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Orbitofrontal cortex

Elizabeth G Pitts, Dan C Li, Shannon L Gourley
Specific corticostriatal structures and circuits are important for flexibly shifting between goal-oriented versus habitual behaviors. For example, the orbitofrontal cortex and dorsomedial striatum are critical for goal-directed action, while the dorsolateral striatum supports habits. To determine the role of neurotrophin signaling, we overexpressed a truncated, inactive form of tropomyosin receptor kinase B [also called tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB)], the high-affinity receptor for Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor, in the orbitofrontal cortex, dorsomedial striatum and dorsolateral striatum...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Bei-Bei Wu, Ye Ma, Lei Xie, Jin-Zhuang Huang, Zong-Bo Sun, Zhi-Duo Hou, Rui-Wei Guo, Zhi-Rong Lin, Shou-Xing Duan, Shan-Shan Zhao, Yao-Xie, Dan-Miao Sun, Chun-Min Zhu, Shu-Hua Ma
BACKGROUND: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is associated with cognitive deficit but the exact neural mechanisms remain unclear. PURPOSE: To explore sequential brain activities using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the performance of a decision-making task, and to determine whether serum or clinical markers can reflect the involvement of the brain in SLE. SUBJECTS: Sixteen female SLE patients without overt clinical neuropsychiatric symptoms and 16 healthy controls were included...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Yang Xie, Chechang Nie, Tianming Yang
During value-based decision making, we often evaluate the value of each option sequentially by shifting our attention, even when the options are presented simultaneously. The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) has been suggested to encode value during value-based decision making. Yet it is not known how its activity is modulated by attention shifts. We investigated this question by employing a passive viewing task that allowed us to disentangle effects of attention, value, choice and eye movement. We found that the attention modulated OFC activity through a winner-take-all mechanism...
March 13, 2018: ELife
Deokjong Lee, Jinsick Park, Kee Namkoong, In Young Kim, Young-Chul Jung
Background and aims Altered risk/reward decision-making is suggested to predispose individuals with Internet gaming disorder (IGD) to pursue short-term pleasure, despite long-term negative consequences. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) play important roles in risk/reward decision-making. This study investigated gray matter differences in the ACC and OFC of young adults with and without IGD using surface-based morphometry (SBM). Methods We examined 45 young male adults with IGD and 35 age-matched male controls...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Edmund T Rolls, Wei Cheng, Matthieu Gilson, Jiang Qiu, Zicheng Hu, Hongtao Ruan, Yu Li, Chu-Chung Huang, Albert C Yang, Shih-Jen Tsai, Xiaodong Zhang, Kaixiang Zhuang, Ching-Po Lin, Gustavo Deco, Peng Xie, Jianfeng Feng
BACKGROUND: Resting-state functional connectivity reflects correlations in the activity between brain areas, whereas effective connectivity between different brain areas measures directed influences of brain regions on each other. Using the latter approach, we compare effective connectivity results in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and control subjects. METHODS: We used a new approach to the measurement of effective connectivity, in which each brain area has a simple dynamical model, and known anatomical connectivity is used to provide constraints...
February 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Nerisa Banaj, Federica Piras, Fabrizio Piras, Valentina Ciullo, Mariangela Iorio, Claudia Battaglia, Donatella Pantoli, Giuseppe Ducci, Gianfranco Spalletta
The brain structural correlates of cognitive and psychopathological symptoms within the active phase in severely psychotic schizophrenic inpatients have been rarely investigated. Twenty-eight inpatients with a DSM-5 diagnosis of Schizophrenia (SZ), admitted for acute psychotic decompensation, were assessed through a comprehensive neuropsychological and psychopathological battery. All patients underwent a high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging investigation. Increased psychotic severity was related to reduced grey matter volumes in the medial portion of the right superior frontal cortex, the superior orbitofrontal cortex bilaterally and to white matter volume reduction in the medial portion of the left superior frontal area...
June 2018: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
Marisa A Patti, Vanessa Troiani
Atypical sulcogyral patterns in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) are associated with increased risk for schizophrenia, as well as with quantitative traits associated with schizophrenia, such as anhedonia. Here we conduct a cross-diagnostic comparison to assess whether atypical OFC sulcogyral patterns confer risk for multiple brain disorders. We examined structural images from 4 groups of adult participants (N = 189), including those diagnosed with schizophrenia (SZ; N = 49), bipolar disorder (BP; N = 46), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; N = 41), and controls (N = 53)...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Maike A Hege, Ralf Veit, Jan Krumsiek, Stephanie Kullmann, Martin Heni, Peter J Rogers, Jeffrey M Brunstrom, Andreas Fritsche, Hubert Preissl
Obesity develops due to an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. Besides the decision about what to eat, daily energy intake might be even more dependent on the decision about the portion size to be consumed. For decisions between different foods, attentional focus is considered to play a key role in the choice selection. In the current study, we investigated the attentional modulation of portion size selection during pre-meal planning. We designed a functional magnetic resonance task in which healthy participants were directed to adopt different mindsets while selecting their portion size for lunch...
March 7, 2018: Appetite
Monika J M Murphy, Ariel Y Deutch
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is usually defined as the frontal cortical area receiving a mediodorsal thalamic innervation. Certain areas in the medial wall of the rat frontal area receive an MD innervation. A second frontal area that is the target of MD projections is located dorsal to the rhinal sulcus and often referred to as the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Both the mPFC and OFC are comprised of a large number of cytoarchitectonic regions. We assessed the afferent innervation of the different areas of the OFC, with a focus on projections arising from the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus, the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala, and the midbrain dopamine neurons...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Kevin T Chen, Stephanie Salcedo, Daniel B Chonde, David Izquierdo-Garcia, Michael A Levine, Julie C Price, Bradford C Dickerson, Ciprian Catana
BACKGROUND: Subject motion in positron emission tomography (PET) studies leads to image blurring and artifacts; simultaneously acquired magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data provides a means for motion correction (MC) in integrated PET/MRI scanners. PURPOSE: To assess the effect of realistic head motion and MR-based MC on static [18 F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET images in dementia patients. STUDY TYPE: Observational study. POPULATION: Thirty dementia subjects were recruited...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Brian F Sadacca, Heather M Wied, Nina Lopatina, Gurpreet K Saini, Daniel Nemirovsky, Geoffrey Schoenbaum
Using knowledge of the structure of the world to infer value is at the heart of model-based reasoning and relies on a circuit that includes the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Some accounts link this to the representation of biological significance or value by neurons in OFC, while other models focus on the representation of associative structure or cognitive maps. Here we tested between these accounts by recording OFC neurons in rats during an OFC-dependent sensory preconditioning task. We found that while OFC neurons were strongly driven by biological significance or reward predictions at the end of training, they also showed clear evidence of acquiring the incidental stimulus-stimulus pairings in the preconditioning phase, prior to reward training...
March 7, 2018: ELife
Ana Marques, Franck Durif, Pierre-Olivier Fernagut
Impulse control disorders (ICD) are frequent side effects of dopamine replacement therapy (DRT) used in Parkinson's disease (PD) with devastating consequences on the patients and caregivers. ICD are behavioural addictions including compulsive gambling, shopping, sexual behaviour, and binge eating that are mainly associated with dopamine D2/D3 agonists. Their management is a real clinical challenge due to the lack of therapeutic alternative. Clinical studies have identified demographic and clinical risk factors for ICD such as younger age at disease onset, male gender, prior history of depression or substance abuse, REM sleep behaviour disorders and higher rate of dyskinesia...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Orwa Dandash, Murat Yücel, Rothanthi Daglas, Christos Pantelis, Patrick McGorry, Michael Berk, Alex Fornito
Mood disturbances seen in first-episode mania (FEM) are linked to disturbed functional connectivity of the striatum. Lithium and quetiapine are effective treatments for mania but their neurobiological effects remain largely unknown. We conducted a single-blinded randomized controlled maintenance trial in 61 FEM patients and 30 healthy controls. Patients were stabilized for a minimum of 2 weeks on lithium plus quetiapine then randomly assigned to either lithium (serum level 0.6 mmol/L) or quetiapine (dosed up to 800 mg/day) treatment for 12 months...
March 6, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Panlong Li, Han Shan, Shengxiang Liang, Binbin Nie, Hua Liu, Shaofeng Duan, Qi Huang, Tianhao Zhang, Guanglong Dong, Yulin Guo, Jin Du, Hongkai Gao, Lin Ma, Demin Li, Baoci Shan
OBJECTIVE: Bariatric surgery could recover regional dysfunction of cerebral cortex. However, it is unknown whether bariatric surgery could recover the global-level dysfunction in subjects with obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of bariatric surgery on global-level dysfunction in subjects with obesity by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). METHODS: Resting-state fMRI was used to investigate dysfunction of whole-brain in 34 subjects with obesity and 34 age-and gender-matched normal-weight subjects, in which 17 subjects with obesity received sleeve gastrectomy...
March 2, 2018: Obesity Surgery
Albert Wabnegger, Daniela Schwab, Anne Schienle
In western cultures, we are surrounded by appealing visual food cues that stimulate our desire to eat, overeating and subsequent weight gain. Cognitive control of appetite (reappraisal) requires substantial attentional resources and effort in order to work. Therefore, we tested an alternative approach for appetite regulation via functional magnetic resonance imaging. Healthy, normal-weight women were presented with images depicting food (high-/low-caloric), once in combination with a bitter aftertaste (a gustatory stop signal) and once with a neutral taste (water), in a retest design...
February 27, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Keren Bachi, Muhammad A Parvaz, Scott J Moeller, Gabriela Gan, Anna Zilverstand, Rita Z Goldstein, Nelly Alia-Klein
Background : Childhood trauma affects neurodevelopment and promotes vulnerability to impaired constraint, depression, and addiction. Reduced gray matter concentration (GMC) in the mesocorticolimbic regions implicated in reward processing and cognitive control may be an underlying substrate, as documented separately in addiction and for childhood trauma. The purpose of this study was to understand the contribution of childhood maltreatment to GMC effects in individuals with cocaine use disorder. Methods : Individuals with cocaine use disorder were partitioned into groups of low vs...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Ross D Markello, R Nathan Spreng, Wen-Ming Luh, Adam K Anderson, Eve De Rosa
The basal forebrain (BF) is poised to play an important neuromodulatory role in brain regions important to cognition due to its broad projections and complex neurochemistry. While significant in vivo work has been done to elaborate BF function in nonhuman rodents and primates, comparatively limited work has examined the in vivo function of the human BF. In the current study we used multi-echo resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) from 100 young adults (18-34 years) to assess the potential segregation of human BF nuclei as well as their associated projections...
February 26, 2018: NeuroImage
Jérôme Brunelin, Marine Mondino, Rémy Bation, Ulrich Palm, Mohamed Saoud, Emmanuel Poulet
Despite the advances in psychopharmacology and established psychotherapeutic interventions, more than 40% of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) do not respond to conventional treatment approaches. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been recently proposed as a therapeutic tool to alleviate treatment-resistant symptoms in patients with OCD. The aim of this review was to provide a comprehensive overview of the current state of the art and future clinical applications of tDCS in patients with OCD...
February 24, 2018: Brain Sciences
Masaki Kato, Chihiro Yokoyama, Akihiro Kawasaki, Chiho Takeda, Taku Koike, Hirotaka Onoe, Atsushi Iriki
As with humans, vocal communication is an important social tool for nonhuman primates. Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) often produce whistle-like 'phee' calls when they are visually separated from conspecifics. The neural processes specific to phee call perception, however, are largely unknown, despite the possibility that these processes involve social information. Here, we examined behavioral and whole-brain mapping evidence regarding the detection of individual conspecific phee calls using an audio playback procedure...
February 27, 2018: Animal Cognition
Andrew R Mayer, Faith M Hanlon, Eric D Claus, Andrew B Dodd, Brittny Miller, Jessica Mickey, Davin K Quinn, Sarah L Hagerty, Brandi Seaman, Kent E Hutchison
BACKGROUND: Chronic alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) are highly comorbid and share commonly affected neuronal substrates (i.e., prefrontal cortex, limbic system, and cerebellum). However, no studies have examined how combined physical trauma and heavy drinking affect neurocircuitry relative to heavy drinking alone. METHODS: The current study investigated whether comorbid AUDs and mild or moderate TBI (AUDs+TBI) would negatively affect maladaptive drinking behaviors (n = 90 AUDs+TBI; n = 62 AUDs) as well as brain structure (i...
March 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
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