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Specific Learning Disabilities

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671621/a-research-framework-to-isolate-visuospatial-from-childhood-motor-coordination-phenotypes
#1
Michele Poletti
Clinicians acknowledge the presence of developmental cognitive phenotypes mainly characterized by a specific visuospatial impairment in presence of intact verbal functioning (usually referred as Nonverbal Learning Disability: NLD) since many decades, without providing sufficient empirical evidence supporting their nosological validity and inclusion in current diagnostic manuals. This contribution suggests that the goal of including NLD in future diagnostic manuals could be achieved only be the demonstration of the validity of this hypothesized clinical category...
April 19, 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656742/pathogenesis-of-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-and-risks-associated-with-treatments-for-multiple-sclerosis-a-decade-of-lessons-learned
#2
REVIEW
Eugene O Major, Tarek A Yousry, David B Clifford
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare, devastating demyelinating disease of the CNS caused by the JC virus (JCV) that occurs in patients with compromised immune systems. Detection of PML in systemically immunocompetent patients with multiple sclerosis treated with natalizumab points to a role for this drug in the pathophysiology of PML. Emerging knowledge of the cellular and molecular biology of JCV infection and the pathogenesis of PML-including interplay of this common virus with the human immune system and features of natalizumab that might contribute to PML pathogenesis-provides new opportunities to monitor viral status and predict risk of JCV-associated disease...
May 2018: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651830/qualitative-and-quantitative-revaluation-of-specific-learning-disabilities-a-multicentric-study
#3
Francesca F Operto, Roberta Mazza, Maura Buttiglione, Francesco Craig, Alessandro Frolli, Simone Pisano, Lucia Margari, Giangennaro Coppola
BACKGROUND: Specific learning disabilities are disorders that affect the instrumental skills of academic learning, leaving intact the general intellectual functioning. It is possible to distinguish: dyslexia, dysorthography, dysgraphia, and dyscalculia. The diagnosis is made according to DSMV. The aim of this study is to evaluate the implementation of Law N° 170 following a diagnosis of specific learning disabilities in children and their evolution over time. METHODS: The sample under examination consists of 75 children, 56 males and 18 females aged 7,8 to 16 years, with a diagnosis of specific learning disabilities; a revaluation was carried outthrough the use of standardized instruments according to age and school attended...
April 12, 2018: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626427/engineering-improved-balance-confidence-among-older-adults-with-complex-health-care-needs-learning-from-the-muscling-up-against-disability-study
#4
Sharon Hetherington, Tim Henwood, Paul Swinton, Justin Keogh, Paul Gardiner, Anthony Tuckett
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations of balance confidence with physical and cognitive markers of wellbeing among older adults receiving government-funded aged care services, and whether progressive resistance plus balance training could positively influence change. DESIGN: Intervention study. SETTING: Community-based older-adult-specific exercise clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Older adults (N=245) with complex care needs who were receiving government aged care support...
April 4, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606845/movement-issues-identified-in-movement-abc2-checklist-parent-ratings-for-students-with-persisting-dysgraphia-dyslexia-and-owl-ld-and-typical-literacy-learners
#5
Kathleen Nielsen, Sheila Henderson, Anna L Barnett, Robert D Abbott, Virginia Berninger
Movement, which draws on motor skills and executive functions for managing them, plays an important role in literacy learning (e.g., movement of mouth during oral reading and movement of hand and fingers during writing); but relatively little research has focused on movement skills in students with specific learning disabilities as the current study did. Parents completed normed Movement Assessment Battery for Children Checklist, 2nd edition (ABC-2), ratings and their children in grades 4 to 9 ( M = 11 years, 11 months; 94 boys, 61 girls) completed diagnostic assessment used to assign them to diagnostic groups: control typical language learning ( N = 42), dysgraphia (impaired handwriting) ( N = 29), dyslexia (impaired word decoding/reading and spelling) ( N = 65), or oral and written language learning disability (OWL LD) (impaired syntax in oral and written language) ( N = 19)...
2018: Learning Disabilities (Pittsburgh, Pa.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605522/trial-protocol-home-based-exercise-programs-to-prevent-falls-and-upper-limb-dysfunction-among-community-dwelling-older-people-study-protocol-for-the-best-balance-exercise-strength-training-at-home-randomised-controlled-trial
#6
Amanda Bates, Susan Furber, Anne Tiedemann, Karen Ginn, Paul van den Dolder, Kirsten Howard, Adrian Bauman, Cathy Chittenden, Lisa Franco, Michelle Kershaw, Catherine Sherrington
INTRODUCTION: Falling when older is a major public health issue. There is compelling evidence to show that specific exercise programs can reduce the risk and rate of falls in community-dwelling older people. Another major health issue for older people living in the community is upper limb dysfunction, including shoulder pain. Home-based exercise programs appeal to some older people, due to their convenience. RESEARCH QUESTIONS: This trial aims to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a home-based lower limb exercise program compared with a home-based upper limb exercise program to prevent falls and upper limb dysfunction among community-dwelling people aged 65+ years...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Physiotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603734/school-based-physical-therapy-services-and-student-functional-performance-at-school
#7
Sarah Westcott Mccoy, Susan K Effgen, Lisa A Chiarello, Lynn M Jeffries, Alejandro G Villasante Tezanos
AIM: We explored relationships of school-based physical therapy to standardized outcomes of students receiving physical therapy. METHOD: Using a practice-based evidence research design, School Function Assessment (SFA) outcomes of 296 students with disabilities (mean age 7y 4mo [standard deviation 2y]; 166 males, 130 females), served by 109 physical therapists, were explored. After training, therapists completed 10 SFA scales on students at the beginning and end of the school year...
March 30, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595015/-update-on-developemental-dyspraxia-in-children
#8
N Boxus, C Denis, W Pitchot
After having explained what is dyspraxia, we will briefly talk about narcissistic issues related to school term. Indeed, the defensive tools used by children to deal with learning disabilities are varied and not much specific, which will complicate the medical approach. Then we will describe the symptoms that are specific to search in the history and the first clinic appointment in cases of suspected dyspraxia. Finally, we will give details of how we must consider the exploration and the multidisciplinary taking over of the disorder...
March 2018: Revue Médicale de Liège
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587538/conducting-participatory-photography-with-children-with-disabilities-a-literature-review
#9
Isabel Eisen, Barbara Jane Cunningham, Wenonah Campbell
PURPOSE: This review summarized studies that used participatory photography with children with disabilities, including those with communication impairments, and described modifications made to the methodology to facilitate their participation in qualitative research. METHODS: In the fall of 2016, we searched Psycinfo (OVID), ERIC, CINAHL and Web of Science to identify studies that used participatory photography with children with disabilities. The search was repeated in January 2018 to retrieve any new publications...
March 28, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559940/interactive-apps-promote-learning-of-basic-mathematics-in-children-with-special-educational-needs-and-disabilities
#10
Nicola J Pitchford, Elizabeth Kamchedzera, Paula J Hubber, Antonie L Chigeda
Interactive apps delivered on touch-screen tablets can be effective at supporting the acquisition of basic skills in mainstream primary school children. This technology may also be beneficial for children with Special Educational Needs and Disabilities (SEND) as it can promote high levels of engagement with the learning task and an inclusive learning environment. However, few studies have measured extent of learning for SEND pupils when using interactive apps, so it has yet to be determined if this technology is effective at raising attainment for these pupils...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550209/the-role-of-associative-fear-and-avoidance-learning-in-anxiety-disorders-gaps-and-directions-for-future-research
#11
REVIEW
Andre Pittig, Michael Treanor, Richard T LeBeau, Michelle G Craske
Anxiety disorders are the most common mental disorders, and are often chronic and disabling. Although exposure-based treatments are effective, a substantial number of individuals fail to fully remit or experience a return of symptoms after treatment. Understanding the critical processes underlying the development and treatment of anxiety disorders will help identify individuals at risk and optimize treatments. Aversive associative learning offers explanatory pathways through which fear and anxiety emerge, spread, persist, and resurge...
March 14, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549980/-mathematical-learning-disability-a-multiple-origin-examples-of-turner-and-fragile-x-syndromes
#12
C Deffrennes, M De Clercq, L Vallée, M-P Lemaître
Problems in mathematics are a frequent major complaint in neuropediatric departments, for which there are two explanatory theoretical models: the hypothesis of a genetic and modular origin (with a number sense deficit) and a multidetermined origin. The purpose of this paper is to review the mathematical difficulties described in Turner syndrome and Fragile X syndrome, because a specific mathematical disorder is usually reported in these populations, supporting the existence of a number sense. Analysis of the literature reveals highly variable cognitive phenotypes in these populations, especially regarding mathematical abilities...
March 14, 2018: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544867/algorithmic-analysis-of-relational-learning-processes-in-instructional-technology-some-implications-for-basic-translational-and-applied-research
#13
REVIEW
William J McIlvane, Joanne B Kledaras, Christophe J Gerard, Lorin Wilde, David Smelson
A few noteworthy exceptions notwithstanding, quantitative analyses of relational learning are most often simple descriptive measures of study outcomes. For example, studies of stimulus equivalence have made much progress using measures such as percentage consistent with equivalence relations, discrimination ratio, and response latency. Although procedures may have ad hoc variations, they remain fairly similar across studies. Comparison studies of training variables that lead to different outcomes are few. Yet to be developed are tools designed specifically for dynamic and/or parametric analyses of relational learning processes...
March 12, 2018: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542110/power-mobility-skill-progression-for-children-and-adolescents-a-systematic-review-of-measures-and-their-clinical-application
#14
REVIEW
Debra A Field, Roslyn W Livingstone
AIM: To identify and critically appraise standardized measures of power mobility skill used with children (18y or younger) with mobility limitations and explore the measures' application for 'exploratory', 'operational', and 'functional' learners. METHOD: Five electronic databases were searched along with hand-searching for peer-reviewed articles published in English to July 2017 (updated 31st August 2017). Key terms included power(ed) mobility, power(ed) wheelchair, and database-specific terms...
March 14, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527298/response-heterogeneity-challenges-for-personalised-medicine-and-big-data-approaches-in-psychiatry-and-chronic-pain
#15
Agnes Norbury, Ben Seymour
Response rates to available treatments for psychological and chronic pain disorders are poor, and there is a considerable burden of suffering and disability for patients, who often cycle through several rounds of ineffective treatment. As individuals presenting to the clinic with symptoms of these disorders are likely to be heterogeneous, there is considerable interest in the possibility that different constellations of signs could be used to identify subgroups of patients that might preferentially benefit from particular kinds of treatment...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525058/how-common-are-challenging-behaviours-amongst-individuals-with-fragile-x-syndrome-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Rebecca Lyndsey Hardiman, Peter McGill
Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) appears to be associated with an increased risk for engaging in challenging behaviour, particularly self-injury, relative to those with mixed aetiology learning disabilities. Such behavioural issues are reported to be of high concern for those providing support. As such, this systematic review aimed to gain further epidemiological data regarding challenging behaviours in individuals with FXS, including: self-injurious behaviour (SIB), hand-biting as a specific topography of SIB, aggression and property destruction...
March 7, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520614/attentional-functioning-in-individuals-with-22q11-deletion-syndrome-insight-from-erps
#17
Daniela Mannarelli, Caterina Pauletti, Tommaso Accinni, Luca Carlone, Marianna Frascarelli, Guido Maria Lattanzi, Antonio Currà, Francesco Fattapposta
The 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), or DiGeorge syndrome (DG), is one of the most common genetic deletion syndromes. DG also carries a high risk for psychiatric disorders, with learning disabilities frequently being reported. Impairments in specific cognitive domains, such as executive functioning and attention, have also been described. The aim of this study was to investigate attentional functioning in a group of subjects with DG using ERPs, and in particular the P300 and CNV components. We studied ten patients with DG and ten healthy subjects that performed a P300 Novelty task and a CNV motor task...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515378/impaired-object-recognition-but-normal-social-behavior-and-ultrasonic-communication-in-cofilin1-mutant-mice
#18
A Özge Sungur, Lea Stemmler, Markus Wöhr, Marco B Rust
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), schizophrenia (SCZ) and intellectual disability (ID) show a remarkable overlap in symptoms, including impairments in cognition, social behavior and communication. Human genetic studies revealed an enrichment of mutations in actin-related genes for these disorders, and some of the strongest candidate genes control actin dynamics. These findings led to the hypotheses: (i) that ASD, SCZ and ID share common disease mechanisms; and (ii) that, at least in a subgroup of affected individuals, defects in the actin cytoskeleton cause or contribute to their pathologies...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499372/frailty-and-health-status-of-older-individuals-in-three-european-countries-the-courage-cross-sectional-study
#19
Stefanos Tyrovolas, Noe Garin Escriva, Jose Luis Ayuso-Mateos, Somnath Chatterji, Ai Koyanagi, Marta Miret, Moneta Victoria, Beatriz Olaya, Beata Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Seppo Koskinen, Matilde Leonardi, Josep Maria Haro
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Frailty is characterized by several deficits in multiple health related domains. Although cognition is among the important components of frailty, there is lack of evidence on the role of specific neuro-cognitive dimensions. The primary aim of the present work was to evaluate the multidimensional definition of frailty, and to assess whether neuro-cognitive function is a constituent of the frailty syndrome among adults aged ≥50 years living in three European countries...
February 27, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490272/a-drosophila-model-of-intellectual-disability-caused-by-mutations-in-the-histone-demethylase-kdm5
#20
Sumaira Zamurrad, Hayden A M Hatch, Coralie Drelon, Helen M Belalcazar, Julie Secombe
Mutations in KDM5 family histone demethylases cause intellectual disability in humans. However, the molecular mechanisms linking KDM5-regulated transcription and cognition remain unknown. Here, we establish Drosophila as a model to understand this connection by generating a fly strain harboring an allele analogous to a disease-causing missense mutation in human KDM5C (kdm5A512P ). Transcriptome analysis of kdm5A512P flies revealed a striking downregulation of genes required for ribosomal assembly and function and a concomitant reduction in translation...
February 27, 2018: Cell Reports
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