restriction, ghrelin may play an important role in the mechanism of longevity mediated by calorie restriction. In this review, we will discuss the role of orexigenic peptides with a particular focus on ghrelin...
July 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695747/novel-strategies-for-anti-aging-drug-discovery
#5
Komal Saraswat, Syed Ibrahim Rizvi
Scientific achievements in the last few decades, leading to effective therapeutic interventions, have dramatically improved human life expectancy. Consequently, aging has become a significant problem and represents the major risk factor for most human pathologies including diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders, and cancer. Scientific discoveries over the past two decades have been instrumental in dissecting molecular mechanism(s) which play important roles in determining longevity. The same understanding has also led to the acknowledgement of the plurality of 'causes' which act either alone or in combination to create the condition which can be defined as 'aging'...
July 11, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693568/anorexia-nervosa-and-cancer-a-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-observational-studies
#6
Ferrán Catalá-López, Brian Hutton, Jane A Driver, Manuel Ridao, José M Valderas, Ricard Gènova-Maleras, Jaume Forés-Martos, Adolfo Alonso-Arroyo, Diego Macías Saint-Gerons, Eduard Vieta, Alfonso Valencia, Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos
BACKGROUND: Anorexia nervosa is characterized by a severe restriction of caloric intake, low body weight, fear of gaining weight or of becoming fat, and disturbance of body image. Pathogenesis of the disorder may include genetic predisposition, hormonal changes and a combination of environmental, psychosocial, and cultural factors. Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. At present, no systematic reviews and meta-analyses have evaluated the risk of cancer in people with anorexia nervosa...
July 11, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683292/mice-under-caloric-restriction-self-impose-a-temporal-restriction-of-food-intake-as-revealed-by-an-automated-feeder-system
#7
Victoria A Acosta-Rodríguez, Marleen H M de Groot, Filipa Rijo-Ferreira, Carla B Green, Joseph S Takahashi
Caloric restriction (CR) extends lifespan in mammals, yet the mechanisms underlying its beneficial effects remain unknown. The manner in which CR has been implemented in longevity experiments is variable, with both timing and frequency of meals constrained by work schedules. It is commonplace to find that nocturnal rodents are fed during the daytime and meals are spaced out, introducing prolonged fasting intervals. Since implementation of feeding paradigms over the lifetime is logistically difficult, automation is critical, but existing systems are expensive and not amenable to scale...
July 5, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679529/timing-of-caloric-intake-during-weight-loss-differentially-affects-striatal-dopamine-transporter-and-thalamic-serotonin-transporter-binding
#8
Ruth I Versteeg, Anouk Schrantee, Sofie M Adriaanse, Unga A Unmehopa, Jan Booij, Liesbeth Reneman, Eric Fliers, Susanne E la Fleur, Mireille J Serlie
Recent studies have shown that meal timing throughout the day contributes to maintaining or regaining weight after hypocaloric diets. Although brain serotonin and dopamine are well known to be involved in regulating feeding, it is unknown whether meal timing during energy restriction affects these neurotransmitter systems. We studied the effect of a 4 wk hypocaloric diet with either 50% of daily calories consumed at breakfast (BF group) or at dinner (D group) on hypothalamic and thalamic serotonin transporter (SERT) binding and on striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) binding...
July 5, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677323/caloric-restriction-impacts-plasma-micrornas-in-rhesus-monkeys
#9
Augusto Schneider, Joseph M Dhahbi, Hani Atamna, Josef P Clark, Ricki J Colman, Rozalyn M Anderson
Caloric restriction (CR) is one of the most robust interventions shown to delay aging in diverse species, including rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Identification of factors involved in CR brings a promise of translatability to human health and aging. Here, we show that CR induced a profound change in abundance of circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) linked to growth and insulin signaling pathway, suggesting that miRNAs are involved in CR's mechanisms of action in primates. Deep sequencing of plasma RNA extracts enriched for short species revealed a total of 243 unique species of miRNAs including 47 novel species...
July 5, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677234/anti-aging-pharmacology-in-cutaneous-wound-healing-effects-of-metformin-resveratrol-and-rapamycin-by-local-application
#10
Pan Zhao, Bing-Dong Sui, Nu Liu, Ya-Jie Lv, Chen-Xi Zheng, Yong-Bo Lu, Wen-Tao Huang, Cui-Hong Zhou, Ji Chen, Dan-Lin Pang, Dong-Dong Fei, Kun Xuan, Cheng-Hu Hu, Yan Jin
Cutaneous wounds are among the most common soft tissue injuries and are particularly hard to heal in aging. Caloric restriction (CR) is well documented to extend longevity; pharmacologically, profound rejuvenative effects of CR mimetics have been uncovered, especially metformin (MET), resveratrol (RSV), and rapamycin (RAPA). However, locally applied impacts and functional differences of these agents on wound healing remain to be established. Here, we discovered that chronic topical administration of MET and RSV, but not RAPA, accelerated wound healing with improved epidermis, hair follicles, and collagen deposition in young rodents, and MET exerted more profound effects...
July 5, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674003/genome-sequence-of-a-diabetes-prone-rodent-reveals-a-mutation-hotspot-around-the-parahox-gene-cluster
#11
Adam D Hargreaves, Long Zhou, Josef Christensen, Ferdinand Marlétaz, Shiping Liu, Fang Li, Peter Gildsig Jansen, Enrico Spiga, Matilde Thye Hansen, Signe Vendelbo Horn Pedersen, Shameek Biswas, Kyle Serikawa, Brian A Fox, William R Taylor, John Frederick Mulley, Guojie Zhang, R Scott Heller, Peter W H Holland
The sand rat Psammomys obesus is a gerbil species native to deserts of North Africa and the Middle East, and is constrained in its ecology because high carbohydrate diets induce obesity and type II diabetes that, in extreme cases, can lead to pancreatic failure and death. We report the sequencing of the sand rat genome and discovery of an unusual, extensive, and mutationally biased GC-rich genomic domain. This highly divergent genomic region encompasses several functionally essential genes, and spans the ParaHox cluster which includes the insulin-regulating homeobox gene Pdx1...
July 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671671/wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-activation-and-macrophage-induction-during-liver-cancer-development-following-steatosis
#12
A Debebe, V Medina, C-Y Chen, I M Mahajan, C Jia, D Fu, L He, N Zeng, B W Stiles, C-L Chen, M Wang, K-R Aggarwal, Z Peng, J Huang, J Chen, M Li, T Dong, S Atkins, Z Borok, W Yuan, K Machida, C Ju, M Kahn, D Johnson, B L Stiles
Obesity confers an independent risk for carcinogenesis. In the liver, steatosis often proceeds cancer formation; however, the mechanisms by which steatosis promotes carcinogenesis is unknown. We hypothesize that steatosis alters the microenvironment to promote proliferation of tumor initiating cells (TICs) and carcinogenesis. We used several liver cancer models to address the mechanisms underlying the role of obesity in cancer and verified these findings in patient populations. Using bioinformatics analysis and verified by biochemical assays, we identified that hepatosteatosis resulting from either Pten deletion or transgenic expression of HCV core/NS5A proteins, promotes the activation of Wnt/β-catenin...
July 3, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665330/effects-of-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-on-autophagic-lipolysis-in-adipocytes
#13
Sang-Nam Kim, Hyun-Jung Kwon, Seun Akindehin, Hyun Woo Jeong, Yun-Hee Lee
Previous studies demonstrated effects of green tea on weight loss; however, green tea-induced modulation of adipocyte function is not fully understood. Here, we investigated effects of the major green tea phytochemical, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on triglyceride contents, lipolysis, mitochondrial function, and autophagy, in adipocytes differentiated from C₃H10T1/2 cells and immortalized pre-adipocytes in vitro. EGCG reduced the triglycerol content significantly in adipocytes by 25%, comparable to the nutrient starvation state...
June 30, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658942/cellular-senescence-biomarker-p16ink4a-cell-burden-in-thigh-adipose-is-associated-with-poor-physical-function-in-older-women
#14
Jamie N Justice, Heather Gregory, Tamar Tchkonia, Nathan K LeBrasseur, James L Kirkland, Stephen B Kritchevsky, Barbara J Nicklas
Background: Ample evidence implicates cellular senescence as a contributor to frailty and functional decline in rodents, but considerable effort remains to translate these findings to human aging. Methods: We quantified senescence biomarker p16INK4a-expressing cells in thigh adipose tissue obtained from older women previously enrolled in a 5-month resistance training intervention, with or without caloric restriction (RT±CR, n=11 baseline, 8 pre-post-intervention pairs)...
June 27, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653356/arcuate-nucleus-homeostatic-systems-reflect-blood-leptin-concentration-but-not-feeding-behaviour-during-scheduled-feeding-on-a-high-fat-diet-in-mice
#15
T Bake, J Baron, J S Duncan, D G A Morgan, J G Mercer
Hypothalamic homeostatic and forebrain reward-related genes were examined in the context of scheduled meal feeding without caloric restriction in C57BL/6 mice. Mice fed ad libitum but allowed access to a palatable high fat diet for 2 h a day rapidly adapted their feeding behaviour and consumed approximately 80% of their daily caloric intake during this 2 h scheduled feed. Gene expression levels were examined during either the first or second hour of scheduled feeding vs. 24 h ad libitum feeding on the same high fat diet...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651373/sex-dependent-differences-in-liver-and-gut-metabolomic-profiles-with-acarbose-and-calorie-restriction-in-c57bl-6-mice
#16
Victoria K Gibbs, Rachel A Brewer, Nathan D Miyasaki, Amit Patki, Daniel L Smith
Acarbose, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor used in treating type 2 diabetes, impairs complex carbohydrate digestion and absorption and extends lifespan in mice (without a requisite reduction in food intake). To assess sex-differential effects coincident with calorie restriction versus a non-restricted longevity enhancing intervention, we evaluated the metabolite profiles (by LC/MS) from livers and cecal contents of C57BL/6J mice (n=4/sex/group,) which were maintained for 10 months under one of three diet treatments: ad libitum control diet (CON), ad libitum control diet containing 0...
June 23, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649104/-aging-and-homeostasis-development-of-novel-adipor-targeted-drugs-with-exercise-mimicking-and-anti-aging-properties
#17
Miki Okada-Iwabu, Toshimasa Yamauchi, Masato Iwabu, Takashi Kadowaki
We have so far clarified that adiponectin, an adipocyte-secreted physiologically active substance, is decreased with the onset of obesity and that lifestyle-related diseases are primarily accounted for by the systemically decreased action of adiponectin/adiponectin receptors(AdipoRs). The activation of adiponectin/AdipoR has caloric restrictive and exercise-mimicking effects thus prolonging lifespan. We were the first in the world to succeed in identifying small-molecule compounds that serve as seed compounds for candidate AdipoR-activating drugs...
2017: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648985/aging-and-caloric-restriction-research-a-biological-perspective-with-translational-potential
#18
REVIEW
Priya Balasubramanian, Porsha R Howell, Rozalyn M Anderson
Aging as a research pursuit is fairly new compared with traditional lines of medical research. A growing field of investigators is focused on understanding how changes in tissue biology, physiology, and systemic homeostasis, conspire to create increased vulnerability to disease as a function of age. Aging research as a discipline is necessarily broad; in part because aging itself is multi-faceted and in part because different model systems are employed to define the underlying biology. In this review we outline aspects of aging research that are likely to uncover the pivotal events leading to age-related disease vulnerability...
June 19, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642067/caloric-restriction-protects-livers-from-ischemia-reperfusion-damage-by-preventing-ca-2-induced-mitochondrial-permeability-transition
#19
Sergio L Menezes-Filho, Ignacio Amigo, Fernanda M Prado, Natalie C Ferreira, Marcia K Koike, Isabella F D Pinto, Sayuri Miyamoto, Edna F S Montero, Marisa H G Medeiros, Alicia J Kowaltowski
Caloric restriction (CR) promotes lifespan extension and protects against many pathological conditions, including ischemia/reperfusion injury to the brain, heart and kidney. In the liver, ischemia/reperfusion damage is related to excessive mitochondrial Ca(2+) accumulation, leading to the mitochondrial permeability transition. Indeed, liver mitochondria isolated from animals maintained on CR for 4 months were protected against permeability transition and capable of taking up Ca(2+) at faster rates and in larger quantities...
June 19, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638409/differential-fasting-plasma-glucose-and-ketone-body-levels-in-ghrko-versus-3xtg-ad-mice-a-potential-contributor-to-aging-related-cognitive-status
#20
Chelsea M Griffith, Lauren N Macklin, Andrzej Bartke, Peter R Patrylo
Cognitive function declines with age and appears to correlate with decreased cerebral metabolic rate (CMR). Caloric restriction, an antiaging manipulation that extends life-span and can preserve cognitive function, is associated with decreased glucose uptake, decreased lactate levels, and increased ketone body (KB) levels in the brain. Since the majority of brain nutrients come from the periphery, this study examined whether the capacity to regulate peripheral glucose levels and KB production differs in animals with successful cognitive aging (growth hormone receptor knockouts, GHRKOs) versus unsuccessful cognitive aging (the 3xTg-AD mouse model of Alzheimer's disease)...
2017: International Journal of Endocrinology
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