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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334675/exercise-increases-serum-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#1
A Kerling, M Kück, U Tegtbur, L Grams, S Weber-Spickschen, A Hanke, B Stubbs, K G Kahl
BACKGROUND: Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). Existing data on exercise treatment in people with MDD are inconsistent concerning the effect of exercise on BDNF pointing either to increased or unaltered BDNF concentrations. However, studies in non-depressed persons demonstrated a significant effect on resting peripheral BDNF concentrations in aerobic training interventions. Given the lack of clarity mentioned above, the current study aimed at examining the effect of adjunctive exercise on serum BDNF levels in guideline based treated patients with MDD...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334622/improving-survival-prognostication-of-gastroenteropancreatic-neuroendocrine-neoplasms-revised-staging-criteria
#2
Jacob A Martin, Richard R P Warner, Juan P Wisnivesky, Michelle Kang Kim
PURPOSE: Current staging criteria for gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NENs), while useful, have limitations. In this study, we used a population-based registry to evaluate the prognostic utility of the current staging systems and assess whether evidence-based modifications can improve survival predictions. METHODS: We identified patients with confirmed GEP-NENs from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results registry. We assigned tumour-node-metastasis status according to American Joint Committee on Cancer and European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society criteria...
March 20, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334467/revisiting-the-paradigm-shift-in-opioid-use-developments-and-implications-10%C3%A2-years-later
#3
Benedikt Fischer, Jürgen Rehm
A decade ago, we queried the unfolding of a 'paradigm shift' in illicit opioid use in North America, specifically involving a shift away from heroin to prescription opioid (PO) use. Today, this situation is more acute than ever, with prescription opioid misuse, morbidity and mortality amounting to one of the most severe substance use-related public health crises ever, now even impacting life expectancy in key population segments. Despite medical system-based PO dispensing and practices being recognised as core drivers of the PO crisis, effective policy measures have been long absent or limited-including those to reduce medical PO use to levels supported by best evidence for pain care...
March 23, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334433/dietary-interventions-for-recurrent-abdominal-pain-in-childhood
#4
REVIEW
Tamsin V Newlove-Delgado, Alice E Martin, Rebecca A Abbott, Alison Bethel, Joanna Thompson-Coon, Rebecca Whear, Stuart Logan
BACKGROUND: This is an update of the original Cochrane review, last published in 2009 (Huertas-Ceballos 2009). Recurrent abdominal pain (RAP), including children with irritable bowel syndrome, is a common problem affecting between 4% and 25% of school-aged children. For the majority of such children, no organic cause for their pain can be found on physical examination or investigation. Many dietary inventions have been suggested to improve the symptoms of RAP. These may involve either excluding ingredients from the diet or adding supplements such as fibre or probiotics...
March 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334329/metabolomics-of-pichia-pastoris-impact-of-buffering-conditions-on-the-kinetics-and-nature-of-metabolite-loss-during-quenching
#5
Matthias Mattanovich, Hannes Rußmayer, Theresa Scharl-Hirsch, Verena Puxbaum, Jonas Burgard, Diethard Mattanovich, Stephan Hann
Mass spectrometry based metabolomic profiling is a powerful strategy to quantify the concentrations of numerous primary metabolites in parallel. To avoid distortion of metabolite concentrations, quenching is applied to stop the cellular metabolism instantly. For yeasts, cold methanol quenching is accepted to be the most suitable method to stop metabolism, while keeping the cells intact for separation from the supernatant. During this treatment, metabolite loss may occur while the cells are suspended in the quenching solution...
March 15, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334324/understanding-the-genetic-landscape-of-small-cell-carcinoma-of-the-urinary-bladder-and-implications-for-diagnosis-prognosis-and-treatment-a-review
#6
Erik J Kouba, Liang Cheng
Importance: Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rare and aggressive neuroendocrine tumor of the urinary bladder. Although research has been performed since the first case was reported in 1981, most of our understanding of the disease treatments has been extrapolated from small cell carcinoma of the lung. However, current data on patient survival have been stagnant. Observations: With the advent of advanced molecular diagnostic methods, a new potential for understanding the origin and treatment of small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder has become evident...
March 23, 2017: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334018/development-of-an-evidence-evaluation-and-synthesis-system-for-drug-drug-interactions-and-its-application-to-a-systematic-review-of-hiv-and-malaria-co-infection
#7
Kay Seden, Sara Gibbons, Catia Marzolini, Jonathan M Schapiro, David M Burger, David J Back, Saye H Khoo
BACKGROUND: In all settings, there are challenges associated with safely treating patients with multimorbidity and polypharmacy. The need to characterise, understand and limit harms resulting from medication use is therefore increasingly important. Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are prevalent in patients taking antiretrovirals (ARVs) and if unmanaged, may pose considerable risk to treatment outcome. One of the biggest challenges in preventing DDIs is the substantial gap between theory and clinical practice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333961/phytochemical-investigation-of-aloe-pulcherrima-roots-and-evaluation-for-its-antibacterial-and-antiplasmodial-activities
#8
Dele Abdissa, Girma Geleta, Ketema Bacha, Negera Abdissa
Medicinal plants with documented traditional uses remain an important source for the treatment of a wide range of ailments. Evidence shows that majority of the Ethiopian population are still dependent on traditional medicine. Aloe pulcherrima Gilbert & Sebsebe is one of the endemic Aloe species traditionally used for the treatment of malaria and wound healing in central, Southern and Northern part of Ethiopia. The aim of the current study was, therefore, to isolate active compounds from roots of A. pulcherrima and evaluate for their antibacterial and antiplasmodial activities using standard test strains...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333958/targeted-deep-sequencing-of-plasma-circulating-cell-free-dna-reveals-vimentin-and-fibulin-1-as-potential-epigenetic-biomarkers-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#9
Reetta Holmila, Athena Sklias, David C Muller, Davide Degli Esposti, Paule Guilloreau, James Mckay, Suleeporn Sangrajrang, Petcharin Srivatanakul, Pierre Hainaut, Philippe Merle, Zdenko Herceg, Andre Nogueira da Costa
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second most common cause of cancer death worldwide, but is still lacking sensitive and specific biomarkers for early diagnosis and prognosis. In this study, we applied targeted massively parallel semiconductor sequencing to assess methylation on a panel of genes (FBLN1, HINT2, LAMC1, LTBP1, LTBP2, PSMA2, PSMA7, PXDN, TGFB1, UBE2L3, VIM and YWHAZ) in plasma circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) and to evaluate the potential of these genes as HCC biomarkers in two different series, one from France (42 HCC cases and 42 controls) and one from Thailand (42 HCC cases, 26 chronic liver disease cases and 42 controls)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333866/prevention-of-gastrointestinal-side-effects-in-paediatric-oncology-what-are-the-guidelines
#10
Karis K F Cheng
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gastrointestinal side-effects, particularly with regard to alimentary tract mucositis and chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV), continue to be frequent and debilitating symptomatic conditions among children and adolescents receiving cytotoxic cancer therapy. Further avenues of progress for mucositis and CINV prevention in paediatric oncology setting are warranted. RECENT FINDINGS: The current article reviews the major guidelines and literature published in 2016 pertaining to the prevention of mucositis and CINV...
March 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333820/committee-opinion-no-692-emergent-therapy-for-acute-onset-severe-hypertension-during-pregnancy-and-the-postpartum-period
#11
(no author information available yet)
Acute-onset, severe systolic hypertension; severe diastolic hypertension; or both can occur during the prenatal, intrapartum, or postpartum periods. Pregnant women or women in the postpartum period with acute-onset, severe systolic hypertension; severe diastolic hypertension; or both require urgent antihypertensive therapy. Introducing standardized, evidence-based clinical guidelines for the management of patients with preeclampsia and eclampsia has been demonstrated to reduce the incidence of adverse maternal outcomes...
April 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333812/committee-opinion-no-692-summary-emergent-therapy-for-acute-onset-severe-hypertension-during-pregnancy-and-the-postpartum-period
#12
(no author information available yet)
Acute-onset, severe systolic hypertension; severe diastolic hypertension; or both can occur during the prenatal, intrapartum, or postpartum periods. Pregnant women or women in the postpartum period with acute-onset, severe systolic hypertension; severe diastolic hypertension; or both require urgent antihypertensive therapy. Introducing standardized, evidence-based clinical guidelines for the management of patients with preeclampsia and eclampsia has been demonstrated to reduce the incidence of adverse maternal outcomes...
April 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333488/the-hierarchical-taxonomy-of-psychopathology-hitop-a-dimensional-alternative-to-traditional-nosologies
#13
Roman Kotov, Robert F Krueger, David Watson, Thomas M Achenbach, Robert R Althoff, R Michael Bagby, Timothy A Brown, William T Carpenter, Avshalom Caspi, Lee Anna Clark, Nicholas R Eaton, Miriam K Forbes, Kelsie T Forbush, David Goldberg, Deborah Hasin, Steven E Hyman, Masha Y Ivanova, Donald R Lynam, Kristian Markon, Joshua D Miller, Terrie E Moffitt, Leslie C Morey, Stephanie N Mullins-Sweatt, Johan Ormel, Christopher J Patrick, Darrel A Regier, Leslie Rescorla, Camilo J Ruggero, Douglas B Samuel, Martin Sellbom, Leonard J Simms, Andrew E Skodol, Tim Slade, Susan C South, Jennifer L Tackett, Irwin D Waldman, Monika A Waszczuk, Thomas A Widiger, Aidan G C Wright, Mark Zimmerman
The reliability and validity of traditional taxonomies are limited by arbitrary boundaries between psychopathology and normality, often unclear boundaries between disorders, frequent disorder co-occurrence, heterogeneity within disorders, and diagnostic instability. These taxonomies went beyond evidence available on the structure of psychopathology and were shaped by a variety of other considerations, which may explain the aforementioned shortcomings. The Hierarchical Taxonomy Of Psychopathology (HiTOP) model has emerged as a research effort to address these problems...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333365/clozapine-combined-with-different-antipsychotic-drugs-for-treatment-resistant-schizophrenia
#14
REVIEW
Sarah Barber, Uwaila Olotu, Martina Corsi, Andrea Cipriani
BACKGROUND: Between 40% and 70% of people with treatment-resistant schizophrenia do not respond to clozapine, despite adequate blood levels. For these people, a number of treatment strategies have emerged, including the prescription of a second anti-psychotic drug in combination with clozapine. OBJECTIVES: To determine the clinical effects of various clozapine combination strategies with antipsychotic drugs in people with treatment-resistant schizophrenia both in terms of efficacy and tolerability...
March 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333301/preconception-maternal-lipoprotein-levels-in-relation-to-fecundability
#15
Sarah J Pugh, Enrique F Schisterman, Richard W Browne, Anne M Lynch, Sunni L Mumford, Neil J Perkins, Robert Silver, Lindsey Sjaarda, Joseph B Stanford, Jean Wactawski-Wende, Brian Wilcox, Katherine L Grantz
STUDY QUESTION: Are maternal preconception lipid levels associated with fecundability? SUMMARY ANSWER: Fecundability was reduced for all abnormal female lipid levels including total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and total triglyceride levels. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Subfecundity affects 7-15% of the population and lipid disorders are hypothesized to play a role since cholesterol acts as a substrate for the synthesis of steroid hormones...
March 15, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333222/ivf-or-iui-as-first-line-treatment-in-unexplained-subfertility-the-conundrum-of-treatment-selection-markers
#16
R I Tjon-Kon-Fat, P Tajik, M H Zafarmand, A J Bensdorp, P M M Bossuyt, G J E Oosterhuis, R van Golde, S Repping, M D A Lambers, E Slappendel, D Perquin, M J Pelinck, J Gianotten, J W M Maas, M J C Eijkemans, F van der Veen, B W Mol, M van Wely
STUDY QUESTION: Are there treatment selection markers that could aid in identifying couples, with unexplained or mild male subfertility, who would have better chances of a healthy child with IVF with single embryo transfer (IVF-SET) than with IUI with ovarian stimulation (IUI-OS)? SUMMARY ANSWER: We did not find any treatment selection markers that were associated with better chances of a healthy child with IVF-SET instead of IUI-OS in couples with unexplained or mild male subfertility...
February 24, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332921/leaving-the-skin-incision-open-may-not-be-as-beneficial-as-we-have-been-taught
#17
Jack C He, Brenda M Zosa, David Schechtman, Brian Brajcich, Jonathan C Savakus, Amanda L Wojahn, Derek Z Wang, Jeffrey A Claridge
BACKGROUND: Currently, various methods of skin closures are used in contaminated and dirty abdominal wounds without solid, evidence-based guidance. This study investigates whether closure methods affect surgical site infection (SSI) and other incisional complications. We hypothesize that open management of the skin would have the lowest complications, including SSI. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients age ≥18 who underwent trauma laparotomy (TL) or damage control laparotomy (DCL) from 2008-2013 and had class III/IV wounds were included...
March 23, 2017: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332876/evaluation-and-management-of-adrenal-insufficiency-in-critically-ill-patientsdisease-state-review
#18
Amir H Hamrahian, Maria Fleseriu
Definition of normal adrenal function in critically ill patients remains controversial, despite a large body of literature. Furthermore, evaluation of adrenal function in these patients is complex. A decrease in cortisol breakdown rather than an increase in cortisol production has been suggested as the main contributor to elevated cortisol levels in critically ill patients. The concept of relative adrenal insufficiency has multiple pathophysiological flaws and is not supported by current evidence. Patients with septic shock who are pressor-dependent or refractory to fluid resuscitation should receive a short course of hydrocortisone regardless of their serum cortisol levels or their response to a Cosyntropin stimulation test (CST)...
March 23, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332871/sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-and-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibition-promise-of-a-dynamic-duo
#19
Ildiko Lingvay
OBJECTIVE: This article reviews evidence supporting sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor combination therapy for management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: We conducted a non-systematic review of the literature focusing on single-pill or fixed-dose combinations of SGLT2 inhibitors and DPP-4 inhibitors available in the United States. RESULTS: SGLT2 inhibitors and DPP-4 inhibitors have complementary mechanisms of action that address several of the underlying pathophysiological abnormalities present in T2DM without overlapping toxicities...
March 23, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332861/treatment-of-nightmares-in-psychiatric-inpatients-with-imagery-rehearsal-therapy-an-open-trial-and-case-series
#20
Thomas E Ellis, Katrina A Rufino, Michael R Nadorff
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to assess the utility of Imagery Rehearsal Therapy (IRT) for nightmares in an inpatient psychiatric setting. Although IRT enjoys a substantial evidence base for efficacy in various populations, data with psychiatric inpatients are lacking. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were 20 adult psychiatric inpatients (11 male, 9 female; mean age=43.4), in an extended stay psychiatric inpatient facility. All participants were diagnosed with multiple, treatment resistant, comorbid conditions, including mood disorders, anxiety disorders, personality disorders, and substance-related disorders...
March 23, 2017: Behavioral Sleep Medicine
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