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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922578/identification-of-a-tetanus-toxin-specific-epitope-in-single-amino-acid-resolution
#1
Andrea Palermo, Laura K Weber, Simone Rentschler, Awale Isse, Martyna Sedlmayr, Karin Herbster, Volker List, Jürgen Hubbuch, Felix F Löffler, Alexander Nesterov-Müller, Frank Breitling
Vaccinations are among the most potent tools to fight infectious diseases. However, cross-reactions are an ongoing problem and there is an urgent need to fully understand the mechanisms of the immune response. For the development of a methodological workflow, the linear epitopes in the immune response to the tetanus toxin is investigated in sera of 19 vaccinated Europeans applying epitope mapping with peptide arrays. The most prominent epitope, appearing in nine different sera (923 IHLVNNESSEVIVHK937 ), is investigated in a substitution analysis to identify the amino acids that are crucial for the binding of the corresponding antibody species - the antibody fingerprint...
September 18, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922426/a-dna-vaccine-for-crimean-congo-hemorrhagic-fever-protects-against-disease-and-death-in-two-lethal-mouse-models
#2
Aura R Garrison, Charles J Shoemaker, Joseph W Golden, Collin J Fitzpatrick, John J Suschak, Michelle J Richards, Catherine V Badger, Carolyn M Six, Jacqueline D Martin, Drew Hannaman, Marko Zivcec, Eric Bergeron, Jeffrey W Koehler, Connie S Schmaljohn
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a tick-borne virus capable of causing a severe hemorrhagic fever disease in humans. There are currently no licensed vaccines to prevent CCHFV-associated disease. We developed a DNA vaccine expressing the M-segment glycoprotein precursor gene of CCHFV and assessed its immunogenicity and protective efficacy in two lethal mouse models of disease: type I interferon receptor knockout (IFNAR-/-) mice; and a novel transiently immune suppressed (IS) mouse model. Vaccination of mice by muscle electroporation of the M-segment DNA vaccine elicited strong antigen-specific humoral immune responses with neutralizing titers after three vaccinations in both IFNAR-/- and IS mouse models...
September 18, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920924/impaired-angiopoietin-tie2-signaling-compromises-schlemm-s-canal-integrity-and-induces-glaucoma
#3
Jaeryung Kim, Dae-Young Park, Hosung Bae, Do Young Park, Dongkyu Kim, Choong-Kun Lee, Sukhyun Song, Tae-Young Chung, Dong Hui Lim, Yoshiaki Kubota, Young-Kwon Hong, Yulong He, Hellmut G Augustin, Guillermo Oliver, Gou Young Koh
Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is often caused by elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), which arises due to increased resistance to aqueous humor outflow (AHO). Aqueous humor flows through Schlemm's canal (SC), a lymphatic-like vessel encircling the cornea, and via intercellular spaces of ciliary muscle cells. However, the mechanisms underlying increased AHO resistance are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that signaling between angiopoietin (Angpt) and the Angpt receptor Tie2, which is critical for SC formation, is also indispensable for maintaining SC integrity during adulthood...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920923/all-tied-up-mechanisms-of-schlemm-s-canal-maintenance
#4
Jeremiah Bernier-Latmani, Tatiana V Petrova
Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness, with an estimated world-wide prevalence of 3.5% in members of the population older than 40 years of age. Elevated intraocular pressure as the result of abnormal resistance to aqueous humor drainage is a major contributing, and the only preventable, factor in glaucoma development. Schlemm's canal (SC), a lymphatic-like vessel encircling the anterior portion of the eye, plays a key role in promoting aqueous humor outflow and maintenance of normal intraocular pressure...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920419/effects-of-dietary-spirulina-on-antioxidant-status-lipid-profile-immune-response-and-performance-characteristics-of-broiler-chickens-reared-under-high-ambient-temperature
#5
Sara Mirzaie, Fahim Zirak-Khattab, Seyed Abdollah Hosseini, Hamid Donyaei-Darian
Objective: Spirulina has been recognized formerly as a filamentous spiral-shaped blue- green algae or more recently as a genus of photosynthetic bacteria (Arthrospira). This microorganism is considered as a rich source of essential nutrients for human and animals. The present study was conducted to determine potential application of Spirulina for heat- exposed broilers. Methods: Two hundred and fifty Cobb 500 chicks with male to female in equal ratio with average initial weight of 615...
September 18, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919688/vaccination-with-salmonella-typhi-recombinant-outer-membrane-protein-28-induces-humoral-but-non-protective-immune-response-in-rabbit
#6
Anjani Saxena, Rajesh Kumar, Mumtesh Kumar Saxena
AIM: Typhoid is one of the most important food and water borne disease causing millions of deaths over the world. Presently, there is no cost effective vaccine available in India. The outer-membrane proteins (Omps) of Salmonella have been exhibited as a potential candidate for development of subunit vaccine against typhoid. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the use of recombinant Omp 28 protein for immunization of rabbit to elucidate its protection against virulent Salmonella Typhi...
August 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919557/synergistic-effects-of-dendritic-cell-targeting-and-laser-microporation-on-enhancing-epicutaneous-skin-vaccination-efficacy
#7
Yoan Machado, Sanne Duinkerken, Veronika Hoepflinger, Melissa Mayr, Evgeniia Korotchenko, Almedina Kurtaj, Isabel Pablos, Markus Steiner, Angelika Stoecklinger, Joyce Lübbers, Maximillian Schmid, Uwe Ritter, Sandra Scheiblhofer, Michael Ablinger, Verena Wally, Sarah Hochmann, Anna M Raninger, Dirk Strunk, Yvette van Kooyk, Josef Thalhamer, Richard Weiss
Due to its unique immunological properties, the skin is an attractive target tissue for allergen-specific immunotherapy. In our current work, we combined a dendritic cell targeting approach with epicutaneous immunization using an ablative fractional laser to generate defined micropores in the upper layers of the skin. By coupling the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 to mannan from S. cerevisiae via mild periodate oxidation we generated hypoallergenic Bet-mannan neoglycoconjugates, which efficiently targeted CD14+ dendritic cells and Langerhans cells in human skin explants...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919256/metabolic-links-between-plasma-cell-survival-secretion-and-stress
#8
REVIEW
Wing Y Lam, Deepta Bhattacharya
Humoral immunity is generated and maintained by antigen-specific antibodies that counter infectious pathogens. Plasma cells are the major producers of antibodies during and after infections, and each plasma cell produces some thousands of antibody molecules per second. This magnitude of secretion requires enormous quantities of amino acids and glycosylation sugars to properly build and fold antibodies, biosynthetic substrates to fuel endoplasmic reticulum (ER) biogenesis, and additional carbon sources to generate energy...
September 11, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919008/immunoadsorption-in-neurological-disorders
#9
REVIEW
Satoru Oji, Kyoichi Nomura
In recent years, immunoadsorption has been increasingly recognized as an alternative to therapeutic plasma exchange and used for the treatment of neurological disorders such as Guillain-Barré syndrome, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, myasthenia gravis, neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders, and multiple sclerosis, as well as autoimmune encephalitis. Unlike therapeutic plasma exchange, which requires fluid replacement with a blood solution such as fresh frozen plasma or albumin, immunoadsorption is a blood purification technique that enables the selective removal of humoral factors from separated plasma through a high-affinity adsorbent with tryptophan or phenylalanine...
August 26, 2017: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917624/small-heat-shock-protein-27-an-effective-adjuvant-for-enhancement-of-hiv-1-nef-antigen-specific-immunity
#10
Alireza Milani, Azam Bolhassani, Sepideh Shahbazi, Fatemeh Motevalli, Seyed Mehdi Sadat, Sepehr Soleymani
Novel vaccine modalities have been designed to improve the efficiency of vaccines against HIV infections. In this way, the HIV-1 Nef protein has been known as an attractive antigenic candidate in therapeutic vaccine development. Moreover, the endogenous adjuvants such as heat shock proteins (HSPs) and high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) have been suggested effectively to induce antigen-specific humoral and cellular immune responses. In this study, different Nef DNA and protein constructs were produced in eukaryotic and prokaryotic expression systems, and their immunostimulatory properties were evaluated using small heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) and the HMGB1-derived peptide (Hp91) in a mouse model...
September 13, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917539/hemagglutinin-specific-cd4-t-cell-responses-following-2009-ph1n1-inactivated-split-vaccine-inoculation-in-humans
#11
Shuguang Tan, Shihong Zhang, Bin Wu, Yingze Zhao, Wei Zhang, Min Han, Ying Wu, Guoli Shi, Yingxia Liu, Jinghua Yan, Guizhen Wu, Hua Wang, George F Gao, Fengcai Zhu, William J Liu
Influenza A virus remains a major threat to public health, and the inactivated split-virus vaccine is the most prevalent vaccine used worldwide. However, our knowledge about cellular immune responses to the inactivated influenza virus vaccine and its correlation with humoral responses are yet limited, which has restricted our understanding of the vaccine's protective mechanisms. Herein, in two clinical trials, T-cell responses specific for both previously identified human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-I-restricted epitopes from influenza virus and hemagglutinin (HA) protein were longitudinally investigated before, during, and after a two-dose vaccination with the inactivated 2009 pandemic H1N1 (2009-pH1N1) vaccine...
September 13, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917489/the-effects-of-single-or-combined-administration-of-galactooligosaccharide-and-pediococcus-acidilactici-on-cutaneous-mucus-immune-parameters-humoral-immune-responses-and-immune-related-genes-expression-in-common-carp-cyprinus-carpio-fingerlings
#12
Maryam Modanloo, Siavash Soltanian, Mostafa Akhlaghi, Seyed Hossein Hoseinifar
The present study was performed to investigate the effects of single or combined administration of galactooligosaccharide (GOS) and Pediococcus acidilactici on cutaneous mucus immune parameters, humoral immune responses and immune related genes expression in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fingerlings. Carps were fed experimental diets for 8 weeks as follows: non-supplemented (Control), prebiotic diet (10 g/kg GOS), probiotic diet (1 g/kg [0.9 × 10(7) CFU] lyophilized P. acidilactici) and synbiotic diet (10 GOS in combination with 1 g/kg [0...
September 13, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917316/humoral-and-cytokine-response-elicited-during-immunisation-with-recombinant-immune-mapped-protein-1-etimp-1-and-oocysts-of-eimeria-tenella
#13
Krishnendu Kundu, Rajat Garg, Saroj Kumar, Mrityunjay Mandal, Fiona M Tomley, Damer P Blake, Partha Sarathi Banerjee
Eimeria tenella, the causative agent of caecal coccidiosis, is a pathogenic gut dwelling protozoan which can cause severe morbidity and mortality in farmed chickens. Immune mapped protein-1 (IMP-1) has been identified as an anticoccidial vaccine candidate; in the present study allelic polymorphism was assessed across the IMP-1 coding sequence in E. tenella isolates from four countries and compared with the UK reference Houghton strain. Nucleotide diversity was low, limited to expansion/contraction of a CAG triplet repeat and five substitutions, three of which were non-synonymous...
September 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916482/disposition-of-treosulfan-and-its-active-monoepoxide-in-a-bone-marrow-liver-lungs-brain-and-muscle-studies-in-a-rat-model-with-clinical-relevance
#14
Michał Romański, Anna Kasprzyk, Mateusz Walczak, Agnieszka Ziółkowska, Franciszek Główka
For the recent years, the application of treosulfan (TREO)-based conditioning prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been increasing as an alternative to busulfan-based therapy, especially for patients presenting high risk of developing hepato-, pulmo-, and neurotoxicity. So far, the penetration of TREO and its epoxy-derivatives into central nervous system and aqueous humor of the eye has been investigated. However, lacking knowledge on the compounds distribution into the other key tissues precludes comprehensive understanding and assessment of TREO clinical efficacy and toxicity...
September 12, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916402/the-mechanisms-of-rejection-in-solid-organ-transplantation
#15
REVIEW
Emanuele Cozzi, Anna Colpo, Giustina De Silvestro
Organ transplantation represents the preferred treatment option for many patients in terminal organ failure. The half-life of transplanted organs, however, is still far from being satisfactory with the vast majority of the organs failing within the first two decades following transplantation. At this stage, it has become apparent that rejection (prevalently mediated by humoral events) remains the primary cause of graft loss after the first year. In this light, studies are underway to better comprehend the immune events underlying graft rejection and novel immunosuppressive strategies are being explored...
July 8, 2017: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916267/comparison-of-phagocytosis-in-three-caribbean-sea-urchins
#16
John DeFilippo, John Ebersole, Gregory Beck
In 1983 large numbers of the sea urchin Diadema antillarum unexplainably began showing signs of illness and dying in the Caribbean, and over the next year they came close to extinction, making it one of the worst mass mortality events on record. Present evidence suggests a water-borne pathogen as the etiological agent. Decades later Diadema densities remain low, and its near extinction has been a major factor in transforming living coral reefs in the Caribbean to barren algae-covered rock. In the ensuing decades, no solid explanation has been found to the questions: what killed Diadema; why did Diadema succumb while other species of urchins on the same reefs did not; and why has Diadema still not recovered? A recent hypothesis posited by our lab as to Diadema's vulnerability was directed at possible compromised immunity in Diadema, and experimental results found a significantly impaired humoral response to a key component of gram-negative bacteria...
September 12, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915998/predictors-of-humoral-response-to-recommended-vaccines-in-hiv-infected-adults
#17
Olga Tsachouridou, Eirini Christaki, Lemonia Skoura, Adamantini Georgiou, Sideris Nanoudis, Dimitra Vasdeki, Maria-Anna Ntziovara, Georgia Kotoreni, Evropi Forozidou, Paraskevi Tsoukra, Georgios Germanidis, Symeon Metallidis
Humoral response to vaccination has been found to be inadequate in individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We retrospectively assessed antibody responses to three routinely recommended vaccines, against hepatitis B, hepatitis A and S. pneumoniae, in HIV-infected individuals. Data regarding age at HIV diagnosis, years of infection, sex, nationality, HIV mode of transmission, CD4 cell count, nadir CD4 count, plasma viral load, HIV stage, insurance status, educational level and treatment with Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) were collected...
October 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913992/effects-of-immunoglobulin-replacement-on-asthma-exacerbation-in-adult-asthmatics-with-igg-subclass-deficiency
#18
Joo Hee Kim, Young Min Ye, Ga Young Ban, Yoo Seob Shin, Hyun Young Lee, Young Hee Nam, Soo Keol Lee, You Sook Cho, Seung Hun Jang, Ki Suck Jung, Hae Sim Park
PURPOSE: Recurrent respiratory tract infection is a common manifestation of primary immunodeficiency disease, and respiratory viruses or bacteria are important triggers of asthma exacerbations. Asthma often coexists with humoral immunodeficiency in adults, and some asthmatics with immunoglobulin (Ig) G subclass deficiency (IgGSCD) suffer from recurrent exacerbations. Although some studies suggest a benefit from Ig replacement, others have failed to support its use. This study aimed to assess the effect of Ig replacement on asthma exacerbation caused by respiratory infection as well as the asthma control status of adult asthmatics with IgGSCD...
November 2017: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912500/dynamic-changes-in-the-splenic-transcriptome-of-chickens-during-the-early-infection-and-progress-of-marek-s-disease
#19
Lu Dang, Man Teng, Hua-Wei Li, Hui-Zhen Li, Sheng-Ming Ma, Pu Zhao, Xiu-Jie Li, Rui-Guang Deng, Gai-Ping Zhang, Jun Luo
Gallid alphaherpesvirus 2 (GaHV2) is an oncogenic avian herpesvirus inducing Marek's disease (MD) and rapid-onset T-cell lymphomas. To reveal molecular events in MD pathogenesis and tumorigenesis, the dynamic splenic transcriptome of GaHV2-infected chickens during early infection and pathogenic phases has been determined utilizing RNA-seq. Based on the significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs), analysis of gene ontology, KEGG pathway and protein-protein interaction network has demonstrated that the molecular events happening during GaHV2 infection are highly relevant to the disease course...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911798/development-and-evaluation-of-multiplex-real-time-pcr-for-diagnosis-of-hsv-1-vzv-cmv-and-toxoplasma-gondii-in-patients-with-infectious-uveitis
#20
Archit Kumar, Mini P Singh, Reema Bansal, Amod Gupta, Jagat Ram, Radha Kanta Ratho
Infectious uveitis is a vision threatening inflammatory ocular disease wherein early diagnosis may prevent the loss of vision. The purpose of this study was to develop a multiplex real-time PCR for the diagnosis of Herpes simplex virus-1, Varicella zoster virus, cytomegalovirus and Toxoplasma gondii in patients with suspected infectious uveitis. A total of 126 intraocular samples (aqueous and vitreous humor) were collected and subjected to multiplex real-time PCR. Overall 26.2% (33/126) patients were found to be positive for one or more of the pathogens tested...
August 9, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
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