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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430959/expression-immunogenicity-and-variation-of-iron-regulated-surface-protein-a-from-bovine-isolates-of-staphylococcus-aureus
#1
N Misra, T F Wines, C L Knopp, M A McGuire, J K Tinker
Staphylococcus aureus iron-regulated surface protein A (IsdA) is a fibrinogen and fibronectin adhesin that also contributes to iron sequestration and resistance to innate immunity. IsdA is conserved in human isolates and has been investigated as a human vaccine candidate. Here we report the expression of isdA, the efficacy of anti-IsdA responses, and the existence of IsdA sequence variants from bovine Staphylococcus. Clinical staphylococci were obtained from U.S. dairy farms and assayed by PCR for the presence and expression of isdA...
April 19, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430750/elevated-immune-response-among-children-4-years-of-age-with-pronounced-local-adverse-events-after-the-fifth-dtap-vaccination
#2
Saskia van der Lee, Jeanet M Kemmeren, Lia G H de Rond, Kemal Öztürk, Anneke Westerhof, Hester E de Melker, Elisabeth A M Sanders, Guy A M Berbers, Nicoline A T van der Maas, Hans C Rümke, Anne-Marie Buisman
BACKGROUND: In the Netherlands, acellular pertussis vaccines replaced the more reactogenic whole-cell pertussis vaccines. This replacement in the primary immunization schedule of infants coincided with a significant increase in pronounced local adverse events (AEs) in 4 years old children shortly after the administration of a fifth diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis and inactivated polio (DTaP-IPV) vaccine. The objective of this study was to investigate possible differences in vaccine antigen-specific immune responses between children with and without a pronounced local AE after the fifth DTaP-IPV vaccination...
April 19, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429852/anti-inflammatory-and-retinal-protective-effects-of-capsaicin-on-ischemia-induced-injuries-through-the-release-of-endogenous-somatostatin
#3
Jun Wang, Wenke Tian, Shuaiwei Wang, Wenqiang Wei, Dongdong Wu, Honggang Wang, Li Wang, Ruisheng Yang, Ailing Ji, Yanzhang Li
The mechanisms regarding the retinal protective and anti-inflammatory effects of capsaicin (CAP) remain unclear. Somatostatin is contained in CAP-sensitive sensory neurons, including nerve terminals, from which it can be released by capsaicin. The present study provides a novel neurohumoral regulatory mechanism for CAP-induced-endogenous somatostatin in a retinal ischemic-reperfusion (I/R) mouse model. CAP (0.5 mg kg(-1) ) was injected subcutaneously 5 min after I/R. A selective somatostatin-depleting agent, cysteamine, was applied subcutaneously 4 hours before the experiment to examine the effects of endogenous somatostatin...
April 21, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428619/transcriptomic-analysis-reveals-a-previously-unknown-role-for-cd8-t-cells-in-rvsv-ebov-mediated-protection
#4
Andrea R Menicucci, Suhas Sureshchandra, Andrea Marzi, Heinz Feldmann, Ilhem Messaoudi
Ebola virus (EBOV) poses a significant threat to human health as highlighted by the recent epidemic in West Africa. Data from animal studies and a ring vaccination clinical trial conducted in Guinea during the recent epidemic demonstrated that a recombinant VSV where G protein is replaced with EBOV GP (rVSV-EBOV) is safe and highly efficacious. We previously established that antibodies are essential for rVSV-EBOV mediated protection against EBOV; however, the mechanisms by which this vaccine induces a humoral response and the role of T-cells in rVSV-EBOV mediated protection remain poorly understood...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428537/human-cytomegalovirus-induces-cellular-and-humoral-virus-specific-immune-responses-in-humanized-blt-mice
#5
Lindsey B Crawford, Rebecca Tempel, Daniel N Streblow, Craig Kreklywich, Patricia Smith, Louis J Picker, Jay A Nelson, Patrizia Caposio
The strict species specificity of Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) has impeded our understanding of antiviral adaptive immune responses in the context of a human immune system. We have previously shown that HCMV infection of human hematopoietic progenitor cells engrafted in immune deficient mice (huNSG) results in viral latency that can be reactivated following G-CSF treatment. In this study, we characterized the functional human adaptive immune responses in HCMV latently-infected huBLT (humanized Bone marrow-Liver-Thymus) mice...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428203/tslp-activated-dendritic-cells-induce-human-t-follicular-helper-cell-differentiation-through-ox40-ligand
#6
Lucia Pattarini, Coline Trichot, Sofia Bogiatzi, Maximilien Grandclaudon, Stephan Meller, Zela Keuylian, Melanie Durand, Elisabetta Volpe, Stefania Madonna, Andrea Cavani, Andrea Chiricozzi, Marco Romanelli, Toshiyuki Hori, Alain Hovnanian, Bernhard Homey, Vassili Soumelis
T follicular helper cells (Tfh) are important regulators of humoral responses. Human Tfh polarization pathways have been thus far associated with Th1 and Th17 polarization pathways. How human Tfh cells differentiate in Th2-skewed environments is unknown. We show that thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP)-activated dendritic cells (DCs) promote human Tfh differentiation from naive CD4 T cells. We identified a novel population, distinct from Th2 cells, expressing IL-21 and TNF, suggestive of inflammatory cells...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427951/uncovering-the-immune-responses-of-apis-mellifera-ligustica-larval-gut-to-ascosphaera-apis-infection-utilizing-transcriptome-sequencing
#7
Dafu Chen, Rui Guo, Xijian Xu, Cuiling Xiong, Qin Liang, Yanzhen Zheng, Qun Luo, Zhaonan Zhang, Zhijian Huang, Dhiraj Kumar, Weijun Xi, Xuan Zou, Min Liu
Honeybees are susceptible to a variety of diseases, including chalkbrood, which is capable of causing huge losses of both the number of bees and colony productivity. This research is designed to characterize the transcriptome profiles of Ascosphaera apis-treated and un-treated larval guts of Apis mellifera ligustica in an attempt to unravel the molecular mechanism underlying the immune responses of western honeybee larval guts to mycosis. In this study, 24, 296 and 2157 genes were observed to be differentially expressed in A...
April 18, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427948/comprehensive-characterization-of-humoral-correlates-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-1-superinfection-acquisition-in-high-risk-kenyan-women
#8
Keshet Ronen, Adam S Dingens, Susan M Graham, Walter Jaoko, Kishor Mandaliya, R Scott McClelland, Julie Overbaugh
HIV-1 superinfection, in which an infected individual acquires a second HIV-1 infection from a different partner, is one of the only settings in which HIV acquisition occurs in the context of a pre-existing immune response to natural HIV infection. There is evidence that initial infection provides some protection from superinfection, particularly after 6months of initial infection, when development of broad immunity occurs. Comparison of the immune response of superinfected individuals at the time of superinfection acquisition to that of individuals who remain singly infected despite continued exposure can shed light on immune correlates of HIV acquisition to inform prophylactic vaccine design...
April 7, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427365/association-between-fc%C3%AE-receptor-iia-iiia-and-iiib-genetic-polymorphisms-and-susceptibility-to-severe-malaria-anemia-in-children-in-western-kenya
#9
Elly O Munde, Winnie A Okeyo, Evans Raballah, Samuel B Anyona, Tom Were, John M Ong'echa, Douglas J Perkins, Collins Ouma
BACKGROUND: Naturally-acquired immunity to Plasmodium falciparum malaria develops after several episodes of infection. Fc gamma receptors (FcγRs) bind to immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies and mediate phagocytosis of opsonized microbes, thereby, linking humoral and cellular immunity. FcγR polymorphisms influence binding affinity to IgGs and consequently, can influence clinical malaria outcomes. Specifically, variations in FcγRIIA -131Arg/His, FcγRIIIA-176F/V and FcγRIIIB-NA1/NA2 modulate immune responses through altered binding preferences to IgGs and immune complexes...
April 20, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427061/emerging-insights-into-pathogenesis
#10
Edoardo Midena, Elisabetta Pilotto
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a frequent complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). Persistent hyperglycemia leads to the activation of multiple cellular pathways involved in the pathogenesis of DR, resulting in increased inflammation, oxidative stress, and vascular dysfunction. DR has been considered a "chronic, low-grade inflammatory disease of the retina". However, an increasing body of evidence suggests that inflammation and neurodegeneration both occur in human diabetes even before the development of clinical signs of DR...
2017: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426810/correction-mirnas-in-the-vitreous-humor-of-patients-affected-by-idiopathic-epiretinal-membrane-and-macular-hole
#11
Andrea Russo, Marco Ragusa, Cristina Barbagallo, Antonio Longo, Teresio Avitabile, Maurizio G Uva, Vincenza Bonfiglio, Mario D Toro, Rosario Caltabiano, Cesare Mariotti, Francesco Boscia, Mario R Romano, Cinzia Di Pietro, Davide Barbagallo, Michele Purrello, Michele Reibaldi
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0174297.].
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426418/first-report-on-molecular-evidence-of-tylodelphys-cerebralis-diplostomulum-cerebralis-chakrabarti-1968-digenea-diplostomidae-from-snakehead-fish-channa-punctata
#12
Anshu Chaudhary, Richa Tripathi, Shivi Gupta, Hridaya Shanker Singh
Freshwater snakehead fish, Channa punctata (Perciformes: Channidae) from Meerut (U.P.), India were screened for infection with metacercaria from the eye (vitreous humor) and brain (cranial cavity) and were analyzed by molecular methods using PCR and sequencing of the complete internal transcribed spacers (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) of the ribosomal RNA gene. Recovered metacercariae from sites, vitreous humor and cranial cavity were previously diagnosed as Diplostomulum cerebralis Chakrabarti, 1968 on the basis of morphological characteristics...
June 1, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425925/evaluation-of-the-immunomodulatory-properties-of-streptococcus-suis-and-group-b-streptococcus-capsular-polysaccharides-on-the-humoral-response
#13
Cynthia Calzas, Morgan Taillardet, Insaf Salem Fourati, David Roy, Marcelo Gottschalk, Hugo Soudeyns, Thierry Defrance, Mariela Segura
Streptococcus suis and group B Streptococcus (GBS) are encapsulated streptococci causing septicemia and meningitis. Antibodies (Abs) against capsular polysaccharides (CPSs) have a crucial protective role, but the structure/composition of the CPS, including the presence of sialic acid, may interfere with the generation of anti-CPS Ab responses. We investigated the features of the CPS-specific Ab response directed against S. suis serotypes 2 and 14 and GBS serotypes III and V after infection or immunization with purified native or desialylated CPSs in mice...
April 20, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425751/development-of-red-blood-cell-autoantibodies-following-treatment-with-checkpoint-inhibitors-a-new-class-of-anti-neoplastic-immunotherapeutic-agents-associated-with-immune-dysregulation
#14
Laura L Cooling, John Sherbeck, Jonathon C Mowers, Sheri L Hugan
Ipilimumab, nivolumab, and pembrolizumab represent a new class of immunotherapeutic drugs for treating patients with advanced cancer. Known as checkpoint inhibitors, these drugs act to upregulate the cellular and humoral immune response to tumor antigens by inhibiting T-cell autoregulation. As a consequence, they can be associated with immune-related adverse events (irAEs) due to loss of self-tolerance, including rare cases of immune-related cytopenias. We performed a retrospective clinical chart review, including serologic, hematology, and chemistry laboratory results, of two patients who developed red blood cell (RBC) autoantibodies during treatment with a checkpoint inhibitor...
January 2017: Immunohematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425102/fatal-overdose-of-gamma-hydroxybutyrate-acid-after-ingestion-of-1-4-butanediol
#15
Erwan Le Garff, Vadim Mesli, Raphael Cornez, Christophe Demarly, Gilles Tournel, Valery Hédouin
We report a case of fatal intoxication from 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD), which was ingested by a young and "naïve" gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) consumer during a party with the co-ingestion of alcohol, cannabis, and methylene-dioxy-methamphetamine. The following drug concentrations were found using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry on autopsy samples and on a cup and a glass found at the scene: 20,350 mg/L (bottle) for 1,4-BD; 1020 mg/L (femoral blood), 3380 mg/L (cardiac blood), 47,280 mg/L (gastric content), and 570 mg/L (vitreous humor) for GHB...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424680/induction-of-protective-immunity-against-toxoplasma-gondii-in-mice-by-nucleoside-triphosphate-hydrolase-ii-ntpase-ii-self-amplifying-rna-vaccine-encapsulated-in-lipid-nanoparticle-lnp
#16
Fangjun Luo, Lina Zheng, Yue Hu, Shuxian Liu, Yan Wang, Zhongkui Xiong, Xin Hu, Feng Tan
RNA-based vaccine represents an irresistible and safe immunization strategy with decreasing theoretical risks of genomic integration and malignant cell transformation. To our knowledge, however, there is no report about development of RNA vaccine against Toxoplasma gondii infection. We have previously demonstrated that the recombinant T. gondii nucleoside triphosphate hydrolase-II (NTPase-II) protein is able to provide protective Th1 cell-mediated immunity against T. gondii. Herein, we evaluated the immunogenic potential of a self-amplifying RNA vaccine-encoding T...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424675/safety-protective-immunity-and-diva-capability-of-a-rough-mutant-salmonella-pullorum-vaccine-candidate-in-broilers
#17
Rongxian Guo, Yang Jiao, Zhuoyang Li, Shanshan Zhu, Xiao Fei, Shizhong Geng, Zhiming Pan, Xiang Chen, Qiuchun Li, Xinan Jiao
Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Gallinarum biovar Pullorum (Salmonella Pullorum) is highly adapted to chickens causing an acute systemic disease that results in high mortality. Vaccination represents one approach for promoting animal health, food safety and reducing environmental persistence in Salmonella control. An important consideration is that Salmonella vaccination in poultry should not interfere with the salmonellosis monitoring program. This is the basis of the DIVA (Differentiation of Infected and Vaccinated Animals) program...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424575/contribution-of-autonomic-reflexes-to-the-hyperadrenergic-state-in-heart-failure
#18
REVIEW
Edgar Toschi-Dias, Maria Urbana P B Rondon, Chiara Cogliati, Nazareno Paolocci, Eleonora Tobaldini, Nicola Montano
Heart failure (HF) is a complex syndrome representing the clinical endpoint of many cardiovascular diseases of different etiology. Given its prevalence, incidence and social impact, a better understanding of HF pathophysiology is paramount to implement more effective anti-HF therapies. Based on left ventricle (LV) performance, HF is currently classified as follows: (1) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF); (2) with mid-range EF (HFmrEF); and (3) with preserved EF (HFpEF). A central tenet of HFrEF pathophysiology is adrenergic hyperactivity, featuring increased sympathetic nerve discharge and a progressive loss of rhythmical sympathetic oscillations...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424493/regulation-of-intraocular-pressure-by-microrna-cluster-mir-143-145
#19
Xinyu Li, Fangkun Zhao, Mei Xin, Guorong Li, Coralia Luna, Guigang Li, Qinbo Zhou, Yuguang He, Bo Yu, Eric Olson, Pedro Gonzalez, Shusheng Wang
Glaucoma is a major cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), which causes optic nerve damage and retinal ganglion cell death, is the primary risk factor for blindness in glaucoma patients. IOP is controlled by the balance between aqueous humor secretion from the ciliary body (CB) and its drainage through the trabecular meshwork (TM). How microRNAs (miRs) regulate IOP and glaucoma in vivo is largely unknown. Here we show that miR-143 and miR-145 expression is enriched in the smooth muscle and trabecular meshwork in the eye...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424281/distinct-roles-of-vaccinia-virus-nf-kb-inhibitor-proteins-a52-b15-and-k7-in-the-immune-response
#20
Mauro Di Pilato, Ernesto Mejías-Pérez, Carlos Oscar S Sorzano, Mariano Esteban
Poxviruses use a complex strategy to escape immune control, by expressing immunomodulatory proteins that could limit their use as vaccine vectors. To test the role of poxvirus NF-κB pathway inhibitors A52, B15 and K7 in immunity, we deleted their genes in a NYVAC vaccinia virus strain that expresses HIV-1 clade C antigens. After infection of mice, ablation of A52R, B15R and K7R increased dendritic cell, natural killer cell and neutrophil migration as well as chemokine/cytokine expression. Revertant viruses for these genes confirmed their role in inhibiting the innate immune system...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Virology
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