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Shokrollah Zandi, Razyeh Ahmad Zadeh, Sayedeh Reyhaneh Yousefi, Fardin Gharibi
BACKGROUND: Warts are common dermatological lesion caused by skin epithelial cells' infection with human Papillomavirus (HPV). OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the efficacy of a new method for the treatment of dermal warts. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this clinical trial study, 60 patients (older than 10 years) with dermal warts living in Baneh city, west of Iran, were allocated into the intervention and control groups using the block randomized method in 2012...
August 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
Gehan F Balata, Ahmad S Zidan, Mohamad As Abourehab, Ebtessam A Essa
The objective of this research was to improve the dissolution of simvastatin and to incorporate it in rapid disintegrating tablets (RDTs) with an optimized disintegration and dissolution characteristics. Polyoxyethylene-polypropylene block copolymer (poloxamer 188) was employed as a hydrophilic carrier to prepare simvastatin solid dispersions (SDs). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffractometry were employed to understand the interaction between the drug and the carrier in the solid state...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Vernon Min Sen Oh
According to the Singapore National Health Survey (NHS) of 2010, the population of the Republic of Singapore was 5.076,700, comprising four ethnic groups: Chinese (74.1%), Malays (13.4%), Indians (9.2%), and others (3.3%). The National Health Survey for 2016 is under way and due to be published in 2017. From the six-yearly national health surveys, the crude prevalence of clinical hypertension (HTn), defined as a sustained blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mmHg, in Singaporean residents aged 30 to 69 years rose from 22...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Fei Sun, Bing Xu, Yi Zhang, Shengyun Dai, Xinyuan Shi, Yanjiang Qiao
The dissolution is one of the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of oral solid dosage forms because it relates to the absorption of drug. In this paper, the influence of raw materials, granules and process parameters on the dissolution of paracetamol tablet was analyzed using latent variable modeling methods. The variability in raw materials and granules was understood based on the principle component analysis (PCA), respectively. A multi-block partial least squares (MBPLS) model was used to determine the critical factors affecting the dissolution...
September 30, 2016: Bioengineered
K Wlodarski, L Tajber, W Sawicki
The aim of this research was to develop immediate release tablets comprising solid dispersion (IRSDTs) of tadalafil (Td) in a vinylpyrrolidone and vinyl acetate block copolymer (PVP-VA), characterized by improved dissolution profiles. The solid dispersion of Td in PVP-VA (Td/PVP-VA) in a weight ratio of 1:1 (w/w) was prepared using two different processes i.e. spray drying and ball milling. While the former process has been well established in the formulation of IRSDTs the latter has not been exploited in these systems yet...
September 19, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Vernon Min Sen Oh
According to the Singapore National Health Survey (NHS) of 2010, the population of the Republic of Singapore was 5.076,700, comprising four ethnic groups: Chinese (74.1%), Malays (13.4%), Indians (9.2%), and others (3.3%). The National Health Survey for 2016 is under way and due to be published in 2017. From the six-yearly national health surveys, the crude prevalence of clinical hypertension (HTn), defined as a sustained blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mmHg, in Singaporean residents aged 30 to 69 years rose from 22...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Zohreh Oghabian, Omid Mehrpour
Aluminium phosphide (AlP) is used to protect stored grains from rodents. It produces phosphine gas (PH3), a mitochondrial poison thought to cause toxicity by blocking the cytochrome c oxidase enzyme and inhibiting oxidative phosphorylation, which results in cell death. AlP poisoning has a high mortality rate among humans due to the rapid onset of cardiogenic shock and metabolic acidosis, despite aggressive treatment. We report a 21-year-old male who was referred to the Afzalipour Hospital, Kerman, Iran, in 2015 after having intentionally ingested a 3 g AlP tablet...
August 2016: Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal
Kathleen Squires, Cissy Kityo, Sally Hodder, Margaret Johnson, Evgeny Voronin, Debbie Hagins, Anchalee Avihingsanon, Ellen Koenig, Shuping Jiang, Kirsten White, Andrew Cheng, Javier Szwarcberg, Huyen Cao
BACKGROUND: Women are under-represented in HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) studies. Guidelines for selection of ART as initial therapy in patients with HIV-1 infection do not contain sex-specific treatment. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of the single tablet integrase inhibitor regimen containing elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate compared with a boosted protease inhibitor regimen of ritonavir-boosted atazanavir with emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate...
September 2016: Lancet HIV
Weng-Kong Tam, Hsi-Jian Lee
PURPOSE: Dental shade matching by using digital images may be feasible when suitable color features are properly manipulated. Separating the color features into feature spaces facilitates favorable matching. We propose using support vector machines (SVM), which are outstanding classifiers, in shade classification. METHODS: A total of 1300 shade tab images were captured using a smartphone camera with auto-mode settings and no flash. The images were shot at angled distances of 14-20cm from a shade guide at a clinic equipped with light tubes that produced a 4000K color temperature...
August 20, 2016: Journal of Prosthodontic Research
Margot Fonteyne, Jurgen Vercruysse, Fien De Leersnyder, Rut Besseling, Ad Gerich, Wim Oostra, Jean Paul Remon, Chris Vervaet, Thomas De Beer
This study focuses on the twin screw granulator of a continuous from-powder-to-tablet production line. Whereas powder dosing into the granulation unit is possible from a container of preblended material, a truly continuous process uses several feeders (each one dosing an individual ingredient) and relies on a continuous blending step prior to granulation. The aim of the current study was to investigate the in-line blending capacity of this twin screw granulator, equipped with conveying elements only. The feasibility of in-line NIR (SentroPAT, Sentronic GmbH, Dresden, Germany) spectroscopy for evaluating the blend uniformity of powders after the granulator was tested...
September 7, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
Rachael Bedford, Irati R Saez de Urabain, Celeste H M Cheung, Annette Karmiloff-Smith, Tim J Smith
Touchscreen technologies provide an intuitive and attractive source of sensory/cognitive stimulation for young children. Despite fears that usage may have a negative impact on toddlers' cognitive development, empirical evidence is lacking. The current study presents results from the UK Toddler Attentional Behaviours and LEarning with Touchscreens (TABLET) project, examining the association between toddlers' touchscreen use and the attainment of developmental milestones. Data were gathered in an online survey of 715 parents of 6- to 36-month-olds to address two research questions: (1) How does touchscreen use change from 6 to 36 months? (2) In toddlers (19-36 months, i...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Somphou Sayasone, Peter Odermatt, Youthanavanh Vonghachack, Syda Xayavong, Kanpaseuth Senggnam, Urs Duthaler, Kongsap Akkhavong, Jan Hattendorf, Jennifer Keiser
BACKGROUND: Treatment of the liver fluke infection Opisthorchis viverrini relies exclusively on praziquantel. Tribendimidine could be an alternative treatment option. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of ascending single, oral doses of tribendimidine in patients with O viverrini infection. METHODS: We did two randomised, parallel-group, single-blind, dose-ranging, phase 2 trials in children (aged 8-14 years) and adults and adolescents (≥15 years) in three O viverrini endemic villages in Champasack province, southern Laos...
October 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Kamni Sharma Haase, Nikolaj Kunøe, Arild Opheim, Zhanna Gaulen, Anne-Lill Mjølhus Njå, Zill-E-Huma Latif, Kristin Klemmetsby Solli, Lars Tanum
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Treatment for addiction to illicit opioids has, thus far, been limited to 2 main approaches: maintaining physical dependence by administering opioids medically and medication-free abstinence with psychosocial support. Assisted abstinence by taking daily tablets with the opioid antagonist naltrexone is rarely practiced, but it is unclear whether this is due to the limited efficacy of this method or because of user opposition to antagonist medication. Therefore, we wanted to investigate opioid users' interest in antagonist treatment with naltrexone, administered as extended release injection, which supports abstinence by blocking illicit opioids for 4-5 weeks per administration...
2016: European Addiction Research
Ramkrishnan Balakrishnan, Vijayaprasad Gopichandran, Sharadprakash Chaturvedi, Rahul Chatterjee, Tanmay Mahapatra, Indrajit Chaudhuri
BACKGROUND: Mobile phone technology is utilized for better delivery of health services worldwide. In low-and-middle income countries mobile phones are now ubiquitous. Thus leveraging mHealth applications in health sector is becoming popular rapidly in these countries. To assess the effectiveness of the Continuum of Care Services (CCS) mHealth platform in terms of strengthening the delivery of maternal and child health (MCH) services in a district in Bihar, a resource-poor state in India...
2016: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
Sareh Doustfatemeh, Mohammad Hadi Imanieh, Abdolali Mohagheghzade, Mohammad M Zarshenas, Zahra Torkamani, Gholamhossein Yousefi, Saman Farahangiz, Alireza Salehi
We aimed to evaluate the antidiarrheal effect of black tea in pediatric patients with acute nonbacterial diarrhea. This single-blind randomized clinical trial study was performed on 2 to 12-year-old patients, with acceptable criteria for acute nonbacterial diarrhea in Shiraz, Iran. In total, 120 patients took part in this study. Blocked randomization method was used to allocate them into 2 groups of intervention (black tea tablet + standard treatment) and control group (standard treatment; 60 patients in each)...
June 19, 2016: Journal of Evidence-based Complementary & Alternative Medicine
Frans Jongejan, Dionne Crafford, Heidi Erasmus, Josephus J Fourie, Bettina Schunack
BACKGROUND: The ability of the topical spot-on Advantix(®) (50 % permethrin/10 % imidacloprid) to prevent transmission of Ehrlichia canis by infected Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks to dogs has previously been reported. The recent market introduction of chewable tablets containing the novel compounds, afoxolaner (NexGard™) and fluralaner (Bravecto™) enabled us to conduct a comparative efficacy study with respect to the ability of these three products to block transmission of E. canis by ticks to dogs...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
James A Berkley, Moses Ngari, Johnstone Thitiri, Laura Mwalekwa, Molline Timbwa, Fauzat Hamid, Rehema Ali, Jimmy Shangala, Neema Mturi, Kelsey D J Jones, Hassan Alphan, Beatrice Mutai, Victor Bandika, Twahir Hemed, Ken Awuondo, Susan Morpeth, Samuel Kariuki, Gregory Fegan
BACKGROUND: Children with complicated severe acute malnutrition (SAM) have a greatly increased risk of mortality from infections while in hospital and after discharge. In HIV-infected children, mortality and admission to hospital are prevented by daily co-trimoxazole prophylaxis, despite locally reported bacterial resistance to co-trimoxazole. We aimed to assess the efficacy of daily co-trimoxazole prophylaxis on survival in children without HIV being treated for complicated SAM. METHODS: We did a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study in four hospitals in Kenya (two rural hospitals in Kilifi and Malindi, and two urban hospitals in Mombasa and Nairobi) with children aged 60 days to 59 months without HIV admitted to hospital and diagnosed with SAM...
July 2016: Lancet Global Health
Md Rafiqul Islam, John Attia, Liaquat Ali, Mark McEvoy, Shahjada Selim, David Sibbritt, Ayesha Akhter, Shahnaz Akter, Roseanne Peel, Omar Faruque, Tazreen Mona, Hafiza Lona, Abul Hasnat Milton
AIMS: There are a number of studies showing that zinc supplementation may improve glucose handling in people with established diabetes. We sought to investigate whether this zinc-dependent improvement in glucose handling could potentially be harnessed to prevent the progression of pre-diabetes to diabetes. In this double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial, we determined participants' fasting blood glucose levels, (FBG) and Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) parameters (beta cell function, insulin sensitivity and insulin resistance) at baseline and after 6 months of zinc supplementation...
May 2016: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Mehrdad Masoudifar, Omid Aghadavoudi, Sajjad Adib
BACKGROUND: Postdural puncture headache (PDPH) is a relatively common complication after regional anesthesia, especially in younger people, bothersome to patients and needs prophylaxis to prevent this complication. This study was conducted aiming to determine the preventive effect of dexamethasone plus caffeine and acetaminophen on relative frequency and intensity of PDPH after spinal anesthesia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a clinical trial study, 90 candidates for the lower extremities orthopedic elective operation were divided into two groups of 45 individuals each...
2016: Advanced Biomedical Research
Foteini Chatzinasiou, Dimitrios Polymeros, Maro Panagiotou, Konstadinos Theodoropoulos, Dimitrios Rigopoulos
Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a rare ulcerative skin disease, part of the spectrum of neutrophilic and auto-inflammatory dermatoses. Its pathogenesis is unknown, although immune pathways have been implicated. Lesion biopsies show a predominantly neutrophilic infiltrate. The incidence of PG is uncertain, but it is estimated to be 3-10 per million per year, occurring at any age but most commonly between 20 and 50 years with a possible slightly higher incidence in women. Approximately 50% of patients with PG also have another disease associated with PG...
April 2016: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
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