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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455575/exercise-counteracts-the-homeostatic-decrease-in-thermogenesis-caused-by-caloric-restriction-in-sheep
#1
John-Paul Fuller-Jackson, Iain J Clarke, Alexandra Rao, Belinda A Henry
Caloric restriction causes a homeostatic reduction in thermogenesis. We aimed to determine whether exercise could counteract this. We studied four groups of normal-weight ewes ( n = 5), including control sedentary fed ad libitum, exercise fed ad libitum (30 min/d, 5 d/wk), diet-restricted (70% of ad libitum food intake), and combined diet and exercise. Temperature probes implanted in sternal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue and skeletal muscle measured thermogenesis. After the 4-wk intervention, hypothalami were collected for in situ hybridization, and fat and muscle biopsies were collected for real-time PCR and Western blotting...
February 13, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450484/neurological-manifestations-among-us-government-personnel-reporting-directional-audible-and-sensory-phenomena-in-havana-cuba
#2
Randel L Swanson, Stephen Hampton, Judith Green-McKenzie, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, M Sean Grady, Ragini Verma, Rosette Biester, Diana Duda, Ronald L Wolf, Douglas H Smith
Importance: From late 2016 through August 2017, US government personnel serving on diplomatic assignment in Havana, Cuba, reported neurological symptoms associated with exposure to auditory and sensory phenomena. Objective: To describe the neurological manifestations that followed exposure to an unknown energy source associated with auditory and sensory phenomena. Design, Setting, and Participants: Preliminary results from a retrospective case series of US government personnel in Havana, Cuba...
February 15, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445415/curcumin-and-piperine-supplementation-of-obese-mice-under-caloric-restriction-modulates-body-fat-and-interleukin-1%C3%AE
#3
Taiki Miyazawa, Kiyotaka Nakagawa, Sharon H Kim, Michael J Thomas, Ligi Paul, Jean-Marc Zingg, Gregory G Dolnikowski, Susan B Roberts, Fumiko Kimura, Teruo Miyazawa, Angelo Azzi, Mohsen Meydani
Background: Dietary bioactive compounds capable of improving metabolic profiles would be of great value, especially for overweight individuals undergoing a caloric restriction (CR) regimen. Curcumin (Cur), a possible anti-obesity compound, and piperine (Pip), a plausible enhancer of Cur's bioavailability and efficacy, may be candidate agents for controlling body fat, metabolism and low grade inflammation. Methods: 47 eight-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high fat diet (HFD) for 23 weeks to induce obesity...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445118/n-1-methylnicotinamide-is-a-signalling-molecule-produced-in-skeletal-muscle-coordinating-energy-metabolism
#4
Kristoffer Ström, David Morales-Alamo, Filip Ottosson, Anna Edlund, Line Hjort, Sine W Jörgensen, Peter Almgren, Yuedan Zhou, Marcos Martin-Rincon, Carl Ekman, Alberto Pérez-López, Ola Ekström, Ismael Perez-Suarez, Markus Mattiasson, Pedro de Pablos-Velasco, Nikolay Oskolkov, Emma Ahlqvist, Nils Wierup, Lena Eliasson, Allan Vaag, Leif Groop, Karin G Stenkula, Céline Fernandez, Jose A L Calbet, Hans-Christer Holmberg, Ola Hansson
Obesity is a major health problem, and although caloric restriction and exercise are successful strategies to lose adipose tissue in obese individuals, a simultaneous decrease in skeletal muscle mass, negatively effects metabolism and muscle function. To deeper understand molecular events occurring in muscle during weight-loss, we measured the expressional change in human skeletal muscle following a combination of severe caloric restriction and exercise over 4 days in 15 Swedish men. Key metabolic genes were regulated after the intervention, indicating a shift from carbohydrate to fat metabolism...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443403/proceedings-of-the-2017-aspen-research-workshop-gastric-bypass-role-of-the-gut
#5
REVIEW
Ajay Kumar Jain, Carel W le Roux, Puneet Puri, Ali Tavakkoli, Nana Gletsu-Miller, Blandine Laferrère, Richard Kellermayer, John K DiBaise, Robert G Martindale, Bruce M Wolfe
The goal of the National Institutes of Health-funded American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 2017 research workshop (RW) "Gastric Bypass: Role of the Gut" was to focus on the exciting research evaluating gut-derived signals in modulating outcomes after bariatric surgery. Although gastric bypass surgery has undoubted positive effects, the mechanistic basis of improved outcomes cannot be solely explained by caloric restriction. Emerging data suggest that bile acid metabolic pathways, luminal contents, energy balance, gut mucosal integrity, as well as the gut microbiota are significantly modulated after bariatric surgery and may be responsible for the variable outcomes, each of which was rigorously evaluated...
February 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439622/caloric-restriction-dramatically-stalls-lesion-growth-in-mice-with-induced-endometriosis
#6
Bo Yin, Xishi Liu, Sun-Wei Guo
Caloric restriction (CR) has been demonstrated to have many health-beneficial effects in many species, but whether CR can impede the development of endometriosis is unknown. To test the hypothesis that CR can impede the growth of endometriotic lesions and fibrogenesis, we conducted 2 experiments. In experiment 1, 20 female Balb/C mice were randomly assigned to either ad libitum (AL) group that was fed AL or to CR group that was fed 30% less calories than that of AL mice. Two weeks after the implementation of the dietary intervention, endometriosis was induced by intraperitoneal injection of endometrial fragments...
January 1, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439088/metabolic-effects-of-short-term-caloric-restriction-in-mice-with-reduced-insulin-gene-dosage
#7
Marleen B Dommerholt, Derek A Dionne, Daria F Hutchinson, Janine K Kruit, James D Johnson
Caloric restriction (CR) is the only environmental intervention with robust evidence that it extends lifespan and delays the symptoms of ageing, but its mechanisms are incompletely understood. Based on the prolonged longevity of knockout models, it was hypothesized that the insulin-IGF pathway could be a target for developing a CR mimic. This study aimed to test whether CR has additive effects on glucose homeostasis and beta-cell function in mice with reduced insulin gene dosage. To study models with a range of basal insulin levels, wildtype C57BL/6J and mice on an Ins2 -/- background, were put on 8 weeks of 40% CR...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438540/influence-of-sleep-restriction-on-weight-loss-outcomes-associated-with-caloric-restriction
#8
Xuewen Wang, Joshua R Sparks, Kimberly P Bowyer, Shawn D Youngstedt
Study Objectives: To examine the effects of moderate sleep restriction on body weight, body composition, and metabolic variables in individuals undergoing caloric restriction. Methods: Overweight or obese adults were randomized to an 8-week caloric restriction (CR) regimen alone (n=15) or combined with sleep restriction (CR+SR) (n=21). All participants were instructed to restrict daily calorie intake to 95% of their measured resting metabolic rate. Participants in the CR+SR group were also instructed to reduce time in bed on 5 nights and to sleep ad libitum on the other 2 nights each week...
February 9, 2018: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433861/metabolic-profile-of-children-with-extrahepatic-portal-vein-obstruction-undergoing-meso-rex-bypass
#9
Timothy B Lautz, Simon Eaton, Lisa Keys, Joy Ito, Mario Polo, Jonathan C K Wells, Agostino Pierro, Riccardo A Superina
BACKGROUND: Extrahepatic portal vein obstruction (EHPVO) in children is often associated with growth restriction, which improves after the restoration of portal venous flow with a meso-Rex bypass, but the physiologic mechanism is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of growth delay in children with EHPVO by detailing the metabolic and nutritional profile before and after meso-Rex bypass. METHODS: Twenty consecutive children with EHPVO were prospectively studied before and 1 year after meso-Rex bypass...
March 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424490/effects-of-2%C3%A2-years-of-caloric-restriction-on-oxidative-status-assessed-by-urinary-f2-isoprostanes-the-calerie-2-randomized-clinical-trial
#10
Dora Il'yasova, Luigi Fontana, Manjushri Bhapkar, Carl F Pieper, Ivan Spasojevic, Leanne M Redman, Sai Krupa Das, Kim M Huffman, William E Kraus
Calorie restriction (CR) without malnutrition slows aging in animal models. Oxidative stress reduction was proposed to mediate CR effects. CR effect on urinary F2-isoprostanes, validated oxidative stress markers, was assessed in CALERIE, a two-year randomized controlled trial. Healthy volunteers (n = 218) were randomized to prescribed 25% CR (n = 143) or ad libitum control (AL, n = 75) stratifying the randomization schedule by site, sex, and BMI. F2-isoprostanes were quantified using LC-MS/MS in morning, fasted urine specimens at baseline, at 12 and 24 months...
February 9, 2018: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422204/the-world-health-organization-fetal-growth-charts-concept-findings-interpretation-and-application
#11
REVIEW
Torvid Kiserud, Alexandra Benachi, Kurt Hecher, Rogelio González Perez, José Carvalho, Gilda Piaggio, Lawrence D Platt
Ultrasound biometry is an important clinical tool for the identification, monitoring, and management of fetal growth restriction and development of macrosomia. This is even truer in populations in which perinatal morbidity and mortality rates are high, which is a reason that much effort is put onto making the technique available everywhere, including low-income societies. Until recently, however, commonly used reference ranges were based on single populations largely from industrialized countries. Thus, the World Health Organization prioritized the establishment of fetal growth charts for international use...
February 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410348/caloric-restriction-improves-glucose-homeostasis-yet-increases-cardiometabolic-risk-in-caveolin-1-deficient-mice
#12
Korapat Mayurasakorn, Nurul Hasanah, Tsuyoshi Homma, Mika Homma, Isis Katayama Rangel, Amanda E Garza, Jose R Romero, Gail K Adler, Gordon H Williams, Luminita H Pojoga
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The plasma membrane protein caveolin-1 (CAV-1) has been shown to be involved in modulating glucose homeostasis and the actions of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Caloric restriction (CR) is widely accepted as an effective therapeutic approach to improve insulin sensitivity and reduce the severity of diabetes. Recent data indicate that polymorphisms of the CAV-1 gene are strongly associated with insulin resistance, hypertension and metabolic abnormalities in non-obese individuals...
February 1, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410017/differential-response-to-caloric-restriction-of-retroperitoneal-epididymal-and-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-depots-in-rats
#13
Takumi Narita, Masaki Kobayashi, Kaho Itakura, Rei Itagawa, Riho Kabaya, Yuka Sudo, Naoyuki Okita, Yoshikazu Higami
The beneficial actions of caloric restriction (CR) are partially mediated by metabolic remodeling of white adipose tissue (WAT). Recently, we showed that CR enhances de novo fatty acid (FA) biosynthesis and mitochondrial biogenesis, particularly in WAT. Here, to better understand the response of WAT to CR, we compare the effects of CR on three WAT depots in rats: retroperitoneal (rWAT), epididymal (eWAT) and subcutaneous (sWAT). Computed tomography and histological analysis showed that CR reduced the volume and average size of rWAT adipocytes...
February 1, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409011/cardiomyocyte-specific-deletion-of-sirt1-gene-sensitizes-myocardium-to-ischemia-and-reperfusion-injury
#14
Lin Wang, Nanhu Quan, Wanqing Sun, Xu Chen, Courtney Cates, Thomas Rousselle, Xinchun Zhou, Xuezhong Zhao, Ji Li
Aim: A longevity gene, Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) have common activators such as caloric restriction, oxidative stress and exercise. The objective of this study is to characterize the role of cardiomyocyte SIRT1 in age-related impaired ischemic AMPK activation and increased susceptibility to ischemic insults. Methods and Results: Mice were subjected to ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery for in vivo ischemic models...
February 2, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405868/examination-of-the-relationships-between-dietary-restraint-alcohol-and-adverse-problems-among-women
#15
Laura J Buchholz, Janis H Crowther, Jeffrey A Ciesla
OBJECTIVE: Women who report greater chronic dieting consume more alcohol, drink more frequently, and experience greater problems than women who report less chronic dieting. Alcohol may also temporarily disrupt a woman's dietary rules, leading to increased caloric intake and subsequent restriction. This study examined whether alcohol use mediated the relationship between dietary restraint and alcohol problems in a woman's daily life. PARTICIPANTS: Women (N = 59) completed the study by the fall of 2013...
February 6, 2018: Journal of American College Health: J of ACH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387256/the-effects-of-diurnal-intermittent-fasting-on-the-wake-promoting-neurotransmitter-orexin-a
#16
Aljohara S Almeneessier, Mohammed Alzoghaibi, Abdulrahman A BaHammam, Mahmoud G Ibrahim, Awad H Olaish, Samar Z Nashwan, Ahmed S BaHammam
BACKGROUND: Food restriction has been demonstrated to increase the alertness in different species and to increase the levels of the wake-promoting neurotransmitter orexin. We hypothesized that diurnal intermittent fasting (DIF) increases orexin-A levels during fasting. Therefore, we conducted this study to assess the effects of DIF, during the month of Ramadan, on orexin, while controlling for lifestyle changes that may accompany Ramadan such as sleep duration, bedtime and wake time, energy expenditure, light exposure, and food...
January 2018: Annals of Thoracic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386128/caloric-restriction-and-diet-induced-weight-loss-do-not-induce-browning-of-human-subcutaneous-white-adipose-tissue-in-women-and-men-with-obesity
#17
Valentin Barquissau, Benjamin Léger, Diane Beuzelin, Frédéric Martins, Ez-Zoubir Amri, Didier F Pisani, Wim H M Saris, Arne Astrup, Jean-José Maoret, Jason Iacovoni, Sébastien Déjean, Cédric Moro, Nathalie Viguerie, Dominique Langin
Caloric restriction (CR) is standard lifestyle therapy in obesity management. CR-induced weight loss improves the metabolic profile of individuals with obesity. In mice, occurrence of beige fat cells in white fat depots favors a metabolically healthy phenotype, and CR promotes browning of white adipose tissue (WAT). Here, human subcutaneous abdominal WAT samples were analyzed in 289 individuals with obesity following a two-phase dietary intervention consisting of an 8 week very low calorie diet and a 6-month weight-maintenance phase...
January 23, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385177/increased-survival-of-honeybees-in-the-laboratory-after-simultaneous-exposure-to-low-doses-of-pesticides-and-bacteria
#18
Franziska Dickel, Daniel Münch, Gro Vang Amdam, Johanna Mappes, Dalial Freitak
Recent studies of honeybees and bumblebees have examined combinatory effects of different stressors, as insect pollinators are naturally exposed to multiple stressors. At the same time the potential influences of simultaneously occurring agricultural agents on insect pollinator health remain largely unknown. Due to different farming methods, and the drift of applied agents and manure, pollinators are most probably exposed to insecticides but also bacteria from organic fertilizers at the same time. We orally exposed honeybee workers to sub-lethal doses of the insecticide thiacloprid and two strains of the bacterium Enterococcus faecalis, which can occur in manure from farming animals...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379054/aging-extension-and-modifications-of-lipid-metabolism-in-the-monogonont-rotifer-brachionus-koreanus-under-chronic-caloric-restriction
#19
Min-Chul Lee, Jun Chul Park, Deok-Seo Yoon, Jeonghoon Han, Sujin Kang, Shohei Kamizono, Ae-Son Om, Kyung-Hoon Shin, Atsushi Hagiwara, Jae-Seong Lee
To examine the interrelationship of aging extension and modification of lipid metabolism under chronic caloric restriction (CCR; reduced concentration of the green algae Tetraselmis suecica) in the monogonont rotifer Brachionus koreanus, we assessed life cycle parameters, fatty acid composition, and expression of sirtuin and genes related to lipid metabolism. B. koreanus in the 5% T. suecica group showed an increased life span but decreased reproduction. Based on this finding, we chose 5% T. suecica for further experiments and compared the data with those for 100% T...
January 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371440/spermidine-in-health-and-disease
#20
REVIEW
Frank Madeo, Tobias Eisenberg, Federico Pietrocola, Guido Kroemer
Interventions that delay aging and protect from age-associated disease are slowly approaching clinical implementation. Such interventions include caloric restriction mimetics, which are defined as agents that mimic the beneficial effects of dietary restriction while limiting its detrimental effects. One such agent, the natural polyamine spermidine, has prominent cardioprotective and neuroprotective effects and stimulates anticancer immunosurveillance in rodent models. Moreover, dietary polyamine uptake correlates with reduced cardiovascular and cancer-related mortality in human epidemiological studies...
January 26, 2018: Science
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