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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060074/in-vitro-validation-of-a-closed-loop-optogenetic-stimulation-device
#1
Epsy S Edward, Abbas Z Kouzani
Closed-loop optogenetic stimulation (CLOS) involves real-time neural data collection and analysis, feedback control, and optical neuromodulation. Despite emergence of the CLOS devices, methods for validating such devices in-vitro are limited. This paper presents a CLOS device and introduces an in-vitro setup for validating CLOS devices. The CLOS device consists of an electrode, a neural detector, a control algorithm, and an optogenetic stimulator. The in-vitro setup consists of saline solution, a neural signal emitter, a photodiode and its amplifier, and a closed-loop simulation program...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950565/dependence-of-exponents-on-text-length-versus-finite-size-scaling-for-word-frequency-distributions
#2
Álvaro Corral, Francesc Font-Clos
Some authors have recently argued that a finite-size scaling law for the text-length dependence of word-frequency distributions cannot be conceptually valid. Here we give solid quantitative evidence for the validity of this scaling law, using both careful statistical tests and analytical arguments based on the generalized central-limit theorem applied to the moments of the distribution (and obtaining a novel derivation of Heaps' law as a by-product). We also find that the picture of word-frequency distributions with power-law exponents that decrease with text length [X...
August 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860596/mapk1-of-leishmania-donovani-interacts-and-phosphorylates-hsp70-and-hsp90-subunits-of-foldosome-complex
#3
Pavneet Kaur, Mansi Garg, Antje Hombach-Barrigah, Joachim Clos, Neena Goyal
MAP kinases (MAPK) are the most downstream kinases in signal transduction cascades and regulate critical cellular activities such as cell proliferation, differentiation, mortality, stress response, and apoptosis. The Leishmania donovani MAPK1 (LdMAPK1) is involved in parasite viability and drug resistance, but its substrates have not been identified yet. Aiming to identify the possible targets(s) of LdMAPK1, we sought to isolate interacting partners by co-immunoprecipitation, gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842620/synthetic-analogs-of-an-entamoeba-histolytica-glycolipid-designed-to-combat-intracellular-leishmania-infection
#4
Siew Ling Choy, Hannah Bernin, Toshihiko Aiba, Eugenia Bifeld, Sarah Corinna Lender, Melina Mühlenpfordt, Jill Noll, Julia Eick, Claudia Marggraff, Hanno Niss, Nestor González Roldán, Shinji Tanaka, Masato Kitamura, Koichi Fukase, Joachim Clos, Egbert Tannich, Yukari Fujimoto, Hannelore Lotter
Intracellular pathogens belonging to the genus Leishmania have developed effective strategies that enable them to survive within host immune cells. Immunostimulatory compounds that counteract such immunological escape mechanisms represent promising treatment options for diseases. Here, we demonstrate that a lipopeptidephosphoglycan (LPPG) isolated from the membrane of a protozoan parasite, Entamoeba histolytica (Eh), shows considerable immunostimulatory effects targeted against Leishmania (L.) major, a representative species responsible for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL)...
August 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734481/cytomegalovirus-primoinfection-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#5
Paola Torres, Triana Lobatón, Fiorella Cañete, Ariadna Clos, Míriam Mañosa, Eduard Cabré, Eugeni Domènech
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 19, 2017: Gastroenterología y Hepatología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724203/huprine-x-attenuates-the-neurotoxicity-induced-by-kainic-acid-especially-brain-inflammation
#6
J Relat, B Pérez, P Camps, D Muñoz-Torrero, A Badia, M V Clos
Huprine X (HX) is a synthetic anticholinesterasic compound that exerts a potent inhibitory action on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, an agonist effect on cholinergic receptors, neuroprotective activity in different neurotoxicity models in vivo and in vitro and cognition enhancing effects in non-transgenic (C57BL/6) and transgenic (3xTg-AD, APPswe) mice. In the present study, we assessed the ability of HX (0.8 mg/kg, 21 days) to prevent the damage induced by kainic acid (KA; 28 mg/kg) regarding apoptosis, glia reactivity and neurogenesis in mouse brain...
July 19, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701014/-spacer-aerosol-therapy-through-space-and-time
#7
Thomas Voshaar, Peter Haidl, Rolf Michael Clös
Aim of the literature review Within this review, results of a literature analysis on the application of spacers with pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDI) are described and evaluated. Methods Next to an extensive revision on effects of spacers, the impacts of current guidelines and the conditions for product authorisations on the use of spacers are described which result from the interplay of characteristics from dose inhalers with a spacer. Results Spacers are generally useful to avoid coordination problems concerning the actuation of a pMDI at the beginning of an inhalation...
July 2017: Pneumologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685099/integrative-analysis-of-pathway-deregulation-in-obesity
#8
Francesc Font-Clos, Stefano Zapperi, Caterina A M La Porta
Obesity is a pandemic disease, linked to the onset of type 2 diabetes and cancer. Transcriptomic data provides a picture of the alterations in regulatory and metabolic activities associated with obesity, but its interpretation is typically blurred by noise. Here, we solve this problem by collecting publicly available transcriptomic data from adipocytes and removing batch effects using singular value decomposition. In this way we obtain a gene expression signature of 38 genes associated to obesity and identify the main pathways involved...
2017: NPJ Systems Biology and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623263/probing-spermiogenesis-a-digital-strategy-for-mouse-acrosome-classification
#9
Alessandro Taloni, Francesc Font-Clos, Luca Guidetti, Simone Milan, Miriam Ascagni, Chiara Vasco, Maria Enrica Pasini, Maria Rosa Gioria, Emilio Ciusani, Stefano Zapperi, Caterina A M La Porta
Classification of morphological features in biological samples is usually performed by a trained eye but the increasing amount of available digital images calls for semi-automatic classification techniques. Here we explore this possibility in the context of acrosome morphological analysis during spermiogenesis. Our method combines feature extraction from three dimensional reconstruction of confocal images with principal component analysis and machine learning. The method could be particularly useful in cases where the amount of data does not allow for a direct inspection by trained eye...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524540/antineoplastic-effects-of-clove-buds-syzygium-aromaticum-l-in-the-model-of-breast-carcinoma
#10
Peter Kubatka, Sona Uramova, Martin Kello, Karol Kajo, Peter Kruzliak, Jan Mojzis, Desanka Vybohova, Marian Adamkov, Karina Jasek, Zora Lasabova, Pavol Zubor, Silvia Fialova, Svetlana Dokupilova, Peter Solar, Martin Pec, Katarina Adamicova, Jan Danko, Mariusz Adamek, Dietrich Busselberg
It is supposed that plant functional foods, rich in phytochemicals, may potentially have preventive effects in carcinogenesis. In this study, the anticancer effects of cloves in the in vivo and in vitro mammary carcinoma model were assessed. Dried flower buds of cloves (CLOs) were used at two concentrations of 0.1% and 1% through diet during 13 weeks after the application of chemocarcinogen. After autopsy, histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses of rat mammary carcinomas were performed. Moreover, in vitro evaluation using MCF-7 cells was carried out...
November 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507071/characterization-of-the-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-lmprl-1-secreted-by-leishmania-major-via-the-exosome-pathway
#11
Sabine Leitherer, Joachim Clos, Elisabeth M Liebler-Tenorio, Ulrike Schleicher, Christian Bogdan, Didier Soulat
Similar to other intracellular pathogens, Leishmania parasites are known to evade the antimicrobial effector functions of host immune cells. To date, however, only a few virulence factors have been described for Leishmania major, one of the causative agents of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Here, we have characterized the expression and function of an L. major phosphatase, which we termed LmPRL-1. This enzyme shows a strong structural similarity to the human phosphatases of regenerating liver (PRL-1, -2, and -3) that regulate the proliferation, differentiation, and motility of cells...
August 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455612/hsp90-inhibitors-radicicol-and-geldanamycin-have-opposing-effects-on-leishmania-aha1-dependent-proliferation
#12
Katharina Bartsch, Antje Hombach-Barrigah, Joachim Clos
Hsp90 and its co-chaperones are essential for the medically important parasite Leishmania donovani, facilitating life cycle control and intracellular survival. Activity of Hsp90 is regulated by co-chaperones of the Aha1 and P23 families. In this paper, we studied the expression of L. donovani Aha1 in two life cycle stages, its interaction with Hsp90 and the phenotype of Aha1 null mutants during the insect stage and inside infected macrophages. This study provides a detailed in vitro analysis of the function of Aha1 in Leishmania parasites and the first instance of a reverse genetic analysis of Aha1 in a protozoan parasite...
April 28, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348044/model-assisted-measurements-of-suspension-feeding-flow-velocities
#13
Kevin T Du Clos, Ian T Jones, Tyler J Carrier, Damian C Brady, Peter A Jumars
Benthic marine suspension feeders provide an important link between benthic and pelagic ecosystems. The strength of this link is determined by suspension-feeding rates. Many studies have measured suspension-feeding rates using indirect clearance-rate methods, which are based on the depletion of suspended particles. Direct methods that measure the flow of water itself are less common, but they can be more broadly applied because, unlike indirect methods, direct methods are not affected by properties of the cleared particles...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283754/leishmania-donovani-chaperonin-10-regulates-parasite-internalization-and-intracellular-survival-in-human-macrophages
#14
Lucie Colineau, Joachim Clos, Kyung-Mee Moon, Leonard J Foster, Neil E Reiner
Protozoa of the genus Leishmania infect macrophages in their mammalian hosts causing a spectrum of diseases known as the leishmaniases. The search for leishmania effectors that support macrophage infection is a focus of significant interest. One such candidate is leishmania chaperonin 10 (CPN10) which is secreted in exosomes and may have immunosuppressive properties. Here, we report for the first time that leishmania CPN10 localizes to the cytosol of infected macrophages. Next, we generated two genetically modified strains of Leishmania donovani (Ld): one strain overexpressing CPN10 (CPN10+++) and the second, a CPN10 single allele knockdown (CPN10+/-), as the null mutant was lethal...
June 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125507/behavioural-effects-of-novel-multitarget-anticholinesterasic-derivatives-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Lydia Giménez-Llort, Miriam Ratia, Belén Pérez, Pelayo Camps, Diego Muñoz-Torrero, Albert Badia, M Victoria Clos
The current pharmacological approach to Alzheimer's disease (AD) treatment, mostly based on acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs), is being revisited, especially in terms of the temporal frames and the potential benefits of their noncanonic actions, raising the question of whether inhibitors of AChE might also act in a disease-modifying manner. Besides, in the last decades, the pharmacophoric moieties of known AChEIs have been covalently linked to other pharmacophores in the pursuit of multitarget hybrid molecules that are expected to induce long-lasting amelioration of impaired neurotransmission and clinical symptoms but also to exert disease-modifying effects...
April 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064141/methoxylated-2-hydroxychalcones-as-antiparasitic-hit-compounds
#16
Chiara Borsari, Nuno Santarem, Juan Torrado, Ana Isabel Olías, María Jesús Corral, Catarina Baptista, Sheraz Gul, Markus Wolf, Maria Kuzikov, Bernhard Ellinger, Gesa Witt, Philip Gribbon, Jeanette Reinshagen, Pasquale Linciano, Annalisa Tait, Luca Costantino, Lucio H Freitas-Junior, Carolina B Moraes, Pascoalino Bruno Dos Santos, Laura Maria Alcântara, Caio Haddad Franco, Claudia Danielli Bertolacini, Vanessa Fontana, Paloma Tejera Nevado, Joachim Clos, José María Alunda, Anabela Cordeiro-da-Silva, Stefania Ferrari, Maria Paola Costi
Chalcones display a broad spectrum of pharmacological activities. Herein, a series of 2'-hydroxy methoxylated chalcones was synthesized and evaluated towards Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania infantum. Among the synthesized library, compounds 1, 3, 4, 7 and 8 were the most potent and selective anti-T. brucei compounds (EC50 = 1.3-4.2 μM, selectivity index >10-fold). Compound 4 showed the best early-tox and antiparasitic profile. The pharmacokinetic studies of compound 4 in BALB/c mice using hydroxypropil-β-cyclodextrins formulation showed a 7...
January 27, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900819/learning-outcomes-exploring-implications-of-adopting-a-different-level-of-detail
#17
H L Bateman, G I McCracken, J M Thomason, J S Ellis
INTRODUCTION: Outcome-based programmes provide a framework to support educators and learners in understanding content and end points within taught courses. Management of these outcomes in the Dental Degree at Newcastle University has been a challenge in relation to quality assurance and enhancement, having over 1500 detailed student-level outcomes (SLO). This research aimed to explore the implications of adopting a more superficial "course" level of outcome (CLO), when reviewed against a reference set of external LO requirements...
November 29, 2016: European Journal of Dental Education: Official Journal of the Association for Dental Education in Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824460/time-resolved-observation-of-thermalization-in-an-isolated-quantum-system
#18
Govinda Clos, Diego Porras, Ulrich Warring, Tobias Schaetz
We use trapped atomic ions forming a hybrid Coulomb crystal and exploit its phonons to study an isolated quantum system composed of a single spin coupled to an engineered bosonic environment. We increase the complexity of the system by adding ions and controlling coherent couplings and, thereby, we observe the emergence of thermalization: Time averages of spin observables approach microcanonical averages while related fluctuations decay. Our platform features precise control of system size, coupling strength, and isolation from the external world to explore the dynamics of equilibration and thermalization...
October 21, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816016/comparative-ultrastructure-of-fornicate-excavates-including-a-novel-free-living-relative-of-diplomonads-aduncisulcus-paluster-gen-et-sp-nov
#19
Naoji Yubuki, Sam S C Huang, Brian S Leander
The Fornicata (Excavata) is a group of microbial eukaryotes consisting of both free-living lineages (e.g., Carpediemonas) and parasitic lineages (e.g. Giardia and Retortamonas) that share several molecular and ultrastructural traits. Carpediemonas-like organisms (CLOs) are free-living lineages that diverged early within the Fornicata, making them important for inferring the early evolutionary history of the group. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of free-living fornicates, including sequences from environmental PCR surveys, have demonstrated that CLOs form six different lineages...
December 2016: Protist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815278/molecular-evidence-of-chlamydia-like-organisms-in-the-feces-of-myotis-daubentonii-bats
#20
K Hokynar, E J Vesterinen, T M Lilley, A T Pulliainen, S J Korhonen, J Paavonen, M Puolakkainen
Chlamydia-like organisms (CLOs) are recently identified members of the Chlamydiales order. CLOs share intracellular lifestyles and biphasic developmental cycles, and they have been detected in environmental samples as well as in various hosts such as amoebae and arthropods. In this study, we screened bat feces for the presence of CLOs by molecular analysis. Using pan-Chlamydiales PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene, Chlamydiales DNA was detected in 54% of the specimens. PCR amplification, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA and 23S rRNA genes were used to classify positive specimens and infer their phylogenetic relationships...
January 15, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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