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Caloric restriction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427248/caloric-restriction-induced-extension-of-chronological-lifespan-requires-intact-respiration-in-budding-yeast
#1
Young-Yon Kwon, Sung-Keun Lee, Cheol-Koo Lee
Caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to extend lifespan and prevent cellular senescence in various species ranging from yeast to humans. Many effects of CR may contribute to extend lifespan. Specifically, CR prevents oxidative damage from reactive oxygen species (ROS) by enhancing mitochondrial function. In this study, we characterized 33 single electron transport chain (ETC) gene-deletion strains to identify CR-induced chronological lifespan (CLS) extension mechanisms. Interestingly, defects in 17 of these 33 ETC genedeleted strains showed loss of both respiratory function and CR-induced CLS extension...
April 20, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419086/low-birth-weight-is-associated-with-impaired-murine-kidney-development-and-function
#2
Christina Barnett, Oluwadara Nnoli, Wasan Abdulmahdi, Lauren Nesi, Michael Shen, Joseph A Zullo, David L Payne, Tala Azar, Parth Dwivedi, Kunzah Syed, Jonathan Gromis, Mark Lipphardt, Edson Jules, Eric L Maranda, Amy Patel, May M Rabadi, Brian B Ratliff
BACKGROUND: Low birth weight (LBW) neonates have impaired kidney development that leaves them susceptible to kidney disease and hypertension during adulthood. The study here identifies events that blunt nephrogenesis and kidney development in the murine LBW neonate. METHODS: We examined survival, kidney development, GFR, gene expression, and cyto-/chemokines in the LBW offspring of malnourished (caloric and protein restricted) pregnant mice. RESULTS: Malnourished pregnant mothers gave birth to LBW neonates that had 40% reduced body weight and 54% decreased survival...
April 18, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415598/caloric-restriction-delays-early-phases-of-carcinogenesis-via-effects-on-the-tissue-microenvironment
#3
Erika Cadoni, Fabio Marongiu, Maura Fanti, Monica Serra, Ezio Laconi
Caloric restriction (CR) is an effective and consistent means to delay aging and the incidence of chronic diseases related to old age, including cancer. However, the precise mechanisms responsible for the beneficial effect of CR on carcinogenic process are yet to be identified.In the present studies the hypothesis was tested that the CR might delay carcinogenesis via modulatory effects exerted on the age-associated, neoplastic-prone tissue microenvironment. Using a well characterized, orthotopic cell transplantation (Tx) system in the rat, preneoplastic hepatocytes isolated from liver nodules were injected into either old syngeneic rats fed ad libitum (AL) or animals of the same age given a CR diet (70% of AL feeding)...
March 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415067/effect-of-whey-protein-in-conjunction-with-a-caloric-restricted-diet-and-resistance-training
#4
Wesley D Dudgeon, Elizabeth P Kelley, Timothy P Scheett
Dudgeon, WD, Kelley, EP, and Scheett, TP. Effect of whey protein in conjunction with a caloric-restricted diet and resistance training. J Strength Cond Res 31(5): 1353-1361, 2017-Caloric-restricted weight loss, especially rapid weight loss, results from a decrease in both lean and fat mass (FM). The goal for many is to lose FM while retaining lean body mass (LBM) and muscular performance thus many turn to supplements. Sixteen resistance-trained men (24 ± 1.6 years of age) completed a 4 d·wk body building style split resistance training program for 8 weeks in conjunction with a pre-exercise, periexercise, and postexercise ingestion of whey protein (WHEY) nutritional supplement or carbohydrate (CON)-based nutritional supplement...
May 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399265/survival-of-the-house-fly-diptera-muscidae-on-truvia-and-other-sweeteners
#5
Michael L Fisher, Fallon E Fowler, Steven S Denning, David W Watson
The house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), is a disease vector of mechanically transmitted pathogens including bacteria, viruses, and protozoans. Opportunities for pathogen transmission can increase as fly longevity increases. Dietary preferences play an important role in insect longevity; therefore, we investigated house fly preferences, sucrose availability, and caloric constraints on house fly longevity. Experimental goals were: 1) to test the effects of calorie restriction on survival of house flies by manipulating concentrations of erythritol (low caloric content) and sucrose (high caloric content), and comparing commercial sweeteners of differing calorie content, 2) to identify house fly preferences for either erythritol or sucrose, and 3) to evaluate the insecticidal activity or toxicity of erythritol on house flies...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399005/effects-of-a-6-month-caloric-restriction-induced-weight-loss-program-in-obese-postmenopausal-women-with-and-without-the-metabolic-syndrome-a-monet-study
#6
Ahmed Ghachem, Denis Prud'homme, Rémi Rabasa-Lhoret, Martin Brochu
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of a caloric restriction (CR) on body composition, lipid profile, and glucose homeostasis in obese postmenopausal women with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS). METHODS: Secondary analyses were performed on 73 inactive obese postmenopausal women (age 57.7 ± 4.8 years; body mass index 32.4 ± 4.6 kg/m) who participated in the 6-month CR arm of a study of the Montreal-Ottawa New Emerging Team. The harmonized MetS definition was used to categorize participants with MetS (n = 20, 27...
April 10, 2017: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398464/caloric-restriction-and-healthy-life-span-frail-phenotype-of-nonhuman-primates-in-the-wisconsin-national-primate-research-center-caloric-restriction-study
#7
Yosuke Yamada, Joseph W Kemnitz, Richard Weindruch, Rozalyn M Anderson, Dale A Schoeller, Ricki J Colman
Calorie restriction without malnutrition increases longevity and delays the onset of age-associated disorders in multiple species. Recently, greater emphasis has been placed on healthy life span and preventing frailty than on longevity. Here, we show the beneficial effect of long-term calorie restriction on frailty in later life in a nonhuman primate. Frail phenotypes were evaluated using metabolic and physical activity data and defined using the Fried index. Shrinking was defined as unintentional weight loss of greater than 5% of body weight...
April 8, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392935/measurement-of-hepatic-insulin-sensitivity-early-after-the-bypass-of-the-proximal-small-bowel-in-humans
#8
A D Miras, R Herring, A Vusirikala, F Shojaee-Moradi, N C Jackson, S Chandaria, S N Jackson, A P Goldstone, N Hakim, A G Patel, A M Umpleby, C W Le Roux
OBJECTIVE: Unlike gastric banding or sleeve gastrectomy procedures, intestinal bypass procedures, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in particular, lead to rapid improvements in glycaemia early after surgery. The bypass of the proximal small bowel may have weight loss and even caloric restriction-independent glucose-lowering properties on hepatic insulin sensitivity. In this first human mechanistic study, we examined this hypothesis by investigating the early effects of the duodeno-jejunal bypass liner (DJBL; GI Dynamics, USA) on the hepatic insulin sensitivity by using the gold standard euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp methodology...
March 2017: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390264/selected-life-extending-interventions-reduce-arterial-cxcl10-and-macrophage-colony-stimulating-factor-in-aged-mouse-arteries
#9
Daniel W Trott, Lisa A Lesniewski, Anthony J Donato
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the industrialized world. Aging is the most predictive risk factor for CVD and is associated with arterial inflammation which contributes to increased CVD risk. Although age-related arterial inflammation has been described in both humans and animals, only a limited number of inflammatory mediators, cytokines and chemokines have been identified. In this investigation we sought to determine whether lifespan extending interventions, including crowded litter early life nutrient deprivation (CL), traditional lifelong caloric restriction (CR) and lifelong Rapamycin treatment (Rap) would attenuate age-related arterial inflammation using multi analyte profiling...
April 5, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388998/menopause-and-exercise-intolerance
#10
REVIEW
Ann R Lurati
Central adiposity and weight gain are common among postmenopausal women. Because of the metabolic changes that many postmenopausal women experience, there can be a decrease in exercise tolerance related to the loss of potent estrogens. This can lead to the development of insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction. Despite the challenges that exercise intolerance may pose for some postmenopausal women, evidence suggests that regular exercise and caloric restriction are crucial for weight management after menopause...
April 2017: Nursing for Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386235/polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-stimulate-de-novo-lipogenesis-and-improve-glucose-homeostasis-during-refeeding-with-high-fat-diet
#11
Raffaella Crescenzo, Arianna Mazzoli, Rosa Cancelliere, Francesca Bianco, Antonia Giacco, Giovanna Liverini, Abdul G Dulloo, Susanna Iossa
Aims: The recovery of body weight after a period of caloric restriction is accompanied by an enhanced efficiency of fat deposition and hyperinsulinemia-which are exacerbated by isocaloric refeeding on a high fat diet rich in saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (SFA-MUFA), and poor in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and associated with a blunting of de novo lipogenesis in adipose tissue and liver. As high fat diets rich in PUFA have been shown to limit the excess fat deposition and improve glucose homeostasis, we investigated here the extent to which de novo lipogenesis in liver and adipose tissues (white and brown), as well as hepatic oxidative stress, are influenced by refeeding on diets rich in PUFA...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381108/-express-amp-activated-kinase-and-the-endogenous-endocannabinoid-system-might-contribute-to-antinociceptive-effects-of-prolonged-moderate-caloric-restriction-in-mice
#12
Tanya Sarah King-Himmelreich, Christine Verena Möser, Miriam Christina Wolters, Julia Schmetzer, Moritz Möller, Yannik Schreiber, Nerea Ferreirós, Gerd Geisslinger, Ellen Niederberger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379325/change-in-bone-mineral-density-during-weight-loss-with-resistance-versus-aerobic-exercise-training-in-older-adults
#13
Kristen M Beavers, Daniel P Beavers, Sarah B Martin, Anthony P Marsh, Mary F Lyles, Leon Lenchik, Sue A Shapses, Barbara J Nicklas
Background: To examine the effect of exercise modality during weight loss on hip and spine bone mineral density (BMD) in overweight and obese, older adults. Methods: This analysis compared data from two 5-month, randomized controlled trials of caloric restriction (CR; inducing 5-10% weight loss) with either resistance training (RT) or aerobic training (AT) in overweight and obese, older adults. Participants in the RT + CR study underwent 3 days/week of 8 upper/lower body exercises (3 sets, 10 repetitions at 70% 1 RM) and participants in the AT+CR study underwent 4 days/week of treadmill walking (30 min at 65-70% heart rate reserve)...
April 3, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373292/caloric-restriction-extends-yeast-chronological-lifespan-by-optimizing-the-snf1-ampk-signaling-pathway
#14
Margaret B Wierman, Nazif Maqani, Erika Strickler, Mingguang Li, Jeffrey S Smith
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the homologous yeast SNF1 complex, are key regulators of energy metabolism that counteract nutrient deficiency and ATP depletion by phosphorylating multiple enzymes and transcription factors that maintain energetic homeostasis. AMPK/SNF1 also promotes longevity in several model organisms, including yeast. Here we investigate the role of yeast SNF1 in mediating the extension of chronological lifespan (CLS) by caloric restriction (CR). We find that SNF1 activity is required throughout the log to stationary phase transition (diauxic shift) for effective CLS extension...
April 3, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371201/ketone-bodies-mimic-the-life-span-extending-properties-of-caloric-restriction
#15
REVIEW
Richard L Veech, Patrick C Bradshaw, Kieran Clarke, William Curtis, Robert Pawlosky, M Todd King
The extension of life span by caloric restriction has been studied across species from yeast and Caenorhabditis elegans to primates. No generally accepted theory has been proposed to explain these observations. Here, we propose that the life span extension produced by caloric restriction can be duplicated by the metabolic changes induced by ketosis. From nematodes to mice, extension of life span results from decreased signaling through the insulin/insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling (IIS) pathway...
April 3, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369078/the-effect-of-meal-frequency-in-a-reduced-energy-regimen-on-the-gastrointestinal-and-appetite-hormones-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-randomised-crossover-study
#16
Lenka Belinova, Hana Kahleova, Hana Malinska, Ondrej Topolcan, Jindra Windrichova, Olena Oliyarnyk, Ludmila Kazdova, Martin Hill, Terezie Pelikanova
BACKGROUND: Appetite and gastrointestinal hormones (GIHs) participate in energy homeostasis, feeding behavior and regulation of body weight. We demonstrated previously the superior effect of a hypocaloric diet regimen with lower meal frequency (B2) on body weight, hepatic fat content, insulin sensitivity and feelings of hunger compared to the same diet divided into six smaller meals a day (A6). Studies with isoenergetic diet regimens indicate that lower meal frequency should also have an effect on fasting and postprandial responses of GIHs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367810/-autophagy-fitness-and-longevity
#17
Lorenzo Galluzzi, José Manuel Bravo-San Pedro, Guido Kroemer
Autophagy is a key mechanism for the maintenance of intracellular and organismal homeostasis. Accordingly, defects in core components of the autophagic machinery are etiologically associated with a variety of human pathologies, including infectious disorders, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative conditions, and cancer. Intriguingly, several maneuvers that increase the lifespan of model organisms in the laboratory, like caloric restriction, do so in an autophagy-dependent manner. Here, we briefly discuss the intimate relationship between the autophagic preservation of intracellular and organismal fitness and healthy aging...
March 2017: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362110/diet-effects-in-the-asthma-treatment-a-systematic-review
#18
Gabriele Carra Forte, Daniela Rischter da Silva, Maria Luiza Hennemann, Roberta Sarmento, Jussara Carnevale Almeida, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin
INTRODUCTION: Obesity in asthmatic patients has important relationships with asthma control, pulmonary function, and quality of life. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature on the effect of diet on asthma management in adults. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, and Scopus (January 1948-October 2014) for randomized clinical trials that evaluated the effects of diet in adults with asthma. RESULTS: Of 12,215 studies identified, 21 were included...
March 31, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346523/a-moderate-diet-restriction-during-pregnancy-alters-the-levels-of-endocannabinoids-and-endocannabinoid-related-lipids-in-the-hypothalamus-hippocampus-and-olfactory-bulb-of-rat-offspring-in-a-sex-specific-manner
#19
María Teresa Ramírez-López, Mariam Vázquez, Ermelinda Lomazzo, Clementine Hofmann, Rosario Noemi Blanco, Francisco Alén, María Antón, Juan Decara, Rocío Arco, Laura Orio, Juan Suárez, Beat Lutz, Raquel Gómez de Heras, Laura Bindila, Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca
Undernutrition during pregnancy has been associated to increased vulnerability to develop metabolic and behavior alterations later in life. The endocannabinoid system might play an important role in these processes. Therefore, we investigated the effects of a moderate maternal calorie-restricted diet on the levels of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG), arachidonic acid (AA) and the N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) anandamide (AEA), oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) in the brain of newborn rat offspring...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346237/current-and-future-pharmacologic-treatment-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#20
Bubu A Banini, Arun J Sanyal
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), the aggressive form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), can progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer in 5-15% of patients and is rapidly becoming the leading cause for end-stage liver disease. Dietary caloric restriction and exercise, currently the cornerstone of therapy for NAFLD, can be difficult to achieve and maintain, underscoring the dire need for pharmacotherapy. This review presents the agents currently used in managing NAFLD and their pharmacologic targets...
May 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
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