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Neuroscience of decision making

Francisco Magalhães, Kaline Rocha, Victor Marinho, Jéssica Ribeiro, Thomaz Oliveira, Carla Ayres, Thalys Bento, Francisca Leite, Daya Gupta, Victor Hugo Bastos, Bruna Velasques, Pedro Ribeiro, Marco Orsini, Silmar Teixeira
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease is described as resulting from dopaminergic cells progressive degeneration, specifically in the substantia nigra pars compacta that influence the voluntary movements control, decision making and time perception. AIM: This review had a goal to update the relation between time perception and Parkinson's Disease. METHODOLOGY: We used the PRISMA methodology for this investigation built guided for subjects dopaminergic dysfunction in the time judgment, pharmacological models with levodopa and new studies on the time perception in Parkinson's Disease...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Xiaosong He, Danielle S Bassett, Ganne Chaitanya, Michael R Sperling, Lauren Kozlowski, Joseph I Tracy
Temporal lobe epilepsy tends to reshape the language system causing maladaptive reorganization that can be characterized by task-based functional MRI, and eventually can contribute to surgical decision making processes. However, the dynamic interacting nature of the brain as a complex system is often neglected, with many studies treating the language system as a static monolithic structure. Here, we demonstrate that as a specialized and integrated system, the language network is inherently dynamic, characterized by rich patterns of regional interactions, whose transient dynamics are disrupted in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy...
March 15, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Tanveer Talukdar, Francisco J Román, Joachim T Operskalski, Christopher E Zwilling, Aron K Barbey
While an extensive literature in decision neuroscience has elucidated the neurobiological foundations of decision making, prior research has focused primarily on group-level effects in a sample population. Due to the presence of inherent differences between individuals' cognitive abilities, it is also important to examine the neural correlates of decision making that explain interindividual variability in cognitive performance. This study therefore investigated how individual differences in decision making competence, as measured by the Adult Decision Making Competence (A-DMC) battery, are related to functional brain connectivity patterns derived from resting-state fMRI data in a sample of 304 healthy participants...
March 8, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Gregorio Luis Galiñanes, Claudia Bonardi, Daniel Huber
Optogenetic tools and imaging methods for recording and manipulating brain activity have boosted the field of neuroscience in unprecedented ways. However, behavioral paradigms for mice lag behind those of primates, limiting the full potential of such tools. Here, we present an innovative behavioral framework in which head-fixed mice directionally reach for water droplets, similar to the primate "center-out" reaching task. Mice rapidly engaged in the task, performed hundreds of trials, and reached in multiple directions when droplets were presented at different locations...
March 6, 2018: Cell Reports
Paul F Cook, Sarah J Schmiege, Blaine Reeder, Sara Horton-Deutsch, Nancy K Lowe, Paula Meek
BACKGROUND: Health promotion and chronic disease management both require behavior change, but people find it hard to change behavior despite having good intentions. The problem arises because patients' narratives about experiences and intentions are filtered through memory and language. These narratives inaccurately reflect intuitive decision-making or actual behaviors. OBJECTIVES: We propose a principle-temporal immediacy-as a moderator variable that explains which of two mental systems (narrative or intuitive) will be activated in any given situation...
March 2018: Nursing Research
Michael Inzlicht, Amitai Shenhav, Christopher Y Olivola
According to prominent models in cognitive psychology, neuroscience, and economics, effort (be it physical or mental) is costly: when given a choice, humans and non-human animals alike tend to avoid effort. Here, we suggest that the opposite is also true and review extensive evidence that effort can also add value. Not only can the same outcomes be more rewarding if we apply more (not less) effort, sometimes we select options precisely because they require effort. Given the increasing recognition of effort's role in motivation, cognitive control, and value-based decision-making, considering this neglected side of effort will not only improve formal computational models, but also provide clues about how to promote sustained mental effort across time...
February 21, 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Mary A Ott, Francis P Crawley, Xavier Sáez-Llorens, Seth Owusu-Agyei, David Neubauer, Gary Dubin, Tatjana Poplazarova, Norman Begg, Susan L Rosenthal
Children of minor parents are under-represented in clinical trials. This is largely because of the ethical, legal, and regulatory complexities in the enrolment, consent, and appropriate access of children of minor parents to clinical research. Using a case-based approach, we examine appropriate access of children of minor parents in an international vaccine trial. We first consider the scientific justification for inclusion of children of minor parents in a vaccine trial. Laws and regulations governing consent generally do not address the issue of minor parents...
February 23, 2018: Paediatric Drugs
Mirre Stallen, Filippo Rossi, Amber Heijne, Ale Smidts, Carsten K W De Dreu, Alan G Sanfey
People are particularly sensitive to injustice. Accordingly, deeper knowledge regarding the processes that underlie the perception of injustice, and the subsequent decisions to either punish transgressors or compensate victims, is of important social value. By combining a novel decision-making paradigm with functional neuroimaging, we identified specific brain networks that are involved with both the perception of, and response to, social injustice, with reward-related regions preferentially involved in punishment compared to compensation...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Marion Rouault, Tricia Seow, Claire M Gillan, Stephen M Fleming
BACKGROUND: Distortions in metacognition-the ability to reflect on and control other cognitive processes-are thought to be characteristic of poor mental health. However, it remains unknown whether such shifts in self-evaluation are due to specific alterations in metacognition and/or a downstream consequence of changes in decision-making processes. METHODS: Using perceptual decision making as a model system, we employed a computational psychiatry approach to relate parameters governing both decision formation and metacognitive evaluation to self-reported transdiagnostic symptom dimensions in a large general population sample (N = 995)...
January 11, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Eva H Telzer, Jorien van Hoorn, Christina R Rogers, Kathy T Do
Susceptibility to social influence is associated with a host of negative outcomes during adolescence. However, emerging evidence implicates the role of peers and parents in adolescents' positive and adaptive adjustment. Hence, in this chapter we highlight social influence as an opportunity for promoting social adjustment, which can redirect negative trajectories and help adolescents thrive. We discuss influential models about the processes underlying social influence, with a particular emphasis on internalizing social norms, embedded in social learning and social identity theory...
2018: Advances in Child Development and Behavior
Patrick M Tyler, Stuart F White, Ronald W Thompson, R J R Blair
A cognitive neuroscience perspective seeks to understand behavior, in this case disruptive behavior disorders (DBD), in terms of dysfunction in cognitive processes underpinned by neural processes. While this type of approach has clear implications for clinical mental health practice, it also has implications for school-based assessment and intervention with children and adolescents who have disruptive behavior and aggression. This review articulates a cognitive neuroscience account of DBD by discussing the neurocognitive dysfunction related to emotional empathy, threat sensitivity, reinforcement-based decision-making, and response inhibition...
February 12, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Céline Ramdani, Franck Vidal, Alain Dagher, Laurence Carbonnell, Thierry Hasbroucq
The role of dopaminergic system in decision-making is well documented, and evidence suggests that it could play a significant role in response selection processes. The N-40 is a fronto-central event-related potential, generated by the supplementary motor areas (SMAs) and a physiological index of response selection processes. The aim of the present study was to determine whether infraclinical effects of dopamine depletion on response selection processes could be evidenced via alterations of the N-40. We obtained a dopamine depletion in healthy volunteers with the acute phenylalanine and tyrosine depletion (APTD) method which consists in decreasing the availability of dopamine precursors...
February 9, 2018: Psychopharmacology
R N McGinty, D J Costello, B McNamara, P Kinirons, B J Sweeney
An evaluation of the clinical yield of inpatient long-term video-EEG (vEEG) in a new epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) was undertaken, with findings compared to the centre's prior method of bedside vEEG recording in a standard neurology ward, as reported in 2004. A retrospective analysis of neurophysiology reports for all adults who underwent elective vEEG monitoring in the EMU at Cork University Hospital between January 2015 and July 2016 was conducted. Of 115 vEEG studies in the EMU, 100 (87.0%) were deemed diagnostically conclusive, 14 (12...
August 8, 2017: Irish Medical Journal
Kevin B Huang, Urs Weber, Jennifer Johnson, Nathanial Anderson, Andrea K Knies, Belinda Nhundu, Cynthia Bautista, Kelly Poskus, Kevin N Sheth, David Y Hwang
PURPOSE: An intensive care unit (ICU) patient's primary care physician (PCP) may be able to assist family with certain ICU shared medical decisions. We explored whether families of patients in nonopen ICUs who nevertheless report involvement of a patient's PCP in medical decision making are more satisfied with ICU shared decision making than families who do not. METHODS: Between March 2013 and December 2015, we administered the Family Satisfaction in the ICU 24 survey to family members of adult neuroscience ICU patients...
January 2018: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
Araceli Diaz-Ruiz, Ulises Orbe-Arteaga, Camilo Rios, Ernesto Roldan-Valadez
CONTEXT: The decision about which journal to choose for the publication of research deserves further investigation. AIMS: In this study, we evaluate the predictive ability of seven bibliometrics in the Web of Knowledge to calculate total cites over a 7-year period in neuroscience journals. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Coincidental bibliometrics appearing during 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, and 2011, along with their corresponding cites in 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, and 2013, were recorded from the journal citation reports (JCR) Science Edition...
January 2018: Neurology India
Aasef G Shaikh, David S Zee
The study of eye movements not only addresses debilitating neuro-ophthalmological problems but has become an essential tool of basic neuroscience research. Eye movements are a classic way to evaluate brain function-traditionally in disorders affecting the brainstem and cerebellum. Abnormalities of eye movements have localizing value and help narrow the differential diagnosis of complex neurological problems. More recently, using sophisticated behavioral paradigms, measurement of eye movements has also been applied to disorders of the thalamus, basal ganglia, and cerebral cortex...
December 19, 2017: Cerebellum
Jeffrey Annis, Thomas J Palmeri
Cognitive models aim to explain complex human behavior in terms of hypothesized mechanisms of the mind. These mechanisms can be formalized in terms of mathematical structures containing parameters that are theoretically meaningful. For example, in the case of perceptual decision making, model parameters might correspond to theoretical constructs like response bias, evidence quality, response caution, and the like. Formal cognitive models go beyond verbal models in that cognitive mechanisms are instantiated in terms of mathematics and they go beyond statistical models in that cognitive model parameters are psychologically interpretable...
March 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Nathan J Evans, Guy E Hawkins, Udo Boehm, Eric-Jan Wagenmakers, Scott D Brown
We investigate a question relevant to the psychology and neuroscience of perceptual decision-making: whether decisions are based on steadily accumulating evidence, or only on the most recent evidence. We report an empirical comparison between two of the most prominent examples of these theoretical positions, the diffusion model and the urgency-gating model, via model-based qualitative and quantitative comparisons. Our findings support the predictions of the diffusion model over the urgency-gating model, and therefore, the notion that evidence accumulates without much decay...
November 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
Vivienne A Russell
Neuroscience began with neuroanatomy and neurosurgery in Egypt more than 5000 years ago. Knowledge grew over time and specialized neurosurgery centers were established in north Africa in the eleventh century. However, it was not until the twentieth century that neuroscience research became established in sub-Saharan Africa. In most African countries, clinical research focused on understanding the rationale and improving treatment of epilepsy, infections, nutritional neuropathies, stroke and tumors. Significant advances were made...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Muireann Irish, Marlieke T R van Kesteren
Human lesion studies represent the cornerstone of modern day neuropsychology and provide an important adjunct to functional neuroimaging methods. The study of human lesion groups with damage to distinct regions of the brain permits the identification of underlying mechanisms and structures not only associated with, but essential for, complex cognitive processes. Here, we consider a recent review by McCormick et al. in which the power of the lesion model approach is elegantly presented with respect to a host of sophisticated cognitive endeavors, including autobiographical memory, future thinking, spatial navigation, and decision-making...
November 6, 2017: Neuroscience
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