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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224701/physical-activity-in-older-people-case-studies-of-how-to-make-change-happen
#1
REVIEW
Monica Rodrigues Perracini, Marcia Rodrigues Costa Franco, Natalia Aquaroni Ricci, Catherine Blake
Enhancing physical activity (PA) is recognized as a powerful intervention for the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases and disability in older people. Furthermore, there is an agreement that increased PA in daily life is a key determinant of active and healthy ageing and should be recommended for frail and sedentary older people. Unfortunately, relatively few older people engage in regular PA or stay active in the long term. This article summarizes and discusses PA recommendations for older adults without focussing on specific diseases, presents the main barriers and facilitators for increasing PA levels, and considers the implementation of these recommendations on the basis of the existing evidence...
April 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206685/intelligence-and-specific-cognitive-functions-in-intellectual-disability-implications-for-assessment-and-classification
#2
Marco O Bertelli, Sally-Ann Cooper, Luis Salvador-Carulla
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Current diagnostic criteria for intellectual disability categorize ability as measured by IQ tests. However, this does not suit the new conceptualization of intellectual disability, which refers to a range of neuropsychiatric syndromes that have in common early onset, cognitive impairments, and consequent deficits in learning and adaptive functioning. A literature review was undertaken on the concept of intelligence and whether it encompasses a range of specific cognitive functions to solve problems, which might be better reported as a profile, instead of an IQ, with implications for diagnosis and classification of intellectual disability...
December 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174856/the-child-neurology-trainee-as-teacher-a-clinical-teaching-curriculum-tailored-to-learners-needs-and-developmental-roles
#3
Miya E Bernson-Leung, David K Urion
BACKGROUND: Clinical teaching skills programs for resident physicians are increasingly offered. Less attention has been devoted to the unique educational roles of specialty residents and subspecialty fellows, many of whom will become academic faculty physicians. These teaching roles, and therefore a trainee's learning needs and motivation, also change over the course of training. METHODS: We designed and implemented a two-year longitudinal teaching curriculum for child neurology and neurodevelopmental disabilities residents using adult learning theory principles: experiential learning and immediate applicability to specific roles...
September 21, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172325/periodontal-treatment-in-patients-with-learning-disabilities-part-2-professional-mechanical-intervention
#4
Shazia Kaka, Chris Dickinson
The first part of this two part series discussed the potential barriers and risk factors that may lead to an increased incidence and severity of periodontal disease amongst patients with learning disabilities. Additionally, preventive strategies and tools that can be used by general dental practitioners, oral health promotion teams as well as specialists within the field to control and prevent disease progression were explored. To prevent periodontal disease progression and attain optimal periodontal health, a combination of prevention and professional mechanical instrumentation is usually required...
March 2017: Dental Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166674/unpredictable-chronic-mild-stress-differentially-impairs-social-and-contextual-discrimination-learning-in-two-inbred-mouse-strains
#5
Michiel van Boxelaere, Jason Clements, Patrick Callaerts, Rudi D'Hooge, Zsuzsanna Callaerts-Vegh
Alterations in the social and cognitive domain are considered important indicators for increased disability in many stress-related disorders. Similar impairments have been observed in rodents chronically exposed to stress, mimicking potential endophenotypes of stress-related psychopathologies such as major depression disorder (MDD), anxiety, conduct disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Data from numerous studies suggest that deficient plasticity mechanisms in hippocampus (HC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) might underlie these social and cognitive deficits...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164756/survey-of-disability-related-content-in-australian-dietetics-programs
#6
Shannon Butler, Jane Kellett, Rachel Bacon, Annette Byron
AIM: Nutrition and dietetic services are an important component of healthcare for people living with a disability. The introduction of the National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS) in Australia is providing more opportunities for individuals to access these services from an Accredited Practising Dietitian (APD). The aim of this research was to identify how students in Australian tertiary dietetics programs are being prepared to provide these services to people with a disability. METHODS: A purpose-built questionnaire with eight open-ended questions was developed by the researchers to describe the disability-related content of university and professional placement learning opportunities and was distributed to all course conveners (or their nominated representative) of dietetics programs accredited by the Dietitians Association of Australia...
November 21, 2017: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152714/scaffolding-as-a-key-role-for-teaching-assistants-perceptions-of-their-pedagogical-strategies
#7
David Bowles, Julie Radford, Ioanna Bakopoulou
BACKGROUND: Inclusive education policies have led to a worldwide increase in the number of teaching assistants (TAs) working in mainstream schools. TAs have a large amount of responsibility for supporting children with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND), a role which by default has become instructional in practice, and for which training and preparation are rarely adequate. While there is some research into the nature of TAs' interactions with pupils and the strategies they use which are helpful for children's learning, TAs' perspectives on their own classroom practice have yet to be explored...
November 19, 2017: British Journal of Educational Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135773/tree-based-claims-algorithm-for-measuring-pretreatment-quality-of-care-in-medicare-disabled-hepatitis-c-patients
#8
Viktor V Chirikov, Fadia T Shaya, Ebere Onukwugha, C Daniel Mullins, Susan dosReis, Charles D Howell
BACKGROUND: To help broaden the use of machine-learning approaches in health services research, we provide an easy-to-follow framework on the implementation of random forests and apply it to identify quality of care (QC) patterns correlated with treatment receipt among Medicare disabled patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV). METHODS: Using Medicare claims 2006-2009, we identified 1936 patients with 6 months continuous enrollment before HCV diagnosis. We ran a random forest on 14 pretreatment QC indicators, extracted the forest's representative tree, and aggregated its terminal nodes into 4 QC groups predictive of treatment...
December 2017: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134483/evaluating-the-impact-of-dyslexia-laws-on-the-identification-of-specific-learning-disability-and-dyslexia
#9
B Anne Barber Phillips, Timothy N Odegard
Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that impacts word reading accuracy and/or reading fluency. Over half of the states in the USA have passed legislation intended to promote better identification of individuals with dyslexia. To date, no study has been conducted to investigate the potential impact of state laws on the identification of specific learning disability (SLD), and limited data has been presented on the rate at which students in public school settings are identified with dyslexia. The first aim of the current study was to determine if any detectable changes in the identification rates of SLD have occurred in states implementing dyslexia laws because most states do not report number of students identified as dyslexic but rather those students identified with an SLD...
November 13, 2017: Annals of Dyslexia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133437/abnormal-microglia-and-enhanced-inflammation-related-gene-transcription-in-mice-with-conditional-deletion-of-ctcf-in-camk2a-cre-expressing-neurons
#10
Bryan E McGill, Ruteja A Barve, Susan E Maloney, Amy Strickland, Nicholas Rensing, Peter Wang, Michael Wong, Richard Head, David F Wozniak, Jeffrey Milbrandt
CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is an 11 zinc finger DNA-binding domain protein that regulates gene expression by modifying three dimensional chromatin structure. Human mutations in CTCF cause intellectual disability and autistic features. Knocking out Ctcf in mouse embryonic neurons is lethal by neonatal age, but the effects of CTCF deficiency in postnatal neurons are less well studied. We knocked out Ctcf postnatally in glutamatergic forebrain neurons under the control of Camk2a-CreCtcfloxP/loxP ;Camk2a-Cre+ (Ctcf CKO) mice of both sexes were viable and exhibited profound deficits in spatial learning/memory, impaired motor co-ordination, and decreased sociability by 4 months of age...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128904/pharmacological-rescue-of-hippocampal-fear-learning-deficits-in-fragile-x-syndrome
#11
Luis A Martinez, Maria Victoria Tejada-Simon
Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is the leading cause of autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability and results from loss of Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). In neurons, FMRP controls the translation of synaptic plasticity proteins that are implicated in learning and memory. FMRP also regulates development- and experience-dependent actin cytoskeleton remodeling within dendritic spines through the small Rho GTPase Rac1. Modulation of Rac1 activity is critical during synaptic plasticity as well as learning and memory...
November 11, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128445/the-promise-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-for-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Katrin Linda, Carol Fiuza, Nael Nadif Kasri
A major challenge in clinical genetics and medicine is represented by genetically and phenotypically highly diverse neurodevelopmental disorders, like for example intellectual disability and autism. Intellectual disability is characterized by substantial limitations in cognitive function and adaptive behaviour. At the cellular level, this is reflected by deficits in synaptic structure and plasticity and therefore has been coined as a synaptic disorder or "synaptopathy". In this review, we summarize the findings from recent studies in which iPSCs have been used to model specific neurodevelopmental syndromes, including Fragile X syndrome, Rett syndrome, Williams-Beuren syndrome and Phelan-McDermid syndrome...
November 8, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122542/twin-twin-transfusion-syndrome-what-we-have-learned-from-clinical-trials
#13
REVIEW
Fatiha Djaafri, Julien Stirnemann, Imen Mediouni, Claire Colmant, Yves Ville
Monochorionic twin pregnancies are at increased risk for adverse outcome compared to dichorionic twin pregnancies and singletons. Monochorionic-specific complications include twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS), twin anemia-polycythemia sequence, single intrauterine fetal demise and its consequences on the co-twin, and selective intrauterine growth restriction. Whereas the natural history of monochorionic-specific complications carries a high risk of fetal death or severe neurologic disability, a framework now exists, based on well-designed clinical trials, for optimal treatment of these entities...
November 6, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118725/cognitive-and-neural-correlates-of-mathematical-giftedness-in-adults-and-children-a-review
#14
REVIEW
Timothy Myers, Emma Carey, Dénes Szűcs
Most mathematical cognition research has focused on understanding normal adult function and child development as well as mildly and moderately impaired mathematical skill, often labeled developmental dyscalculia and/or mathematical learning disability. In contrast, much less research is available on cognitive and neural correlates of gifted/excellent mathematical knowledge in adults and children. In order to facilitate further inquiry into this area, here we review 40 available studies, which examine the cognitive and neural basis of gifted mathematics...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110728/how-a-diverse-research-ecosystem-has-generated-new-rehabilitation-technologies-review-of-nidilrr-s-rehabilitation-engineering-research-centers
#15
REVIEW
David J Reinkensmeyer, Sarah Blackstone, Cathy Bodine, John Brabyn, David Brienza, Kevin Caves, Frank DeRuyter, Edmund Durfee, Stefania Fatone, Geoff Fernie, Steven Gard, Patricia Karg, Todd A Kuiken, Gerald F Harris, Mike Jones, Yue Li, Jordana Maisel, Michael McCue, Michelle A Meade, Helena Mitchell, Tracy L Mitzner, James L Patton, Philip S Requejo, James H Rimmer, Wendy A Rogers, W Zev Rymer, Jon A Sanford, Lawrence Schneider, Levin Sliker, Stephen Sprigle, Aaron Steinfeld, Edward Steinfeld, Gregg Vanderheiden, Carolee Winstein, Li-Qun Zhang, Thomas Corfman
Over 50 million United States citizens (1 in 6 people in the US) have a developmental, acquired, or degenerative disability. The average US citizen can expect to live 20% of his or her life with a disability. Rehabilitation technologies play a major role in improving the quality of life for people with a disability, yet widespread and highly challenging needs remain. Within the US, a major effort aimed at the creation and evaluation of rehabilitation technology has been the Rehabilitation Engineering Research Centers (RERCs) sponsored by the National Institute on Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104930/brain-and-behavioral-assessment-of-executive-functions-for-self-regulating-levels-of-language-in-reading-brain
#16
Virginia W Berninger, Todd L Richards, Robert D Abbott
This brief research report examines brain-behavioral relationships specific to levels of language in the complex reading brain. The first specific aim was to examine prior findings for significant fMRI connectivity from four seeds (left precuneus, left occipital temporal, left supramarginal, left inferior frontal) for each of four levels of language-subword, word (word-specific spelling or affixed words), syntax (with and without homonym foils or affix foils), and multi-sentence text to identify significant fMRI connectivity (a) unique to the lower level of language when compared to the immediately higher adjacent level of language across subword-word, word-syntax, and syntax-text comparisons; and (b) involving a brain region associated with executive functions...
November 2017: Journal of Nature and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080434/potential-and-challenges-for-learning-during-acute-medical-surgical-placement-for-intellectual-disability-mental-health-and-midwifery-students
#17
Jane Mc Carthy, Margaret M Graham, Dympna Tuohy, Brid O'Brien, Anne Fahy, Therese Hennessy, Deirdre O'Sullivan, Kathleen Markey
In Ireland nursing and midwifery degree programmes involve four pathways to registration. Three of which, intellectual disability and mental health nursing and midwifery require students to undertake acute medical/surgical placements offering learning opportunities caring for patients with complex needs in settings beyond their core discipline. This paper focuses on findings from a descriptive qualitative study exploring intellectual disability and mental health nursing and midwifery students experiences of such placements...
October 18, 2017: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078104/modeling-individual-variation-in-early-literacy-skills-in-kindergarten-children-with-intellectual-disabilities
#18
Arjan van Tilborg, Eliane Segers, Hans van Balkom, Ludo Verhoeven
In the present study, we investigated (i) to what extent the early literacy skills (phonological awareness, letter knowledge, and word decoding) along with cognitive (nonverbal reasoning, attention, phonological short-term memory, sequential memory, executive functioning) and linguistic (auditory discrimination, rapid naming, articulation, vocabulary) precursor measures of 53 six-year old children with intellectual disabilities (ID) differ from a group of 74 peers with normal language acquisition (NLA) and (ii) whether the individual variation of early literacy skills in the two groups to the same extent can be explained from the precursor measures...
October 24, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075834/sequence-specific-implicit-motor-learning-using-whole-arm-three-dimensional-reach-movements
#19
Jessica Baird, Jill Campbell Stewart
Implicit motor learning is essential to the acquisition of motor skills. Examination of implicit motor learning, however, has largely involved single-finger button presses or two-dimensional movements of a computer mouse or joystick. The purpose of this study was to examine sequence-specific implicit motor learning during practice of  a three-dimensional (3D) whole-arm reach task. Fifteen young, non-disabled individuals completed two consecutive days of practice of a 3D target task presented in a virtual environment with the dominant, right arm...
October 26, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075560/deletion-of-fmr1-results-in-sex-specific-changes-in-behavior
#20
Suzanne O Nolan, Conner D Reynolds, Gregory D Smith, Andrew J Holley, Brianna Escobar, Matthew A Chandler, Megan Volquardsen, Taylor Jefferson, Ashvini Pandian, Tileena Smith, Jessica Huebschman, Joaquin N Lugo
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we used a systemic Fmr1 knockout in order to investigate both genotype- and sex-specific differences across multiple measures of sociability, repetitive behaviors, activity levels, anxiety, and fear-related learning and memory. BACKGROUND: Fragile X syndrome is the most common monogenic cause of intellectual disability and autism. Few studies to date have examined sex differences in a mouse model of Fragile X syndrome, though clinical data support the idea of differences in both overall prevalence and phenotype between the sexes...
October 2017: Brain and Behavior
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