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Neuroscience of decision making

John P O'Doherty, Jeffrey Cockburn, Wolfgang M Pauli
In this review, we summarize findings supporting the existence of multiple behavioral strategies for controlling reward-related behavior, including a dichotomy between the goal-directed or model-based system and the habitual or model-free system in the domain of instrumental conditioning and a similar dichotomy in the realm of Pavlovian conditioning. We evaluate evidence from neuroscience supporting the existence of at least partly distinct neuronal substrates contributing to the key computations necessary for the function of these different control systems...
September 28, 2016: Annual Review of Psychology
Helen H Yang, François St-Pierre
UNLABELLED: A longstanding goal in neuroscience is to understand how spatiotemporal patterns of neuronal electrical activity underlie brain function, from sensory representations to decision making. An emerging technology for monitoring electrical dynamics, voltage imaging using genetically encoded voltage indicators (GEVIs), couples the power of genetics with the advantages of light. Here, we review the properties that determine indicator performance and applicability, discussing both recent progress and technical limitations...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Elyse N Mowle, John F Edens, John W Clark, Karolina Sörman
Several recent studies have examined the effects of mental health and neuroscientific evidence on attitudes toward criminal defendants, suggesting that these factors may influence juror decision-making in meaningful ways. Few studies to date have manipulated both of these variables while also considering theoretically important individual difference variables (e.g., political orientation). Using a criminal case simulation, this study manipulated the presence of evidence concerning mental disorders (psychopathy and schizophrenia) and increasing levels of neuroscientific detail regarding a defendant's brain injury, and examined verdicts and sentencing recommendations in over 400 persons attending jury duty...
September 13, 2016: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
Haiyan Wu, Yi Luo, Chunliang Feng
People often align their behaviors with group opinions, known as social conformity. Many neuroscience studies have explored the neuropsychological mechanisms underlying social conformity. Here we employed a coordinate-based meta-analysis on neuroimaging studies of social conformity with the purpose to reveal the convergence of the underlying neural architecture. We identified a convergence of reported activation foci in regions associated with normative decision-making, including ventral striatum (VS), dorsal posterior medial frontal cortex (dorsal pMFC), and anterior insula (AI)...
August 31, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Terry Lohrenz, Kenneth T Kishida, P Read Montague
Activity in midbrain dopamine neurons modulates the release of dopamine in terminal structures including the striatum, and controls reward-dependent valuation and choice. This fluctuating release of dopamine is thought to encode reward prediction error (RPE) signals and other value-related information crucial to decision-making, and such models have been used to track prediction error signals in the striatum as encoded by BOLD signals. However, until recently there have been no comparisons of BOLD responses and dopamine responses except for one clear correlation of these two signals in rodents...
October 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Nicola Lattanzi, Dario Menicagli, Lorenzo Dal Maso
Globalization phenomena and Information Communication Technology (ICT) are producing deep changes worldwide. The economic environment and society where firms both cooperate and compete with each other are rapidly changing leading firms towards recognizing the role of intangible resources as a source of fresh competitive advantage. Experience, innovation and the ability to create new knowledge completely arise from the act of human resources inviting firms to focus on how to generate and shape knowledge. Therefore, the future of firms depends greatly on how managers are able to explore and exploit human resources...
April 1, 2016: Archives Italiennes de Biologie
Ryan Smith, Richard D Lane
While psychiatry and clinical psychology have long discussed the topic of unconscious emotion, and its potentially explanatory role in psychopathology, this topic has only recently begun to receive attention within cognitive neuroscience. In contrast, neuroscientific research on conscious vs. unconscious processes within perception, memory, decision-making, and cognitive control has seen considerable advances in the last two decades. In this article, we extrapolate from this work, as well as from recent neural models of emotion processing, to outline multiple plausible neuro-cognitive mechanisms that may be able to explain why various aspects of one's own emotional reactions can remain unconscious in specific circumstances...
October 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Roshan Cools
Cognitive control helps us attain our goals by resisting distraction and temptations. Dopaminergic drugs are well known to enhance cognitive control. However, there is great variability in the effects of dopaminergic drugs across different contexts, with beneficial effects on some tasks but detrimental effects on other tasks. The mechanisms underlying this variability across cognitive task demands remain unclear. I aim to elucidate this across-task variability in dopaminergic drug efficacy by going beyond classic models that emphasize the importance of dopamine in the prefrontal cortex for cognitive control and working memory...
September 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Cary Frydman, Colin F Camerer
Financial decisions are among the most important life-shaping decisions that people make. We review facts about financial decisions and what cognitive and neural processes influence them. Because of cognitive constraints and a low average level of financial literacy, many household decisions violate sound financial principles. Households typically have underdiversified stock holdings and low retirement savings rates. Investors overextrapolate from past returns and trade too often. Even top corporate managers, who are typically highly educated, make decisions that are affected by overconfidence and personal history...
September 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Stijn A A Massar, Julian Lim, Karen Sasmita, Michael W L Chee
Maintaining sustained attention over time is an effortful process limited by finite cognitive resources. Recent theories describe the role of motivation in the allocation of such resources as a decision process: the costs of effortful performance are weighed against its gains. We examined this hypothesis by combining methods from attention research and decision neuroscience. Participants first performed a sustained attention task at different levels of reward. They then performed a reward-discounting task, measuring the subjective costs of performance...
October 2016: Biological Psychology
Huixin Wu, Dianxu Ren, Glenn R Zinsmeister, Gretchen E Zewe, Patricia K Tuite
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to develop, implement, and evaluate the impact of early intensive care unit (ICU) nurse-led family meetings on nurse-family communication, family decision making, and satisfaction of family members. BACKGROUND: Intensive care unit nurses are in an ideal position to meet family needs, and family members may cope better with the crisis of an ICU admission if consistent honest information is provided by nurses; however, there are no early ICU family meetings led by bedside nurses...
September 2016: Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing: DCCN
Kristen H Griffin, Kent C Nate, Rachael L Rivard, Jon B Christianson, Jeffery A Dusek
OBJECTIVE: To examine patterns of, and decision-making processes, informing referrals for inpatient access to integrative medicine (IM) services at a large, acute care hospital. DESIGN: Retrospective electronic health record review and structured qualitative interviews. SETTING: A 630-bed tertiary care hospital with an IM service available to inpatients. PARTICIPANTS: IM referrals of all inpatients aged ≥18 years between July 2012 and December 2014 were identified using the hospital's electronic health record...
2016: BMJ Open
Jon Leefmann, Clement Levallois, Elisabeth Hildt
In bioethics, the first decade of the twenty-first century was characterized by the emergence of interest in the ethical, legal, and social aspects of neuroscience research. At the same time an ongoing extension of the topics and phenomena addressed by neuroscientists was observed alongside its rise as one of the leading disciplines in the biomedical science. One of these phenomena addressed by neuroscientists and moral psychologists was the neural processes involved in moral decision-making. Today both strands of research are often addressed under the label of neuroethics...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Kim Drnec, Amar R Marathe, Jamie R Lukos, Jason S Metcalfe
Human automation interaction (HAI) systems have thus far failed to live up to expectations mainly because human users do not always interact with the automation appropriately. Trust in automation (TiA) has been considered a central influence on the way a human user interacts with an automation; if TiA is too high there will be overuse, if TiA is too low there will be disuse. However, even though extensive research into TiA has identified specific HAI behaviors, or trust outcomes, a unique mapping between trust states and trust outcomes has yet to be clearly identified...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Nabil Benzina, Luc Mallet, Eric Burguière, Karim N'Diaye, Antoine Pelissolo
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental disorder featuring obsessions (intrusive thoughts) and compulsions (repetitive behaviors performed in the context of rigid rituals). There is strong evidence for a neurobiological basis of this disorder, involving limbic cortical regions and related basal ganglion areas. However, more research is needed to lift the veil on the precise nature of that involvement and the way it drives the clinical expression of OCD. Altered cognitive functions may underlie the symptoms and thus draw a link between the clinical expression of the disorder and its neurobiological etiology...
September 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
Catharine A Winstanley, Luke Clark
Gambling is a harmless, recreational pastime that is ubiquitous across cultures. However, for some, gambling becomes a maladaptive and compulsive, and this syndrome is conceptualized as a behavioural addiction. Laboratory models that capture the key cognitive processes involved in gambling behaviour, and that can be translated across species, have the potential to make an important contribution to both decision neuroscience and the study of addictive disorders. The Iowa gambling task has been widely used to assess human decision-making under uncertainty, and this paradigm can be successfully modelled in rodents...
2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Nadia Said, Michael Engelhart, Christian Kirches, Stefan Körkel, Daniel V Holt
Computational models of cognition provide an interface to connect advanced mathematical tools and methods to empirically supported theories of behavior in psychology, cognitive science, and neuroscience. In this article, we consider a computational model of instance-based learning, implemented in the ACT-R cognitive architecture. We propose an approach for obtaining mathematical reformulations of such cognitive models that improve their computational tractability. For the well-established Sugar Factory dynamic decision making task, we conduct a simulation study to analyze central model parameters...
2016: PloS One
Alison Harris, Seung-Lark Lim
UNLABELLED: Although physical effort can impose significant costs on decision-making, when and how effort cost information is incorporated into choice remains contested, reflecting a larger debate over the role of sensorimotor networks in specifying behavior. Serial information processing models, in which motor circuits simply implement the output of cognitive systems, hypothesize that effort cost factors into decisions relatively late, via integration with stimulus values into net (combined) value signals in dorsomedial frontal cortex (dmFC)...
July 6, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Mathieu Servant, Corey White, Anna Montagnini, Borís Burle
A current challenge for decision-making research is in extending models of simple decisions to more complex and ecological choice situations. Conflict tasks (e.g., Simon, Stroop, Eriksen flanker) have been the focus of much interest, because they provide a decision-making context representative of everyday life experiences. Modeling efforts have led to an elaborated drift diffusion model for conflict tasks (DMC), which implements a superimposition of automatic and controlled decision activations. The DMC has proven to capture the diversity of behavioral conflict effects across various task contexts...
October 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Peter J Cassey, Garren Gaut, Mark Steyvers, Scott D Brown
Theory development in both psychology and neuroscience can benefit by consideration of both behavioral and neural data sets. However, the development of appropriate methods for linking these data sets is a difficult statistical and conceptual problem. Over the past decades, different linking approaches have been employed in the study of perceptual decision-making, beginning with rudimentary linking of the data sets at a qualitative, structural level, culminating in sophisticated statistical approaches with quantitative links...
May 31, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
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