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Neuroscience of decision making

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521125/beyond-hat-in-hand-science-advocacy-is-foundational-for-policy-decisions
#1
Nathaniel Kendall-Taylor, Pat Levitt
Beyond those to whom neuroscientists typically communicate exciting discoveries-that is, those who can provide more funding for researchers-there are important audiences that are positioned to use neuroscience findings to affect policy and improve societal outcomes. Showing the utility of research that policymakers, service providers, and the public can use to make decisions will enhance views of the value of scientific research. The ingredients of successful communications between neuroscientists and other stakeholders are different from those that characterize effective communications between scientists...
May 17, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482854/medical-decision-making-in-children-and-adolescents-developmental-and-neuroscientific-aspects
#2
REVIEW
Petronella Grootens-Wiegers, Irma M Hein, Jos M van den Broek, Martine C de Vries
BACKGROUND: Various international laws and guidelines stress the importance of respecting the developing autonomy of children and involving minors in decision-making regarding treatment and research participation. However, no universal agreement exists as to at what age minors should be deemed decision-making competent. Minors of the same age may show different levels of maturity. In addition, patients deemed rational conversation-partners as a child can suddenly become noncompliant as an adolescent...
May 8, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420449/interpersonal-harm-aversion-as-a-necessary-foundation-for-morality-a-developmental-neuroscience-perspective
#3
Jean Decety, Jason M Cowell
Growing evidence from developmental psychology and social neuroscience emphasizes the importance of third-party harm aversion for constructing morality. A sensitivity to interpersonal harm emerges very early in ontogeny, as reflected in both the capacity for implicit social evaluation and an aversion for antisocial agents. Yet it does not necessarily entail avoidance toward inflicting pain to others. Later, an understanding that harmful actions cause suffering emerges, followed by an integration of rules that can depend on social contexts and cultures...
April 19, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375767/zebrafish-behavior-opportunities-and-challenges
#4
Michael B Orger, Gonzalo G de Polavieja
A great challenge in neuroscience is understanding how activity in the brain gives rise to behavior. The zebrafish is an ideal vertebrate model to address this challenge, thanks to the capacity, at the larval stage, for precise behavioral measurements, genetic manipulations, and recording and manipulation of neural activity noninvasively and at single-neuron resolution throughout the whole brain. These techniques are being further developed for application in freely moving animals and juvenile stages to study more complex behaviors including learning, decision making, and social interactions...
April 3, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341163/factor-analysis-linking-functions-for-simultaneously-modeling-neural-and-behavioral-data
#5
Brandon M Turner, Ting Wang, Edgar C Merkle
A growing number of researchers have advocated for the advancement of cognitive neuroscience by blending cognitive models with neurophysiology. The recently proposed joint modeling framework is one way to bridge the gap between the abstractions assumed by cognitive models and the neurophysiology obtained by modern methods in neuroscience. Despite this advancement, the current method for linking the two domains is hindered by the dimensionality of the neural data. In this article, we present a new linking function based on factor analysis that allows joint models to grow linearly in complexity with increases in the number of neural features...
March 22, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324983/the-precuneus-may-encode-irrationality-in-human-gambling
#6
P Sacre, M S D Kerr, S Subramanian, K Kahn, J Gonzalez-Martinez, M A Johnson, S V Sarma, J T Gale
Humans often make irrational decisions, especially psychiatric patients who have dysfunctional cognitive and emotional circuitry. Understanding the neural basis of decision-making is therefore essential towards patient management, yet current studies suffer from several limitations. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in humans have dominated decision-making neuroscience, but have poor temporal resolution and the blood oxygenation level-dependent signal is only a proxy for neural activity. On the other hand, lesion studies in humans used to infer functionality in decision-making lack characterization of neural activity altogether...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264981/reason-s-enemy-is-not-emotion-engagement-of-cognitive-control-networks-explains-biases-in-gain-loss-framing
#7
Rosa Li, David V Smith, John A Clithero, Vinod Venkatraman, R McKell Carter, Scott A Huettel
In the classic gain/loss framing effect, describing a gamble as a potential gain or loss biases people to make risk-averse or risk-seeking decisions, respectively. The canonical explanation for this effect is that frames differentially modulate emotional processes, which in turn leads to irrational choice behavior. Here, we evaluate the source of framing biases by integrating functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 143 human participants performing a gain/loss framing task with meta-analytic data from >8000 neuroimaging studies...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227248/the-precuneus-may-encode-irrationality-in-human-gambling
#8
P Sacre, M S D Kerr, S Subramanian, K Kahn, J Gonzalez-Martinez, M A Johnson, S V Sarma, J T Gale, P Sacre, M S D Kerr, S Subramanian, K Kahn, J Gonzalez-Martinez, M A Johnson, S V Sarma, J T Gale, S Subramanian, M S D Kerr, M A Johnson, J T Gale, K Kahn, P Sacre, S V Sarma, J Gonzalez-Martinez
Humans often make irrational decisions, especially psychiatric patients who have dysfunctional cognitive and emotional circuitry. Understanding the neural basis of decision-making is therefore essential towards patient management, yet current studies suffer from several limitations. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in humans have dominated decision-making neuroscience, but have poor temporal resolution and the blood oxygenation level-dependent signal is only a proxy for neural activity. On the other hand, lesion studies in humans used to infer functionality in decision-making lack characterization of neural activity altogether...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219609/neuroscience-in-gambling-policy-and-treatment-an-interdisciplinary-perspective
#9
REVIEW
Murat Yücel, Adrian Carter, Amy R Allen, Bernard Balleine, Luke Clark, Nicki A Dowling, Sally M Gainsbury, Anna E Goudriaan, Jon Grant, Alan Hayes, David Hodgins, Ruth van Holst, Ralph Lattimore, Charles Livingstone, Valentina Lorenzetti, Dan Lubman, Carsten Murawski, Linden Parkes, Nancy Petry, Robin Room, Bruce Singh, Anna Thomas, Phil Townshend, George Youssef, Wayne Hall
Neuroscientific explanations of gambling disorder can help people make sense of their experiences and guide the development of psychosocial interventions. However, the societal perceptions and implications of these explanations are not always clear or helpful. Two workshops in 2013 and 2014 brought together multidisciplinary researchers aiming to improve the clinical and policy-related effects of neuroscience research on gambling. The workshops revealed that neuroscience can be used to improve identification of the dangers of products used in gambling...
February 14, 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214131/social-decision-making-and-the-brain-a-comparative-perspective
#10
REVIEW
Sébastien Tremblay, K M Sharika, Michael L Platt
The capacity and motivation to be social is a key component of the human adaptive behavioral repertoire. Recent research has identified social behaviors remarkably similar to our own in other animals, including empathy, consolation, cooperation, and strategic deception. Moreover, neurobiological studies in humans, nonhuman primates, and rodents have identified shared brain structures (the so-called 'social brain') apparently specialized to mediate such functions. Neuromodulators may regulate social interactions by 'tuning' the social brain, with important implications for treating social impairments...
February 14, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213812/the-neuroscience-of-human-decision-making-through-the-lens-of-learning-and-memory
#11
Lesley K Fellows
We are called upon to make decisions, large and small, many times a day. Whether in the voting booth, the stock exchange, or the cafeteria line, we identify potential options, estimate and compare their subjective values, and make a choice. Decision-making has only recently become a focus for cognitive neuroscience. The last two decades have seen rapid progress in our understanding of the brain basis of at least some aspects of this rather complex aspect of cognition. This work has provided fresh perspectives on poorly understood brain regions, such as orbitofrontal cortex and ventral striatum...
February 18, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203355/who-is-the-usual-suspect-evidence-of-a-selection-bias-toward-faces-that-make-direct-eye-contact-in-a-lineup-task
#12
Jessica Taubert, Celine van Golde, Frans A J Verstraten
The speed and ease with which we recognize the faces of our friends and family members belies the difficulty we have recognizing less familiar individuals. Nonetheless, overconfidence in our ability to recognize faces has carried over into various aspects of our legal system; for instance, eyewitness identification serves a critical role in criminal proceedings. For this reason, understanding the perceptual and psychological processes that underlie false identification is of the utmost importance. Gaze direction is a salient social signal and direct eye contact, in particular, is thought to capture attention...
January 2017: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195556/how-neuroscience-can-inform-the-study-of-individual-differences-in-cognitive-abilities
#13
Dennis J McFarland
Theories of human mental abilities should be consistent with what is known in neuroscience. Currently, tests of human mental abilities are modeled by cognitive constructs such as attention, working memory, and speed of information processing. These constructs are in turn related to a single general ability. However, brains are very complex systems and whether most of the variability between the operations of different brains can be ascribed to a single factor is questionable. Research in neuroscience suggests that psychological processes such as perception, attention, decision, and executive control are emergent properties of interacting distributed networks...
February 14, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187812/family-discussions-on-life-sustaining-interventions-in-neurocritical-care
#14
REVIEW
M M Adil, D Larriviere
Approximately 20% of all deaths in the USA occur in the intensive care unit (ICU) and the majority of ICU deaths involves decision of de-escalation of life-sustaining interventions. Life-sustaining interventions may include intubation and mechanical ventilation, artificial nutrition and hydration, antibiotic treatment, brain surgery, or vasoactive support. Decision making about goals of care can be defined as an end-of-life communication and the decision-making process between a clinician and a patient (or a surrogate decision maker if the patient is incapable) in an institutional setting to establish a plan of care...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117260/linear-accelerator-radiosurgery-for-arteriovenous-malformations-updated-literature-review
#15
REVIEW
S Yahya, G Heyes, P Nightingale, S Lamin, S Chavda, I Geh, D Spooner, G Cruickshank, P Sanghera
Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are the leading causing of intra-cerebral haemorrhage. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is an established treatment for arteriovenous malformations (AVM) and commonly delivered using Gamma Knife within dedicated radiosurgery units. Linear accelerator (LINAC) SRS is increasingly available however debate remains over whether it offers an equivalent outcome. The aim of this project is to evaluate the outcomes using LINAC SRS for AVMs used within a UK neurosciences unit and review the literature to aid decision making across various SRS platforms...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088350/the-emotive-nature-of-conflict-monitoring-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#16
Blair Saunders, Hause Lin, Marina Milyavskaya, Michael Inzlicht
The detection of conflict between incompatible impulses, thoughts, and actions is a ubiquitous source of motivation across theories of goal-directed action. In this overview, we explore the hypothesis that conflict is emotive, integrating perspectives from affective science and cognitive neuroscience. Initially, we review evidence suggesting that the mental and biological processes that monitor for information processing conflict-particularly those generated by the anterior midcingulate cortex-track the affective significance of conflict and use this signal to motivate increased control...
January 11, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074581/conflating-capacity-authority-why-we-re-asking-the-wrong-question-in-the-adolescent-decision-making-debate
#17
Erica K Salter
Whether adolescents should be allowed to make their own medical decisions has been a topic of discussion in bioethics for at least two decades now. Are adolescents sufficiently capacitated to make their own medical decisions? Is the mature-minor doctrine, an uncommon legal exception to the rule of parental decision-making authority, something we should expand or eliminate? Bioethicists have dealt with the curious liminality of adolescents-their being neither children nor adults-in a variety of ways. However, recently there has been a trend to rely heavily, and often exclusively, on emerging neuroscientific and psychological data to answer these questions...
January 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056343/perceptual-decision-making-in-rodents-monkeys-and-humans
#18
REVIEW
Timothy D Hanks, Christopher Summerfield
Perceptual decision making is the process by which animals detect, discriminate, and categorize information from the senses. Over the past two decades, understanding how perceptual decisions are made has become a central theme in the neurosciences. Exceptional progress has been made by recording from single neurons in the cortex of the macaque monkey and using computational models from mathematical psychology to relate these neural data to behavior. More recently, however, the range of available techniques and paradigms has dramatically broadened, and researchers have begun to harness new approaches to explore how rodents and humans make perceptual decisions...
January 4, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036071/the-interplay-of-hippocampus-and-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-in-memory-based-decision-making
#19
REVIEW
Regina A Weilbächer, Sebastian Gluth
Episodic memory and value-based decision making are two central and intensively studied research domains in cognitive neuroscience, but we are just beginning to understand how they interact to enable memory-based decisions. The two brain regions that have been associated with episodic memory and value-based decision making are the hippocampus and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, respectively. In this review article, we first give an overview of these brain-behavior associations and then focus on the mechanisms of potential interactions between the hippocampus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex that have been proposed and tested in recent neuroimaging studies...
December 29, 2016: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982418/a-developmental-neuroscience-study-of-moral-decision-making-regarding-resource-allocation
#20
Kimberly L Meidenbauer, Jason M Cowell, Melanie Killen, Jean Decety
Distinguishing between equity and equality is essential when making social and moral decisions, yet the related neurodevelopmental processes are unknown. Evaluations of contextually based third-party distributions incorporating recipient need and resource importance were examined in children and adolescents (N = 82; 8-16 years). Spatiotemporal neurodynamic responses show distinct developmental profiles to viewing such distributions. Event-related potentials (ERPs) differentially predicted real-life behaviors based on age, where older children's (8-10 years) evaluations were related to a fairly rapid, automatic ERP component (early posterior negativity), whereas adolescent and preadolescent (11-16 years) evaluations, first-person allocations, and prosocial behaviors were predicted by later, cognitively controlled ERP components (P3 and late positive potential)...
December 16, 2016: Child Development
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