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Specific Learning Disabilities

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457585/training-nurses-in-a-competency-framework-to-support-adults-with-epilepsy-and-intellectual-disability-the-epaid-cluster-rct
#1
Howard Ring, James Howlett, Mark Pennington, Christopher Smith, Marcus Redley, Caroline Murphy, Roxanne Hook, Adam Platt, Nakita Gilbert, Elizabeth Jones, Joanna Kelly, Angela Pullen, Adrian Mander, Cam Donaldson, Simon Rowe, James Wason, Fiona Irvine
BACKGROUND: People with an intellectual (learning) disability (ID) and epilepsy have an increased seizure frequency, higher frequencies of multiple antiepileptic drug (AED) use and side effects, higher treatment costs, higher mortality rates and more behavioural problems than the rest of the population with epilepsy. The introduction of nurse-led care may lead to improvements in outcome for those with an ID and epilepsy; however, this has not been tested in a definitive clinical trial...
February 2018: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450462/epidemiology-of-adult-dsm-5-major-depressive-disorder-and-its-specifiers-in-the-united-states
#2
Deborah S Hasin, Aaron L Sarvet, Jacquelyn L Meyers, Tulshi D Saha, W June Ruan, Malka Stohl, Bridget F Grant
Importance: No US national data are available on the prevalence and correlates of DSM-5-defined major depressive disorder (MDD) or on MDD specifiers as defined in DSM-5. Objective: To present current nationally representative findings on the prevalence, correlates, psychiatric comorbidity, functioning, and treatment of DSM-5 MDD and initial information on the prevalence, severity, and treatment of DSM-5 MDD severity, anxious/distressed specifier, and mixed-features specifier, as well as cases that would have been characterized as bereavement in DSM-IV...
February 14, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441282/specific-learning-disability-in-mathematics-a-comprehensive-review
#3
REVIEW
Neelkamal Soares, Teresa Evans, Dilip R Patel
Math skills are necessary for success in the childhood educational and future adult work environment. This article reviews the changing terminology for specific learning disabilities (SLD) in math and describes the emerging genetics and neuroimaging studies that relate to individuals with math disability (MD). It is important to maintain a developmental perspective on MD, as presentation changes with age, instruction, and the different models (educational and medical) of identification. Intervention requires a systematic approach to screening and remediation that has evolved with more evidence-based literature...
January 2018: Translational Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436893/a-literature-review-on-the-experience-of-long-term-mental-illness
#4
Elizabeth Collier, Maria J Grant
PURPOSE: To illuminate long-term experiences of mental illness from both research and autobiographical accounts. DESIGN: A literature review of English-language papers, 1950-2014, relating to the experience of long-term mental illness indexed in AgeInfo, AMED, ASSIA, British Nursing Index (BNI), CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycEXTRA, and PsychINFO. FINDINGS: Twenty-five research papers and nine autobiographic accounts met the review criteria. Thematic analysis revealed nine themes: fear, explanation seeking, stigma, disability, coping strategies, control, support, change and learning, and life history...
February 13, 2018: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391206/long-term-outcomes-of-a-large-prospective-observational-cohort-of-older-adults-with-back-pain
#5
Jeffrey G Jarvik, Laura S Gold, Katherine Tan, Janna L Friedly, Srdjan S Nedeljkovic, Bryan A Comstock, Richard A Deyo, Judith A Turner, Brian W Bresnahan, Sean D Rundell, Kathryn T James, David R Nerenz, Andrew L Avins, Zoya Bauer, Larry Kessler, Patrick J Heagerty
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Although back pain is common among older adults, there is relatively little research on the course of back pain in this age group. PURPOSE: Our primary goals were to report 2-year outcomes of older adults initiating primary care for back pain and to examine the relative importance of patient factors vs. medical interventions in predicting 2-year disability and pain. STUDY DESIGN/SETTING: Predictive model using data from a prospective, observational cohort from a primary care setting...
January 29, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388433/annals-express-post-hoc-analysis-of-plasma-amino-acid-profiles-towards-a-specific-pattern-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-intellectual-disability
#6
Jean-Baptiste Delaye, Franck Patin, Emmanuelle Lagrue, Olivier Le Tilly, Clement Bruno, Marie-Laure Vuillaume, Martine Raynaud, Isabelle Benz-de Bretagne, Frederic Laumonnier, Patrick Vourc'h, Christian Andres, Helene Blasco
Objectives Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Intellectual Disability (ID) present a challenge for therapeutic and dietary management. We performed a re-analysis of plasma amino acid chromatography (AAC) of children with ASD (n=22) or ID (n=29) to search for a metabolic signature that can distinguish individuals with these disorders from controls (n=30). Methods We performed univariate and multivariate analysis using different machine learning strategies, from the raw data of the AAC. Finally, we analyzed the metabolic pathways associated with discriminant biomarkers...
January 1, 2018: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388081/loss-of-angelman-syndrome-protein-e6ap-disrupts-a-novel-antagonistic-estrogen-retinoic-acid-transcriptional-crosstalk-in-neurons
#7
Jimmy El Hokayem, Edwin Weeber, Zafar Nawaz
Angelman syndrome (AS) is a complex genetic disorder that affects the nervous system. AS affects an estimated 1 in 12,000 to 20,000 individuals. Characteristic features of AS includes developmental delay or intellectual disability, severe speech impairment, seizures, small head size (microcephaly), and problems with movement and balance (ataxia). AS individuals usually have microdeletion of the maternal copy of 15q11.2-15q13 region of chromosome 15. The E6-associated protein (E6AP, an E3 ubiquitin protein ligase enzyme) is encoded by the gene UBE3A, which is located in this region, and it has been shown that deregulation of E6AP gives rise to AS and neuropathology of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) (e...
January 31, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370847/rethinking-disability
#8
Alarcos Cieza, Carla Sabariego, Jerome Bickenbach, Somnath Chatterji
Disability as a health outcome deserves more attention than it has so far received. With people living longer and the epidemiological transition from infectious to noncommunicable diseases as the major cause of health burden, we need to focus attention on disability - the non-fatal impact of heath conditions - over and above our concern for causes of mortality.With the first Global Burden of Disease study, WHO provided a metric that enabled the comparison of the impact of diseases, drawing on a model of disability that focused on decrements of health...
January 26, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370161/crl4-antagonizes-scffbxo7-mediated-turnover-of-cereblon-and-bk-channel-to-regulate-learning-and-memory
#9
Tianyu Song, Shenghui Liang, Jiye Liu, Tingyue Zhang, Yifei Yin, Chenlu Geng, Shaobing Gao, Yan Feng, Hao Xu, Dongqing Guo, Amanda Roberts, Yuchun Gu, Yong Cang
Intellectual disability (ID), one of the most common human developmental disorders, can be caused by genetic mutations in Cullin 4B (Cul4B) and cereblon (CRBN). CRBN is a substrate receptor for the Cul4A/B-DDB1 ubiquitin ligase (CRL4) and can target voltage- and calcium-activated BK channel for ER retention. Here we report that ID-associated CRL4CRBN mutations abolish the interaction of the BK channel with CRL4, and redirect the BK channel to the SCFFbxo7 ubiquitin ligase for proteasomal degradation. Glioma cell lines harbouring CRBN mutations record density-dependent decrease of BK currents, which can be restored by blocking Cullin ubiquitin ligase activity...
January 25, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366922/motor-skills-intervention-research-of-children-with-disabilities
#10
REVIEW
Jason C Bishop, Melissa Pangelinan
BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity and obesity among children with physical and cognitive disabilities is an emerging public health issue. Children's motor skill development is a determinant of lifelong physical activity and obesity. AIMS: The purpose of this article is to critically evaluate motor skill intervention literature among children with physical and cognitive disabilities. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Electronic searches were completed to identity research articles published from 1984 to 2014...
January 20, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352580/individual-student-characteristics-and-attainment-in-pre-registration-physiotherapy-a-retrospective-multi-site-cohort-study
#11
Meriel Norris, John A Hammond, Annabel Williams, Robert Grant, Sandra Naylor, Catherine Rozario
INTRODUCTION: Worldwide there is a desire to diversify the physiotherapy workforce. However, limited research indicates that some student characteristics linked to under-representation in pre registration physiotherapy education have lower attainment and greater attrition. This study explored the relationship between individual characteristics and success of students in pre registration physiotherapy education within South East England. DESIGN: A retrospective multi site cohort study including pre registration physiotherapy programmes in the South East of England...
October 31, 2017: Physiotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345224/therapy-interventions-for-children-with-neurodisabilities-a-qualitative-scoping-study
#12
Bryony Beresford, Susan Clarke, Jane Maddison
BACKGROUND: Therapy interventions emerged four times in the top 10 research priorities in a James Lind Alliance research prioritisation exercise for children with neurodisabilities (Morris C, Simkiss D, Busk M, Morris M, Allard A, Denness J, et al. Setting research priorities to improve the health of children and young people with neurodisability: a British Academy of Childhood Disability-James Lind Alliance Research Priority Setting Partnership. BMJ Open 2015;5:e006233). The National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) commissioned this study as part of an information-gathering exercise in response to this...
January 2018: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338029/implicit-learning-deficit-in-children-with-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-evidence-for-a-cerebellar-cognitive-impairment
#13
Stefano Vicari, Giorgia Piccini, Eugenio Mercuri, Roberta Battini, Daniela Chieffo, Sara Bulgheroni, Chiara Pecini, Simona Lucibello, Sara Lenzi, Federica Moriconi, Marika Pane, Adele D'Amico, Guja Astrea, Giovanni Baranello, Daria Riva, Giovanni Cioni, Paolo Alfieri
This study aimed at comparing implicit sequence learning in individuals affected by Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy without intellectual disability and age-matched typically developing children. A modified version of the Serial Reaction Time task was administered to 32 Duchenne children and 37 controls of comparable chronological age. The Duchenne group showed a reduced rate of implicit learning even if in the absence of global intellectual disability. This finding provides further evidence of the involvement of specific aspects of cognitive function in Duchenne muscular dystrophy and on its possible neurobiological substrate...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321709/the-probable-prevalence-and-sociodemographic-characteristics-of-specific-learning-disorder-in-primary-school-children-in-edirne
#14
Işık Görker, Leyla Bozatli, Ümran Korkmazlar, Meltem Yücel Karadağ, Cansın Ceylan, Ceren Söğüt, Hasan Cem Aykutlu, Büşra Subay, Nesrin Turan
Introduction: The aim of this study was to research the probable prevalence of Specific Learning Disorder (SLD) in primary school children in Edirne City and the relationships with their sociodemographic characteristics. Methods: The sample of our study was composed of 2,174 children who were educated in primary schools in second, third, and fourth grades in the academic year 2013-2014 in Edirne City. The teachers and parents of these children were given Specific Learning Difficulties Symptom Scale, Learning Disabilities Symptoms Checklist (teacher and parent forms), and sociodemographic data forms to fill in...
December 2017: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317619/phf8-histone-demethylase-deficiency-causes-cognitive-impairments-through-the-mtor-pathway
#15
Xuemei Chen, Shuai Wang, Ying Zhou, Yanfei Han, Shengtian Li, Qing Xu, Longyong Xu, Ziqi Zhu, Youming Deng, Lu Yu, Lulu Song, Adele Pin Chen, Juan Song, Eiki Takahashi, Guang He, Lin He, Weidong Li, Charlie Degui Chen
Epigenomic abnormalities caused by genetic mutation in epigenetic regulators can result in neurodevelopmental disorders, deficiency in neural plasticity and mental retardation. As a histone demethylase, plant homeodomain finger protein 8 (Phf8) is a candidate gene for syndromal and non-specific forms of X-chromosome-linked intellectual disability (XLID). Here we report that Phf8 knockout mice displayed impaired learning and memory, and impaired hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) without gross morphological defects...
January 9, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317601/common-basis-for-orofacial-clefting-and-cortical-interneuronopathy
#16
Lydia J Ansen-Wilson, Joshua L Everson, Dustin M Fink, Henry W Kietzman, Ruth Sullivan, Robert J Lipinski
Orofacial clefts (OFCs) of the lip and/or palate are among the most common human birth defects. Current treatment strategies focus on functional and cosmetic repair but even when this care is available, individuals born with OFCs are at high risk for persistent neurobehavioral problems. In addition to learning disabilities and reduced academic achievement, recent evidence associates OFCs with elevated risk for a constellation of psychiatric outcomes including anxiety disorders, autism spectrum disorder, and schizophrenia...
January 10, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305597/grammar-clinical-marker-yields-substantial-heritability-for-language-impairments-in-16-year-old-twins
#17
Philip S Dale, Mabel L Rice, Kaili Rimfeld, Marianna E Hayiou-Thomas
Purpose: There is a need for well-defined language phenotypes suitable for adolescents in twin studies and other large-scale research projects. Rice, Hoffman, and Wexler (2009) have developed a grammatical judgment measure as a clinical marker of language impairment, which has an extended developmental range to adolescence. Method: We conducted the first twin analysis, along with associated phenotypic analyses of validity, of an abridged, 20-item version of this grammatical judgment measure (GJ-20), based on telephone administration using prerecorded stimuli to 405 pairs of 16-year-olds (148 monozygotic and 257 dizygotic) drawn from the Twins Early Development Study (Haworth, Davis, & Plomin, 2012)...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301650/exploring-the-disclosure-decisions-made-by-physiotherapists-with-a-specific-learning-difficulty
#18
G Yeowell, J Rooney, P C Goodwin
OBJECTIVES: To explore the disclosure decisions made in the workplace by physiotherapy staff with a specific learning difficulty (SpLD). DESIGN & SETTING: An exploratory qualitative design was used, which was informed by the social model of disability. The research was undertaken in North West England. It is presented according to the Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research. PARTICIPANTS: A purposive sample of eight physiotherapists recognised as having a SpLD were recruited...
October 27, 2017: Physiotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280247/learning-by-observation-and-learning-by-doing-in-down%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-williams%C3%A2-syndromes
#19
Francesca Foti, Deny Menghini, Paolo Alfieri, Floriana Costanzo, Laura Mandolesi, Laura Petrosini, Stefano Vicari
New skills may be learned by active experience (experiential learning or learning by doing) or by observation of others' experience (learning by observation). In general, learning by observation reduces the time and the attempts needed to learn complex actions and behaviors. The present research aimed to compare learning by observation and learning by doing in two clinical populations with different etiology of intellectual disability (ID), as individuals with Down syndrome (DS) and individuals with Williams syndrome (WS), with the hypothesis that specific profiles of learning may be found in each syndrome...
December 26, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276325/family-peer-linkages-for-children-with-intellectual-disability-and-children-with-learning-disabilities
#20
Frank J Floyd, Darren L Olsen
Family interactions are potential contexts for children with intellectual and learning disabilities to develop skillful social behaviors needed to relate effectively with peers. This study examined problem solving interactions within families of elementary school-age children (7-11 years) with intellectual disability (n = 37), specific learning disabilities (n =48), and without disabilities (n = 22). After accounting for group differences in children's behaviors and peer acceptance, across all groups, mothers' behaviors that encouraged egalitarian problem solving predicted more engaged and skillful problem solving by the children...
September 2017: Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology
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