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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29917287/new-drugs-and-regimens-for-tuberculosis
#1
REVIEW
Kwok-Chiu Chang, Eric Nuermberger, Giovanni Sotgiu, Chi-Chiu Leung
Since standardized rifampin-based first-line regimens and fluoroquinolone-based second-line regimens were used to treat tuberculosis (TB), unfortunately without timely modification according to the drug resistance profile, TB and drug-resistant disease are still important public health threats worldwide. Although the last decade has witnessed advances in rapid diagnostic tools and use of repurposed and novel drugs for better managing drug-resistant TB, we need an appropriate TB control strategy and a well-functioning health infrastructure to ensure optimal operational use of rapid tests, judicious use of effective treatment regimens that can be rapidly tailored according to the drug resistance profile and timely management of risk factors and co-morbidities that promote infection and its progression to disease...
June 19, 2018: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29917225/psychological-treatments-for-adults-and-children-with-epilepsy-evidence-based-recommendations-by-the-international-league-against-epilepsy-psychology-task-force
#2
Rosa Michaelis, Venus Tang, Laura H Goldstein, Markus Reuber, William Curt LaFrance, Tobias Lundgren, Avani C Modi, Janelle L Wagner
Given the significant impact that psychosocial factors and epilepsy treatments can have on the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of individuals with epilepsy and their families, there is great clinical interest in the role of psychological evaluation and treatments to improve HRQOL and comorbidities. Therefore, the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) charged the Psychology Task Force with the development of recommendations for clinical care based on evaluation of the evidence from their recent Cochrane review of psychological treatments in individuals with epilepsy...
June 19, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29917139/structural-brain-alterations-before-and-after-total-knee-arthroplasty-a-longitudinal-assessment
#3
Gwyn N Lewis, Rosalind S Parker, Sheena Sharma, David A Rice, Peter J McNair
Objective: Many studies have provided evidence of altered brain structure in chronic pain conditions, as well as further adaptations following treatment that are coincident with changes in pain. Less is known regarding how these structural brain adaptations relate to assessments of nociceptive processing. The current study aimed to investigate brain structure in people with knee osteoarthritis (OA) before and after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and to investigate the relationships between these findings and quantitative sensory testing (QST) of the nociceptive system...
June 15, 2018: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29917118/considering-systemic-barriers-to-treating-tobacco-use-in-clinical-settings-in-the-united-states
#4
Alana M Rojewski, Steffani R Bailey, Steven L Bernstein, Nina A Cooperman, Ellen R Gritz, Maher A Karam-Hage, Megan E Piper, Nancy A Rigotti, Graham W Warren
The Comorbidity Workgroup of the Tobacco Treatment Research Network, within the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco, previously highlighted the need to provide tobacco treatment to patients diagnosed with comorbid physical and mental health conditions. Yet, systemic barriers in the United States healthcare system prevent many patients who present for medical treatment from getting the evidence-based tobacco treatment that they need. The identified barriers include insufficient training in the epidemiologic impact of tobacco use, related disorders, and pharmacological and behavioral treatment approaches; misunderstanding among clinicians about the effectiveness of tobacco treatment; lack of therapeutic support from clinical staff; insufficient use of health information technology to improve tobacco use identification and treatment; and limited time and reimbursement for clinicians to provide treatment...
June 15, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29917096/craving-to-quit-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-smartphone-app-based-mindfulness-training-for-smoking-cessation
#5
Kathleen A Garrison, Prasanta Pal, Stephanie S O'Malley, Brian P Pittman, Ralitza Gueorguieva, Rahil Rojiani, Dustin Scheinost, Jesse Dallery, Judson A Brewer
Introduction: Mindfulness training may reduce smoking rates and lessen the association between craving and smoking. This trial tested the efficacy of mindfulness training via smartphone app to reduce smoking. Experience sampling was used to measure real time craving, smoking and mindfulness. Methods: A researcher-blind, parallel randomized controlled trial compared the efficacy of mobile mindfulness training with experience sampling (MMT-ES; Craving to Quit) vs...
June 18, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916991/risk-factors-for-early-reoperation-after-operative-treatment-of-acetabular-fractures
#6
Anthony Ding, Robert V OʼToole, Renan Castillo, Brad Reahl, Ryan Montalvo, Jason W Nascone, Marcus F Sciadini, Anthony R Carlini, Theodore T Manson
OBJECTIVES: To identify the risk factors for early reoperation after operative fixation of acetabular fractures. DESIGN: Retrospective evaluation. SETTING: Level I Trauma Center. PATIENTS: Seven hundred ninety-one patients with displaced acetabular fractures treated with open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) from 2006 to 2015. Average follow-up was 52 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Early reoperation after acetabular ORIF, defined as secondary procedure for infection or revision within 3 years of initial operation...
July 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916970/optimal-timing-of-alveolar-cleft-bone-grafting-for-maxillary-clefts-in-the-cleft-palate-population
#7
Arminder S Kaura, Dhivya R Srinivasa, Steven J Kasten
PURPOSE: Timing of bone grafting for maxillary alveolar clefts is not standardized. Secondary bone grafting is often performed; however, consensus does not exist regarding use of chronologic versus dental age to guide treatment. Several authors suggest an early chronologic age is associated with greater success. Available literature was systematically reviewed for evidence for optimal timing for grafting maxillary alveolar clefts. METHODS: PubMed, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Central Registrar of Controlled Trials databases were queried for manuscripts pertaining to maxillary alveolar cleft bone grafting...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916560/sex-drugs-and-heart-failure-a-sex-sensitive-review-of-the-evidence-base-behind-current-heart-failure-clinical-guidelines
#8
REVIEW
Anna Levinsson, Marie-Pierre Dubé, Jean-Claude Tardif, Simon de Denus
Heart failure (HF) is a complex disease, almost as common in women as in men. Nonetheless, HF clinical presentation, prognosis, and aetiology vary by sex. This review summarizes the current state of sex-sensitive issues related to HF drugs included in treatment guidelines and suggests future directions for improved care. Heart failure presentation differs between female and male patients: females more often show with hypertensive aetiology and the preserved ejection fraction phenotype, while men more often show ischaemic aetiology and the reduced ejection fraction phenotype...
June 19, 2018: ESC Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916112/current-status-of-neuromodulatory-therapies-for-disorders-of-consciousness
#9
REVIEW
Xiaoyu Xia, Yi Yang, Yongkun Guo, Yang Bai, Yuanyuan Dang, Ruxiang Xu, Jianghong He
Treatment for disorders of consciousness (DOCs) is still a Gordian knot. Evidence-based guidelines on the treatment of DOC patients are not currently available, while neuromodulation techniques are seen as a potential treatment. Multiple neuromodulation therapies have been applied. This article reviews the most relevant studies in the literature in order to describe a clear picture of the current state of neuromodulation therapies that could be used to treat DOC patients. Both invasive and non-invasive brain stimulation is discussed...
June 18, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916098/the-effects-of-xanthine-oxidase-inhibitor-in-patients-with-chronic-heart-failure-complicated-with-hyperuricemia-a-prospective-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial-of-topiroxostat-vs-allopurinol-study-protocol
#10
Masashi Sakuma, Shigeru Toyoda, Takuo Arikawa, Yota Koyabu, Toru Kato, Taichi Adachi, Hideaki Suwa, Jun-Ichi Narita, Koetsu Anraku, Kimihiko Ishimura, Fumitake Yamauchi, Yasunori Sato, Teruo Inoue
BACKGROUND: Hyperuricemia has a close relationship with cardiovascular diseases including heart failure. However, it is controversial whether xanthine oxidase inhibition has benefits for patients with chronic heart failure. We designed the Effect of Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitor in Chronic Heart Failure Patients Complicated with Hyperuricemia study (Excited-UA study) to compare the beneficial effects between a novel xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitor, topiroxostat, and a conventional agent, allopurinol, in patients with chronic heart failure and hyperuricemia...
June 18, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915971/metabolic-surgery-for-the-treatment-of-diabetes-mellitus-positioning-of-leading-medical-associations-in-mexico
#11
Miguel F Herrera, Eduardo García-García, Juan F Arellano-Ramos, Miguel Agustín Madero, Jorge Antonio Aldrete-Velasco, Juan Antonio López Corvalá
INTRODUCTION: Metabolic surgery (MS) can be a useful therapeutic strategy in patients with type 2 diabetes (DM2) and obesity. OBJECTIVE: To define the place of MS within DM2 treatment in Mexico. METHODS: A committee of experts consisting of internists and surgeons representing the leading Mexican associations involved in the field was created. Each one responded to a specific question regarding mechanisms involved in controlling DM2, surgical procedures, and the indications and contraindications for MS...
June 18, 2018: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915910/stationary-treatment-compared-with-individualized-chinese-medicine-for-type-2-diabetes-patients-with-microvascular-complications-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Jian Huo, Li-Sha Liu, Wen-Yuan Jian, Jie-Ping Zeng, Jun-Guo Duan, Xue-Jing Lu, Shuo Yin
BACKGROUND: Microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes (T2DM), including diabatic retinopathy (DR), diabetic kidney disease (DKD), diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) are the leading causes of visual loss, end-stage renal disease or amputation, while the current therapies are still unsatisfactory. Chinese medicine (CM) has been widely used for treating diabetic mellitus. However, most of the previous studies focused on the single complication. The role of CM treatment in T2DM patients with 2 or multiple microvascular complications is not clear...
June 18, 2018: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915898/regorafenib-a-review-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#13
Young-A Heo, Yahiya Y Syed
Regorafenib (Stivarga® ), a small molecule inhibitor of multiple kinases, is the first drug to be approved for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients who have progressed during or after sorafenib therapy. Its approval was based on the results of the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multinational, phase III RESORCE trial in patients with HCC who had progressed during sorafenib therapy. In RESORCE, regorafenib significantly prolonged overall survival (OS; primary endpoint), progression-free survival (PFS) and time to progression (TTP) compared with placebo, with the OS benefit appearing to be largely due to disease stabilization...
June 18, 2018: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915529/the-main-molecular-mechanisms-underlying-methamphetamine-induced-neurotoxicity-and-implications-for-pharmacological-treatment
#14
REVIEW
Xue Yang, Yong Wang, Qiyan Li, Yaxian Zhong, Liangpei Chen, Yajun Du, Jing He, Lvshuang Liao, Kun Xiong, Chun-Xia Yi, Jie Yan
Methamphetamine (METH) is a popular new-type psychostimulant drug with complicated neurotoxicity. In spite of mounting evidence on METH-induced damage of neural cell, the accurate mechanism of toxic effect of the drug on central nervous system (CNS) has not yet been completely deciphered. Besides, effective treatment strategies toward METH neurotoxicity remain scarce and more efficacious drugs are to be developed. In this review, we summarize cellular and molecular bases that might contribute to METH-elicited neurotoxicity, which mainly include oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, and neuroinflammation...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915484/evidence-based-clinical-practice-points-for-the-management-of-venous-ulcers
#15
REVIEW
Ravul Jindal, D B Dekiwadia, Pinjala Rama Krishna, Ajay K Khanna, Malay D Patel, Shoaib Padaria, Roy Varghese
Venous ulcer is an extremely common aetiology of lower extremity ulceration, which affects approximately 1% population in most of the countries, and the incidence rate increases with age and female gender. Proper assessment and diagnosis of both the patient and ulcer are inevitable in order to differentiate venous ulcers from other lower extremity ulceration and to frame an adequate and individualised management plan. Venous ulcers generally persist for weeks to many years and are typically recurrent in nature...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915451/disruptive-hearing-technologies-and-mild-sensorineural-hearing-loss-i-accessibility-and-affordability-issues
#16
REVIEW
Anna Marie Jilla, Carole E Johnson, Jeffrey L Danhauer
Limited accessibility to and affordability of hearing health care (HHC) and hearing aids (HAs) are two reasons why people do not seek treatment for their hearing losses. This article is the first in a series of two and discusses affordability issues (i.e., billing models, cost-effectiveness, insurance coverage, and reimbursement) related to and provides a historical context for the Over-the-Counter Hearing Aid Act of 2017. This piece of legislation supports development of a new class of over-the-counter HAs that represents a disruptive technology that may transform the HHC industry by reducing costs specific to the device...
May 2018: Seminars in Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915396/probiotics-in-gastroenterology-how-pro-is-the-evidence-in-adults
#17
REVIEW
Ronald L Koretz
Probiotic usage has become popular with both medical practitioners and the community in general; patients commonly seek advice regarding what, if any, such preparation would be useful for their own diseases. Since such advice should be evidence-based, identified randomized clinical trials (RCTs) for a number of gastrointestinal conditions were reviewed; the data were organized by individual probiotic genera/species. Only trials in adults were considered. Most of the identified RCTs were small and low-quality, so any conclusions to be drawn will be limited at least by methodologic problems...
June 19, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914957/extinction-of-zika-virus-and-usutu-virus-by-lethal-mutagenesis-reveals-different-patterns-of-sensitivity-to-three-mutagenic-drugs
#18
Maria Rosaria Bassi, Raquel Navarro Sempere, Prashansa Meyn, Charlotta Polacek, Armando Arias
Flaviviruses constitute an increasing source of public health concern with growing numbers of pathogens causing disease, and a geographic spread to temperate climates. Despite a large body of evidence supporting mutagenesis as a conceivable antiviral strategy, there is currently no data on the sensitivity to increased mutagenesis for Zika virus (ZIKV) and Usutu virus (USUV), two emerging flaviviral threats. In this study, we demonstrate that both viruses are sensitive to three ribonucleosides that have shown mutagenic activity against other RNA viruses - favipiravir, ribavirin and 5-fluorouracil - while they remain unaffected by a mutagenic deoxyribonucleoside...
June 18, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914612/treatment-options-for-carbapenem-resistant-gram-negative-infections
#19
Moritz Fritzenwanker, Can Imirzalioglu, Susanne Herold, Florian M Wagenlehner, Klaus-Peter Zimmer, Trinad Chakraborty
BACKGROUND: Rates of colonization and infection with carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative pathogens are on the rise, particularly in southeastern European countries, and this is increasingly true in Germany as well. The organisms in question include enterobacteriaceae such as Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli and non-fermenting bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii. As the carbapenems have been the gold standard to date for the systemic treatment of serious infections with Gram-negative bacteria, carbapenem resistance presents new and difficult challenges in therapeutic decision-making, particularly because of the high frequency of coresistance...
May 21, 2018: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914574/cognitive-behavioural-therapy-and-interpersonal-psychotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-post-natal-depression-a-narrative-review
#20
REVIEW
George Stamou, Azucena García-Palacios, Cristina Botella
BACKGROUND: Post-natal Depression (PND) is a depressive disorder that causes significant distress or impairment on different levels in the individual's life and their families. There is already evidence of the efficacy of psychological treatments for PND. We conducted a narrative review and researched the literature for identifying systematic reviews and studies for the best psychological treatments of PND, and examined what parameters made those treatments successful. METHODS: We searched 4 electronic databases...
June 18, 2018: BMC Psychology
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