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Orbitofrontal cortex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767786/functional-connectivity-of-the-human-amygdala-in-health-and-in-depression
#1
Wei Cheng, Edmund T Rolls, Jiang Qiu, Xiongfei Xie, Wujun Lyu, Yu Li, Chu-Chung Huang, Albert C Yang, Shih-Jen Tsai, Fajin Lyu, Kaixiang Zhuang, Ching-Po Lin, Peng Xie, Jianfeng Feng
To analyze the functioning of the amygdala in depression, we performed the first voxel-level resting state functional-connectivity neuroimaging analysis of depression of voxels in the amygdala with all other voxels in the brain, with 336 patients with major depressive disorder and 350 controls. Amygdala voxels had decreased functional connectivity with the orbitofrontal cortex, temporal lobe areas, including the temporal pole, inferior temporal gyrus, and the parahippocampal gyrus. The reductions in the strengths of the functional connectivity of the amygdala voxels with the medial orbitofrontal cortex and temporal lobe voxels were correlated with increases in the Beck Depression Inventory score and in the duration of illness measures of depression...
May 14, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766293/nmda-receptor-subunits-change-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-pure-opioid-and-multi-drug-abusers-a-post-mortem-study
#2
Hamidreza Daneshparvar, Mitra-Sadat Sadat-Shirazi, Monir Fekri, Solmaz Khalifeh, Ali Ziaie, Nasrin Esfahanizadeh, Nasim Vousooghi, Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast
Addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder and is one of the most important issues in the world. Changing the level of neurotransmitters and the activities of their receptors, play a major role in the pathophysiology of substance abuse disorders. It is well-established that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) play a significant role in the molecular basis of addiction. NMDAR has two obligatory GluN1 and two regionally localized GluN2 subunits. This study investigated changes in the protein level of GluN1, GluN2A, and GluN2B in the prefrontal cortex of drug abusers...
May 16, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762664/behavioral-and-serotonergic-changes-in-the-frontal-cortex-following-methamphetamine-self-administration
#3
Lisa M McFadden, Rebecca Cordie, Tamee Livermont, Andrew Johansen
Background: Methamphetamine (METH) use is associated with a variety of negative health outcomes including psychosis. The frontal cortex serotonin (5-HT)-2 receptors are thought to contribute to psychosis-like behaviors. This study investigated changes in serotonergic markers in the frontal cortex following METH self-administration and hallucinogenic drug-induced behavior. Methods: Consistent with previously published studies, freely-cycling male and female rats were allowed to self-administer METH (Males: 0...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761016/the-effects-of-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-on-resting-state-functional-brain-network-in-drug-naive-patients-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#4
Ping Li, Xiangyun Yang, Andrew J Greenshaw, Sufang Li, Jia Luo, Haiying Han, Jing Liu, Zhaoxi Zhong, Zhihua Guo, Hongfang Xiong, Shumin Yao, Yunhui Chen, Jing Sun, Zhanjiang Li
Objectives: Although cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the treatment mechanisms remain poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the effects of CBT on changes in the intrinsic whole-brain functional network of OCD patients. Materials and Methods: Twenty drug-naive and noncomorbid OCD patients were recruited, and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed before and after 12 weeks of CBT...
May 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754412/affective-neuroscience-of-self-generated-thought
#5
REVIEW
Kieran C R Fox, Jessica R Andrews-Hanna, Caitlin Mills, Matthew L Dixon, Jelena Markovic, Evan Thompson, Kalina Christoff
Despite increasing scientific interest in self-generated thought-mental content largely independent of the immediate environment-there has yet to be any comprehensive synthesis of the subjective experience and neural correlates of affect in these forms of thinking. Here, we aim to develop an integrated affective neuroscience encompassing many forms of self-generated thought-normal and pathological, moderate and excessive, in waking and in sleep. In synthesizing existing literature on this topic, we reveal consistent findings pertaining to the prevalence, valence, and variability of emotion in self-generated thought, and highlight how these factors might interact with self-generated thought to influence general well-being...
May 12, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751017/differential-contributions-of-cortical-thickness-and-surface-area-to-trait-impulsivity-in-healthy-young-adults
#6
Katharina M Kubera, Mike M Schmitgen, Klaus H Maier-Hein, Philipp A Thomann, Dusan Hirjak, Robert C Wolf
BACKGROUND: Impulsivity is an essential human personality trait and highly relevant for the development of several mental disorders. There is evidence that impulsivity is heritable, yet little is known about neural correlates reflecting early brain development. Here, we address the question whether motor, attentional and non-planning components, as reflected by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), are distinctly associated with cortical thickness and surface area variations in young healthy individuals...
May 8, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748771/inhibition-impairment-in-frontotemporal-dementia-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-and-alzheimer-s-disease-clinical-assessment-and-metabolic-correlates
#7
Jordi A Matías-Guiu, María Nieves Cabrera-Martín, María Valles-Salgado, Teresa Rognoni, Lucía Galán, Teresa Moreno-Ramos, José Luis Carreras, Jorge Matías-Guiu
The ability to reject an automatic tendency, i.e. inhibition, has been linked to the prefrontal cortex, but its neural underpinnings are still controversial. Neurodegenerative diseases represent an interesting model to explore this issue, given its frequent impairment in these disorders. We investigated the inhibitory impairment and its neural basis using four different tests, which evaluate the presence of inhibitory dysfunction (Stroop test, Hayling test, and two graphical perseveration tests), and assessed their correlation with brain metabolism using 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in a group of 76 participants with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and healthy controls (HC)...
May 10, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744800/trait-and-state-patterns-of-basolateral-amygdala-connectivity-at-rest-are-related-to-endogenous-testosterone-and-aggression-in-healthy-young-women
#8
Macià Buades-Rotger, Christin Engelke, Ulrike M Krämer
The steroid hormone testosterone (T) has been suggested to influence reactive aggression upon its action on the basolateral amygdala (BLA), a key brain region for threat detection. However, it is unclear whether T modulates resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the BLA, and whether this predicts subsequent aggressive behavior. Aggressive interactions themselves, which often induce changes in T concentrations, could further alter BLA rsFC, but this too remains untested. Here we investigated the effect of endogenous T on rsFC of the BLA at baseline as well as after an aggressive encounter, and whether this was related to behavioral aggression in healthy young women (n = 39)...
May 9, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740266/improvement-of-olfactory-function-with-high-frequency-non-invasive-auricular-electrostimulation-in-healthy-humans
#9
Ashim Maharjan, Eunice Wang, Mei Peng, Yusuf O Cakmak
In past literature on animal models, invasive vagal nerve stimulation using high frequencies has shown to be effective at modulating the activity of the olfactory bulb (OB). Recent advances in invasive vagal nerve stimulation in humans, despite previous findings in animal models, used low frequency stimulation and found no effect on the olfactory functioning. The present article aimed to test potential effects of non-invasive, high and low frequency vagal nerve stimulation in humans, with supplementary exploration of the orbitofrontal cortex using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737739/-preliminary-study-of-dti-on-cerebral-white-matter-micro-structure-of-patients-with-idiopathic-olfactory-loss
#10
Lin Yin Yao, Yi Chen Guo, Xiao Jun Zhan, Zhi Fu Sun, Ying Li, Yong Xiang Wei
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the cerebral white matter micro-structure in patients with idiopathic olfactory loss using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). METHODS: Sixteen patients with idiopathic olfactory loss and sixteen normal subjects matched by age and sex were recruited in this study. Sniffin'Stick olfactory test was performed to evaluate the olfactory function of all subjects. We acquired diffusion tensor images with an echo planar imaging (EPI) sequence from all subject on a 3T scanner...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731709/spike-timing-of-orbitofrontal-neurons-is-synchronized-with-breathing
#11
Áron Kőszeghy, Bálint Lasztóczi, Thomas Forro, Thomas Klausberger
The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) has been implicated in a multiplicity of complex brain functions, including representations of expected outcome properties, post-decision confidence, momentary food-reward values, complex flavors and odors. As breathing rhythm has an influence on odor processing at primary olfactory areas, we tested the hypothesis that it may also influence neuronal activity in the OFC, a prefrontal area involved also in higher order processing of odors. We recorded spike timing of orbitofrontal neurons as well as local field potentials (LFPs) in awake, head-fixed mice, together with the breathing rhythm...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730826/using-coordinate-based-meta-analyses-to-explore-structural-imaging-genetics
#12
Hildegard Janouschek, Claudia R Eickhoff, Thomas W Mühleisen, Simon B Eickhoff, Thomas Nickl-Jockschat
Imaging genetics has become a highly popular approach in the field of schizophrenia research. A frequently reported finding is that effects from common genetic variation are associated with a schizophrenia-related structural endophenotype. Genetic contributions to a structural endophenotype may be easier to delineate, when referring to biological rather than diagnostic criteria. We used coordinate-based meta-analyses, namely the anatomical likelihood estimation (ALE) algorithm on 30 schizophrenia-related imaging genetics studies, representing 44 single-nucleotide polymorphisms at 26 gene loci investigated in 4682 subjects...
May 5, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729357/effects-of-systemic-cholinergic-antagonism-on-reinforcer-devaluation-in-macaques
#13
Hannah F Waguespack, Ludise Málková, Patrick A Forcelli, Janita Turchi
The capacity to adjust actions based on new information is a vital cognitive function. An animal's ability to adapt behavioral responses according to changes in reward value can be measured using a reinforcer devaluation task, wherein the desirability of a given object is reduced by decreasing the value of the associated food reinforcement. Elements of the neural circuits serving this ability have been studied in both rodents and nonhuman primates. Specifically, the basolateral amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, and mediodorsal thalamus have each been shown to play a critical role in the process of value updating, required for adaptive goal selection...
May 2, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727807/voxel-based-morphometry-analysis-of-structural-brain-scans-in-skin-picking-disorder
#14
Anne Schienle, Jonas Potthoff, Albert Wabnegger
BACKGROUND: Skin-picking disorder (SPD) is characterized by the excessive and repetitive manipulation of one's own skin resulting in tissue damage and impaired social functioning. There are only a few studies with small sample sizes that examined possible brain abnormalities in SPD, which is classified as a syndrome related to obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD). METHOD: The current voxel-based morphometry (VBM) study compared data from 35 SPD patients and 35 control participants including both genders (mean age = 35 years, SD = 15)...
April 26, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726890/olfactory-fmri-implications-of-stimulation-length-and-repetition-time
#15
Charalampos Georgiopoulos, Suzanne T Witt, Sven Haller, Nil Dizdar, Helene Zachrisson, Maria Engström, Elna-Marie Larsson
Studying olfaction with functional Magnetic Resonance imaging (fMRI) poses various methodological challenges. This study aimed to investigate the effects of stimulation length and repetition time (TR) on the activation pattern of four olfactory brain regions: the anterior and the posterior piriform cortex, the orbitofrontal cortex and the insula. 22 healthy participants with normal olfaction were examined with fMRI, with two stimulation lengths (6 seconds and 15 seconds) and two TRs (0.901 seconds and 1.34 seconds)...
May 3, 2018: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722327/structural-neural-connectivity-of-the-vestibular-nuclei-in-the-human-brain-a-diffusion-tensor-imagings-study
#16
Sung Ho Jang, Mi Young Lee, Sang Seok Yeo, Hyeok Gyu Kwon
Many animal studies have reported on the neural connectivity of the vestibular nuclei (VN). However, little is reported on the structural neural connectivity of the VN in the human brain. In this study, we attempted to investigate the structural neural connectivity of the VN in 37 healthy subjects using diffusion tensor tractography. A seed region of interest was placed on the isolated VN using probabilistic diffusion tensor tractography. Connectivity was defined as the incidence of connection between the VN and each brain region...
April 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715538/age-and-sex-dependent-effects-of-methamphetamine-on-cognitive-flexibility-and-5-ht-2c-receptor-localization-in-the-orbitofrontal-cortex-of-sprague-dawley-rats
#17
Emily R Hankosky, Sara R Westbrook, Rachel M Haake, Jari Willing, Lori T Raetzman, Janice M Juraska, Joshua M Gulley
Adolescents and females experience worse outcomes of drug use compared to adults and males. This could result from age- and sex-specific consequences of drug exposure on brain function and cognitive behavior. In the current study, we examined whether a history of intravenous methamphetamine (METH) self-administration impacted cognitive flexibility and 5-HT2C R localization in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in an age- and sex-dependent manner. Strategy shifting was assessed in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats that had self-administered METH (0...
April 28, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714166/differential-inputs-to-striatal-cholinergic-and-parvalbumin-interneurons-imply-functional-distinctions
#18
Jason R Klug, Max D Engelhardt, Cara N Cadman, Hao Li, Jared B Smith, Sarah Ayala, Elora W Williams, Hilary Hoffman, Xin Jin
Striatal cholinergic (ChAT) and parvalbumin (PV) interneurons exert powerful influences on striatal function in health and disease, yet little is known about the organization of their inputs. Here using rabies tracing, electrophysiology and genetic tools, we compare the whole-brain inputs to these two types of striatal interneurons and dissect their functional connectivity in mice. ChAT interneurons receive a substantial cortical input from associative regions of cortex, such as the orbitofrontal cortex. Amongst subcortical inputs, a previously unknown inhibitory thalamic reticular nucleus input to striatal PV interneurons is identified...
May 1, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712780/the-neural-correlates-of-hierarchical-predictions-for-perceptual-decisions
#19
Veith Weilnhammer, Heiner Stuke, Philipp Sterzer, Katharina Schmack
Sensory information is inherently noisy, sparse and ambiguous. In contrast, visual experience is usually clear, detailed and stable. Bayesian theories of perception resolve this discrepancy by assuming that prior knowledge about the causes underlying sensory stimulation actively shapes perceptual decisions. To this end, the central nervous system is believed to entertain a generative model aligned to dynamic changes in the hierarchical states of our volatile sensory environment. Here, we used model-based fMRI to study the neural correlates of the dynamic updating of hierarchically structured predictions in male and female human observers...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706587/frontostriatal-dysfunction-during-decision-making-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#20
Luke J Norman, Christina O Carlisi, Anastasia Christakou, Clodagh M Murphy, Kaylita Chantiluke, Vincent Giampietro, Andrew Simmons, Michael Brammer, David Mataix-Cols, Katya Rubia
BACKGROUND: The aim of the current paper is to provide the first comparison of computational mechanisms and neurofunctional substrates in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) during decision making under ambiguity. METHODS: Sixteen boys with ADHD, 20 boys with OCD, and 20 matched control subjects (12-18 years of age) completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging version of the Iowa Gambling Task...
March 24, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
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