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Disorder of consciousness

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467036/the-living-dead-perception-of-persons-in-the-unresponsive-wakefulness-syndrome-in-germany-compared-to-the-usa
#1
Inga Steppacher, Johanna Kissler
BACKGROUND: The extent to which people ascribe mind to others has been shown to predict the extent to which human rights are conferred. Therefore, in the context of disorders of consciousness (DOC), mind ascription can influence end of life decisions. A previous US-American study indicated that participants ascribed even less mind to patients with unresponsive-wakefulness-syndrome (UWS) than to the dead. Results were explained in terms of implicit dualism and religious beliefs, as highly religious people ascribed least mind to UWS...
February 21, 2018: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464762/kpr-2579-a-novel-trpm8-antagonist-inhibits-acetic-acid-induced-bladder-afferent-hyperactivity-in-rats
#2
Naoki Aizawa, Yoshikazu Fujimori, Jun-Ichi Kobayashi, Osamu Nakanishi, Hideaki Hirasawa, Haruki Kume, Yukio Homma, Yasuhiko Igawa
AIMS: Transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) is proposed to be a promising therapeutic target for hypersensitive bladder disorders. We examined the effects of KPR-2579, a novel selective TRPM8 antagonist, on body temperature and on mechanosensitive bladder single-unit afferent activities (SAAs) provoked by intravesical acetic acid (AA) instillation in rats. METHODS: Female Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Effects of cumulative intravenous (i.v.) administrations of KPR-2579 (0...
February 21, 2018: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463338/a-novel-treatment-protocol-nocebo-hypothesis-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-nh-cbt-for-functional-neurological-symptom-disorder-conversion-disorder-a-retrospective-consecutive-case-series
#3
Matt Richardson, Gina Isbister, Brad Nicholson
BACKGROUND: Theories concerning the aetiology of functional neurological symptom disorder (FNSD; also known as conversion disorder) have historically inferred that psychological factors or dissociative states underlie patients' symptoms. Current psychological models of functional neurological symptoms suggest that some type of 'top-down' representations/beliefs are activated automatically (without conscious awareness), leading to symptoms. It is assumed that these representations or beliefs are similar to the idea 'I am neurologically damaged', as in our clinical experience, almost all patients have some reason to doubt the integrity of their neurological system...
February 21, 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461112/-self-takes-it-all-in-mental-illness-examining-the-dynamic-role-of-health-consciousness-negative-emotions-and-efficacy-in-information-seeking
#4
Jiyoung Lee
Mental illness such as depression, stress, and anxiety disorder is prevalent in our everyday lives. Yet, little is known about how health-related variables operate in the mental illness context. Centering on health consciousness, this study systematically examines how health consciousness affects information seeking and whether negative emotions and efficacy intervene in the relationship in mental illness. The results of the survey (N = 614) suggest that health consciousness relates to fear, anxiety, self-efficacy, and response efficacy but does not relate to information seeking...
February 20, 2018: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460911/-masks-of-acute-neuroinfections-and-markers-of-differencial-diagnosis
#5
A S Shishov, I S Petrova, P V Boytsov, V G Leva, V E Malikov, S A Rusanova, A V Surovikina, I A Blank
AIM: To compare thе medical history, clinical features, composition of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), results of laboratory and instrumental examinations of patients with acute neuroinfections and differentiable diseases including a pseudoinflammatory variant of the acute stage of uncomplicated subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), consequences of traumatic brain injury (traumatic SAH, SAN combination with secondary purulent meningitis, posttraumatic nasal liquorrhea, intracerebral hematomas), abscesses and tumors of the brain, lymphoma with proven CNS...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459847/novel-approaches-to-the-diagnosis-of-chronic-disorders-of-consciousness-detecting-peripersonal-space-by-using-ultrasonics
#6
Antonino Naro, Antonino Chillura, Simona Portaro, Alessia Bramanti, Rosaria De Luca, Placido Bramanti, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
The assessment of behavioral responsiveness in patients suffering from chronic disorders of consciousness (DoC), including Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome (UWS) and Minimally Conscious State (MCS), is challenging. Even if a patient is unresponsive, he/she may be covertly aware in reason of a cognitive-motor dissociation, i.e., a preservation of cognitive functions despite a solely reflexive behavioral responsiveness. The approach of an external stimulus to the peripersonal space (PPS) modifies some biological measures (e...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459060/bickerstaff-s-brainstem-encephalitis-with-overlapping-guillain-barre-syndrome-usefulness-of-sequential-nerve-conduction-studies
#7
Choong Yi Fong, Hnin Wint Wint Aung, Arie Khairani, Chin Seng Gan, Nortina Shahrizaila, Khean Jin Goh
Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis (BBE) is a rare immune-mediated disorder characterized by ophthalmoplegia, ataxia and disturbance of consciousness, which may overlap with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) if there is additional limb weakness. We report a 7-month-old boy presented with ophthalmoplegia followed by a rapidly ascending paralysis of all four limbs and disturbance of consciousness. The initial impression was BBE with overlapping GBS. This was supported by sequential nerve conduction study (NCS) findings compatible with an acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP)...
February 16, 2018: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449820/headache-and-alexithymia-in-children-and-adolescents-what-is-the-connection
#8
REVIEW
Giulia Natalucci, Noemi Faedda, Dario Calderoni, Rita Cerutti, Paola Verdecchia, Vincenzo Guidetti
Background: Headache is one of the most common complaints in children and adolescents and comorbidity rates are very high and the major associated diseases are depression, anxiety, atopic disorders, sleep, and behavioral disorders. In recent years, it has been highlighted that difficulties regulating emotions such as alexithymia have also been associated with diagnosis of somatization. Methods: We carried out a mini review analyzing the relation between alexithymia and primary headache (e.g., migraine and tension type headache) in children and adolescents by synthesizing the relevant studies in the literature on PubMed, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446794/migraine-variants-in-children
#9
A David Rothner
Migraine in children can manifest in ways that are markedly different from adult migraines. In children, migraine variants are often unaccompanied by headache and include conditions such as cyclic vomiting and abdominal migraine. Children who experience these conditions are often thought to have a disorder of the gastrointestinal tract, and when evaluation is unremarkable they may be diagnosed as having a conversion reaction. Complicated migraines, on the other hand, are often accompanied by focal neurological symptoms such as ataxia, hemiparesis, or altered level of consciousness that evoke great consternation in the examining clinician...
February 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443785/can-endotracheal-intubation-be-the-first-step-in-management-of-nonconvulsive-status-epilepticus-a-case-report
#10
Saad Warraich, Abbas Ali, Atif Nizami, Moiz Bakhiet
RATIONALE: Nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) is prolonged seizure activity without motor manifestations. Clinically, there are certain examination findings, in addition to elements of history, that help differentiate it from other encephalopathies. When diagnosing NCSE, the physician faces significant difficulties due to inconsistent clinical presentation and somewhat nonspecific electroencephalogram (EEG) criteria. PATIENT CONCERNS: To highlight the problems faced when dealing with such a patient, a case of a 29-year-old male who presented with an altered state of consciousness is put forth for the reader...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437299/proneness-to-guilt-shame-and-pride-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-and-neurotypical-children
#11
Denise Davidson, Elizabeth Hilvert, Ieva Misiunaite, Michael Giordano
Self-conscious emotions (e.g., guilt, shame, and pride) are complex emotions that require self-reflection and self-evaluation, and are thought to facilitate the maintenance of societal norms and personal standards. Despite the importance of self-conscious emotions, most research has focused on basic emotion processing in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Therefore, in the present study, we used the Test of Self-Conscious Affect for Children (TOSCA-C) to assess proneness to, or propensity to experience, the self-conscious emotions guilt, shame, and pride in children with ASD and neurotypical children...
February 13, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437077/delirium-assessment-tools-for-use-in-critically-ill-adults-a-psychometric-analysis-and-systematic-review
#12
Céline Gélinas, Mélanie Bérubé, Annie Chevrier, Brenda T Pun, E Wesley Ely, Yoanna Skrobik, Juliana Barr
BACKGROUND: Delirium is highly prevalent in critically ill patients. Its detection with valid tools is crucial. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the development and psychometric properties of delirium assessment tools for critically ill adults. METHODS: Databases were searched to identify relevant studies. Inclusion criteria were English language, publication before January 2015, 30 or more patients, and patient population of critically ill adults (>18 years old)...
February 2018: Critical Care Nurse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430327/-mild-head-injury
#13
José Manuel Ortega Zufiría, Noemí Lomillos Prieto, Bernardino Choque Cuba, Martin Tamarit Degenhardt, Pedro Poveda Núñez, María Remedios López Serrano, Azahara Belén López Raigada
Introduction: Mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) represents a major health concern, because a sizeable number of patients with mild TBI will develop potentially life-threatening complications. The target of this study was to describe a large series of adult patients suffering from mild TBI, treated at University Hospital of Getafe, between 2010 and 2015 (n = 2480). We examined the patients' epidemiological and baseline clinical profile, diagnosis, treatment and ultimate outcomes, to identify major prognostic factors that influence the final result...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429778/hydrocephalus-in-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury-national-incidence-risk-factors-and-outcomes-in-124-444-hospitalized-patients
#14
Kavelin Rumalla, Vijay Letchuman, Kyle A Smith, Paul M Arnold
BACKGROUND: Hydrocephalus is a life-threatening sequela of traumatic brain injury (TBI) with poorly defined epidemiology in children. Here, we report the national incidence, risk factors, and outcomes associated with post-traumatic hydrocephalus (PTH). METHODS: The Kids Inpatient Database (2003, 2006, 2009, 2012) was queried using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes to identify all patients (age 0 to 20) with TBI (850...
December 11, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428470/dsp-6952-a-novel-5-ht4-receptor-partial-agonist-inhibits-visceral-hypersensitivity-and-ameliorates-gastrointestinal-dysfunction-in-experimental-animals
#15
Yukiko Mine, Tomohiro Itakura, Seiko Oku, Reiko Asada, Isao Shimizu
The pharmacological profile of DSP-6952, a novel 5-HT4 receptor partial agonist, was investigated to evaluate the potential use for GI disorders, and to compare its effects in some GI dysfunction models with those of clinically efficacious prokinetic agents. DSP-6952 enhanced gastric motility and caused colonic giant migrating contractions (GMCs) associated with defecation in conscious dogs, having ED50 value for inducing GMCs of 1.56mg/kg. DSP-6952 (3-10mg/kg, i.g.) significantly enhanced colonic transit rate in guinea pigs; this enhancement was antagonized by SB-207266, a selective 5-HT4 receptor antagonist...
February 8, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419340/alpha-1-antitrypsin-a-novel-predictor-for-long-term-recovery-of-chronic-disorder-of-consciousness
#16
Wangxiao Bao, Fangping He, Jian Gao, Fanxia Meng, Hai Zou, Benyan Luo
BACKGROUND: The aim of this manuscript was to explore the molecular basis and identify novel biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with chronic disorder of consciousness. METHODS: A coupled isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation-based approach was used to screen differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) between patients with chronic disorder of consciousness and healthy individuals. Candidate proteins were identified and measured. The Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) score was used to quantify the severity, and long-term recovery was assessed by Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS)...
February 8, 2018: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417320/bridging-the-gap-towards-awareness-detection-in-disorders-of-consciousness-an-experimental-study-on-the-mirror-neuron-system
#17
Antonino Naro, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò, Antonino Leo, Margherita Russo, Demetrio Milardi, Antonino Cannavò, Alfredo Manuli, Antonio Buda, Carmela Casella, Placido Bramanti, Alberto Cacciola, Alessia Bramanti
Advanced functional neuroimaging approaches dealing with motor imagery have disclosed covert cognitive processes in patients with disorders of consciousness (DoC). However, motor impairment and cognitive-motor dissociation can bias such approaches. Fourteen patients with post-traumatic DoC and ten healthy controls (HC) were provided with three motor tasks related to mirror neuron system (MNS) activation (movement observation, movement execution, and passive motor imagery of a movement) while recording electroencephalographic (EEG) metrics [EEG power and Granger Casualty Index (GCI)] to detect residual signs of conscious awareness...
February 7, 2018: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413639/biotin-and-acetazolamide-for-treatment-of-an-unusual-child-with-autism-plus-lack-of-nail-and-hair-growth
#18
Paul J Benke, Michael Duchowny, Dianalee McKnight
BACKGROUND: Patients with autism spectrum disorder and developmental delay or encephalopathy rarely demonstrate no or negligible hair and nail growth, suggesting a biotin-responsive clinical disorder. METHODS: A ten-year-old girl presented with features of autism spectrum disorder, isolated headaches, and episodes of headaches and limb shaking. Her medical history revealed that her hair and nails did not grow. Administration of biotin restored her nail and hair growth and improved intellectual ability and school performance...
February 2018: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410608/toward-a-neuroscience-of-adult-cognitive-developmental-theory
#19
Fady Girgis, Darrin J Lee, Amir Goodarzi, Jochen Ditterich
Piaget's genetic epistemology has provided the constructivist approach upon which child developmental theories were founded, in that infants are thought to progress through distinct cognitive stages until they reach maturity in their early 20's. However, it is now well established that cognition continues to develop after early adulthood, and several "neo-Piagetian" theories have emerged in an attempt to better characterize adult cognitive development. For example, Kegan's Constructive Developmental Theory (CDT) argues that the thought processes used by adults to construct their reality change over time, and reaching higher stages of cognitive development entails becoming objectively aware of emotions and beliefs that were previously in the realm of the subconscious...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408894/emotions-surrounding-friendships-of-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-japan-a-qualitative-interview-study
#20
Motofumi Sumiya, Kazue Igarashi, Motohide Miyahara
Emotions are embedded in culture and play a pivotal role in making friends and interacting with peers. To support the social participation of students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) it is essential to understand their emotional life in the context of ethnic and school cultures. We are particularly interested in how anxiety and loneliness are experienced in developing and maintaining friendships in the daily encounters of adolescents with ASD in the specific context of Japanese schools, because these emotions could serve either as facilitators or barriers to social interaction, depending on how individuals manage them...
2018: PloS One
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