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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803592/brain-alterations-potentially-associated-with-aggression-and-terrorism
#1
Bernhard Bogerts, Maria Schöne, Stephanie Breitschuh
A large proportion of the persons who join terrorist groups as well as lone-acting terrorists have a history of violent behavior or mental disorder that predated their becoming terrorists. This suggests that brain alterations found to occur in violent perpetrators may also be present in a significant percentage of terrorists. After a short delineation of phylogenetically old neuronal networks that are important for the generation of aggressive behavior in inconspicuous brains, this review summarizes structural and functional brain-imaging studies in violent offenders published over the last 10 years...
August 14, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802862/microrna-21-expression-in-oligodendrocytes-and-correlation-with-low-myelin-mrnas-in-depression-and-alcoholism
#2
José Javier Miguel-Hidalgo, Katherine O Hall, Hannah Bonner, Anna M Roller, Maryam Syed, Casey J Park, Jana P Ball, Marc E Rothenberg, Craig A Stockmeier, Damian G Romero
MiR-21 is a microRNA implicated in cancer, development, and cardiovascular diseases and expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), especially after injury. However, the cellular expression of miR-21 in the adult CNS has not been clearly established either in mice or human subjects, while its alteration in psychiatric disorders is unknown. MiR-21 expression was characterized in reporter mice expressing β-galactosidase (LacZ) under the endogenous miR-21 promoter (miR-21/LacZ). Brain co-localization of miR-21/LacZ with specific neural markers was examined by double immunofluorescence in reporter mice, while extent of immunostaining for myelin basic protein and PDGFRα was determined in miR-21 knockout and wild-type mice...
August 9, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802727/brain-activation-during-processing-of-genuine-facial-emotion-in-depression-preliminary-findings
#3
REVIEW
Samantha J Groves, Toni L Pitcher, Tracy R Melzer, Jennifer Jordan, Janet D Carter, Gin S Malhi, Lucy C Johnston, Richard J Porter
OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to examine the neural correlates of processing genuine compared with posed emotional expressions, in depressed and healthy subjects using a novel functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm METHOD: During fMRI scanning, sixteen depressed patients and ten healthy controls performed an Emotion Categorisation Task, whereby participants were asked to distinguish between genuine and non-genuine (posed or neutral) facial displays of happiness and sadness...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790959/brain-processing-of-contagious-itch-in-patients-with-atopic-dermatitis
#4
Christina Schut, Hideki Mochizuki, Shoshana K Grossman, Andrew C Lin, Christopher J Conklin, Feroze B Mohamed, Uwe Gieler, Joerg Kupfer, Gil Yosipovitch
Several studies show that itch and scratching cannot only be induced by pruritogens like histamine or cowhage, but also by the presentation of certain (audio-) visual stimuli like pictures on crawling insects or videos showing other people scratching. This phenomenon is coined "Contagious itch" (CI). Due to the fact that CI is more profound in patients with the chronic itchy skin disease atopic dermatitis (AD), we believe that it is highly relevant to study brain processing of CI in this group. Knowledge on brain areas involved in CI in AD-patients can provide us with useful hints regarding non-invasive treatments that AD-patients could profit from when they are confronted with itch-inducing situations in daily life...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780167/emotion-related-brain-structures-associated-with-trait-creativity-in-middle-children
#5
Kaixiang Zhuang, Yunman Xia, Jiangzhou Sun, Qunlin Chen, Dongtao Wei, Wenjing Yang, Jiang Qiu
Middle childhood is an important period for individual trait shaping, during which children are likely to generate and own their distinct neuromechanism of creative-related traits. This study used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to identify the brain structures that underlie trait creativity (as measured by the Williams Creativity Aptitude Test) in a sample of typical developing children (aged 9-12, n=64). The results indicated that several emotion-related regions may relate to trait creativity in middle children...
August 2, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775285/lateral-prefrontal-activity-as-a-compensatory-strategy-for-deficits-of-cortical-processing-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#6
Francisco Zamorano, Pablo Billeke, Leonie Kausel, Josefina Larrain, Ximena Stecher, Jose M Hurtado, Vladimir López, Ximena Carrasco, Francisco Aboitiz
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the most common neuropsychiatric disorder in childhood and is characterized by a delay of cortical maturation in frontal regions. In order to investigate interference control, which is a key function of frontal areas, a functional MRI study was conducted on 17 ADHD boys and 17 typically developing (TD) boys, while solving the multi source interference task (MSIT). This task consists of two conditions, a "congruent condition" and an "incongruent condition". The latter requires to inhibit information that interferes with task-relevant stimuli...
August 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774738/divergent-structural-responses-to-pharmacological-interventions-in-orbitofronto-striato-thalamic-and-premotor-circuits-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#7
Qiming Lv, Zhen Wang, Chencheng Zhang, Qing Fan, Qing Zhao, Kristina Zeljic, Bomin Sun, Zeping Xiao, Zheng Wang
Prior efforts to dissect etiological and pharmacological modulations in brain morphology in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are often undermined by methodological and sampling constraints, yielding conflicting conclusions and no reliable neuromarkers. Here we evaluated alteration of regional gray matter volume including effect size (Cohen's d value) in 95 drug-naïve patients (age range: 18-55) compared to 95 healthy subjects (age: 18-63), then examined pharmacological effects in 65 medicated (age: 18-57) and 73 medication-free patients (age: 18-61)...
August 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769784/cortical-surface-thickness-in-the-middle-aged-brain-with-white-matter-hyperintense-lesions
#8
Ying Zhuang, Xianjun Zeng, Bo Wang, Muhua Huang, Honghan Gong, Fuqing Zhou
Background and purpose: Previous voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies have suggested that cortical atrophy is regionally distributed in middle-aged subjects with white matter hyperintense (WMH) lesions. However, few studies have assessed cortical thickness in middle-aged WMH subjects. In this study, we examined cortical thickness as well as cortical morphometry associated with the presence of WMH lesion load in middle-aged subjects. Participants and methods: Thirty-six middle-aged subjects with WMH lesions (WMH group) and without clinical cognitive impairment, and 34 demographically matched healthy control subjects (HCS group) participated in the study...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769082/neural-substrates-of-embodied-natural-beauty-and-social-endowed-beauty-an-fmri-study
#9
Wei Zhang, Xianyou He, Siyan Lai, Juan Wan, Shuxian Lai, Xueru Zhao, Darong Li
What are the neural mechanisms underlying beauty based on objective parameters and beauty based on subjective social construction? This study scanned participants with fMRI while they performed aesthetic judgments on concrete pictographs and abstract oracle bone scripts. Behavioral results showed both pictographs and oracle bone scripts were judged to be more beautiful when they referred to beautiful objects and positive social meanings, respectively. Imaging results revealed regions associated with perceptual, cognitive, emotional and reward processing were commonly activated both in beautiful judgments of pictographs and oracle bone scripts...
August 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765070/prefrontal-connections-of-the-perirhinal-and-postrhinal-cortices-in-the-rat
#10
Eunkyu Hwang, Bailey S Willis, Rebecca D Burwell
Knowing how prefrontal regions interact with medial temporal lobe structures is important for understanding memory and cognition. Using anterograde and retrograde tract tracing methods in the rat, we report a detailed study of the perirhinal (PER) and postrhinal (POR) connections with the lateral, ventrolateral, and medial orbitofrontal cortices (ORBl, ORBvl, ORBm), infralimbic and prelimbic cortices (IL, PL), ventral and dorsal anterior cingulate cortices (ACAv, ACAd), and secondary motor cortex (MOs). Our analyses included the topography and laminar patterns of these connections...
July 29, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762073/alterations-in-brain-activation-in-response-to-prolonged-morphine-withdrawal-induced-behavioral-inflexibility-in-rats
#11
Chengji Piao, Tiane Liu, Lian Ma, Xuekun Ding, Xingyue Wang, Xing Chen, Ying Duan, Nan Sui, Jing Liang
RATIONALE: The inability to stop a repetitive maladaptive behavior is a main problem in addictive disorders. Neuroadaptations that are associated with behavioral inflexibility may be involved in compulsive drug use. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to investigate the pattern of behavioral inflexibility during morphine withdrawal and map brain activation that is linked to alterations in flexibility. METHODS: We first analyzed the effects of chronic morphine exposure on reversal learning after 2-week (short-term) and 6-week (prolonged) morphine withdrawal...
July 31, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758644/smri-biomarkers-predict-electroconvulsive-treatment-outcomes-accuracy-with-independent-data-sets
#12
Rongtao Jiang, Christopher C Abbott, Tianzi Jiang, Yuhui Du, Randall Espinoza, Katherine L Narr, Benjamin Wade, Qingbao Yu, Ming Song, Dongdong Lin, Jiayu Chen, Thomas Jones, Miklos Argyelan, Georgios Petrides, Jing Sui, Vince D Calhoun
Due to the rapid and robust clinical effects, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) represents an optimal model to develop and test treatment predictors for major depressive disorders (MDD), while imaging markers can be informative in identifying MDD patients who will respond to a specific antidepressant treatment or not. Here, we aim to predict post-ECT depressive rating changes and remission status using pre-ECT grey matter (GM) in 38 MDD patients and validate in two independent datasets. Six GM regions including right hippocampus/parahippocampus, right orbitofrontal gyrus, right inferior temporal gyrus, left postcentral gyrus/precuneus, left supplementary motor area, and left lingual gyrus were identified as predictors of ECT response, achieving accuracy of 89, 90 and 86% for remission prediction in three independent, age-matched datasets respectively...
July 31, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756869/converging-prefronto-insula-amygdala-pathways-in-negative-emotion-regulation-in%C3%A2-marmoset-monkeys
#13
Yoshiro Shiba, Lydia Oikonomidis, Stephen Sawiak, Tim D Fryer, Young T Hong, Gemma Cockcroft, Andrea M Santangelo, Angela C Roberts
BACKGROUND: Impaired regulation of emotional responses to potential threat is a core feature of affective disorders. However, while the subcortical circuitry responsible for processing and expression of fear has been well characterized, the top-down control of this circuitry is less well understood. Our recent studies demonstrated that heightened emotionality, as measured both physiologically and behaviorally, during conditioned fear and innate/social threat was induced, independently, by excitotoxic lesions of either the anterior orbitofrontal cortex (antOFC) or ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC)...
June 23, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756739/neuroanatomical-correlates-of-donating-behavior-in-middle-childhood
#14
Andrea Wildeboer, Sandra Thijssen, Ryan L Muetzel, Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg, Henning Tiemeier, Tonya White, Marinus H Van IJzendoorn
The neurobiological correlates of prosocial behavior are largely unknown. We examined brain structure and functional connectivity correlates of donating to a charity, a specific, costly, form of prosocial behavior. In 163 children, donating was measured using a promotional clip for a charity including a call for donations. Children could decide privately whether and how much they wanted to donate from money they had received earlier. Whole brain structural MRI scans were obtained to study associations between cortical thickness and donating behavior...
July 31, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750307/resilient-protein-co-expression-network-in-male-orbitofrontal-cortex-layer-2-3-during-human-aging
#15
Mohan Pabba, Enzo Scifo, Fenika Kapadia, Yuliya S Nikolova, Tianzhou Ma, Naguib Mechawar, George C Tseng, Etienne Sibille
The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is vulnerable to normal and pathologic aging. Currently, layer resolution large-scale proteomic studies describing "normal" age-related alterations at OFC are not available. Here, we performed a large-scale exploratory high-throughput mass spectrometry-based protein analysis on OFC layer 2/3 from 15 "young" (15-43 years) and 18 "old" (62-88 years) human male subjects. We detected 4193 proteins and identified 127 differentially expressed (DE) proteins (p-value ≤0.05; effect size >20%), including 65 up- and 62 downregulated proteins (e...
July 5, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744240/altered-brain-activities-associated-with-craving-and-cue-reactivity-in-people-with-internet-gaming-disorder-evidence-from-the-comparison-with-recreational-internet-game-users
#16
Lingxiao Wang, Lingdan Wu, Yifan Wang, Hui Li, Xiaoyue Liu, Xiaoxia Du, Guangheng Dong
Although the neural substrates of cue reactivity in Internet gaming disorder (IGD) have been examined in previous studies, most of these studies focused on the comparison between IGD subjects and healthy controls, which cannot exclude a potential effect of cue-familiarity. To overcome this limitation, the current study focuses on the comparison between IGD subjects and recreational Internet game users (RGU) who play online games recreationally but do not develop dependence. Data from 40 RGU and 30 IGD subjects were collected while they were performing an event-related cue reactivity task in the fMRI scanner...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743727/basolateral-amygdala-to-orbitofrontal-cortex-projections-enable-cue-triggered-reward-expectations
#17
Nina T Lichtenberg, Zachary T Pennington, Sandra M Holley, Venuz Y Greenfield, Carlos Cepeda, Michael S Levine, Kate M Wassum
To make an appropriate decision one must anticipate potential future rewarding events, even when they are not readily observable. These expectations are generated by using observable information (e.g., stimuli or available actions) to retrieve often quite detailed memories of available rewards. The basolateral amygdala (BLA) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) are two reciprocally-connected key nodes in the circuitry supporting such outcome-guided behaviors. But there is much unknown about the contribution of this circuit to decision making, and almost nothing known about the whether any contribution is via direct, monosynaptic projections, or the direction of information transfer...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740816/probability-and-magnitude-evaluation-in-schizophrenia
#18
REVIEW
Matthew A Albrecht, James A Waltz, Michael J Frank, James M Gold
Alterations in reinforcement learning and decision making in schizophrenia have been linked with orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) dysfunction, a region critical for weighing reward magnitude in the calculation of expected value (EV). However, much of this work has used complex tasks that require combined learning and EV calculation. Here we used a simple "Roulette" task that examined the calculation of EV directly through a combination of text and/or pictorial representation of reward probability and magnitude. Forty-four people with schizophrenia and 30 controls were recruited...
September 2016: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738332/neuroprogression-and-immune-activation-in-major-depressive-disorder
#19
Jeffrey H Meyer
Traditionally, the neurobiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) has been largely considered from the perspective of the state of major depressive episodes (MDE) versus being in remission, but the current accumulation of disease markers, largely acquired cross-sectionally, is strongly suggestive of neuroprogressive aspects of MDD. This chapter focuses on the changes in disease markers involved in the reorganization of the nervous system in MDD, including the translocator protein (TSPO; an index of microglial activation), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP; an index of astroglial activation), [11C]harmine (a marker of monoamine oxidase A; MAO-A), and several other indices (metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 [mGluR5], excitatory amino acid transporters, and magnetic resonance imaging spectroscopy measurements) of glutamate dysregulation...
2017: Modern Trends in Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737256/insula-based-networks-in-professional-musicians-evidence-for-increased-functional-connectivity-during-resting-state-fmri
#20
Anna M Zamorano, Ignacio Cifre, Pedro Montoya, Inmaculada Riquelme, Boris Kleber
Despite considerable research on experience-dependent neuroplasticity in professional musicians, detailed understanding of an involvement of the insula is only now beginning to emerge. We investigated the effects of musical training on intrinsic insula-based connectivity in professional classical musicians relative to nonmusicians using resting-state functional MRI. Following a tripartite scheme of insula subdivisions, coactivation profiles were analyzed for the posterior, ventral anterior, and dorsal anterior insula in both hemispheres...
July 24, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
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