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Specific Learning Disabilities

Nicholas K Schiltz, David F Warner, Jiayang Sun, Paul M Bakaki, Avi Dor, Charles W Given, Kurt C Stange, Siran M Koroukian
BACKGROUND: Multimorbidity affects the majority of elderly adults and is associated with higher health costs and utilization, but how specific patterns of morbidity influence resource use is less understood. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to identify specific combinations of chronic conditions, functional limitations, and geriatric syndromes associated with direct medical costs and inpatient utilization. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study using the Health and Retirement Study (2008-2010) linked to Medicare claims...
October 6, 2016: Medical Care
R Whittle, G Mansell, P Jellema, D van der Windt
BACKGROUND: Many randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of psychosocial interventions for low back pain (LBP) have been found to have only small effects on disability outcomes. Investigations of the specific mechanisms that may lead to an improvement in outcome have therefore been called for. METHODS: We present an application of the causal inference approach to mediation analysis using the example of a cluster RCT in a primary care population with (sub)acute LBP randomized to either usual GP care (n = 171) or a minimal psychosocial intervention (n = 143)...
October 14, 2016: European Journal of Pain: EJP
Iliana I Karipidis, Georgette Pleisch, Martina Röthlisberger, Christoph Hofstetter, Dario Dornbierer, Philipp Stämpfli, Silvia Brem
Learning letter-speech sound correspondences is a major step in reading acquisition and is severely impaired in children with dyslexia. Up to now, it remains largely unknown how quickly neural networks adopt specific functions during audiovisual integration of linguistic information when prereading children learn letter-speech sound correspondences. Here, we simulated the process of learning letter-speech sound correspondences in 20 prereading children (6.13-7.17 years) at varying risk for dyslexia by training artificial letter-speech sound correspondences within a single experimental session...
October 14, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Ann-Catherine Sullivan
The purpose of this study was to (a) identify potential benefits for students with disabilities taking part in a physical activity program with same-age typical peers on a Midwest university campus and (b) to determine if the program impacted the students with disabilities empowerment. Empowerment theory was used to determine how transition students' attitudes change over the course of the semester while participating in a workout buddy program with same-age college peers. The program was structured to provide a sense of empowerment to students to make their own decisions and learn for themselves so they do not feel a lack of power in their lives...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
J Painter, L Trevithick, R P Hastings, B Ingham, A Roy
BACKGROUND: In meeting the needs of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) who access health services, a brief, holistic assessment of need is useful. This study outlines the development and testing of the Learning Disabilities Needs Assessment Tool (LDNAT), a tool intended for this purpose. METHOD: An existing mental health (MH) tool was extended by a multidisciplinary group of ID practitioners. Additional scales were drafted to capture needs across six ID treatment domains that the group identified...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
Marie Geurten, Steve Majerus, Caroline Lejeune, Corinne Catale
We present a new measure of everyday memory, the Questionnaire of Memory (Q-MEM), which is specifically adapted for the ecological assessment of memory disorders in school-age children and constructed with four sections tapping effortful/intentional learning, automatic/procedural learning, prospective memory/organization, and working memory. Confirmatory Factor Analyses supported the Q-MEM's four-factor structure in 700 five-to twelve-year-old children. The analyses also revealed a good internal reliability and a good test-retest fidelity...
October 11, 2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
Antoine Tanet, Annik Hubert-Barthelemy, Graciela C Crespin, Nicolas Bodeau, David Cohen, Catherine Saint-Georges
INTRODUCTION: Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who also exhibit severe-to-moderate ranges of intellectual disability (ID) still face many challenges (i.e., less evidence-based trials, less inclusion in school with peers). METHODS: We implemented a novel model called the "Developmental and Sequenced One-to-One Educational Intervention" (DS1-EI) in 5- to 9-year-old children with co-occurring ASD and ID. The treatment protocol was adapted for school implementation by designing it using an educational agenda...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Yifan Zhou, Daman Kumari, Nicholas Sciascia, Karen Usdin
BACKGROUND: Fragile X syndrome (FXS), a common cause of intellectual disability and autism, results from the expansion of a CGG-repeat tract in the 5' untranslated region of the FMR1 gene to >200 repeats. Such expanded alleles, known as full mutation (FM) alleles, are epigenetically silenced in differentiated cells thus resulting in the loss of FMRP, a protein important for learning and memory. The timing of repeat expansion and FMR1 gene silencing is controversial. METHODS: We monitored the repeat size and methylation status of FMR1 alleles with expanded CGG repeats in patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and embryonic stem cells (ESCs) that were grown for extended period of time either as stem cells or differentiated into neurons...
2016: Molecular Autism
I Fernández-Prieto, C Caprile, D Tinoco-González, B Ristol-Orriols, A López-Sala, P Póo-Argüelles, F Pons, J Navarra
The nonverbal learning disability (NLD) is a neurological dysfunction that affects cognitive functions predominantly related to the right hemisphere such as spatial and abstract reasoning. Previous evidence in healthy adults suggests that acoustic pitch (i.e., the relative difference in frequency between sounds) is, under certain conditions, encoded in specific areas of the right hemisphere that also encode the spatial elevation of external objects (e.g., high vs. low position). Taking this evidence into account, we explored the perception of pitch in preadolescents and adolescents with NLD and in a group of healthy participants matched by age, gender, musical knowledge and handedness...
October 3, 2016: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Tanya M Evans, Michael T Ullman
Mathematical disability (MD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting math abilities. Here, we propose a new explanatory account of MD, the procedural deficit hypothesis (PDH), which may further our understanding of the disorder. According to the PDH of MD, abnormalities of brain structures subserving the procedural memory system can lead to difficulties with math skills learned in this system, as well as problems with other functions that depend on these brain structures. This brain-based account is motivated in part by the high comorbidity between MD and language disorders such as dyslexia that may be explained by the PDH, and in part by the likelihood that learning automatized math skills should depend on procedural memory...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
May Loong Tan, Jacqueline J Ho, Keng Hwang Teh
BACKGROUND: About 5% of school children have a specific learning disorder, defined as unexpected failure to acquire adequate abilities in reading, writing or mathematics that is not a result of reduced intellectual ability, inadequate teaching or social deprivation. Of these events, 80% are reading disorders. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), in particular, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, which normally are abundant in the brain and in the retina, are important for learning. Some children with specific learning disorders have been found to be deficient in these PUFAs, and it is argued that supplementation of PUFAs may help these children improve their learning abilities...
September 28, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
S V Biedermann, J M Bumb, T Demirakca, G Ende, A Sartorius
OBJECTIVE: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a highly effective and well-tolerated therapy for severe and treatment-resistant depression. Cognitive side-effects are still feared by some patients and clinicians. Importantly, cognitive impairments are among the most disabling symptoms of depression itself. METHODS: Patients suffering from a severe episode of depression were treated with either ECT or treatment as usual (TAU) in an in-patient setting. Matched healthy participants served as controls (HC)...
September 23, 2016: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Daniel F Mackay, Gordon C S Smith, Sally-Ann Cooper, Rachael Wood, Albert King, David N Clark, Jill P Pell
Learning disabilities have profound, long-lasting health sequelae. Affected children born over the course of 1 year in the United States of America generated an estimated lifetime cost of $51.2 billion. Results from some studies have suggested that autistic spectrum disorder may vary by season of birth, but there have been few studies in which investigators examined whether this is also true of other causes of learning disabilities. We undertook Scotland-wide record linkage of education (annual pupil census) and maternity (Scottish Morbidity Record 02) databases for 801,592 singleton children attending Scottish schools in 2006-2011...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
É Cappe, N Poirier, É Boujut, N Nader-Grosbois, C Dionne, A Boulard
INTRODUCTION: Autism and related disorders are grouped into the category of « Autism Spectrum Disorder » (ASD) in the DSM-5. This appellation reflects the idea of a dimensional representation of autism that combines symptoms and characteristics that vary in severity and intensity. Despite common characteristics, there are varying degrees in intensity and in the onset of symptoms, ranging from a disability that can be very heavy with a total lack of communication and major disorders associated with the existence of a relative autonomy associated, sometimes, with extraordinary intellectual abilities...
September 9, 2016: L'Encéphale
Joseph M Lambert, Bailey A Copeland, Erica L Karp, Crystal I Finley, Nealetta J Houchins-Juarez, Jennifer R Ledford
Individuals with developmental disabilities successfully participate in fewer recreation activities, including sports activities, than their typically developing peers. Although a functional basketball-playing repertoire might increase social opportunities and physical health for these individuals, no research has outlined a behavior-analytic strategy for teaching this sport. In our study, we taught a 13-year-old male diagnosed with autism to play basketball. During phase 1, we employed discrete-trial training to establish proficiency with nine fundamental basketball skills (i...
September 2016: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Marina López-Solà, Choong-Wan Woo, Jesus Pujol, Joan Deus, Ben J Harrison, Jordi Monfort, Tor D Wager
Fibromyalgia (FM) patients show characteristically enhanced unpleasantness to painful and non-painful sensations accompanied by altered neural responses. The diagnostic potential of such neural alterations, including their sensitivity and specificity to FM (vs. healthy controls) is unknown. We identify a brain signature that characterizes FM central pathophysiology at the neural systems level. We included 37 FM patients and 35 matched healthy controls, and analyzed fMRI responses to (i) painful pressure and (ii) non-painful multisensory (visual-auditory-tactile) stimulation...
August 31, 2016: Pain
Ling-Yu Yang, Nigel H Greig, Ya-Ni Huang, Tsung-Hsun Hsieh, David Tweedie, Qian-Sheng Yu, Barry J Hoffer, Yu Luo, Yu-Chieh Kao, Jia-Yi Wang
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. Neuronal apoptosis in the hippocampus has been detected after TBI. The hippocampal dysfunction may result in cognitive deficits in learning, memory, and spatial information processing. Our previous studies demonstrated that a p53 inhibitor, pifithrin-α oxygen analogue (PFT-α (O)), significantly reduced cortical cell death, which is substantial following controlled cortical impact (CCI) TBI, and improved neurological functional outcomes via anti-apoptotic mechanisms...
August 20, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
Kristi R Griffiths, Jim Lagopoulos, Daniel F Hermens, Rico S C Lee, Adam J Guastella, Ian B Hickie, Bernard W Balleine
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairments contribute significantly to disease burden in young individuals presenting with major psychiatric disorders. The capacity to encode the consequences of one's actions may be of particular importance for real-world functioning due to its fundamental role in goal-directed behavior. METHODS: Here, we investigated a dimensional measure of causal awareness during a probabilistic learning task in 92 young individuals with an admixture of major mood and psychotic illnesses, at early and more established stages...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
I De Toma, L Manubens Gil, S Ossowski, M Dierssen
One of the most challenging questions in neuroscience is to dissect how learning and memory, the foundational pillars of cognition, are grounded in stable, yet plastic, gene expression states. All known epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodelling, and noncoding RNAs regulate brain gene expression, both during neurodevelopment and in the adult brain in processes related to cognition. On the other hand, alterations in the various components of the epigenetic machinery have been linked to well-known causes of intellectual disability disorders (IDDs)...
2016: Neural Plasticity
Ji Young Na, Krista Wilkinson, Meredith Karny, Sarah Blackstone, Cynthia Stifter
PURPOSE: Emotional competence refers to the ability to identify, respond to, and manage one's own and others' emotions. Emotional competence is critical to many functional outcomes, including making and maintaining friends, academic success, and community integration. There appears to be a link between the development of language and the development of emotional competence in children who use speech. Little information is available about these issues in children who rely on augmentative and alternative communication (AAC)...
August 1, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
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