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Malic enzyme 1

Waseem Safdar, Muhammad Shamoon, Xinyi Zan, Junaid Haider, Hafiz Rizwan Sharif, Muhammad Shoaib, Yuanda Song
The effect of varying concentrations of the nitrogen source on the growth kinetics, lipid accumulation, lipid and DHA productivity, and fatty acid composition of C. cohnii was elucidated. Growth of C. cohnii was in three distinct growth stages: cell growth, lipid accumulation and a final lipid turnover stage. Most of lipids were accumulated in lipid accumulation stage (48-120 h) though, slow growth rate was observed during this stage. NaNO3 supported significantly higher lipid content (26.9% of DCW), DHA content (0...
December 2017: AMB Express
Chuan-Chuan Wei, Kun Wu, Yan Gao, Li-Han Zhang, Dan-Dan Li, Zhi Luo
Background: Magnesium influences hepatic lipid deposition in vertebrates, but the underlying mechanism is unknown.Objective: We used yellow catfish and their isolated hepatocytes to test the hypothesis that magnesium influences lipid deposition by modulating lipogenesis and lipolysis.Methods: Juvenile yellow catfish (mean ± SEM weight: 3.43 ± 0.02 g, 3 mo old, mixed sex) were fed a 0.14- (low), 0.87- (intermediate) or 2.11- (high) g Mg/kg diet for 56 d. Primary hepatocytes were incubated for 48 h in control or MgSO4-containing medium with or without 2-h pretreatment with an inhibitor (AG490, GW6471, or Compound C)...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
Mika B Jekabsons, Hoda M Gebril, Yan-Hong Wang, Bharathi Avula, Ikhlas A Khan
A hexose phosphate recycling model previously developed to infer fluxes through the major glucose consuming pathways in cultured cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) from neonatal rats metabolizing [1,2-(13)C2]glucose was revised by considering reverse flux through the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and symmetrical succinate oxidation within the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The model adjusts three flux ratios to effect (13)C distribution in the hexose, pentose, and triose phosphate pools, and in TCA cycle malate to minimize the error between predicted and measured (13)C labeling in exported lactate (i...
April 12, 2017: Neurochemistry International
Yutaka Amao, Shusaku Ikeyama, Takayuki Katagiri, Kohei Fujita
Recently, CO2 utilization technology, including artificial photosynthesis, has received much attention. In this field, CO2 is used as a feedstock for fuels, polymers and in other chemical processes. Of note are malic enzymes (MEs) which catalyze the reaction of malic acid to pyruvic acid and CO2 with the co-enzyme NADP(+), and catalyze the reverse reaction of pyruvic acid and CO2 to malic acid with the co-enzyme NADPH. Thus, MEs are also an attractive biocatalyst for carbon-carbon bond formation from CO2. Studies of the visible light-induced malic acid production from pyruvic acid and CO2 using an electron donor, a photosensitizer, an electron mediator, ferredoxin-NADP(+) reductase, NADP(+), and ME have been reported...
March 9, 2017: Faraday Discussions
Bing Li, Takashi Baba, Kanako Miyabayashi, Tetsuya Sato, Yuichi Shima, Tomomi Ichinose, Daisuke Miura, Yasuyuki Ohkawa, Mikita Suyama, Ken-Ichirou Morohashi
Ad4-binding protein/steroidogenic factor 1 (Ad4BP/SF-1), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, is expressed in steroidogenic cells and regulates all steroidogenic gene expression. We recently employed mRNA and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequence (ChIP-seq) to demonstrate that Ad4BP/SF-1 directly regulates the expression of nearly all glycolytic genes. The pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) contributes to the production of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH). Although the expression of PPP genes and intracellular NADPH were decreased by Ad4BP/SF-1 knockdown, these genes were not the direct targets of Ad4BP/SF-1...
March 31, 2017: Endocrine Journal
Hans Cc Helms, Blanca I Aldana, Simon Groth, Morten M Jensen, Helle S Waagepetersen, Carsten U Nielsen, Birger Brodin
The aim was to characterize the clearance pathways for L-glutamate from the brain interstitial fluid across the blood-brain barrier using a primary in vitro bovine endothelial/rat astrocyte co-culture. Transporter profiling was performed using uptake studies of radiolabeled L-glutamate with co-application of transporter inhibitors and competing amino acids. Endothelial abluminal L-glutamate uptake was almost abolished by co-application of an EAAT-1 specific inhibitor, whereas luminal uptake was inhibited by L-glutamate and L-aspartate (1 mM)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Prasenjit Dey, Joelle Baddour, Florian Muller, Chia Chin Wu, Huamin Wang, Wen-Ting Liao, Zangdao Lan, Alina Chen, Tony Gutschner, Yaan Kang, Jason Fleming, Nikunj Satani, Di Zhao, Abhinav Achreja, Lifeng Yang, Jiyoon Lee, Edward Chang, Giannicola Genovese, Andrea Viale, Haoqiang Ying, Giulio Draetta, Anirban Maitra, Y Alan Wang, Deepak Nagrath, Ronald A DePinho
The genome of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) frequently contains deletions of tumour suppressor gene loci, most notably SMAD4, which is homozygously deleted in nearly one-third of cases. As loss of neighbouring housekeeping genes can confer collateral lethality, we sought to determine whether loss of the metabolic gene malic enzyme 2 (ME2) in the SMAD4 locus would create cancer-specific metabolic vulnerability upon targeting of its paralogous isoform ME3. The mitochondrial malic enzymes (ME2 and ME3) are oxidative decarboxylases that catalyse the conversion of malate to pyruvate and are essential for NADPH regeneration and reactive oxygen species homeostasis...
February 2, 2017: Nature
Takashi Ide, Haruka Iwase, Saaya Amano, Saki Sunahara, Ayuka Tachihara, Minako Yagi, Tsuyoshi Watanabe
Interrelated effects of γ-linolenic acid (GLA) and sesamin, a sesame lignan, on hepatic fatty acid synthesis and oxidation were examined. Rats were fed experimental diets supplemented with 0 or 2 g/kg sesamin (1:1 mixture of sesamin and episesamin) and containing 100 g/kg of palm oil (saturated fat), safflower oil rich in linoleic acid, or oil of evening primrose origin containing 43% GLA (GLA oil) for 18 days. In rats fed sesamin-free diets, GLA oil, compared with other oils, increased the activity and mRNA levels of various enzymes involved in fatty acid oxidation, except for some instances...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Ju-Yong Park, Yang-Hoon Kim, Jiho Min
In Rhodobacter sphaeroides, carbonic anhydrase (CA; EC is a zinc-containing metalloenzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of CO2 to HCO3(-) while phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC;, an enzyme involved in the carbon metabolism that catalyzed the fixation of CO2 to PEP, is a key factor for biological fixation of CO2 and enhances the production of organic compounds. In this study, the recombinant R. sphaeroides with highly-expressed CA was developed based on a surface displayed system of CA (pJY-OmpCA) on the outer membrane of R...
January 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Fernando G de Macedo, Joana D Bresolin, Elcio F Santos, Felipe Furlan, Wilson T Lopes da Silva, Joe C Polacco, José Lavres
Nickel (Ni) availability in soil varies as a function of pH. Plants require Ni in small quantities for normal development, especially in legumes due its role in nitrogen (N) metabolism. This study investigated the effect of soil base saturation, and Ni amendments on Ni uptake, N accumulation in the leaves and grains, as well as to evaluate organic acids changes in soybean. In addition, two N assimilation enzymes were assayed: nitrate reductase (NR) and Ni-dependent urease. Soybean plants inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum were cultivated in soil-filled pots under two base-cation saturation (BCS) ratios (50 and 70%) and five Ni rates - 0...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Zivka Malic, Aleksandra Topic, Djordje Francuski, Marija Stankovic, Ljudmila Nagorni-Obradovic, Bojan Markovic, Dragica Radojkovic
The genetic and non-genetic factors that contribute to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are still poorly understood. We investigated the potential role of genetic variants of xenobiotic-metabolising enzymes (glutathione-S-transferase M1, GSTM1; glutathione-S-transferase T1, GSTT1; microsomal epoxide hydrolase, mEH), oxidative stress (assessed by urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine, 8-oxodG/creatinine), sex, ageing and smoking habits on susceptibility to development of COPD and its severity in Serbian population...
February 2017: COPD
Marco M Lehmann, Frederik Wegener, Matti Barthel, Veronica G Maurino, Rolf T W Siegwolf, Nina Buchmann, Christiane Werner, Roland A Werner
The enhanced CO2 release of illuminated leaves transferred into darkness, termed "light enhanced dark respiration (LEDR)", is often associated with an increase in the carbon isotope ratio of the respired CO2 (δ(13)CLEDR). The latter has been hypothesized to result from different respiratory substrates and decarboxylation reactions in various metabolic pathways, which are poorly understood so far. To provide a better insight into the underlying metabolic processes of δ(13)CLEDR, we fed position-specific (13)C-labeled malate and pyruvate via the xylem stream to leaves of species with high and low δ(13)CLEDR values (Halimium halimifolium and Oxalis triangularis, respectively)...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Yingtong Zhang, Haiqin Chen, Yuanda Song, Hao Zhang, Yongquan Chen, Wei Chen
OBJECTIVE: We aimed at characterizing a malic enzyme isoform V from Mucor circinelloides. METHODS: me1 gene encoding malic enzyme isoform V was amplified and cloned into expression vector pET28a. High-purity recombinant protein BLME1 was obtained by affinity chromatography using. Ni-NTA column and characterized subsequently. RESULTS: The optimum conditions were pH at 8.0 and temperature at 33 degrees C. Under optimum conditions, BLME1 activity achieved 92...
February 4, 2016: Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao, Acta Microbiologica Sinica
Qing Li, Hui Wu, Zhimin Li, Qin Ye
In this study, an engineered strain Escherichia coli MLB (ldhA(-)pflB(-)) was constructed for production of succinate from glycerol. The succinate yield was 0.37mol/mol in anaerobic culture, however, the growth and glycerol consumption rates were very slow, resulting in a low succinate level. Two-stage fermentation was performed in flasks, and the succinate yield reached 0.93mol/mol, but the succinate titer was still low. Hence, overexpression of malate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme, phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylase and PEP carboxykinase (PCK) from E...
October 2016: Bioresource Technology
Aleksandra Topic, Ljudmila Nagorni-Obradovic, Djordje Francuski, Mila Ljujic, Zivka Malic, Dragica Radojkovic
Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) and tobacco smoke play a key role in the pathogenesis of early-onset emphysema. Differences in AATD-related chronic obstructive pulmonary disease stages imply the existence of modifying factors associated with disease severity. We present two male patients with emphysema caused by severe AATD (PiZZ genotype). Both are former smokers and have epoxide hydrolase low-activity phenotype. Extremely high level of oxidative stress (high urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine), increased inflammation (high serum CRP), and GSTP1 105Val mutation were found in patient with a worse lung function and prognosis...
October 2016: Biochemical Genetics
Misako Ezoe, Jun-Ichi Wakamatsu, Yoshihisa Takahata, Takanori Hasegawa, Fumiki Morimatsu, Takanori Nishimura
We compared the effects of purified meat proteins on postprandial thermogenesis and on the secretion of and responsiveness to thyroid hormones (THs) in rats. Body temperatures at 2 h after feeding were significantly higher in the chicken and mutton protein groups than in the other groups, and these proteins seem to have a strong thermogenic effect. There were no significant differences in plasma TH concentrations among the groups, but levels of TH-responsive Spot 14 protein in the liver and brown adipose tissue were significantly higher in the chicken and mutton protein groups than in the other groups...
2016: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Xiao-Wen Jiang, Jun-Peng Bai, Qiao Zhang, Xiao-Long Hu, Xing Tian, Jun Zhu, Jia Liu, Wei-Hong Meng, Qing-Chun Zhao
Oxidative stress has been confirmed as a contribution to the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of many neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs) are considered to have anti-oxidative stress ability in a previous study, but the structure-activity relationships (SARs) of CQAs in neuroprotective effects are still unclear. In the present study, we primarily expound the SARs of CQAs in counteracting H2O2-induced injury in SH-SY5Y cells. We found that CQAs (1-10) represented the protection of SH-SY5Y cells against H2O2-induced injury in varying degrees and malonyl groups could obviously increase the anti-oxidative stress ability of CQAs...
April 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Lihuai Yu, Shunan Wang, Luoyang Ding, Xianghuan Liang, Mengzhi Wang, Li Dong, Hongrong Wang
The objective of the current study was to investigate the effects of dietary ω-6/ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratios on lipid metabolism in goslings. One hundred and sixty 21-day-old Yangzhou geese of similar weight were randomly divided into 4 groups. They were fed different PUFA-supplemented diets (the 4 diets had ω-6/ω-3 PUFA ratios of 12:1, 9:1, 6:1, or 3:1). The geese were slaughtered and samples of liver and muscle were collected at day 70. The activities and the gene expression of enzymes involved in lipid metabolism were measured...
October 2016: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
A De Tonnac, E Labussière, A Vincent, J Mourot
The regulation of lipogenesis mechanisms related to consumption of n-3 PUFA is poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to find out whether α-linolenic acid (ALA) or DHA uptake can have an effect on activities and gene expressions of enzymes involved in lipid metabolism in the liver, subcutaneous adipose tissue and longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle of growing-finishing pigs. Six groups of ten pigs received one of six experimental diets supplemented with rapeseed oil in the control diet, extruded linseed, microalgae or a mixture of both to implement different levels of ALA and DHA with the same content in total n-3...
July 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Robert E Sharwood, Balasaheb V Sonawane, Oula Ghannoum, Spencer M Whitney
Plants operating C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathways exhibit differences in leaf anatomy and photosynthetic carbon fixation biochemistry. Fully understanding this underpinning biochemical variation is requisite to identifying solutions for improving photosynthetic efficiency and growth. Here we refine assay methods for accurately measuring the carboxylase and decarboxylase activities in C3 and C4 plant soluble protein. We show that differences in plant extract preparation and assay conditions are required to measure NADP-malic enzyme and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (pH 8, Mg(2+), 22 °C) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pH 7, >2mM Mn(2+), no Mg(2+)) maximal activities accurately...
May 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
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