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Francesc Font-Clos, Nicholas R Moloney
We calculate the distribution of the size of the percolating cluster on a tree in the subcritical, critical, and supercritical phase. We do this by exploiting a mapping between continuum trees and Brownian excursions, and arrive at a diffusion equation with suitable boundary conditions. The exact solution to this equation can be conveniently represented as a characteristic function, from which the following distributions are clearly visible: Gaussian (subcritical), Kolmogorov-Smirnov (critical), and exponential (supercritical)...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Kati Hokynar, Jani J Sormunen, Eero J Vesterinen, Esa K Partio, Thomas Lilley, Veera Timonen, Jaana Panelius, Annamari Ranki, Mirja Puolakkainen
Ticks carry several human pathogenic microbes including Borreliae and Flavivirus causing tick-born encephalitis. Ticks can also carry DNA of Chlamydia-like organisms (CLOs). The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of CLOs in ticks and skin biopsies taken from individuals with suspected tick bite. DNA from CLOs was detected by pan-Chlamydiales-PCR in 40% of adult ticks from southwestern Finland. The estimated minimal infection rate for nymphs and larvae (studied in pools) was 6% and 2%, respectively...
August 18, 2016: Microorganisms
Irene Sola, Albert Artigas, Martin C Taylor, F Javier Pérez-Areales, Elisabet Viayna, M Victòria Clos, Belén Pérez, Colin W Wright, John M Kelly, Diego Muñoz-Torrero
Current drugs against human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) suffer from several serious drawbacks. The search for novel, effective, brain permeable, safe, and inexpensive antitrypanosomal compounds is therefore an urgent need. We have recently reported that the 4-aminoquinoline derivative huprine Y, developed in our group as an anticholinesterasic agent, exhibits a submicromolar potency against Trypanosoma brucei and that its homo- and hetero-dimerization can result in to up to three-fold increased potency and selectivity...
November 1, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Álvaro Corral, Rosalba Garcia-Millan, Francesc Font-Clos
The theory of finite-size scaling explains how the singular behavior of thermodynamic quantities in the critical point of a phase transition emerges when the size of the system becomes infinite. Usually, this theory is presented in a phenomenological way. Here, we exactly demonstrate the existence of a finite-size scaling law for the Galton-Watson branching processes when the number of offsprings of each individual follows either a geometric distribution or a generalized geometric distribution. We also derive the corrections to scaling and the limits of validity of the finite-size scaling law away the critical point...
2016: PloS One
Javier Echeverría, Hermann M Niemeyer
The chemical composition of the essential oil of Kurzamra pulchella (Lamiaceae) was determined. Twelve compounds were identified, with isomenthone (60.6%) and pulegone (37.1%) predominating. Chemotaxonomical considerations were discussed.
August 25, 2016: Natural Product Research
Chiara Borsari, Rosaria Luciani, Cecilia Pozzi, Ina Poehner, Stefan Henrich, Matteo Trande, Anabela Cordeiro-da-Silva, Nuno Santarem, Catarina Baptista, Annalisa Tait, Flavio Di Pisa, Lucia Dello Iacono, Giacomo Landi, Sheraz Gul, Markus Wolf, Maria Kuzikov, Bernhard Ellinger, Jeanette Reinshagen, Gesa Witt, Philip Gribbon, Manfred Kohler, Oliver Keminer, Birte Behrens, Luca Costantino, Paloma Tejera Nevado, Eugenia Bifeld, Julia Eick, Joachim Clos, Juan Torrado, María D Jiménez-Antón, María J Corral, José Ma Alunda, Federica Pellati, Rebecca C Wade, Stefania Ferrari, Stefano Mangani, Maria Paola Costi
Flavonoids represent a potential source of new antitrypanosomatidic leads. Starting from a library of natural products, we combined target-based screening on pteridine reductase 1 with phenotypic screening on Trypanosoma brucei for hit identification. Flavonols were identified as hits, and a library of 16 derivatives was synthesized. Twelve compounds showed EC50 values against T. brucei below 10 μM. Four X-ray crystal structures and docking studies explained the observed structure-activity relationships. Compound 2 (3,6-dihydroxy-2-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-4H-chromen-4-one) was selected for pharmacokinetic studies...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Paloma Tejera Nevado, Eugenia Bifeld, Katharina Höhn, Joachim Clos
The mechanisms underlying the drug resistance of Leishmania spp. are manifold and not completely identified. Apart from the highly conserved multidrug resistance gene family known from higher eukaryotes, Leishmania spp. also possess genus-specific resistance marker genes. One of them, ARM58, was first identified in Leishmania braziliensis using a functional cloning approach, and its domain structure was characterized in L. infantum Here we report that L. infantum ARM58 is part of a gene cluster at the telomeric end of chromosome 34 also comprising the neighboring genes ARM56 and HSP23...
September 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Eugenia Bifeld, Paloma Tejera Nevado, Janika Bartsch, Julia Eick, Joachim Clos
The majority of PCR-based detection systems for Leishmania spp. and Trypanosoma cruzi aim at high sensitivity and specificity, rather than an accurate parasite load quantification required for experimental infections in basic research and drug development. Here, we describe the use of a dual-labelled probe qPCR to detect and quantify intracellular Old World Leishmania spp. and T. cruzi amastigotes after in vitro and in vivo infection experiments. We show that quantification of parasite actin gene DNA relative to the host cell actin gene DNA accurately reflects the parasite load relative to the host cells and that qPCR quantification is highly sensible to drug-induced cell death...
October 2016: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Yau Wai-Lok, Ulrike Lambertz, Lucie Colineau, Pascale Pescher, Andrea MacDonald, Dorothea Zander, Silke Retzlaff, Julia Eick, Neil E Reiner, Joachim Clos, Gerald F Späth
Protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania adapt to their arthropod and vertebrate hosts through the development of defined life cycle stages. Stage differentiation is triggered by environmental stress factors and has been linked to parasite chaperone activities. Using a null mutant approach we previously revealed important, non-redundant functions of the co-chaperone cyclophilin 40 in L. donovani-infected macrophages. Here we characterized in more detail the virulence defect of cyp40-/- null mutants. In vitro viability assays, infection tests using macrophages, and mixed infection experiments ruled out a defect of cyp40-/- parasites in resistance to oxidative and hydrolytic stresses encountered inside the host cell phagolysosome...
May 24, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Ariadna Clos, Alba Hernández, María Del Carmen Sánchez, Montserrat Tenesa, Joan Francesc Julián, Carolina Armengol, Margarita Sala
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 16, 2016: Gastroenterología y Hepatología
Gerald F Späth, Joachim Clos
Reverse genetics in Leishmania spp has gained importance beyond basic research as efforts increase to discover and validate new drug targets. Often, the most promising targets are essential for viability of the parasites, defying a genetic analysis by current gene replacement strategies. Duncan et al. demonstrate the applicability of DiCre recombination in Leishmania for induced replacement of the kinase CRK3 gene in promastigotes. DiCre gene replacement leads to the rapid loss of the gene and allows monitoring the phenotypic effects of the loss of function, eliminating the need for prolonged cultivation and selection...
June 2016: Molecular Microbiology
Leonhard Schilbach, Birgit Derntl, Andre Aleman, Svenja Caspers, Mareike Clos, Kelly M J Diederen, Oliver Gruber, Lydia Kogler, Edith J Liemburg, Iris E Sommer, Veronika I Müller, Edna C Cieslik, Simon B Eickhoff
Impairments of social cognition are well documented in patients with schizophrenia (SCZ), but the neural basis remains poorly understood. In light of evidence that suggests that the "mirror neuron system" (MNS) and the "mentalizing network" (MENT) are key substrates of intersubjectivity and joint action, it has been suggested that dysfunction of these neural networks may underlie social difficulties in SCZ patients. Additionally, MNS and MENT might be associated differently with positive vs negative symptoms, given prior social cognitive and symptom associations...
September 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Aleix Sala-Vila, Marta Guasch-Ferré, Frank B Hu, Ana Sánchez-Tainta, Mònica Bulló, Mercè Serra-Mir, Carmen López-Sabater, Jose V Sorlí, Fernando Arós, Miquel Fiol, Miguel A Muñoz, Luis Serra-Majem, J Alfredo Martínez, Dolores Corella, Montserrat Fitó, Jordi Salas-Salvadó, Miguel A Martínez-González, Ramón Estruch, Emilio Ros, B
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence suggests a cardioprotective role of α-linolenic acid (ALA), a plant-derived ω-3 fatty acid. It is unclear whether ALA is beneficial in a background of high marine ω-3 fatty acids (long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) intake. In persons at high cardiovascular risk from Spain, a country in which fish consumption is customarily high, we investigated whether meeting the International Society for the Study of Fatty Acids and Lipids recommendation for dietary ALA (0...
January 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
Isabel Moreno-Sánchez, Francesc Font-Clos, Álvaro Corral
Despite being a paradigm of quantitative linguistics, Zipf's law for words suffers from three main problems: its formulation is ambiguous, its validity has not been tested rigorously from a statistical point of view, and it has not been confronted to a representatively large number of texts. So, we can summarize the current support of Zipf's law in texts as anecdotic. We try to solve these issues by studying three different versions of Zipf's law and fitting them to all available English texts in the Project Gutenberg database (consisting of more than 30 000 texts)...
2016: PloS One
Li Zhao, Tong Ye, Weisheng Hu
Optical networks have been introduced to meet the bandwidth requirement of mega data centers (DC). Most existing approaches are neither scalable to face the massive growth of DCs, nor contention-free enough to provide full bisection bandwidth. To solve this problem, we propose two symmetric network structures: ring-MEMS-ring (RMR) network and MEMS-ring-MEMS (MRM) network based on classical Clos theory. New strategies are introduced to overcome the additional wavelength constraints that did not exist in the traditional Clos network...
November 2, 2015: Optics Express
Josep Arimany-Manso, Dolors Clos-Masó, Esperanza L Gómez-Durán
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: Atencion Primaria
Ornella Di Pietro, Esther Vicente-García, Martin C Taylor, Diana Berenguer, Elisabet Viayna, Anna Lanzoni, Irene Sola, Helena Sayago, Cristina Riera, Roser Fisa, M Victòria Clos, Belén Pérez, John M Kelly, Rodolfo Lavilla, Diego Muñoz-Torrero
Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), Chagas disease and leishmaniasis, which are caused by the trypanosomatids Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania species, are among the most deadly neglected tropical diseases. The development of drugs that are active against several trypanosomatids is appealing from a clinical and economic viewpoint, and seems feasible, as these parasites share metabolic pathways and hence might be treatable by common drugs. From benzonapthyridine 1, an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) for which we have found a remarkable trypanocidal activity, we have designed and synthesized novel benzo[h][1,6]naphthyridines, pyrrolo[3,2-c]quinolines, azepino[3,2-c]quinolines, and pyrano[3,2-c]quinolines through 2-4-step sequences featuring an initial multicomponent Povarov reaction as the key step...
November 13, 2015: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Stefan Clos, Petra Rauchhaus, Alison Severn, Lynda Cochrane, Peter T Donnan
BACKGROUND: For more than 40 years, the long-term effect of lithium maintenance therapy on renal function has been debated. We aimed to assess the effect of lithium maintenance therapy on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eFGR) in patients with affective disorders, and explore predictors for a decrease in eGFR. METHODS: This population-based cohort study included adult patients (18-65 years of age at baseline) in Tayside (Scotland, UK) who had recently started on lithium maintenance treatment between Jan 1, 2000, and Dec 31, 2011 (retrospectively assigned to the lithium group) or those with exposure to other first-line drugs used in the treatment of affective disorders (quetiapine, olanzapine, and semisodium valproate) during the same period (retrospectively assigned to the comparator group)...
December 2015: Lancet Psychiatry
Oriol Güell, Francesco Alessandro Massucci, Francesc Font-Clos, Francesc Sagués, M Ángeles Serrano
Experimental and empirical observations on cell metabolism cannot be understood as a whole without their integration into a consistent systematic framework. However, the characterization of metabolic flux phenotypes is typically reduced to the study of a single optimal state, such as maximum biomass yield that is by far the most common assumption. Here, we confront optimal growth solutions to the whole set of feasible flux phenotypes (FFPs), which provides a benchmark to assess the likelihood of optimal and high-growth states and their agreement with experimental results...
September 6, 2015: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Robert M Hardwick, Elise Lesage, Claudia R Eickhoff, Mareike Clos, Peter Fox, Simon B Eickhoff
The dorsal premotor cortex (dPMC) is a key region for motor learning and sensorimotor integration, yet we have limited understanding of its functional interactions with other regions. Previous work has started to examine functional connectivity in several brain areas using resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) and meta-analytical connectivity modelling (MACM). More recently, structural covariance (SC) has been proposed as a technique that may also allow delineation of functional connectivity. Here, we applied these three approaches to provide a comprehensive characterization of functional connectivity with a seed in the left dPMC that a previous meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies has identified as playing a key role in motor learning...
December 2015: NeuroImage
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