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Malic enzyme 1

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871369/co2-reduction-and-organic-compounds-production-by-photosynthetic-bacteria-with-surface-displayed-carbonic-anhydrase-and-inducible-expression-of-phosphoenolpyruvate-carboxylase
#1
Ju-Yong Park, Yang-Hoon Kim, Jiho Min
In Rhodobacter sphaeroides, carbonic anhydrase (CA; EC 4.2.1.1) is a zinc-containing metalloenzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of CO2 to HCO3(-) while phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC; 4.1.1.31), an enzyme involved in the carbon metabolism that catalyzed the fixation of CO2 to PEP, is a key factor for biological fixation of CO2 and enhances the production of organic compounds. In this study, the recombinant R. sphaeroides with highly-expressed CA was developed based on a surface displayed system of CA (pJY-OmpCA) on the outer membrane of R...
January 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660633/nickel-availability-in-soil-as-influenced-by-liming-and-its-role-in-soybean-nitrogen-metabolism
#2
Fernando G de Macedo, Joana D Bresolin, Elcio F Santos, Felipe Furlan, Wilson T Lopes da Silva, Joe C Polacco, José Lavres
Nickel (Ni) availability in soil varies as a function of pH. Plants require Ni in small quantities for normal development, especially in legumes due its role in nitrogen (N) metabolism. This study investigated the effect of soil base saturation, and Ni amendments on Ni uptake, N accumulation in the leaves and grains, as well as to evaluate organic acids changes in soybean. In addition, two N assimilation enzymes were assayed: nitrate reductase (NR) and Ni-dependent urease. Soybean plants inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum were cultivated in soil-filled pots under two base-cation saturation (BCS) ratios (50 and 70%) and five Ni rates - 0...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27421065/oxidative-stress-and-genetic-variants-of-xenobiotic-metabolising-enzymes-associated-with-copd-development-and-severity-in-serbian-adults
#3
Malic Zivka, Topic Aleksandra, Francuski Djordje, Stankovic Marija, Nagorni-Obradovic Ljudmila, Markovic Bojan, Radojkovic Dragica
The genetic and non-genetic factors that contribute to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are still poorly understood. We investigated the potential role of genetic variants of xenobiotic-metabolising enzymes (glutathione-S-transferase M1, GSTM1; glutathione-S-transferase T1, GSTT1; microsomal epoxide hydrolase, mEH), oxidative stress (assessed by urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine, 8-oxodG/creatinine), sex, ageing and smoking habits on susceptibility to development of COPD and its severity in Serbian population...
July 15, 2016: COPD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27375626/metabolic-fate-of-the-carboxyl-groups-of-malate-and-pyruvate-and-their-influence-on-%C3%AE-13-c-of-leaf-respired-co2-during-light-enhanced-dark-respiration
#4
Marco M Lehmann, Frederik Wegener, Matti Barthel, Veronica G Maurino, Rolf T W Siegwolf, Nina Buchmann, Christiane Werner, Roland A Werner
The enhanced CO2 release of illuminated leaves transferred into darkness, termed "light enhanced dark respiration (LEDR)", is often associated with an increase in the carbon isotope ratio of the respired CO2 (δ(13)CLEDR). The latter has been hypothesized to result from different respiratory substrates and decarboxylation reactions in various metabolic pathways, which are poorly understood so far. To provide a better insight into the underlying metabolic processes of δ(13)CLEDR, we fed position-specific (13)C-labeled malate and pyruvate via the xylem stream to leaves of species with high and low δ(13)CLEDR values (Halimium halimifolium and Oxalis triangularis, respectively)...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27373079/-characterization-of-a-malic-enzyme-isoform-v-from-mucor-circinelloides
#5
Yingtong Zhang, Haiqin Chen, Yuanda Song, Hao Zhang, Yongquan Chen, Wei Chen
OBJECTIVE: We aimed at characterizing a malic enzyme isoform V from Mucor circinelloides. METHODS: me1 gene encoding malic enzyme isoform V was amplified and cloned into expression vector pET28a. High-purity recombinant protein BLME1 was obtained by affinity chromatography using. Ni-NTA column and characterized subsequently. RESULTS: The optimum conditions were pH at 8.0 and temperature at 33 degrees C. Under optimum conditions, BLME1 activity achieved 92...
February 4, 2016: Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao, Acta Microbiologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27371794/enhanced-succinate-production-from-glycerol-by-engineered-escherichia-coli-strains
#6
Qing Li, Hui Wu, Zhimin Li, Qin Ye
In this study, an engineered strain Escherichia coli MLB (ldhA(-)pflB(-)) was constructed for production of succinate from glycerol. The succinate yield was 0.37mol/mol in anaerobic culture, however, the growth and glycerol consumption rates were very slow, resulting in a low succinate level. Two-stage fermentation was performed in flasks, and the succinate yield reached 0.93mol/mol, but the succinate titer was still low. Hence, overexpression of malate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme, phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylase and PEP carboxykinase (PCK) from E...
October 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27271084/oxidative-stress-and-polymorphism-of-xenobiotic-metabolizing-enzymes-in-two-patients-with-severe-alpha-1-antitrypsin-deficiency
#7
Aleksandra Topic, Ljudmila Nagorni-Obradovic, Djordje Francuski, Mila Ljujic, Zivka Malic, Dragica Radojkovic
Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) and tobacco smoke play a key role in the pathogenesis of early-onset emphysema. Differences in AATD-related chronic obstructive pulmonary disease stages imply the existence of modifying factors associated with disease severity. We present two male patients with emphysema caused by severe AATD (PiZZ genotype). Both are former smokers and have epoxide hydrolase low-activity phenotype. Extremely high level of oxidative stress (high urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine), increased inflammation (high serum CRP), and GSTP1 105Val mutation were found in patient with a worse lung function and prognosis...
October 2016: Biochemical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27264093/diet-induced-thermogenesis-and-expression-levels-of-thyroid-hormone-target-genes-and-their-products-in-rats-differ-between-meat-proteins
#8
Misako Ezoe, Jun-Ichi Wakamatsu, Yoshihisa Takahata, Takanori Hasegawa, Fumiki Morimatsu, Takanori Nishimura
We compared the effects of purified meat proteins on postprandial thermogenesis and on the secretion of and responsiveness to thyroid hormones (THs) in rats. Body temperatures at 2 h after feeding were significantly higher in the chicken and mutton protein groups than in the other groups, and these proteins seem to have a strong thermogenic effect. There were no significant differences in plasma TH concentrations among the groups, but levels of TH-responsive Spot 14 protein in the liver and brown adipose tissue were significantly higher in the chicken and mutton protein groups than in the other groups...
2016: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27255971/caffeoylquinic-acid-derivatives-protect-sh-sy5y-neuroblastoma-cells-from-hydrogen-peroxide-induced-injury-through-modulating-oxidative-status
#9
Xiao-Wen Jiang, Jun-Peng Bai, Qiao Zhang, Xiao-Long Hu, Xing Tian, Jun Zhu, Jia Liu, Wei-Hong Meng, Qing-Chun Zhao
Oxidative stress has been confirmed as a contribution to the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of many neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs) are considered to have anti-oxidative stress ability in a previous study, but the structure-activity relationships (SARs) of CQAs in neuroprotective effects are still unclear. In the present study, we primarily expound the SARs of CQAs in counteracting H2O2-induced injury in SH-SY5Y cells. We found that CQAs (1-10) represented the protection of SH-SY5Y cells against H2O2-induced injury in varying degrees and malonyl groups could obviously increase the anti-oxidative stress ability of CQAs...
June 2, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27189638/lower-%C3%AF-6-%C3%AF-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-ratios-decrease-fat-deposition-by-inhibiting-fat-synthesis-in-gosling
#10
Lihuai Yu, Shunan Wang, Luoyang Ding, Xianghuan Liang, Mengzhi Wang, Li Dong, Hongrong Wang
The objective of the current study was to investigate the effects of dietary ω-6/ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratios on lipid metabolism in goslings. One hundred and sixty 21-day-old Yangzhou geese of similar weight were randomly divided into 4 groups. They were fed different PUFA-supplemented diets (the 4 diets had ω-6/ω-3 PUFA ratios of 12:1, 9:1, 6:1, or 3:1). The geese were slaughtered and samples of liver and muscle were collected at day 70. The activities and the gene expression of enzymes involved in lipid metabolism were measured...
October 2016: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27181335/effect-of-%C3%AE-linolenic-acid-and-dha-intake-on-lipogenesis-and-gene-expression-involved-in-fatty-acid-metabolism-in-growing-finishing-pigs
#11
A De Tonnac, E Labussière, A Vincent, J Mourot
The regulation of lipogenesis mechanisms related to consumption of n-3 PUFA is poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to find out whether α-linolenic acid (ALA) or DHA uptake can have an effect on activities and gene expressions of enzymes involved in lipid metabolism in the liver, subcutaneous adipose tissue and longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle of growing-finishing pigs. Six groups of ten pigs received one of six experimental diets supplemented with rapeseed oil in the control diet, extruded linseed, microalgae or a mixture of both to implement different levels of ALA and DHA with the same content in total n-3...
July 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27122573/improved-analysis-of-c4-and-c3-photosynthesis-via-refined-in-vitro-assays-of-their-carbon-fixation-biochemistry
#12
Robert E Sharwood, Balasaheb V Sonawane, Oula Ghannoum, Spencer M Whitney
Plants operating C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathways exhibit differences in leaf anatomy and photosynthetic carbon fixation biochemistry. Fully understanding this underpinning biochemical variation is requisite to identifying solutions for improving photosynthetic efficiency and growth. Here we refine assay methods for accurately measuring the carboxylase and decarboxylase activities in C3 and C4 plant soluble protein. We show that differences in plant extract preparation and assay conditions are required to measure NADP-malic enzyme and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (pH 8, Mg(2+), 22 °C) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pH 7, >2mM Mn(2+), no Mg(2+)) maximal activities accurately...
May 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27110435/possible-relationship-between-common-genetic-variation-and-white-matter-development-in-a-pilot-study-of-preterm-infants
#13
Michelle L Krishnan, Zi Wang, Matt Silver, James P Boardman, Gareth Ball, Serena J Counsell, Andrew J Walley, Giovanni Montana, Anthony David Edwards
BACKGROUND: The consequences of preterm birth are a major public health concern with high rates of ensuing multisystem morbidity, and uncertain biological mechanisms. Common genetic variation may mediate vulnerability to the insult of prematurity and provide opportunities to predict and modify risk. OBJECTIVE: To gain novel biological and therapeutic insights from the integrated analysis of magnetic resonance imaging and genetic data, informed by prior knowledge...
July 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27038764/dietary-phytic-acid-prevents-fatty-liver-by-reducing-expression-of-hepatic-lipogenic-enzymes-and-modulates-gut-microflora-in-rats-fed-a-high-sucrose-diet
#14
Ayaka Sekita, Yukako Okazaki, Tetsuyuki Katayama
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of phytic acid (PA) on fatty liver and gut microflora in rats fed a high-sucrose (HSC) diet. METHODS: Three groups of rats were fed a high-starch (HSR) diet or an HSC diet with or without 1.02% sodium PA for 12 d. We evaluated hepatic weight, total lipids, and triacylglycerol (TG) levels, the activities and expression of hepatic lipogenic enzymes (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme 1, and fatty acid synthetase), and fecal microflora...
June 2016: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27016571/metabolic-engineering-of-mortierella-alpina-for-enhanced-arachidonic-acid-production-through-the-nadph-supplying-strategy
#15
Guangfei Hao, Haiqin Chen, Zhennan Gu, Hao Zhang, Wei Chen, Yong Q Chen
UNLABELLED: NADPH is known to be a key cofactor required for fatty acid synthesis and desaturation. Various enzymatic reactions can generate NADPH. To determine the effect of NADPH sources on lipogenesis, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD), isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), and malic enzyme (ME) were overexpressed in Mortierella alpina Our results showed that G6PD2 had the most significant effect on fatty acid synthesis, with a 1.7-fold increase in total fatty acid, whereas ME2 was more effective in desaturation, with a 1...
June 1, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26948869/the-hmgb1-protein-induces-a-metabolic-type-of-tumour-cell-death-by-blocking-aerobic-respiration
#16
Georg Gdynia, Sven W Sauer, Jürgen Kopitz, Dominik Fuchs, Katarina Duglova, Thorsten Ruppert, Matthias Miller, Jens Pahl, Adelheid Cerwenka, Markus Enders, Heimo Mairbäurl, Marcin M Kamiński, Roland Penzel, Christine Zhang, Jonathan C Fuller, Rebecca C Wade, Axel Benner, Jenny Chang-Claude, Hermann Brenner, Michael Hoffmeister, Hanswalter Zentgraf, Peter Schirmacher, Wilfried Roth
The high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein has a central role in immunological antitumour defense. Here we show that natural killer cell-derived HMGB1 directly eliminates cancer cells by triggering metabolic cell death. HMGB1 allosterically inhibits the tetrameric pyruvate kinase isoform M2, thus blocking glucose-driven aerobic respiration. This results in a rapid metabolic shift forcing cells to rely solely on glycolysis for the maintenance of energy production. Cancer cells can acquire resistance to HMGB1 by increasing glycolysis using the dimeric form of PKM2, and employing glutaminolysis...
March 7, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26878126/model-guided-metabolic-gene-knockout-of-gnd-for-enhanced-succinate-production-in-escherichia-coli-from-glucose-and-glycerol-substrates
#17
Bashir Sajo Mienda, Mohd Shahir Shamsir, Rosli Md Illias
The metabolic role of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (gnd) under anaerobic conditions with respect to succinate production in Escherichia coli remained largely unspecified. Herein we report what are to our knowledge the first metabolic gene knockout of gnd to have increased succinic acid production using both glucose and glycerol substrates in E. coli. Guided by a genome scale metabolic model, we engineered the E. coli host metabolism to enhance anaerobic production of succinic acid by deleting the gnd gene, considering its location in the boundary of oxidative and non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway...
April 2016: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26701302/metabolic-engineering-of-mortierella-alpina-for-arachidonic-acid-production-with-glycerol-as-carbon-source
#18
Guangfei Hao, Haiqin Chen, Zhennan Gu, Hao Zhang, Wei Chen, Yong Q Chen
BACKGROUND: Although some microorganisms can convert glycerol into valuable products such as polyunsaturated fatty acids, the yields are relative low due primarily to an inefficient assimilation of glycerol. Mortierella alpina is an oleaginous fungus which preferentially uses glucose over glycerol as the carbon source for fatty acid synthesis. RESULTS: In the present study, we metabolically engineered M. alpina to increase the utilization of glycerol. Glycerol kinase and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase control the first two steps of glycerol decomposition...
2015: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26608612/%C3%AE-1-acid-glycoprotein-inhibits-lipogenesis-in-neonatal-swine-adipose-tissue
#19
T G Ramsay, L Blomberg, T J Caperna
Serum α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) is elevated during late gestation and at birth in the pig and rapidly declines postnatally. In contrast, the pig is born with minimal lipid stores in the adipose tissue, but rapidly accumulates lipid during the first week. The present study examined if AGP can affect adipose tissue metabolism in the neonatal pig. Isolated cell cultures or tissue explants were prepared from dorsal subcutaneous adipose tissue of preweaning piglets. Porcine AGP was used at concentrations of 0, 100, 1000 and 5000 ng/ml medium in 24 h incubations...
May 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26604419/antioxidant-property-and-formula-see-text-glucosidase-formula-see-text-amylase-and-lipase-inhibiting-activities-of-flacourtia-inermis-fruits-characterization-of-malic-acid-as-an-inhibitor-of-the-enzymes
#20
A G A W Alakolanga, N Savitri Kumar, Lalith Jayasinghe, Yoshinori Fujimoto
Flacourtia inermis Roxb. (Flacourtiaceae), is a moderate sized tree cultivated in Sri Lanka for its fruits known as Lovi. The current study was undertaken to study the biological activity of extracts of the fruits in an attempt to increase the value of the under exploited fruit crops. Fruits of F. inermis were found to be rich in phenolics and anthocyanins. Polyphenol content of the fruits was determined to be 1.28 g gallic acid equivalents per 100 g of fresh fruit and anthocyanin content was estimated as 108 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents per 100 g of fresh fruits...
December 2015: Journal of Food Science and Technology
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