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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917399/variability-in-angle-%C3%AE%C2%BA-and-its-influence-on%C3%A2-higher-order-aberrations-in%C3%A2-pseudophakic-eyes
#1
Annette Harrer, Nino Hirnschall, Juan Tabernero, Pablo Artal, Petra Draschl, Sophie Maedel, Oliver Findl
PURPOSE: To observe the variability in angle κ in pseudophakic patients and assess its correlation with optical biometry measurements and higher-order aberrations (HOAs). SETTING: Hanusch Hospital, Vienna, Austria. DESIGN: Prospective case series. METHODS: This study included patients who had cataract surgery 3 months to 1 year before study recruitment. In all cases, Purkinje meter images were taken. In addition, partial coherence interferometry measurement (IOLMaster) of the axial intraocular lens (IOL) position was performed...
August 2017: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916520/rubrocerebellar-feedback-loop-isolates-the-interposed-nucleus-as-an-independent-processor-of-corollary-discharge-information-in-mice
#2
Christy S Beitzel, Brenda D Houck, Samantha M Lewis, Abigail L Person
Understanding cerebellar contributions to motor coordination requires deeper insight into how the output structures of the cerebellum, the cerebellar nuclei, integrate their inputs and influence downstream motor pathways. The magnocellular red nucleus (RNm), a brainstem premotor structure, is a major target of the interposed nucleus (IN), and has also been described in previous studies to send feedback collaterals to the cerebellum. Because such a pathway is in a key position to provide motor efferent information to the cerebellum, satisfying predictions about the use of corollary discharge in cerebellar computations, we studied it in mice of both sexes...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916173/a-new-anatomical-view-on-the-vector-cardiogram-the-mean-temporal-spatial-isochrones
#3
Peter M van Dam
AIM: This proof of principle study aims to show the direct relationship between cardiac anatomy and the mean cardiac activation path as captured by the 12 lead ECG derived mean temporal-spatial isochrones (mean TSI) path. METHODS: To obtain the mean TSI signal a vector cardiographic (VCG) signal is constructed from the 12 lead ECG. The construction of the VCG signal uses a model of the heart and torso with patient specific electrode extracted from a 3D photo. The propagation of the activation through the heart is captured by estimating the mean of a cardiac activation isochrone using this VCG signal...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Electrocardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912684/distinct-activities-of-tfap2a-and-tfap2b-in-the-specification-of-gabaergic-interneurons-in-the-developing-cerebellum
#4
Norliyana Zainolabidin, Sandhya P Kamath, Ayesha R Thanawalla, Albert I Chen
GABAergic inhibitory neurons in the cerebellum are subdivided into Purkinje cells and distinct subtypes of interneurons from the same pool of progenitors, but the determinants of this diversification process are not well defined. To explore the transcriptional regulation of the development of cerebellar inhibitory neurons, we examined the role of Tfap2A and Tfap2B in the specification of GABAergic neuronal subtypes in mice. We show that Tfap2A and Tfap2B are expressed in inhibitory precursors during embryonic development and that their expression persists into adulthood...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904001/kv3-channels-enablers-of-rapid-firing-neurotransmitter-release-and-neuronal-endurance
#5
REVIEW
Leonard K Kaczmarek, Yalan Zhang
The intrinsic electrical characteristics of different types of neurons are shaped by the K(+) channels they express. From among the more than 70 different K(+) channel genes expressed in neurons, Kv3 family voltage-dependent K(+) channels are uniquely associated with the ability of certain neurons to fire action potentials and to release neurotransmitter at high rates of up to 1,000 Hz. In general, the four Kv3 channels Kv3.1-Kv3.4 share the property of activating and deactivating rapidly at potentials more positive than other channels...
October 1, 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903013/spatiotemporally-non-uniform-ca-2-dynamics-of-cardiac-purkinje-fibers-in-mouse-myocardial-infarct
#6
Taka-Aki Matsuyama, Hideo Tanaka, Hatsue Ishibashi-Ueda, Tetsuro Takamatsu
Surviving Purkinje fibers in myocardial infarct are regarded as an important substrate in arrhythmogenesis. However, poorly understood are functional properties of Purkinje fibers in the infarcted heart. We sought to visualize intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) dynamics of Purkinje fiber networks in the mouse myocardial infarct. Using 3- to 4-day-old or 7- to 9-day-old infarcted hearts after the left coronary-artery ligation corresponding, respectively, to acute or healing phase, we conducted rapid fluo4-fluorescence imaging on the endocardial surface of the left ventricular septum by macro-zoom fluorescence microscopy and rapid-scanning confocal microscopy...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900163/spatio-temporal-and-dynamic-regulation-of-neurofascin-alternative-splicing-in-mouse-cerebellar-neurons
#7
Satoko Suzuki, Noriko Ayukawa, Chisa Okada, Masami Tanaka, Susumu Takekoshi, Yoko Iijima, Takatoshi Iijima
Alternative splicing is crucial for molecular diversification, which greatly contributes to the complexity and specificity of neural functions in the central nervous system (CNS). Neurofascin (NF) is a polymorphic cell surface protein that has a number of splicing isoforms. As the alternative splicing of the neurofascin gene (Nfasc) is developmentally regulated, NF isoforms have distinct functions in immature and mature brains. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the alternative splicing of Nfasc in neurons are not yet understood...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894610/maturation-refinement-and-serotonergic-modulation-of-cerebellar-cortical-circuits-in-normal-development-and-in-murine-models-of-autism
#8
REVIEW
Eriola Hoxha, Pellegrino Lippiello, Bibiana Scelfo, Filippo Tempia, Mirella Ghirardi, Maria Concetta Miniaci
The formation of the complex cerebellar cortical circuits follows different phases, with initial synaptogenesis and subsequent processes of refinement guided by a variety of mechanisms. The regularity of the cellular and synaptic organization of the cerebellar cortex allowed detailed studies of the structural plasticity mechanisms underlying the formation of new synapses and retraction of redundant ones. For the attainment of the monoinnervation of the Purkinje cell by a single climbing fiber, several signals are involved, including electrical activity, contact signals, homosynaptic and heterosynaptic interaction, calcium transients, postsynaptic receptors, and transduction pathways...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893945/zfp423-znf423-regulates-cell-cycle-progression-the-mode-of-cell-division-and-the-dna-damage-response-in-purkinje-neuron-progenitors
#9
Filippo Casoni, Laura Croci, Camilla Bosone, Roberta D'Ambrosio, Aurora Badaloni, Davide Gaudesi, Valeria Barili, Justyna R Sarna, Lino Tessarollo, Ottavio Cremona, Richard Hawkes, Søren Warming, G Giacomo Consalez
The Zfp423/ZNF423 gene encodes a 30-Zn-finger transcription factor involved in key developmental pathways. While null Zfp423 mutants develop cerebellar malformations, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. ZNF423 mutations have been associated to Joubert Syndrome, a ciliopathy causing cerebellar vermis hypoplasia and ataxia. ZNF423 participates in the DNA damage response, raising questions regarding its role as a regulator of neural progenitor cell cycle progression in cerebellar development. To characterize in vivo the function of ZFP423 in neurogenesis, we analyzed allelic murine mutants in which distinct functional domains are deleted...
September 11, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890930/parkinson-s-disease-associated-with-pure-atxn10-repeat-expansion
#10
Birgitt Schüle, Karen N McFarland, Kelsey Lee, Yu-Chih Tsai, Khanh-Dung Nguyen, Chao Sun, Mei Liu, Christie Byrne, Ramesh Gopi, Neng Huang, J William Langston, Tyson Clark, Francisco Javier Jiménez Gil, Tetsudo Ashizawa
Large, non-coding pentanucleotide repeat expansions of ATTCT in intron 9 of the ATXN10 gene typically cause progressive spinocerebellar ataxia with or without seizures and present neuropathologically with Purkinje cell loss resulting in symmetrical cerebellar atrophy. These ATXN10 repeat expansions can be interrupted by sequence motifs which have been attributed to seizures and are likely to act as genetic modifiers. We identified a Mexican kindred with multiple affected family members with ATXN10 expansions...
2017: NPJ Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889839/laser-acupuncture-at-ht7-improves-the-cerebellar-disorders-in-valproic-acid-rat-model-of-autism
#11
Jurairat Khongrum, Jintanaporn Wattanathorn
The novel therapeutic strategy against autism is essential due to the limited therapeutic efficacy. Based on the benefit of laser acupuncture at HT7 acupoint on the neurological disorders related with oxidative stress and inflammation, its benefit on oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and GABAergic/glutamatergic imbalance in cerebellum of autism have been considered. To elucidate this issue, male rat pups were induced autistic-like conditions by valproic acid (VPA) and treated with laser acupuncture at HT7 acupoint once daily between postnatal Day 14 and Day 40...
August 2017: Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889733/garcinia-kola-seeds-may-prevent-cognitive-and-motor-dysfunctions-in-a-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-rat-model-partly-by-mitigating-neuroinflammation
#12
Paul F Seke Etet, Mohammed Farahna, Gwiria M H Satti, Yahia M Bushara, Ahmed El-Tahir, Muaawia A Hamza, Sayed Y Osman, Ambrose C Dibia, Lorella Vecchio
Background We reported recently that extracts of seeds of Garcinia kola, a plant with established hypoglycemic properties, prevented the loss of inflammation-sensible neuronal populations like Purkinje cells in a rat model of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Here, we assessed G. kola extract ability to prevent the early cognitive and motor dysfunctions observed in this model. Methods Rats made diabetic by single injection of streptozotocin were treated daily with either vehicle solution (diabetic control group), insulin, or G...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878623/mechanisms-of-spontaneous-climbing-fiber-discharge-evoked-pauses-and-output-modulation-of-cerebellar-purkinje-cell-in-mice
#13
Xian-Hua Jin, Hong-Wei Wang, Xin-Yuan Zhang, Chun-Ping Chu, Yuan-Zhe Jin, Song-Biao Cui, De-Lai Qiu
Climbing fiber (CF) afferents modulate the frequency and patterns of cerebellar Purkinje cell (PC) simple spike (SS) activity, but its mechanism is unclear. In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms of spontaneous CF discharge-evoked pauses and the output modulation of cerebellar PCs in urethane-anesthetized mice using in vivo whole-cell recording techniques and pharmacological methods. Under voltage-clamp recording conditions, spontaneous CF discharge evoked strong inward currents followed by small conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels that mediated outward currents...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877835/pathological-changes-in-app-ps-1-transgenic-mouse-models-of-alzheimer-s-disease-treated-with-ganoderma-lucidum-preparation
#14
Chuan Qin, Shan-Qiu Wu, Bao-Sheng Chen, Xiao-Xian Wu, Kun-Yao Qu, Jun-Min Liu, Gui-Fang Zhang, Yan-Feng Xu, Shunli Shu, Lihua Sun, Yan-Yong Li, Hua Zhu, Lan Huang, Chun-Mei Ma, Yu-Huan Xu, Yun-Lin Han, Yao-Zeng Lu
Objective To explore the efficacy of ganoderma lucidum preparation(Ling Zhi) in treating APP/PS-1 transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease(AD).Methods APP/PS-1 transgenic mice of 4 months were randomly divided into model group,ganoderma lucidum treatment groups,including high [2250 mg/(kg·d)] and middle [750 mg/(kg·d)] dose groups,i.e.LZ-H and LZ-M groups,and the positive control group(treated with donepezil hydrochloride [2 mg/(kg·d)]).In addition,C57BL/6J wild mice were selected as normal group.The animals were administered for 4 months...
August 20, 2017: Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867587/cerebellar-pathology-in-childhood-onset-vs-adult-onset-essential-tremor
#15
Elan D Louis, Sheng-Han Kuo, William J Tate, Geoffrey C Kelly, Phyllis L Faust
Although the incidence of ET increases with advancing age, the disease may begin at any age, including childhood. The question arises as to whether childhood-onset ET cases manifest the same sets of pathological changes in the cerebellum as those whose onset is during adult life. We quantified a broad range of postmortem features (Purkinje cell [PC] counts, PC axonal torpedoes, a host of associated axonal changes [PC axonal recurrent collateral count, PC thickened axonal profile count, PC axonal branching count], heterotopic PCs, and basket cell rating) in 60 ET cases (11 childhood-onset and 49 adult-onset) and 30 controls...
September 1, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858616/inferior-olivary-tmem16b-mediates-cerebellar-motor-learning
#16
Yang Zhang, Zhushan Zhang, Shaohua Xiao, Jason Tien, Son Le, Trieu Le, Lily Y Jan, Huanghe Yang
Ca(2+)-activated ion channels shape membrane excitability and Ca(2+) dynamics in response to cytoplasmic Ca(2+) elevation. Compared to the Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels, known as BK and SK channels, the physiological importance of Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels (CaCCs) in neurons has been largely overlooked. Here we report that CaCCs coexist with BK and SK channels in inferior olivary (IO) neurons that send climbing fibers to innervate cerebellar Purkinje cells for the control of motor learning and timing...
August 30, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856174/a-rare-syndrome-of-grid2-deletion-in-2-siblings
#17
Aravindhan Veerapandiyan, Stephanie Enner, Venkatraman Thulasi, Xue Ming
The Glutamate receptor, ionotropic, delta 2 gene codes for an ionotropic glutamate delta-2 receptor, which is selectively expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cells, and facilitates cerebellar synapse organization and transmission. The phenotype associated with the deletion of Glutamate receptor, ionotropic, delta 2 gene in humans was initially defined in 2013. In this case report, the authors describe 2 brothers who presented with developmental delay, tonic upward gaze, nystagmus, oculomotor apraxia, hypotonia, hyperreflexia, and ataxia...
January 2017: Child neurology open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855102/alterations-in-histone-acetylases-and-acetylated-histone-expression-in-aging-ethanol-fed-rats
#18
Abhilasha Khurana, Cynthia A Dlugos
Ethanol and age-induced pathologies of the Purkinje neuron (PN) may result from histone deacetylases (HDACs), enzymes which repress transcription through coiling of the DNA. The purposes of this study were to investigate expression patterns of Class 1 and IIa HDACs in PN and the effects of aging and alcohol on the density of HDACs and histone acetylation in PN. Ninety,eight month old rats (30/diet) were fed a liquid ethanol, liquid control, or rat chow diet for 10, 20, or 40 weeks (30/ treatment duration). Double immunocytochemical labeling on tissue sections from these rats used antibodies against HDAC isoforms or acetylated histones, and calbindin, a marker for PN...
August 27, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846146/paroxysmal-atrioventricular-block-electrophysiological-mechanism-of-phase-4-conduction-block-in-the-his-purkinje-system-a-comparison-with-phase-3-block
#19
Mohammad Shenasa, Mark E Josephson, Andrew L Wit
BACKGROUND: Paroxysmal atrioventricular (A-V) block is relatively rare, and due to its transient nature, it is often under recognized. It is often triggered by atrial, junctional or ventricular premature beats, and occurs in the presence of a diseased His-Purkinje system (HPS). Here we present a 45-year-old white male who was admitted for observation due to recurrent syncope and near-syncope, who had paroxysmal A-V block. The likely cellular electrophysiological mechanisms(s) of paroxysmal A-V block and its differential diagnosis and management are discussed...
August 28, 2017: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844959/reversal-of-aberrant-pi3k-akt-signaling-by-salubrinal-in-a-galt-deficient-mouse-model
#20
B Balakrishnan, C Nicholas, A Siddiqi, W Chen, E Bales, M Feng, J Johnson, K Lai
Classic Galactosemia is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by deleterious mutations in the GALT gene, which encodes galactose-1 phosphate uridylyltransferase enzyme (GALT: EC 2.7.7.12). Recent studies of primary skin fibroblasts isolated from the GalT-deficient mice demonstrated a slower growth rate, a higher level of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and down-regulation of the Phosphoinositide 3 kinase/Protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) signaling pathway. In this study, we compared the expression levels of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in normal and GalT-deficient mouse tissues...
August 24, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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