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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741889/an-environmentally-responsive-reciprocal-replicating-network
#1
Craig C Robertson, Harold W Mackenzie, Tamara Kosikova, Douglas Philp
A reciprocal replication system is constructed from four building blocks, A, B, C, and D, which react in a pairwise manner through either a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition or the condensation reaction between an amine and an aldehyde to create two templates, trans-TAB and TCD. These templates are equipped with complementary recognition sites-two carboxylic acids (trans-TAB) or two 4,6-dimethylamidopyridines (TCD)-that enable each template to direct the formation of its complementary partner through two mutually-reinforcing crosscatalytic pathways, in which the templates trans-TAB or TCD preorganize the appropriate building blocks within two catalytically-active ternary complexes: [C•D•trans TAB] and [A•B•TCD]...
May 9, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720755/a-comparative-study-to-evaluate-ultrasound-guided-transversus-abdominis-plane-block-versus-ilioinguinal-iliohypogastric-nerve-block-for-post-operative-analgesia-in-adult-patients-undergoing-inguinal-hernia-repair
#2
Kirti Kamal, Parul Jain, Teena Bansal, Geeta Ahlawat
Background and Aims: Both transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block and combined ilioinguinal-iliohypogastric (IIN/IHN) blocks are used routinely under ultrasound (USG) guidance for postoperative pain relief in patients undergoing inguinal hernia surgery. This study compares USG guided TAP Vs IIN/IHN block for post-operative analgesic efficacy in adults undergoing inguinal hernia surgery. Methods: Sixty adults aged 18 to 60 with American Society of Anesthesiologsts' grade I or II were included...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715154/radiotherapy-plus-total-androgen-block-versus-radiotherapy-plus-lhrh-analog-monotherapy-for-non-metastatic-prostate-cancer
#3
Giulia Marvaso, Anna Viola, Cristiana Fodor, Barbara A Jereczek-Fossa
BACKGROUND/AIM: Patients with locally advanced prostate cancer are generally treated with radiotherapy (RT) which can be combined with hormonal therapy. RT plus monotherapy with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analog triptorelin was compared to RT plus total androgen block (TAB). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out on patients with locally advanced prostate cancer comparing RT plus monotherapy versus RT plus TAB. RESULTS: For overall survival, no differences between patients receiving RT with monotherapy and those treated with TAB were observed...
May 2018: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684907/efficiency-of-extraction-and-conversion-of-pseudoephedrine-to-methamphetamine-from-tamper-resistant-and-non-tamper-resistant-formulations
#4
Brandon Presley, Bob Bianchi, John Coleman, Fran Diamond, Gerry McNally
Clandestine chemists have demonstrated an ability to convert commercially available pseudoephedrine formulations to methamphetamine. Some of these formulations have properties that manufacturers claim limit or block the extraction of pseudoephedrine and its direct conversion to methamphetamine. In this study, 3 commercially available pseudoephedrine formulations were evaluated for ease of extraction and conversion to methamphetamine using a common chemistry technique called the one-pot method that is frequently employed by clandestine chemists...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652246/metformin-in-non-diabetic-hyperglycaemia-the-glint-feasibility-rct
#5
Simon J Griffin, M Angelyn Bethel, Rury R Holman, Kamlesh Khunti, Nicholas Wareham, Gwen Brierley, Melanie Davies, Andrew Dymond, Rose Eichenberger, Philip Evans, Alastair Gray, Colin Greaves, Kyla Harrington, Graham Hitman, Greg Irving, Sarah Lessels, Ann Millward, John R Petrie, Martin Rutter, Mike Sampson, Naveed Sattar, Stephen Sharp
BACKGROUND: The treatment of people with diabetes with metformin can reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) and may reduce the risk of cancer. However, it is unknown whether or not metformin can reduce the risk of these outcomes in people with elevated blood glucose levels below the threshold for diabetes [i.e. non-diabetic hyperglycaemia (NDH)]. OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of the Glucose Lowering In Non-diabetic hyperglycaemia Trial (GLINT) and to estimate the key parameters to inform the design of the full trial...
April 2018: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606364/pyronaridine-artesunate-or-dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine-versus-current-first-line-therapies-for-repeated-treatment-of-uncomplicated-malaria-a-randomised-multicentre-open-label-longitudinal-controlled-phase-3b-4-trial
#6
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Artemether-lumefantrine and artesunate-amodiaquine are used as first-line artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) in west Africa. Pyronaridine-artesunate and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine are potentially useful for diversification of ACTs in this region, but further safety and efficacy data are required on malaria retreatment. METHODS: We did a randomised, multicentre, open-label, longitudinal, controlled phase 3b/4 clinical trial at seven tertiary centres in Burkina Faso, Guinea, and Mali...
March 29, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605187/antipsychotic-drugs-versus-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-versus-a-combination-of-both-in-people-with-psychosis-a-randomised-controlled-pilot-and-feasibility-study
#7
Anthony P Morrison, Heather Law, Lucy Carter, Rachel Sellers, Richard Emsley, Melissa Pyle, Paul French, David Shiers, Alison R Yung, Elizabeth K Murphy, Natasha Holden, Ann Steele, Samantha E Bowe, Jasper Palmier-Claus, Victoria Brooks, Rory Byrne, Linda Davies, Peter M Haddad
BACKGROUND: Little evidence is available for head-to-head comparisons of psychosocial interventions and pharmacological interventions in psychosis. We aimed to establish whether a randomised controlled trial of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) versus antipsychotic drugs versus a combination of both would be feasible in people with psychosis. METHODS: We did a single-site, single-blind pilot randomised controlled trial in people with psychosis who used services in National Health Service trusts across Greater Manchester, UK...
March 28, 2018: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567195/modeling-the-effects-of-material-properties-on-tablet-compaction-a-building-block-for-controlling-both-batch-and-continuous-pharmaceutical-manufacturing-processes
#8
M S Escotet-Espinoza, S Vadodaria, F J Muzzio, M G Ierapetritou
As the pharmaceutical industry modernizes its manufacturing practices and incorporates more efficient processing approaches, it is important to reevaluate which process design elements affect product quality and the means to study these systems. The purpose of this work is to provide insight on a methodology to correlate the effect of raw material properties to equipment and process performance using both data-driven and semi-empirical models. In this work, lubricated blends of pharmaceutically-relevant materials were made using varying levels of magnesium stearate, ranging from 0...
March 19, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559404/tablet-fragmentation-without-a-disintegrant-a-novel-design-approach-for-accelerating-disintegration-and-drug-release-from-3d-printed-cellulosic-tablets
#9
Basel Arafat, Magdalena Wojsz, Abdullah Isreb, Robert T Forbes, Mohammad Isreb, Waqar Ahmed, Tawfiq Arafat, Mohamed A Alhnan
Fused deposition modelling (FDM) 3D printing has shown the most immediate potential for on-demand dose personalisation to suit particular patient's needs. However, FDM 3D printing often involves employing a relatively large molecular weight thermoplastic polymer and results in extended release pattern. It is therefore essential to fast-track drug release from the 3D printed objects. This work employed an innovative design approach of tablets with unique built-in gaps (Gaplets) with the aim of accelerating drug release...
March 17, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557999/sublingual-sufentanil-tablet-system-zalviso%C3%A2-for-postoperative-analgesia-after-knee-replacement-in-fast-track-surgery-a-pilot-observational-study
#10
Marco Scardino, Tiziana D'Amato, Federica Martorelli, Giorgia Fenocchio, Vincenzo Simili, Berardo Di Matteo, Dario Bugada, Elizaveta Kon
BACKGROUND: Currently many TKA protocols rely on multimodal analgesic protocols with patient-controlled analgesia systems that administer opioids through a patient controlled IV infusion pump, in addition to concomitant peripheral nerve blocks and local anesthetics. Although effective, PCA IV opioids do not provide optimal results with fast track rehabilitation protocols. METHODS: The present is a retrospective study comparing the novel sublingual sufentanil PCA system (SSTS) to our standard of care foreseeing continuous femoral nerve block (cFNB) within a multimodal analgesic in a TKA fast-track protocol...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511007/a-skin-cancer-prevention-photoageing-intervention-for-secondary-schools-in-brazil-delivered-by-medical-students-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#11
Titus Josef Brinker, Bianca Lisa Faria, Martina Gatzka, Olber Moreira de Faria, Markus V Heppt, Michael C Kirchberger, Dirk Schadendorf, Yasuhiro Nakamura, Fabian Buslaff, Oscar Campos Lisboa, Ana Carla Cruz Oliveira, Henrique Augusto Lino, Breno Bernardes-Souza
INTRODUCTION: The incidence of melanoma is increasing faster than any other major cancer both in Brazil and worldwide. The Southeast of Brazil has especially high incidences of melanoma, and early detection is low. Exposure to UV radiation represents a primary risk factor for developing melanoma. Increasing attractiveness is a major motivation for adolescents for tanning. A medical student-delivered intervention that harnesses the broad availability of mobile phones as well as adolescents' interest in their appearance may represent a novel method to improve skin cancer prevention...
March 6, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501349/does-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-during-writing-alleviate-upper-limb-freezing-in-people-with-parkinson-s-disease-a-pilot-study
#12
Sanne Broeder, Elke Heremans, Marcelo Pinto Pereira, Evelien Nackaerts, Raf Meesen, Geert Verheyden, Alice Nieuwboer
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the primary motor cortex (M1) can boost motor performance in Parkinson's disease (PD) when it is applied at rest. However, the potential supplementary therapeutic effect of the concurrent application of tDCS during the training of motor tasks is largely unknown. The present study examined the effects of tDCS on upper limb motor blocks during a freezing-provoking writing task (the funnel task) requiring up- and down-stroke movements at alternating amplitudes...
February 28, 2018: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477665/adjuvant-vemurafenib-in-resected-braf-v600-mutation-positive-melanoma-brim8-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-multicentre-phase-3-trial
#13
Michele Maio, Karl Lewis, Lev Demidov, Mario Mandalà, Igor Bondarenko, Paolo A Ascierto, Christopher Herbert, Andrzej Mackiewicz, Piotr Rutkowski, Alexander Guminski, Grant R Goodman, Brian Simmons, Chenglin Ye, Yibing Yan, Dirk Schadendorf
BACKGROUND: Systemic adjuvant treatment might mitigate the high risk of disease recurrence in patients with resected stage IIC-III melanoma. The BRIM8 study evaluated adjuvant vemurafenib monotherapy in patients with resected, BRAFV600 mutation-positive melanoma. METHODS: BRIM8 was a phase 3, international, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study that enrolled 498 adults (aged ≥18 years) with histologically confirmed stage IIC-IIIA-IIIB (cohort 1) or stage IIIC (cohort 2) BRAFV600 mutation-positive melanoma that was fully resected...
April 2018: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475804/tenofovir-alafenamide-plus-emtricitabine-versus-abacavir-plus-lamivudine-for-treatment-of-virologically-suppressed-hiv-1-infected-adults-a-randomised-double-blind-active-controlled-non-inferiority-phase-3-trial
#14
Alan Winston, Frank A Post, Edwin DeJesus, Daniel Podzamczer, Giovanni Di Perri, Vicente Estrada, François Raffi, Peter Ruane, Paula Peyrani, Gordon Crofoot, Patrick W G Mallon, Francesco Castelli, Mingjin Yan, Stephanie Cox, Moupali Das, Andrew Cheng, Martin S Rhee
BACKGROUND: Abacavir and tenofovir alafenamide offer reduced bone toxicity compared with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. We aimed to compare safety and efficacy of tenofovir alafenamide plus emtricitabine with that of abacavir plus lamivudine. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, active-controlled, non-inferiority phase 3 trial, HIV-1-positive adults (≥18 years) were screened at 79 sites in 11 countries in North America and Europe. Eligible participants were virologically suppressed (HIV-1 RNA <50 copies per mL) and on a stable three-drug regimen containing abacavir plus lamivudine...
April 2018: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472752/low-dose-mirtazapine-induced-nightmares-necessitating-its-discontinuation-in-a-young-adult-female
#15
Vikas Menon, Pravallika Madhavapuri
Mirtazapine is a novel tetracyclic antidepressant which enhances noradrenergic and serotonergic transmission by blocking central α2-adrenergic auto- and hetero-receptors. Due to favorable safety and adverse effect profile, it is often viewed as a promising agent for treatment of depression. Particularly, its anxiolytic and sleep-improving properties have led to its favorable positioning for the management of depression with insomnia. Our objective is to describe a case of depression with treatment-emergent nightmares induced by mirtazapine...
October 2017: Journal of Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452684/evaluation-of-the-safety-tolerability-and-efficacy-of-pimavanserin-versus-placebo-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-psychosis-a-phase-2-randomised-placebo-controlled-double-blind-study
#16
Clive Ballard, Carol Banister, Zunera Khan, Jeffrey Cummings, George Demos, Bruce Coate, James M Youakim, Randall Owen, Srdjan Stankovic
BACKGROUND: Pimavanserin is a selective 5-HT2A receptor inverse agonist and antagonist approved in the USA for the treatment of hallucinations and delusions associated with Parkinson's disease psychosis. No safe or effective pharmacological treatment is approved for psychosis in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of pimavanserin versus placebo in patients with Alzheimer's disease psychosis. METHODS: We did a phase 2, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-centre (with multiple affiliated nursing home sites across the UK) study...
March 2018: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435729/effect-of-kuanxiong-aerosol-on-patients-with-angina-pectoris-a-non-inferiority-multi-center-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Qiao-Ning Yang, Rui-Na Bai, Guo-Ju Dong, Chang-Jiang Ge, Jing-Min Zhou, Li Huang, Yan He, Jun Wang, Ai-Hua Ren, Zhan-Quan Huang, Guang-Li Zhu, Shu Lu, Shang-Quan Xiong, Shao-Xiang Xian, Zhi-Jun Zhu, Da-Zhuo Shi, Shu-Zheng Lu, Li-Zhi Li, Ke-Ji Chen
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect and safety of Kuanxiong Aerosol (, KA) on patients with angina pectoris. METHODS: Block randomization was performed to randomly allocate 750 patients into KA (376 cases) and control groups (374 cases). During an angina attack, the KA group received 3 consecutive sublingual sprays of KA (0.6 mL per spray). The control group received 1 sublingual nitroglycerin tablet (NT, 0.5 mg/tablet). Log-rank tests and Kaplan-Meier estimations were used to estimate the angina remission rates at 6 time-points after treatment (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and >5 min)...
February 13, 2018: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429891/vinorelbine-potently-induces-placental-cell-death-does-not-harm-fertility-and-is-a-potential-treatment-for-ectopic-pregnancy
#18
Roxanne Hastie, Elgene Lim, Pavel Sluka, Lisa Campbell, Andrew W Horne, Lenore Ellett, Natalie J Hannan, Fiona Brownfoot, Tu'uhevaha J Kaitu'u-Lino, Stephen Tong
Ectopic pregnancies complicate 1-2 pregnancies and are a leading cause of maternal death. An effective oral drug therapy that replaces surgery might make its treatment safer, cheaper, simpler and therefore more widely accessible. The only current medical treatment offered to women is intramuscular methotrexate, but this only reliably resolves smaller ectopic pregnancies. As such, many ectopic pregnancies require surgical excision. We show that vinorelbine, an orally available chemotherapeutic agent, potently induced placental cell death but did not harm fertility in mice...
March 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416370/prolonged-release-oxycodone-naloxone-reduces-opioid-induced-constipation-and-improves-quality-of-life-in-laxative-refractory-patients-results-of-an-observational-study
#19
Carsten Bantel, Shiva S Tripathi, David Molony, Tony Heffernan, Susmita Oomman, Vivek Mehta, Sara Dickerson
Background: Opioids are an effective treatment for moderate-to-severe pain. However, they are associated with a number of gastrointestinal side effects, most commonly constipation. Laxatives do not target the underlying mechanism of opioid-induced constipation (OIC), so many patients do not have their symptoms resolved. Fixed-dose prolonged-release (PR) oxycodone/naloxone (OXN) tablets contain the opioid agonist oxycodone and the opioid antagonist naloxone. Nal-oxone blocks the action of oxycodone in the gut without compromising its analgesic effects...
2018: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396246/mycophenolate-plus-methylprednisolone-versus-methylprednisolone-alone-in-active-moderate-to-severe-graves-orbitopathy-mingo-a-randomised-observer-masked-multicentre-trial
#20
George J Kahaly, Michaela Riedl, Jochem König, Susanne Pitz, Katharina Ponto, Tanja Diana, Elena Kampmann, Elisa Kolbe, Anja Eckstein, Lars C Moeller, Dagmar Führer, Mario Salvi, Nicola Curro, Irene Campi, Danila Covelli, Marenza Leo, Michele Marinò, Francesca Menconi, Claudio Marcocci, Luigi Bartalena, Petros Perros, Wilmar M Wiersinga
BACKGROUND: European guidelines recommend intravenous methylprednisolone as first-line treatment for active and severe Graves' orbitopathy; however, it is common for patients to have no response or have relapse after discontinuation of treatment. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of add-on mycophenolate to methylprednisolone in comparison with methylprednisolone alone in patients with moderate-to-severe Graves' orbitopathy. METHODS: MINGO was an observer-masked, multicentre, block-randomised, centre-stratified trial done in two centres in Germany and two in Italy...
April 2018: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
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