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Disorder of consciousness

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216792/quadriceps-muscle-thickness-changes-in-patients-with-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-during-the-acute-phase
#1
Masafumi Nozoe, Masashi Kanai, Hiroki Kubo, Miki Kobayashi, Miho Yamamoto, Shinichi Shimada, Kyoshi Mase
Background Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is a life-threatening condition that often leads to severe disability in relatively young and healthy people. This disability is physical in many aSAH survivors, so muscle dysfunction may be an important factor in the functional level of these patients. Thus, measuring muscle thickness represents a suitable method for determining muscle function in patients with acute aSAH, because the disordered consciousness often experienced during the acute phase causes active movement to be difficult for these patients...
December 8, 2017: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212999/-a-case-of-hyperammonemia-resulting-from-urinary-tract-infection-caused-by-urease-producing-bacteria-in-a-parkinson-s-disease-patient-with-drug-induced-urinary-retention
#2
Masahiro Yasunishi, Akihiro Koumura, Yuichi Hayashi, Shohei Nishida, Takashi Inuzuka
A 71-year-old woman with a 9-year history of Parkinson's disease was admitted to our hospital emergently because of consciousness disturbance. Her consciousness level was 200 on the Japan coma scale (JCS), and she presented with tenderness and distension of the lower abdomen. Brain computed tomography showed normal findings. Blood tests showed an increased ammonia level (209 μg/dl) with normal AST and ALT levels. We catheterized the bladder for urinary retention. Five hours after admission, the blood ammonia level decreased to 38 μg/dl, and her consciousness level improved dramatically...
2017: Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210043/accidental-awareness-during-general-anaesthesia-a-narrative-review
#3
REVIEW
S R Tasbihgou, M F Vogels, A R Absalom
Unintended accidental awareness during general anaesthesia represents failure of successful anaesthesia, and so has been the subject of numerous studies during the past decades. As return to consciousness is both difficult to describe and identify, the reported incidence rates vary widely. Similarly, a wide range of techniques have been employed to identify cases of accidental awareness. Studies which have used the isolated forearm technique to identify responsiveness to command during intended anaesthesia have shown remarkably high incidences of awareness...
January 2018: Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209270/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-in-patients-with-prolonged-disorders-of-consciousness-combined-behavioral-and-event-related-potential-evidence
#4
Ye Zhang, Weiqun Song, Jubao Du, Su Huo, Guixiang Shan, Ran Li
Background: The electrophysiological evidence supporting the therapeutic efficacy of multiple transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) sessions on consciousness improvement in patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness (DOCs) has not been firmly established. Objectives: To assess the effects of repeated tDCS in patients with prolonged DOCs by Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) score and event-related potential (ERP). Method: Using a sham-controlled randomized double-blind design, 26 patients were randomly assigned to either a real [five vegetative state (VS) and eight minimally conscious state (MCS) patients] or sham (six VS and seven MCS patients) stimulation group...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207410/functional-networks-in-disorders-of-consciousness
#5
Yelena G Bodien, Camille Chatelle, Brian L Edlow
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202549/clonidine-sedation-effects-in-children-during-electroencephalography
#6
Mohammad Barzegar, Reza Piri, Mohammad Naghavi-Behzad, Masoumeh Ghasempour
It is very important to have proper management in children with Seizure. Electroencephalography (EEG) as a diagnostic instrument has a key role in determining the management method of seizure in children. Because of poor cooperation of some children (especially children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorders and developmental disorders) in performing EEG, it is the best choice to sedate children before EEG. The aim of present study is to evaluate the sedation efficacy of clonidine in children before EEG...
September 2017: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200911/dual-control-of-the-vestibulosympathetic-reflex-following-hypotension-in-rats
#7
Sang Eon Park, Yuan-Zhe Jin, Byung Rim Park
Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is associated with symptoms including headache, dizziness, and syncope. The incidence of OH increases with age. Attenuation of the vestibulosympathetic reflex (VSR) is also associated with an increased incidence of OH. In order to understand the pathophysiology of OH, we investigated the physiological characteristics of the VSR in the disorder. We applied sodium nitroprusside (SNP) to conscious rats with sinoaortic denervation in order to induce hypotension. Expression of pERK in the intermediolateral cell column (IMC) of the T4~7 thoracic spinal regions, blood epinephrine levels, and blood pressure were evaluated following the administration of glutamate and/or SNP...
November 2017: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197703/emotional-lability-and-affective-synchrony-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-pathology
#8
Michelle Schoenleber, Christopher R Berghoff, Kim L Gratz, Matthew T Tull
This study examined the relations of PTSD pathology to both the lability of three specific emotions (anxiety, anger, self-conscious emotions [SCE]) and the extent to which changes in one emotional state co-occur with changes in another emotional state (i.e. affective synchrony). Moreover, given evidence that emotional responding in PTSD may be heightened in response to trauma-related cues, these relations were explored in the context of a trauma cue versus neutral cue. Trauma-exposed patients in residential substance use disorder treatment (N=157) completed a diagnostic interview and two laboratory sessions involving presentation of neutral and individualized trauma scripts...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194517/a-switch-and-wave-of-neuronal-activity-in-the-cerebral-cortex-during-the-first-second-of-conscious-perception
#9
Wendy X Herman, Rachel E Smith, Sharif I Kronemer, Rebecca E Watsky, William C Chen, Leah M Gober, George J Touloumes, Meenakshi Khosla, Anusha Raja, Corey L Horien, Elliot C Morse, Katherine L Botta, Lawrence J Hirsch, Rafeed Alkawadri, Jason L Gerrard, Dennis D Spencer, Hal Blumenfeld
Conscious perception occurs within less than 1 s. To study events on this time scale we used direct electrical recordings from the human cerebral cortex during a conscious visual perception task. Faces were presented at individually titrated visual threshold for 9 subjects while measuring broadband 40-115 Hz gamma power in a total of 1621 intracranial electrodes widely distributed in both hemispheres. Surface maps and k-means clustering analysis showed initial activation of visual cortex for both perceived and non-perceived stimuli...
November 29, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188167/reconstruction-of-the-ascending-reticular-activating-system-with-diffusion-tensor-tractography-in-patients-with-a-disorder-of-consciousness-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#10
Edgar Gerardo Ordóñez-Rubiano, Jason Johnson, Cesar O Enciso-Olivera, Jorge H Marín-Muñoz, William Cortes-Lozano, Pablo E Baquero-Herrera, Edgar G Ordóñez-Mora, Hernando A Cifuentes-Lobelo
This work describes the reconstruction of the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) with diffusion tensor tractography in three patients with altered consciousness after traumatic brain injury. A diffusion tensor tractography was performed in three patients with impaired consciousness after a severe traumatic brain injury. A 1.5 T scanner was used to obtain the tensor sequences; axial tensors were acquired. Post-processing was performed, and the mean fractional anisotropy (FA) values were recorded...
September 28, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182029/strategies-to-keep-working-among-workers-with-common-mental-disorders-a-grounded-theory-study
#11
Louise Danielsson, Mikael Elf, Gunnel Hensing
PURPOSE: Most people with common mental disorders (CMDs) are employed and working, but few studies have looked into how they manage their jobs while ill. This study explores workers' experiences of strategies to keep working while suffering from CMDs. METHODS: In this grounded theory study, we interviewed 19 women and eight men with depression or anxiety disorders. They were 19-65 years old and had different occupations. Constant comparison method was used in the analysis...
November 28, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172623/the-structure-of-emotional-experience-and-its-relation-to-trait-emotional-awareness-a-theoretical-review
#12
Ryan Smith, William D S Killgore, Richard D Lane
Emotional experience (EE) and trait emotional awareness (tEA) have recently become topics of considerable experimental/theoretical interest within the cognitive and neural sciences. However, to date there has been limited empirical focus on how individual differences in the factors contributing to EE (a state-based construct) might account for differences in tEA. To promote clear, well-guided empirical research in this area, in this article we first offer a concise review of the primary factors contributing to EE...
November 27, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172052/profiling-risk-for-depressive-disorder-by-circuit-behavior-and-self-report-measures-of-emotion-function
#13
Anna J Watters, Mayuresh S Korgaonkar, Joanne S Carpenter, Anthony W F Harris, James J Gross, Leanne M Williams
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by maladaptions in affective brain circuitry and in emotion regulation. It remains unknown whether these maladaptions characterize first-degree relatives of probands who are unaffected yet have a higher risk of developing MDD. METHODS: Participants were 72 unaffected first-degree relatives of probands with MDD and 66 matched non-relative controls. We investigated brain circuit function and self-reported emotion regulation strategies for reappraisal and suppression...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171169/no-effect-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-of-the-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-on-short-term-memory
#14
Jing Wang, Jianbing Wen, Xiaoli Li
INTRODUCTION: Short-term memory refers to the capacity for holding information in mind for a short period of time with conscious memorization. It is an important ability for daily life and is impaired in several neurological and psychiatric disorders. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) was reported to enhance the capability of short-term memory in healthy subjects. However, results were not consistent and what is the possible impact factor is not known...
November 23, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167286/a-novel-prrt2-pathogenic-variant-in-a-family-with-paroxysmal-kinesigenic-dyskinesia-and-benign-familial-infantile-seizures
#15
Jacqueline G Lu, Juliet Bishop, Sarah Cheyette, Igor B Zhulin, Su Guo, Nara Sobreira, Steven E Brenner
Paroxysmal Kinesigenic Dyskinesia (PKD) is a rare neurological disorder characterized by recurrent attacks of dyskinetic movements without alteration of consciousness that are often triggered by the initiation of voluntary movements. Whole exome sequencing has revealed a cluster of pathogenic variants in PRRT2 (proline-rich transmembrane protein), a gene with a function in synaptic regulation that remains poorly understood. Here, we report the discovery of a novel PRRT2 pathogenic variant inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern in a family with PKD and Benign Familial Infantile Seizures (BFIS)...
November 22, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Molecular Case Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166136/the-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-b-receptor-gabab-encephalitis-clinical-manifestations-and-response-to-immunotherapy
#16
Junzhao Cui, Hui Bu, Junying He, Zeyan Zhao, Weixin Han, Ruiping Gao, Xiaoqing Li, Qing Li, Xiaosu Guo, Yueli Zou
PURPOSE: We report 11 patients diagnosed with GABAB receptor (GABABR) antibodies encephalitis in China and aim to analyse the clinical characteristics, laboratory and imaging findings, therapeutic modalities and outcomes. METHODS: Clinical data from patients diagnosed with anti-GABAB receptor encephalitis in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Hebei Medical University from February 2016 to October 2016 January were retrospectively collected and evaluated. RESULTS: Seven of the eleven patients were males, and a mean age at presentation of 63 years (range: 47-79 years)...
November 22, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164571/assessment-of-mismatch-negativity-and-p300-response-in-patients-with-disorders-of-consciousness
#17
X-Y Wang, H-Y Wu, H-T Lu, T-T Huang, H Zhang, T Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate changes in mismatch negativity (MMN) and P300 response in vegetative state (VS) and minimally conscious state (MCS) patients before and after treatment, and their value for prediction of prognosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Event-related potentials (ERPs), performed on 11 patients classified as VS (n = 6) or MCS (n = 5), and five healthy participants (i.e., control group). We performed a six months telephone follow-up to monitor changes in consciousness recovery...
November 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163104/transcranial-random-noise-stimulation-does-not-improve-behavioral-and-neurophysiological-measures-in-patients-with-subacute-vegetative-unresponsive-wakefulness-state-vs-uws
#18
Mauro Mancuso, Laura Abbruzzese, Stefania Canova, Giulia Landi, Simone Rossi, Emiliano Santarnecchi
Background: The absence of efficient treatments capable to promote central nervous system recovery in patients in vegetative state (VS) due to a severe acquired brain injury highlights the need of exploring alternative neuromodulatory treatments that can lead to neurobehavioral gains. Some encouraging preliminary observations suggest that transcranial direct current stimulation could be effective in disorders of consciousness (DoC) patients, especially when applied on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in patients with minimally conscious state (MCS) but not in those with VS...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162503/global-structural-integrity-and-effective-connectivity-in-patients-with-disorders-of-consciousness
#19
Olivier Bodart, Enrico Amico, Francisco Gómez, Adenauer G Casali, Sarah Wannez, Lizette Heine, Aurore Thibaut, Jitka Annen, Melanie Boly, Silvia Casarotto, Mario Rosanova, Marcello Massimini, Steven Laureys, Olivia Gosseries
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have separately reported impaired functional, structural, and effective connectivity in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). The perturbational complexity index (PCI) is a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) derived marker of effective connectivity. The global fractional anisotropy (FA) is a marker of structural integrity. Little is known about how these parameters are related to each other. OBJECTIVE: We aimed at testing the relationship between structural integrity and effective connectivity...
November 11, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160761/fronto-parietal-coherence-response-to-tdcs-modulation-in-patients-with-disorders-of-consciousness
#20
Yang Bai, Xiaoyu Xia, Yong Wang, Yongkun Guo, Yi Yang, Jianghong He, Xiaoli Li
A transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) protocol (2 min, 2 mA, anodal electrode at the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and cathodal electrode at the right supraorbital area) was applied in patients with different degrees of disorders of consciousness (DoC). Although previous research indicates that it could improve patients' coma recovery scale-revised (CRS-R) scores, the brain's electrophysiological responses to tDCS are still unclear. Therefore, the present study was performed to explore the underlying brain responses of patients in a minimally conscious state (MCS) and a Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome (UWS) to tDCS modulation...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
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