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Fangbin Zhou, Yaying Zhou, Ming Yang, Jinli Wen, Jun Dong, Wenyong Tan
Background: Circulating endothelial cells (CECs) and their subpopulations could be potential novel biomarkers for various malignancies. However, reliable enumerable methods are warranted to further improve their clinical utility. This study aimed to optimize a flow cytometric method (FCM) assay for CECs and subpopulations in peripheral blood for patients with solid cancers. Patients and methods: An FCM assay was used to detect and identify CECs. A panel of 60 blood samples, including 44 metastatic cancer patients and 16 healthy controls, were used in this study...
2018: Cancer Management and Research
John F Seymour, Thomas J Kipps, Barbara Eichhorst, Peter Hillmen, James D'Rozario, Sarit Assouline, Carolyn Owen, John Gerecitano, Tadeusz Robak, Javier De la Serna, Ulrich Jaeger, Guillaume Cartron, Marco Montillo, Rod Humerickhouse, Elizabeth A Punnoose, Yan Li, Michelle Boyer, Kathryn Humphrey, Mehrdad Mobasher, Arnon P Kater
BACKGROUND: Venetoclax inhibits BCL2, an antiapoptotic protein that is pathologically overexpressed and that is central to the survival of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells. We evaluated the efficacy of venetoclax in combination with rituximab in patients with relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia. METHODS: In this randomized, open-label, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned 389 patients to receive venetoclax for up to 2 years (from day 1 of cycle 1) plus rituximab for the first 6 months (venetoclax-rituximab group) or bendamustine plus rituximab for 6 months (bendamustine-rituximab group)...
March 22, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
Xiangchun Zhang, Qing Yuan, Xueyun Gao
Membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is expressed in most tumors and is believed to play a key role in the development, invasion and metastasis of tumors. There is an urgent need to develop a simple method to detect the MT1-MMP expression level on cells. In this current study, we demonstrated a red emission Au cluster probes with the specific targeting of MT1-MMP on human dopaminergic neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells. More importantly, utilizing the intrinsic enzyme-like activity of the Au cluster probes, the expression level of MT1-MMP on the SH-SY5Y cells could be assessed by the naked eye without cell lysis and protein extraction process...
March 14, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
Wei Zhang, Xinyan Xie, Huijing Mi, Jinwan Sun, Shaoxue Ding, Lijuan Li, Hui Liu, Huaquan Wang, Rong Fu, Zonghong Shao
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are clonal stem cell disorders characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis that lead to leukemia. Disorders of the immune system serve important functions in the pathophysiology and progression of this disease. Different levels or mechanisms of natural killer (NK) cells in patients with MDS have been measured in previous studies, making it challenging to understand the pathogenesis of NK cytotoxicity. The present study investigated the frequency of NK cell-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and explored the function of NK cells by their activating receptors, inhibition signals, degranulation and cytotoxicity factors...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Dao-Ming Zhu, Lei Wu, Meng Suo, Song Gao, Wei Xie, Ming-Hui Zan, Ao Liu, Bei Chen, Wen-Tao Wu, Li-Wei Ji, Li-Ben Chen, Hui-Ming Huang, Shi-Shang Guo, Wen-Feng Zhang, Xing-Zhong Zhao, Zhi-Jun Sun, Wei Liu
Filtration of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in peripheral blood is of proven importance for early cancer diagnosis, treatment monitoring, metastasis diagnosis, and prognostic evaluation. However, currently available strategies for enriching CTCs, such as magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS), face serious problems with purity due to nonspecific interactions between beads and leukocytes in the process of capturing. In the present study, the tumor-targeting molecule folic acid (FA) and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were coated on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs) by hydrophobic interaction and chemical conjugation, respectively...
March 15, 2018: Nanoscale
Robert A Fenstermaker, Sheila A Figel, Jing-Xin Qiu, Tara A Barone, Sanam Sahjram Dharma, Evan K Winograd, Phillip M Galbo, Laura M Wiltsie, Michael J Ciesielski
PURPOSE: Survivin is an inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) that is highly expressed in many cancers and represents an attractive molecule for targeted cancer therapy. Although primarily regarded as an intracellular protein with diverse actions, survivin has also been identified in association with circulating tumor exosomes. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We have reported that active specific vaccination with a long peptide surviving immunogen leads to the development of survivin-specific CD8-mediated tumor cell lysis and prolongation of survival in tumor-bearing mice...
March 14, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
S N Shchelkunov, I A Razumov, I V Kolosova, A V Romashchenko, E L Zavjalov
The possibility of glioblastoma virotherapy at intravenous injection of the LIVP-GFP recombinant virus was studied in experimental model of orthotopic xenotransplantation of human glioblastoma cell line U87 to SCID laboratory mice. The LIVP-GFP recombinant virus deficient for thymidine kinase exhibited a significantly greater oncolytic capacity than the original LIVP virus, and an intravenous injection of LIVP-GFP at the early stages of tumorigenesis in mouse brain in most cases resulted in the lysis of the tumor...
January 2018: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
Nina Sørensen, Paw Jensen, Erik Clasen-Linde, Jacob Moesgaard Larsen, Tarec El-Galaly
Tumor lysis syndrome is rare in diffuse large cell lymphoma, but it is important to recognize the risk in patients with massive tumor burden and reduced kidney function. Very intense vigilance can be necessary despite adequate prophylactic measures and certain drugs may exacerbate electrolyte derangements.
March 2018: Clinical Case Reports
Arkadiy Reunov, Anatoliy Reunov, Evgenia Pimenova, Yulia Reunova, Ekaterina Menchinskaiya, Larisa Lapshina, Dmitry Aminin
An expression of calpain and caspase-1 as well as the concomitant ultrastructural alterations were investigated during necrosis of the mouse Ehrlich ascites carcinoma. The calpain expression was registered at 0 h and 1 h although caspase-1 did not induce any signals during these time periods. The rise of the cytoplasmic lytic zones contacted by calpain antibodies was identified as a morphologic event corresponding to the expression of calpain. Lytic zone's distribution followed by the appearance of the calpain/caspase-1 clusters assigned for lysis of the Golgi vesicles and ER...
March 5, 2018: Gene
Hongmei Chen
Inertial and deformability- based particles separations gradually attract more significant attentions. In this work, we present a hybrid chip by combining the advantages of inertial and deformability -based principle. The chip is a triplet parallelizing spiral inertial microfluidic chip interconnected with numerable tilted slits (Spiral-Slits Chip) for continuous separation of circulating tumor cells. Utilizing the inertial lift and viscous drag forces, different sized particles achieve different equilibrium at distinct streamlines of the spiral microchannel...
March 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alexei F Kirkin, Karine N Dzhandzhugazyan, Per Guldberg, Johnny Jon Fang, Rikke S Andersen, Christina Dahl, Jann Mortensen, Tim Lundby, Aase Wagner, Ian Law, Helle Broholm, Line Madsen, Christer Lundell-Ek, Morten F Gjerstorff, Henrik J Ditzel, Martin R Jensen, Walter Fischer
In cancer cells, cancer/testis (CT) antigens become epigenetically derepressed through DNA demethylation and constitute attractive targets for cancer immunotherapy. Here we report that activated CD4+ T helper cells treated with a DNA-demethylating agent express a broad repertoire of endogenous CT antigens and can be used as antigen-presenting cells to generate autologous cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and natural killer cells. In vitro, activated CTLs induce HLA-restricted lysis of tumor cells of different histological types, as well as cells expressing single CT antigens...
March 6, 2018: Nature Communications
G von Amsberg
BACKGROUND: Uro-oncological emergencies can be caused by the tumor, treatment complications, or non-oncological diseases. This review focuses on chemotherapy-associated emergencies, especially febrile neutropenia (FN), tumor lysis syndrome (TLS), and extravasations. AIM: The goal is to provide an overview on the most relevant chemotherapy-associated emergencies and treatment methods. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The ESMO (European Society of Medical Oncology), EORTC (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer), and S3 guidelines were used for the preparation of this review and a PubMed search was performed for "febrile neutropenia", "extravasation", and "tumor lysis syndrome"...
March 5, 2018: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
Ling Chen, Takeshi Azuma, Weiwei Yu, Xu Zheng, Liqun Luo, Lieping Chen
Induced B7-H1 expression in the tumor microenvironment initiates adaptive resistance, which impairs immune functions and leads to tumor escape from immune destruction. Antibody blockade of the B7-H1/PD-1 interaction overcomes adaptive resistance, leading to regression of advanced human cancers and survival benefits in a significant fraction of patients. In addition to cancer cells, B7-H1 is expressed on dendritic cells (DCs), but its role in DC functions is less understood. DCs can present multiple antigens (Ags) to stimulate dominant or subdominant T cell responses...
March 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Richard J Johnson, George L Bakris, Claudio Borghi, Michel B Chonchol, David Feldman, Miguel A Lanaspa, Tony R Merriman, Orson W Moe, David B Mount, Laura Gabriella Sanchez Lozada, Eli Stahl, Daniel E Weiner, Glenn M Chertow
Urate is a cause of gout, kidney stones, and acute kidney injury from tumor lysis syndrome, but its relationship to kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes remains controversial. A scientific workshop organized by the National Kidney Foundation was held in September 2016 to review current evidence. Cell culture studies and animal models suggest that elevated serum urate concentrations can contribute to kidney disease, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome. Epidemiologic evidence also supports elevated serum urate concentrations as a risk factor for the development of kidney disease, hypertension, and diabetes, but differences in methodologies and inpacts on serum urate concentrations by even subtle changes in kidney function render conclusions uncertain...
February 26, 2018: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Dominik Bachmann, Roberta Aliperta, Ralf Bergmann, Anja Feldmann, Stefanie Koristka, Claudia Arndt, Simon Loff, Petra Welzel, Susann Albert, Alexandra Kegler, Armin Ehninger, Marc Cartellieri, Gerhard Ehninger, Martin Bornhäuser, Malte von Bonin, Carsten Werner, Jens Pietzsch, Jörg Steinbach, Michael Bachmann
Recent treatments of leukemias with T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) underline their impressive therapeutic potential but also their risk of severe side effects including cytokine release storms and tumor lysis syndrome. In case of cross-reactivities, CAR T cells may also attack healthy tissues. To overcome these limitations, we previously established a switchable CAR platform technology termed UniCAR. UniCARs are not directed against typical tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) but instead against a unique peptide epitope: Fusion of this peptide epitope to a recombinant antibody domain results in a target module (TM)...
January 26, 2018: Oncotarget
I Romanet, R Lan, U Ordioni, A F Albertini, F Campana
INTRODUCTION: Metastatic carcinoma of the colon is frequently encountered. In the literature, metastasis of malignant tumors in the buccal cavity are rare. They represent less than 1% of oral malignant lesions. OBSERVATION: We present a case of oral metastasis of colon adenocarcinoma in the mandible of a 62-year-old patient. The physical examination revealed a swelling in the mandibular symphysis associated with dental displacement. The panoramic X-ray showed significant bone lysis of the symphysis...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Stomatology, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Ioannis A Voutsadakis
BACKGROUND: The interplay between the immune system and cancer cells has come to the forefront of cancer therapeutics, with novel immune blockade inhibitors being approved for the treatment of an increasing list of cancers. However, the majority of cancer patients still display or develop resistance to these promising drugs. It is possible that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are contributing to this therapeutic resistance. Although CSCs usually represent a small percentage of the total number of cancer cells, they are endowed with the ability of self-renewal and to produce differentiated progeny...
February 22, 2018: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
Xiao-Ping Zhang, Ying-Dong Li, Lu-Lu Luo, Yong-Qi Liu, Yang Li, Chao Guo, Zhen-Dong Li, Xiao-Rong Xie, Hai-Xia Song, Li-Ping Yang, Shao-Bo Sun, Fang-Yu An
Cancer vaccines mostly aim to induce cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) against tumors. An appropriate adjuvant is of fundamental importance for inducing cellular immune response. Since the antigen in particulate form is substantially more immunogenic than soluble form antigen, it is beneficial to interact with antigen-presenting cells membrane to induce robust CD8+ T cell activation following vaccination. Based on previous research, we designed an adjuvant formulation by combining Astragalus saponins, cholesterol, and liposome to incorporate antigen into a particulate delivery system, so as to enhance cellular immune response...
February 2018: Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals
Michael W van Kalleveen, Maudy Walraven, Mathijs P Hendriks
Introduction Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is a life-threatening emergency caused by rapid cell death as a result of anti-tumor therapy. In the era of targeted therapy it has increasingly been observed in solid malignancies such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Case We describe the case of a 58-year old man with the medical history of a memorial sloan kettering cancer centre (MSKCC) poor prognosis metastasized clear cell renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) who developed TLS within six days after initiating therapy with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) pazopanib...
February 20, 2018: Investigational New Drugs
Carmen Soto, Gretchen Bergado, Rancés Blanco, Tania Griñán, Hermis Rodríguez, Uris Ros, Fabiola Pazos, María Eliana Lanio, Ana María Hernández, Carlos Álvarez
Sticholysin II (StII) is a pore-forming toxin of biomedical interest that belongs to the actinoporin protein family. Sticholysins are currently under examination as an active immunomodulating component of a vaccinal platform against tumoral cells and as a key element of a nucleic acids delivery system to cell cytosol. These proteins form pores in the plasma membrane leading to ion imbalance and cell lysis. However, the intracellular mechanisms triggered by actinoporins upon binding to membranes and its consequences for cell death are barely understood...
February 13, 2018: Biochimie
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