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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386442/polarimetry-of-pinctada-fucata-nacre-indicates-myostracal-layer-interrupts-nacre-structure
#1
Rebecca A Metzler, Joshua A Jones, Anthony J D'Addario, Enrique J Galvez
The inner layer of many bivalve and gastropod molluscs consists of iridescent nacre, a material that is structured like a brick wall with bricks consisting of crystalline aragonite and mortar of organic molecules. Myostracal layers formed during shell growth at the point of muscle attachment to the shell can be found interspersed within the nacre structure. Little has been done to examine the effect the myostracal layer has on subsequent nacre structure. Here we present data on the structure of the myostracal and nacre layers from a bivalve mollusc, Pinctada fucata...
February 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352615/results-of-a-randomized-prospective-double-dummy-double-blind-trial-to-compare-efficacy-and-safety-of-a-herbal-combination-containing-tropaeoli-majoris-herba-and-armoraciae-rusticanae-radix-with-co-trimoxazole-in-patients-with-acute-and-uncomplicated-cystitis
#2
Rainer Stange, Berthold Schneider, Uwe Albrecht, Valentina Mueller, Joerg Schnitker, Andreas Michalsen
OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate non-inferiority of an herbal combination (horseradish root and nasturtium herb) to an antibiotic (co-trimoxazole) in acute uncomplicated cystitis. DESIGN: Randomized, prospective, double-blind, double-dummy, multicenter, phase III clinical study, using block randomization of 4 blocks (size 2). SETTING: Twenty-six centers in Germany, from May 2011 to June 2013. PARTICIPANTS: Adult patients (median age, 38...
2017: Research and Reports in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293188/evidence-for-narrow-transfer-after-short-term-cognitive-training-in-older-adults
#3
Dustin J Souders, Walter R Boot, Kenneth Blocker, Thomas Vitale, Nelson A Roque, Neil Charness
The degree to which "brain training" can improve general cognition, resulting in improved performance on tasks dissimilar from the trained tasks (transfer of training), is a controversial topic. Here, we tested the degree to which cognitive training, in the form of gamified training activities that have demonstrated some degree of success in the past, might result in broad transfer. Sixty older adults were randomly assigned to a gamified cognitive training intervention or to an active control condition that involved playing word and number puzzle games...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274651/translucent-zirconia-in-the-ceramic-scenario-for-monolithic-restorations-a-flexural-strength-and-translucency-comparison-test
#4
Michele Carrabba, Andrew J Keeling, Aziz Aziz, Alessandro Vichi, Riccardo Fabian Fonzar, David Wood, Marco Ferrari
OBJECTIVE: To compare three different compositions of Yttria-Tetragonal Zirconia Polycrystal (Y-TZP) ceramic and a lithium disilicate ceramic in terms of flexural strength and translucency. METHODS: Three zirconia materials of different composition and translucency, Aadva ST [ST], Aadva EI [EI] and Aadva NT [NT](GC Tech, Leuven, Belgium) were cut with a slow speed diamond saw into beams and tabs in order to obtain, after sintering, dimensions of 1.2×4.0×15.0mm and 15...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260694/a-case-study-of-chewed-truvada-%C3%A2-for-prep-maintaining-protective-drug-levels-as-measured-by-a-novel-urine-tenofovir-assay
#5
Linden Lalley-Chareczko, Devon Clark, Athena F Zuppa, Ganesh Moorthy, Caitlin Conyngham, Karam Mounzer, Helen Koenig
FTC/TDF (Truvada®) given as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) successfully blocks HIV when taken once daily prior to potential HIV exposure. A 22 year old male reported difficulty swallowing FTC/TDF for PrEP and subsequently began chewing the FTC/TDF tablets. Monthly urine samples assessed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) indicated tenofovir levels >1000 ng/mL, indicative of protection from HIV acquisition, over a 48 week period. Data from observational studies of HIV positive patients details the successful treatment of HIV using crushed FTC/TDF delivered via feeding and gastronomy tubes while small, randomized trials of healthy volunteers demonstrate bioequivalence between whole and crushed FTC/TDF...
March 6, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247973/performing-logical-operations-with-stimuli-responsive-building-blocks
#6
Xuan Zhang, Siowling Soh
Chemical logic gates can be fabricated by synthesizing molecules that have the ability to detect external stimuli (e.g., temperature or pH) and provide logical outputs. It is, however, challenging to fabricate a system that consists of many logic gates using this method: complex molecules can be difficult to synthesize and these logic gates typically cannot be integrated together. Here, we fabricated different types of logic gates by assembling a combination of different types of stimuli-responsive hydrogels that change their size under the influence of one type of stimulus...
March 1, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216910/effectiveness-of-paracervical-block-for-pain-relief-in-women-undergoing-hysterosalpingography
#7
Shikha Jain, Dattaprasad B Inamdar, Abha Majumdar, Deepak K Jain
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the potential benefit, in terms of pain relief, of the paracervical block with 2% lignocaine in women undergoing hysterosalpingography (HSG). STUDY DESIGN: This study was a prospective randomized controlled study. SETTINGS: This study was conducted in infertility clinic of a tertiary care center. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four hundred and six patients undergoing HSG as a part of infertility evaluation were included in the study...
October 2016: Journal of Human Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216244/safety-and-efficacy-of-pfspz-vaccine-against-plasmodium-falciparum-via-direct-venous-inoculation-in-healthy-malaria-exposed-adults-in-mali-a-randomised-double-blind-phase-1-trial
#8
Mahamadou S Sissoko, Sara A Healy, Abdoulaye Katile, Freda Omaswa, Irfan Zaidi, Erin E Gabriel, Bourama Kamate, Yacouba Samake, Merepen A Guindo, Amagana Dolo, Amadou Niangaly, Karamoko Niaré, Amatigue Zeguime, Kourane Sissoko, Hama Diallo, Ismaila Thera, Kelly Ding, Michael P Fay, Elise M O'Connell, Thomas B Nutman, Sharon Wong-Madden, Tooba Murshedkar, Adam J Ruben, Minglin Li, Yonas Abebe, Anita Manoj, Anusha Gunasekera, Sumana Chakravarty, B Kim Lee Sim, Peter F Billingsley, Eric R James, Michael Walther, Thomas L Richie, Stephen L Hoffman, Ogobara Doumbo, Patrick E Duffy
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum sporozite (PfSPZ) Vaccine is a metabolically active, non-replicating, whole malaria sporozoite vaccine that has been reported to be safe and protective against P falciparum controlled human malaria infection in malaria-naive individuals. We aimed to assess the safety and protective efficacy of PfSPZ Vaccine against naturally acquired P falciparum in malaria-experienced adults in Mali. METHODS: After an open-label dose-escalation study in a pilot safety cohort, we did a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial based in Donéguébougou and surrounding villages in Mali...
February 16, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165926/tertiary-evaluation-of-the-committed-effective-dose-of-emergency-workers-that-responded-to-the-fukushima-daiichi-npp-accident
#9
Shojiro Yasui
In January 2014, Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) learned that the committed effective dose (CED) for nine emergency workers at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident had been assessed by a method other than the standard assessment methods, established by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) in a secondary evaluation conducted in July 2013. The MHLW requested that the TEPCO and primary contractors review all CED data for 6,245 workers who engaged in emergency work in March and April 2011 except those previously reviewed in the 2013 secondary evaluation...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066966/updating-neuropsychological-test-system-for-the-elderly-and-modern-touch-screen-tablet-society-by-resetting-of-the-cut-off-values
#10
Takumi Kawaguchi, Mika Konishi, Akinobu Kato, Motoichiro Kato, Yohei Kooka, Kei Sawara, Ryujin Endo, Takuji Torimura, Kazuyuki Suzuki, Yasuhiro Takikawa
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Covert hepatic encephalopathy (CHE) is frequently seen in cirrhotic patients. CHE can be diagnosed by a computerized neuropsychological test system (NPT); however, NPT has not been updated about two decades in Japan. The aim of this study is to update the NPT for fitting the elderly and modern society by resetting of the cut-off values. METHODS: We enrolled 367 healthy subjects with 40 to 79 years old between 2003 and 2010. NPT consist of following 8 tests: number connection tests A and B, a figure position test, a digit symbol test, a block design test, and reaction time test A, B, and C...
January 8, 2017: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932865/statistical-modeling-methods-to-analyze-the-impacts-of-multiunit-process-variability-on-critical-quality-attributes-of-chinese-herbal-medicine-tablets
#11
Fei Sun, Bing Xu, Yi Zhang, Shengyun Dai, Chan Yang, Xianglong Cui, Xinyuan Shi, Yanjiang Qiao
The quality of Chinese herbal medicine tablets suffers from batch-to-batch variability due to a lack of manufacturing process understanding. In this paper, the Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) immediate release tablet was taken as the research subject. By defining the dissolution of five active pharmaceutical ingredients and the tablet tensile strength as critical quality attributes (CQAs), influences of both the manipulated process parameters introduced by an orthogonal experiment design and the intermediate granules' properties on the CQAs were fully investigated by different chemometric methods, such as the partial least squares, the orthogonal projection to latent structures, and the multiblock partial least squares (MBPLS)...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887650/the-anti-inflammatory-effect-of-andrographis-paniculata-burm-f-nees-on-pelvic-inflammatory-disease-in-rats-through-down-regulation-of-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#12
Wei Zou, Zuoqi Xiao, Xiaoke Wen, Jieying Luo, Shuqiong Chen, Zeneng Cheng, Daxiong Xiang, Jian Hu, Jingyu He
BACKGROUND: Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees (APN), a principal constituent of a famous traditional Chinese medicine Fukeqianjin tablet which is used for the treatment of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effect in vitro. However, whether it has pharmacological effect on PID in vivo is unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study is to test the anti-inflammatory effect of APN and illuminate a potential mechanism. METHODS: Thirty-six female specific pathogen-free SD rats were randomly divided into control group, PID group, APN1 group, APN2 group, APN3 group and prednisone group...
November 25, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871268/metformin-and-dietary-advice-to-improve-insulin-sensitivity-and-promote-gestational-restriction-of-weight-among-pregnant-women-who-are-overweight-or-obese-the-grow-randomised-trial
#13
Jodie M Dodd, Rosalie M Grivell, Andrea R Deussen, Gustaaf Dekker, Jennie Louise, William Hague
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a significant global health problem, with approximately 50% of women entering pregnancy having a body mass index greater than or equal to 25 kg/m(2). Obesity during pregnancy is associated with a well-recognised increased risk of adverse health outcomes both for the woman and her infant. Currently available data from large scale randomised trials and systematic reviews highlight only modest effects of antenatal dietary and lifestyle interventions in limiting gestational weight gain, with little impact on clinically relevant pregnancy outcomes...
November 21, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863809/efficacy-and-safety-of-tau-aggregation-inhibitor-therapy-in-patients-with-mild-or-moderate-alzheimer-s-disease-a-randomised-controlled-double-blind-parallel-arm-phase-3-trial
#14
Serge Gauthier, Howard H Feldman, Lon S Schneider, Gordon K Wilcock, Giovanni B Frisoni, Jiri H Hardlund, Hans J Moebius, Peter Bentham, Karin A Kook, Damon J Wischik, Bjoern O Schelter, Charles S Davis, Roger T Staff, Luc Bracoud, Kohkan Shamsi, John M D Storey, Charles R Harrington, Claude M Wischik
BACKGROUND: Leuco-methylthioninium bis(hydromethanesulfonate; LMTM), a stable reduced form of the methylthioninium moiety, acts as a selective inhibitor of tau protein aggregation both in vitro and in transgenic mouse models. Methylthioninium chloride has previously shown potential efficacy as monotherapy in patients with Alzheimer's disease. We aimed to determine whether LMTM was safe and effective in modifying disease progression in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease...
December 10, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863165/a-brief-ehealth-tool-delivered-in-primary-care-to-help-parents-prevent-childhood-obesity-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
J L S Byrne, T Cameron Wild, K Maximova, N E Browne, N L Holt, A J Cave, P Martz, C Ellendt, G D C Ball
OBJECTIVES: To determine the feasibility and preliminary impact of an electronic health (eHealth) screening, brief intervention and referral to treatment (SBIRT) delivered in primary care to help parents prevent childhood obesity. METHODS: Parents of children (5-17 years) were recruited from a primary care clinic. Children's measured height and weight were entered into the SBIRT on a study-designated tablet. The SBIRT screened for children's weight status, block randomized parents to one of four brief interventions or an eHealth control and provided parents with a menu of optional obesity prevention resources...
November 10, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802256/parent-perspectives-on-their-mobile-technology-use-the-excitement-and-exhaustion-of-parenting-while-connected
#16
Jenny S Radesky, Caroline Kistin, Staci Eisenberg, Jamie Gross, Gabrielle Block, Barry Zuckerman, Michael Silverstein
OBJECTIVE: Parent use of mobile devices (e.g., smartphones, tablets) while around their young children may be associated with fewer or more negative parent-child interactions, but parent perspectives regarding this issue have not been explored. We aimed to understand parent views regarding their mobile device use to identify actionable targets of potential intervention. METHOD: We conducted 35 in-depth semi-structured group and individual interviews with English-speaking caregivers of children 0 to 8 years old, purposively sampled from diverse ethnic backgrounds, educational levels, and employment statuses...
November 2016: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784313/an-optimised-age-based-dosing-regimen-for-single-low-dose-primaquine-for-blocking-malaria-transmission-in-cambodia
#17
Rithea Leang, Naw Htee Khu, Mavuto Mukaka, Mark Debackere, Rupam Tripura, Soy Ty Kheang, Say Chy, Neeraj Kak, Philippe Buchy, Arnaud Tarantola, Didier Menard, Arantxa Roca-Felterer, Rick M Fairhurst, Sim Kheng, Sinoun Muth, Song Ngak, Arjen M Dondorp, Nicholas J White, Walter Robert John Taylor
BACKGROUND: In 2012, the World Health Organization recommended the addition of single low-dose primaquine (SLDPQ, 0.25 mg base/kg body weight) to artemisinin combination therapies to block the transmission of Plasmodium falciparum without testing for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. The targeted group was non-pregnant patients aged ≥ 1 year (later changed to ≥ 6 months) with acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria, primarily in countries with artemisinin-resistant P...
October 27, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771803/efficacy-against-nematode-infections-and-safety-of-afoxolaner-plus-milbemycin-oxime-chewable-tablets-in-domestic-dogs-under-field-conditions-in-europe
#18
Steffen Rehbein, Martin Knaus, Yasmina Mallouk, Tatjana Breiltgens, Emanuele Brianti, Balázs Capári, Filipe Dantas-Torres, Michel Gau, Anja Joachim, Karl-Heinz Kaulfuß, Zvezdelina Kirkova, Joerg Lechner, Andrei D Mihalca, Rosamaria Mirabito, Saulius Petkevičius, Dhimitër Rapti, Enstela Shukullari, Michel Sedeilhan, Doris Dollhofer, Katrin Kley, Wilfried Lebon, Martin Visser, Philippe Jeannin
Afoxolaner (AFX) plus milbemycin oxime (MO) combination chewable tablets (NexGard Spectra®, Merial) were evaluated for safety and efficacy against naturally acquired nematode infections in domestic dogs in a multi-centre, positive control, blinded field study using a randomized block design based on the order of presentation for allocation. In total, 408 dogs confirmed positive for naturally acquired infections of intestinal nematodes by pre-treatment faecal examination were studied in ten countries in Europe (Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Lithuania, Romania and Slovakia)...
January 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761268/promising-new-wart-treatment-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#19
Shokrollah Zandi, Razyeh Ahmad Zadeh, Sayedeh Reyhaneh Yousefi, Fardin Gharibi
BACKGROUND: Warts are common dermatological lesion caused by skin epithelial cells' infection with human Papillomavirus (HPV). OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the efficacy of a new method for the treatment of dermal warts. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this clinical trial study, 60 patients (older than 10 years) with dermal warts living in Baneh city, west of Iran, were allocated into the intervention and control groups using the block randomized method in 2012...
August 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757012/rapid-disintegrating-tablets-of-simvastatin-dispersions-in-polyoxyethylene-polypropylene-block-copolymer-for-maximized-disintegration-and-dissolution
#20
Gehan F Balata, Ahmad S Zidan, Mohamad As Abourehab, Ebtessam A Essa
The objective of this research was to improve the dissolution of simvastatin and to incorporate it in rapid disintegrating tablets (RDTs) with an optimized disintegration and dissolution characteristics. Polyoxyethylene-polypropylene block copolymer (poloxamer 188) was employed as a hydrophilic carrier to prepare simvastatin solid dispersions (SDs). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffractometry were employed to understand the interaction between the drug and the carrier in the solid state...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
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