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Specific Learning Disabilities

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199175/sequential-prediction-of-literacy-achievement-for-specific-learning-disabilities-contrasting-in-impaired-levels-of-language-in-grades-4-to-9
#1
Elizabeth A Sanders, Virginia W Berninger, Robert D Abbott
Sequential regression was used to evaluate whether language-related working memory components uniquely predict reading and writing achievement beyond cognitive-linguistic translation for students in Grades 4 through 9 ( N = 103) with specific learning disabilities (SLDs) in subword handwriting (dysgraphia, n = 25), word reading and spelling (dyslexia, n = 60), or oral and written language (oral and written language learning disabilities, n = 18). That is, SLDs are defined on the basis of cascading level of language impairment (subword, word, and syntax/text)...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190914/neuroanatomy-of-handwriting-and-related-reading-and-writing-skills-in-adults-and-children-with-and-without-learning-disabilities-french-american-connections
#2
Marieke Longcamp, Todd L Richards, Jean-Luc Velay, Virginia W Berninger
In this article, we present recent neuroimaging studies performed to identify the neural network involved in handwriting. These studies, carried out in adults and in children, suggest that the mastery of handwriting is based on the involvement of a network of brain structures whose involvement and inter-connection are specific to writing alphabet characters. This network is built upon the joint learning of writing and reading and depends on the level of expertise of the writer. In addition, a part of this graphomotor network is also brought into play during the identification letters during visual reading...
December 2016: Pratiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186713/fetal-alcohol-research-caring-for-patients-with-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-a-needs-assessment
#3
Vincent C Smith, Phillip Matthias, Yasmin N Senturias, Renee M Turchi, Janet F Williams
BACKGROUND: Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is the United States' most common preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and developmental disabilities collectively referred to as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to identify gaps in pediatric providers' knowledge and practices regarding FASD patient identification, diagnosis, management and referral, and to inform needs-based FASD resource development. METHODS: Pediatric providers (pediatricians, trainees, nurse practitioners) were exposed to survey links embedded in newsletters electronically distributed to the membership of two national professional societies...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176280/stepwise-casr-ap2s1-and-gna11-sequencing-in-patients-with-suspected-familial-hypocalciuric-hypercalcemia
#4
Auryan Szalat, Shoshana Shpitzen, Anat Tsur, Ilana Zalmon Koren, Shmuel Shilo, Liana Tripto-Shkolnik, Ronen Durst, Eran Leitersdorf, Vardiella Meiner
PURPOSE: Patients with familial hyperparathyroidism and low urinary calcium excretion may have familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) with mutations in one of three genes: the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) defining FHH-type 1, the adaptor-related protein complex 2 (AP2S1) related to FHH-type 3 or the G-protein subunit alpha11 (GNA11) associated with FHH-type 2. We aimed to evaluate the presence of mutations in these genes and to identify phenotypic specificities and differences in these patients...
February 7, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151977/a-blind-spot-screening-for-mild-intellectual-disability-and-borderline-intellectual-functioning-in-admitted-psychiatric-patients-prevalence-and-associations-with-coercive-measures
#5
Jeanet Grietje Nieuwenhuis, Eric Onno Noorthoorn, Henk Llewellyn Inge Nijman, Paul Naarding, Cornelis Lambert Mulder
BACKGROUND: Failure to detect psychiatric patients' intellectual disabilities may lead to inappropriate treatment and greater use of coercive measures. AIMS: In this prospective dynamic cohort study we screened for intellectual disabilities in patients admitted to psychiatric wards, and investigated the use of coercive measures with these patients. METHODS: We used the Screener for Intelligence and Learning disabilities (SCIL) to screen patients admitted to two acute psychiatric wards, and assessed patient characteristics and coercive measures during their stay and over the last 5 years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143435/genetic-characterization-of-italian-patients-with-bardet-biedl-syndrome-and-correlation-to-ocular-renal-and-audio-vestibular-phenotype-identification-of-eleven-novel-pathogenic-sequence-variants
#6
Gabriella Esposito, Francesco Testa, Miriam Zacchia, Anna Alessia Crispo, Valentina Di Iorio, Giovanna Capolongo, Luca Rinaldi, Marcella D'Antonio, Tiziana Fioretti, Pasquale Iadicicco, Settimio Rossi, Annamaria Franzè, Elio Marciano, Giovanbattista Capasso, Francesca Simonelli, Francesco Salvatore
BACKGROUND: Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is a rare genetic disorder that features retinal degeneration, obesity, polydactyly, learning disabilities and renal abnormalities. The diagnosis is often missed at birth, the median age at diagnosis being 9 years. In the attempt to shed light on BBS and improve its diagnosis and treatment, we evaluated the genotype-phenotype relationship in patients with a molecular diagnosis of BBS. METHODS: We analyzed three common BBS genes, BBS1, BBS10 and BBS2, in 25 Italian patients fulfilling the clinical criteria of BBS...
February 1, 2017: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141707/bullying-and-adhd-which-came-first-and-does-it-matter
#7
Robert Keder, Robert Sege, Peter C Raffalli, Marilyn Augustyn
Aiden, a 13-year-old boy in the sixth grade who is relatively new to your practice, is seen for follow-up after his routine physical last month when you noted concerns for possible attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and gave the family Vanderbilt Scales to complete. Aiden has a family history of ADHD, specific learning disabilities, and mood disorder.His mother reports that she is concerned about how Aiden is doing at school; his teachers are complaining that he is not doing his work, and she is worried that he may be kept back in school...
February 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133634/idea-units-in-notes-and-summaries-for-read-texts-by-keyboard-and-pencil-in-middle-childhood-students-with-specific-learning-disabilities-cognitive-and-brain-findings
#8
Todd Richards, Stephen Peverly, Amie Wolf, Robert Abbott, Steven Tanimoto, Rob Thompson, William Nagy, Virginia Berninger
Seven children with dyslexia and/or dysgraphia (2 girls, 5 boys, M=11 years) completed fMRI connectivity scans before and after twelve weekly computerized lessons in strategies for reading source material, taking notes, and writing summaries by touch typing or groovy pencils. During brain scanning they completed two reading comprehension tasks-one involving single sentences and one involving multiple sentences. From before to after intervention, fMRI connectivity magnitude changed significantly during sentence level reading comprehension (from right angular gyrus→right Broca's) and during text level reading comprehension (from right angular gyrus→cingulate)...
September 2016: Trends in Neuroscience and Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125421/engaging-people-with-aphasia-in-design-of-rehabilitation-through-participatory-design-a-way-to-learn-what-they-really-want
#9
Ulla Konnerup
Research literature on participatory design in relation to people with communicative and cognitive disabilities often focuses on the challenges of communication among the participants. This paper presents a case study involving people suffering from communication disabilities after a brain injury (aphasia) early in a design process of an avatar-mediated virtual learning environment for rehabilitation. The example demonstrates how providing time and space and supporting the communication with well-suited tools and artefact opens for firth-hand domain knowledge of living with aphasia...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112465/development-of-a-parent-reported-questionnaire-evaluating-upper-limb-activity-limitation-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#10
N Preston, M Horton, M Levesley, M Mon-Williams, R J O'Connor
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Upper limb activity measures for children with cerebral palsy have a number of limitations, for example, lack of validity and poor responsiveness. To overcome these limitations, we developed the Children's Arm Rehabilitation Measure (ChARM), a parent-reported questionnaire validated for children with cerebral palsy aged 5-16 years. This paper describes both the development of the ChARM items and response categories and its psychometric testing and further refinement using the Rasch measurement model...
January 23, 2017: Physiotherapy Research International: the Journal for Researchers and Clinicians in Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107219/do-neurocognitive-scat3-baseline-test-scores-differ-between-footballers-soccer-living-with-and-without-disability-a-cross-sectional-study
#11
Richard Weiler, Willem van Mechelen, Colin Fuller, Osman Hassan Ahmed, Evert Verhagen
OBJECTIVE: To determine if baseline Sport Concussion Assessment Tool, third Edition (SCAT3) scores differ between athletes with and without disability. DESIGN: Cross-sectional comparison of preseason baseline SCAT3 scores for a range of England international footballers. SETTING: Team doctors and physiotherapists supporting England football teams recorded players' SCAT 3 baseline tests from August 1, 2013 to July 31, 2014. PARTICIPANTS: A convenience sample of 249 England footballers, of whom 185 were players without disability (male: 119; female: 66) and 64 were players with disability (male learning disability: 17; male cerebral palsy: 28; male blind: 10; female deaf: 9)...
January 17, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093507/mosaic-expression-of-atrx-in-the-central-nervous-system-causes-memory-deficits
#12
Renee J Tamming, Jennifer R Siu, Yan Jiang, Marco A M Prado, Frank Beier, Nathalie G Bérubé
The rapid modulation of chromatin organization is thought to play a critical role in cognitive processes such as memory consolidation. This is supported in part by the dysregulation of many chromatin remodeling proteins in neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. A key example is ATRX, an X-linked gene commonly mutated in individuals with syndromic and non-syndromic intellectual disability (ID). The consequences of Atrx inactivation on learning and memory have been difficult to evaluate due to the early lethality of hemizygous-null animals...
January 12, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086958/biofeedback-interventions-for-people-with-cerebral-palsy-a-systematic-review-protocol
#13
Alexander MacIntosh, Nicolas Vignais, Elaine Biddiss
BACKGROUND: Cerebral palsy is a life-long disability that affects motor control and activities of daily living. Depending on the type of cerebral palsy, some individuals may have trouble performing tasks with one or both of their arms and/or legs. Different strategies exist to help develop motor capacity. Biofeedback therapy is a commonly applied rehabilitation strategy. In biofeedback therapy, information about the motor behavior while completing a task is given back to the individual to help improve their performance...
January 13, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074887/association-analysis-of-dyslexia-candidate-genes-in-a-dutch-longitudinal-sample
#14
Amaia Carrion-Castillo, Ben Maassen, Barbara Franke, Angelien Heister, Marlies Naber, Aryan van der Leij, Clyde Francks, Simon E Fisher
Dyslexia is a common specific learning disability with a substantive genetic component. Several candidate genes have been proposed to be implicated in dyslexia susceptibility, such as DYX1C1, ROBO1, KIAA0319, and DCDC2. Associations with variants in these genes have also been reported with a variety of psychometric measures tapping into the underlying processes that might be impaired in dyslexic people. In this study, we first conducted a literature review to select single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in dyslexia candidate genes that had been repeatedly implicated across studies...
January 11, 2017: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067109/depression-literacy-in-women-attending-university-hospital-clinics-in-riyadh-saudi-arabia
#15
Amna Rehana Siddiqui, Sarah Mahasin, Roa Alsajjan, Marwah Hassounah, Zeinah Alhalees, Norah AlSaif, Fahad D Alosaimi, AlJohara AlQuaiz
BACKGROUND: Depression literacy in general population constitutes an ability to understand depression, with knowledge of disease, its risk factors and symptoms. High levels of depression literacy promote early intervention, potentially reducing related disability. AIM: This study investigated the depression literacy in women visitors to clinics of a tertiary care hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: Women of 18 and more years were surveyed during their visit to primary and other healthcare clinics of a public hospital in Riyadh...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059878/the-cross-cultural-societal-response-to-sci-health-and-related-systems
#16
Diana Pacheco Barzallo, Mirja H Gross-Hemmi
OBJECTIVE: The Learning Health System for Spinal Cord Injury (LHS-SCI) is an initiative aligned with the World Health Organization's (WHO) Global Disability Action Plan. Based on the outcomes of this initiative, countries will be able to shape their health systems to better respond to the needs of persons with SCI. This paper describes and compares the macroeconomic situation and societal response to SCI across 27 countries from all 6 WHO regions that will participate in the LHS-SCI initiative...
February 2017: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057534/altered-fronto-striatal-functions-in-the-gdi1-null-mouse-model-of-x-linked-intellectual-disability
#17
Lorenzo Morè, Basil Künnecke, Latefa Yekhlef, Andreas Bruns, Antonella Marte, Ernesto Fedele, Veronica Bianchi, Stefano Taverna, Silvia Gatti, Patrizia D'Adamo
RAB-GDP dissociation inhibitor 1 (GDI1) loss-of-function mutations are responsible for a form of non-specific X-linked Intellectual Disability (XLID) where the only clinical feature is cognitive impairment. GDI1 patients are impaired in specific aspects of executive functions and conditioned response, which are controlled by fronto-striatal circuitries. Previous molecular and behavioral characterization of the Gdi1-null mouse revealed alterations in the total number/distribution of hippocampal and cortical synaptic vesicles as well as hippocampal short-term synaptic plasticity, and memory deficits...
March 6, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053283/co-morbidity-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-clinical-study-from-india
#18
P Jacob, S Srinath, S Girimaji, S Seshadri, J V Sagar
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric co-morbidities in children and adolescents diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder at a tertiary care child and adolescent psychiatry centre. METHODS: A total of 63 children and adolescents who were diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and fulfilled the inclusion criteria were comprehensively assessed for neurodevelopmental and psychiatric co-morbidities...
December 2016: East Asian Archives of Psychiatry: Official Journal of the Hong Kong College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990765/an-independent-investigation-of-the-utility-of-the-learning-disability-screening-questionnaire-ldsq-within-a-community-learning-disability-team
#19
Steven Stirk, Bryony Field, Jessica Black
BACKGROUND: The Learning Disability Screening Questionnaire (LDSQ) has been shown to have high sensitivity and specificity to identify those who are likely to meet intellectual disability diagnostic criteria (McKenzie, et al. ). However, there is no independent research to date to support these findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An archival research design was used, utilizing data from diagnostic tools including the LDSQ, Wechsler Adult Intelligence assessments and Adaptive Behavior Assessment System Second Edition (ABAS-II) scores...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities: JARID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965542/releasing-the-cortical-brake-by-non-invasive-electromagnetic-stimulation-rtms-induces-ltd-of-gabaergic-neurotransmission
#20
REVIEW
Maximilian Lenz, Andreas Vlachos
Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique which modulates cortical excitability beyond the stimulation period. However, despite its clinical use rTMS-based therapies which prevent or reduce disabilities in a functionally significant and sustained manner are scarce. It remains unclear how rTMS-mediated changes in cortical excitability, which are not task- or input-specific, exert beneficial effects in some healthy subjects and patients. While experimental evidence exists that repetitive magnetic stimulation (rMS) is linked to the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) of excitatory neurotransmission, less attention has been dedicated to rTMS-induced structural, functional and molecular adaptations at inhibitory synapses...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
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