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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097992/circadian-and-metabolic-effects-of-light-implications-in-weight-homeostasis-and-health
#1
REVIEW
Santiago A Plano, Leandro P Casiraghi, Paula García Moro, Natalia Paladino, Diego A Golombek, Juan J Chiesa
Daily interactions between the hypothalamic circadian clock at the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and peripheral circadian oscillators regulate physiology and metabolism to set temporal variations in homeostatic regulation. Phase coherence of these circadian oscillators is achieved by the entrainment of the SCN to the environmental 24-h light:dark (LD) cycle, coupled through downstream neural, neuroendocrine, and autonomic outputs. The SCN coordinate activity and feeding rhythms, thus setting the timing of food intake, energy expenditure, thermogenesis, and active and basal metabolism...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063262/-neurointensive-care-in-germany-results-of-an-inspection-of-intensive-care-units
#2
O Busse, S Hillmann, M Grond
BACKGROUND: The situation of neurointensive care in Germany is unclear. OBJECTIVES: An inspection of neurointensive wards should help to clarify the situation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: On the occasion of stroke unit certification audits, 320 intensive care units (39 independent neurological and 20 neurosurgical, 6 combined neurological/neurosurgical, 253 interdisciplinary intensive wards) were inspected. RESULTS: On the 39 neurological and the 20 neurosurgical intensive care units, a physician with intensive care specialization was available in 92% and 100% of units, respectively, and a physician with authorization for intensive care training was available in 74% and 80% of units, respectively...
October 23, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059251/advancing-the-sleep-wake-schedule-impacts-the-sleep-of-african-americans-more-than-european-americans
#3
Gemma M Paech, Stephanie J Crowley, Louis F Fogg, Charmane I Eastman
There are differences in sleep duration between Blacks/African-Americans and Whites/European-Americans. Recently, we found differences between these ancestry groups in the circadian system, such as circadian period and the magnitude of phase shifts. Here we document the role of ancestry on sleep and cognitive performance before and after a 9-h advance in the sleep/wake schedule similar to flying east or having a large advance in sleep times due to shiftwork, both of which produce extreme circadian misalignment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043087/sleepiness-while-driving-and-shiftwork-patterns-among-korean-bus-drivers
#4
Seyoung Lee, Hyoung-Ryoul Kim, Junsu Byun, Taewon Jang
BACKGROUND: Sleepiness while driving has been regarded as a major cause of death due to traffic accidents. We compared the degree of sleepiness across five different working time periods (first, morning, post-lunch, afternoon, and last) among Korean bus drivers with different shift types (Daily two shift/Alternating day shift). METHOD: We interviewed 332 bus drivers with two shift types (Daily two shift, 128; Alternating day shift, 204). The questionnaire included demographic information (age, alcohol consumption and history of disease), a sleep disorder diagnosed by a doctor, job duration, the number of workdays in the past month, average working hours per workday and week, sleepiness while driving (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale), and sleeping time for both workdays and off-days...
2017: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018021/short-sleep-duration-obstructive-sleep-apnea-shiftwork-and-the-risk-of-adverse-cardiovascular-events-in-patients-after-an-acute-coronary-syndrome
#5
Laura K Barger, Shantha M W Rajaratnam, Christopher P Cannon, Mary Ann Lukas, KyungAh Im, Erica L Goodrich, Charles A Czeisler, Michelle L O'Donoghue
BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether short sleep duration, obstructive sleep apnea, and overnight shift work are associated with the risk of recurrent cardiovascular events in patients after an acute coronary syndrome. METHODS AND RESULTS: SOLID-TIMI 52 (The Stabilization of PLaques UsIng Darapladib-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 52 Trial) was a multinational, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that enrolled 13 026 patients ≤30 days of acute coronary syndrome...
October 10, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968186/development-and-therapeutic-potential-of-small-molecule-modulators-of-circadian-systems
#6
Zheng Chen, Seung-Hee Yoo, Joseph S Takahashi
Circadian timekeeping systems drive oscillatory gene expression to regulate essential cellular and physiological processes. When the systems are perturbed, pathological consequences ensue and disease risks rise. A growing number of small-molecule modulators have been reported to target circadian systems. Such small molecules, identified via high-throughput screening or derivatized from known scaffolds, have shown promise as drug candidates to improve biological timing and physiological outputs in disease models...
October 2, 2017: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933565/sleep-duration-nightshift-work-and-the-timing-of-meals-and-urinary-levels-of-8-isoprostane-and-6-sulfatoxymelatonin-in-japanese-women
#7
Chisato Nagata, Takashi Tamura, Keiko Wada, Kie Konishi, Yuko Goto, Yasuko Nagao, Kazuhiro Ishihara, Satoru Yamamoto
It has been hypothesized that disruption of circadian rhythms affects human health. Shift work and sleep deprivation are thought to disrupt the normal light-dark cycle, although the disruption due to shiftwork may be dependent on sleep deprivation. Both conditions have been suggested to be associated with an increased risk of cardiometabolic disorders. Non-photic environmental factors, such as the timing of eating, are also thought to regulate circadian rhythm and thus, may have effects on health, but the evidence from human studies is scarce...
September 21, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912826/can-yesterday-s-smoking-research-inform-today-s-shiftwork-research-epistemological-consequences-for-exposures-and-doses-due-to-circadian-disruption-at-and-off-work
#8
Thomas C Erren, Philip Lewis
In 1950, landmark epidemiology studies by Wynder & Graham and Doll & Hill contributed to identifying smoking as a potent carcinogen. In 2007, IARC classified shiftwork involving circadian disruption (CD) as probably carcinogenic; however, epidemiological evidence in regards to the carcinogenicity of shiftwork that involves nightwork is conflicting. We hypothesize that shiftwork research is lacking chronobiological and methodological rigor and that lessons can be learned from comparison with smoking research...
2017: Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820862/shiftwork-and-the-retinal-vasculature-diameters-among-police-officers
#9
Luenda E Charles, Ja K Gu, Claudia C Ma, Lisa M Grady, Anna Mnatsakanova, Michael E Andrew, Desta Fekedulegn, John M Violanti, Ronald Klein
OBJECTIVE: To investigate associations of central retinal arteriolar equivalent (CRAE), a measure of retinal arteriolar width, and central retinal venular equivalents (CRVE), a measure of retinal venular width, with shiftwork in 199 police officers (72.9% men). METHODS: Shiftwork (day, afternoon, night) was assessed using electronic payroll records. Four digital retinal images per officer were taken. Mean diameters of the retinal vasculature were compared across shifts using analysis of variance (ANOVA)/analysis of covariance (ANCOVA)...
October 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709906/effects-of-feeding-time-on-daily-rhythms-of-neuropeptide-and-clock-gene-expression-in-the-rat-hypothalamus
#10
Dawei Wang, Anne-Loes Opperhuizen, Jane Reznick, Nigel Turner, Yan Su, Gregory J Cooney, Andries Kalsbeek
Shiftworkers are exposed to several adverse health conditions, one being eating at night. Food consumption at an unnatural time-of-day is thought to be one of the main factors responsible for the increased risk of developing metabolic diseases, such as obesity and diabetes mellitus. The underlying mechanism is considered to include disruption of the circadian organization of physiology, leading to disruption of metabolism. When food is consumed at night, the hypothalamus, a brain region central to homeostasis, receives contradicting input from the central clock and the systemic circulation...
July 11, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707432/mechanisms-of-breast-cancer-risk-in-shift-workers-association-of-telomere-shortening-with-the-duration-and-intensity-of-night-work
#11
Johanna Samulin Erdem, Heidi Ødegaard Notø, Øivind Skare, Jenny-Anne S Lie, Marte Petersen-Øverleir, Edyta Reszka, Beata Pepłońska, Shanbeh Zienolddiny
Occupational factors such as shiftwork and especially night work that involves disruption of the circadian rhythm may contribute to increased breast cancer risk. Circadian disruption may also affect telomere length (TL). While short TL generally is associated with increased cancer risk, its association with breast cancer risk is inconclusive. We suggest that working schedules might be an important factor in assessment of effects of TL on breast cancer risk. Moreover, telomere shortening might be a potential mechanism for night work-related breast cancer...
August 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677140/coping-strategies-and-social-support-needs-of-experienced-and-inexperienced-nurses-performing-shiftwork
#12
Jane Gifkins, Rebecca Loudoun, Amy Johnston
AIM: The aim of this investigation was to compare perceptions of nurses exposed to short or longer term shift work and their experiences working under this type of scheduling. BACKGROUND: Shift work is a crucial component of nurses' working lives, ensuring continuous care for patients. This study fills a research gap around the personal experiences of shift working nurses and the strategies used to manage the impacts of shift work. DESIGN: Qualitative case study design...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650914/associations-of-rotational-shift-work-and-night-shift-status-with-hypertension-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Sandhya Manohar, Charat Thongprayoon, Wisit Cheungpasitporn, Michael A Mao, Sandra M Herrmann
BACKGROUND: The reported risks of hypertension (HTN) in rotating shift and night shift workers are controversial. The objective of this meta-analysis was to assess the association between shift work status and HTN. METHODS: A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Database from inception through October 2016. Studies that reported odds ratios (OR) comparing the risk of HTN in shift workers were included. A prespecified subgroup analysis by rotating shift and night shift statuses were also performed...
October 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637448/vitamin-d-levels-and-deficiency-with-different-occupations-a-systematic-review
#14
Daniel Sowah, Xiangning Fan, Liz Dennett, Reidar Hagtvedt, Sebastian Straube
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent worldwide, but some groups are at greater risk. We aim to evaluate vitamin D levels in different occupations and identify groups vulnerable to vitamin D deficiency. METHODS: An electronic search conducted in Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and CINAHL Plus with Full Text generated 2505 hits; 71 peer-reviewed articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Occupations investigated included outdoor and indoor workers, shiftworkers, lead/smelter workers, coalminers, and healthcare professionals...
June 22, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539147/sunlight-exposure-work-hours-caffeine-consumption-and-sleep-duration-in-the-naval-environment
#15
Nita L Shattuck, Panagiotis Matsangas
BACKGROUND: Sailors in the U.S. Navy are habitual shiftworkers, often experiencing circadian misalignment due to their irregular work/rest schedules. This study assessed the effect of sunlight exposure, work hours, and caffeinated beverage consumption on the daily sleep duration of crewmembers of a U.S. Navy ship during a 2-wk underway period. METHODS: Working in an artificially lit area with no access to sunlight during work hours, U.S. Navy crew members (N = 91) used daily logs to report their daily activity, caffeinated beverage consumption, and exposure to sunlight while off-duty; sleep was assessed by wrist-worn actigraphy...
June 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535713/the-relationship-between-shiftwork-and-violence-against-nurses-a-case-control-study
#16
Steve Sun, Susan Goodwin Gerberich, Andrew D Ryan
This study investigated the potential relationship between shiftwork and work-related physical assault (PA) against nurses who are at high risk of violence globally. Nurses (6,300), randomly selected from the licensing database and working in Minnesota, were surveyed regarding PA experiences. Through a nested case-control study, nurses who reported a PA in the previous 12 months and controls who were randomly selected from their assault-free working months, respectively, identified exposures experienced during the month prior to the assault month (cases) and the random non-PA months (controls)...
May 1, 2017: Workplace Health & Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502410/performance-awareness-predicting-cognitive-performance-during-simulated-shiftwork-using-chronobiological-measures
#17
Drew M Morris, June J Pilcher, Joseph B Mulvihill, Melissa A Vander Wood
Physiological tracers of circadian rhythms and a performance awareness index were examined as predictors of cognitive performance during two sleep deprivation conditions common to occupational shiftwork. Study 1: Thirty-three sleep-deprived participants completed a simulated nightshift. Study 2: Thirty-two partially sleep-deprived participants completed a simulated dayshift. A standardized logic test was used to measure cognitive performance. Body temperature and heart rate were measured as chronobiological indices of endogenous circadian rhythms...
September 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488901/association-of-shiftwork-and-immune-cells-among-police-officers-from-the-buffalo-cardio-metabolic-occupational-police-stress-study
#18
Michael D Wirth, Michael E Andrew, Cecil M Burchfiel, James B Burch, Desta Fekedulegn, Tara A Hartley, Luenda E Charles, John M Violanti
Shift workers suffer from a constellation of symptoms associated with disruption of circadian rhythms including sleep abnormalities, and abnormal hormone secretion (e.g. melatonin, cortisol). Recent, but limited, evidence suggests that shift workers have elevated levels of circulating white blood cells (WBCs) compared to their day working counterparts. Interestingly, recent reviews highlight the strong linkage between the immune system and circadian rhythms which includes, but is not limited to, circulating cell populations and functions...
May 10, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486414/break-in-sedentary-behavior-reduces-the-risk-of-noncommunicable-diseases-and-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-among-workers-in-a-petroleum-company
#19
Chutima Jalayondeja, Wattana Jalayondeja, Keerin Mekhora, Petcharatana Bhuanantanondh, Asadang Dusadi-Isariyavong, Rujiret Upiriyasakul
Although prolonged sitting appears as a novel risk factor related to health outcomes for all ages, its association needs to be replicated in occupational conditions. This study explored the associations between sedentary behavior and four noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) as well as two cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRFs) among workers in a petroleum company, Thailand. All workers were invited to complete the online self-report questionnaire. Sedentary behavior was measured as the amount of time sitting at work, during recreation, and while commuting...
May 9, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376169/re-night-shiftwork-and-breast-cancer-incidence-three-prospective-studies-and-meta-analysis-of-published-studies
#20
Thomas C Erren, Peter Morfeld, J Valérie Groß
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
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