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Orbitofrontal cortex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161356/medial-orbitofrontal-cortex-mediates-effort-related-responding-in-rats
#1
Alexandra Münster, Wolfgang Hauber
The medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) is known to support flexible control of goal-directed behavior. However, limited evidence suggests that the mOFC also mediates the ability of organisms to work with vigor towards a selected goal, a hypothesis that received little consideration to date. Here we show that excitotoxic mOFC lesion increased responding under a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement, that is, the highest ratio achieved, and increased the preference for the high effort-high reward option in an effort-related decision-making task, but left intact outcome-selective Pavlovian-instrumental transfer and outcome-specific devaluation...
November 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154127/lateral-orbitofrontal-inactivation-dissociates-devaluation-sensitive-behavior-and-economic-choice
#2
Matthew P H Gardner, Jessica S Conroy, Michael H Shaham, Clay V Styer, Geoffrey Schoenbaum
How do we choose between goods that have different subjective values, like apples and oranges? Neuroeconomics proposes that this is done by reducing complex goods to a single unitary value to allow comparison. This value is computed "on the fly" from the underlying model of the goods space, allowing decisions to meet current needs. This is termed "model-based" behavior to distinguish it from pre-determined, habitual, or "model-free" behavior. The lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) supports model-based behavior in rats and primates, but whether the OFC is necessary for economic choice is less clear...
November 15, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153927/1hz-rtms-of-the-right-orbitofrontal-cortex-for-major-depression-safety-tolerability-and-clinical-outcomes
#3
Kfir Feffer, Peter Fettes, Peter Giacobbe, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Daniel M Blumberger, Jonathan Downar
Conventional rTMS in major depressive disorder (MDD) targets the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). However, many patients do not respond to DLPFC-rTMS. Recent evidence suggests that the right lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) plays a key role in 'non-reward' functions and shows hyperconnectivity in MDD. OFC-rTMS has been used successfully in obsessive-compulsive disorder, and achieved remission in an MDD case nonresponsive to DLPFC- and DMPFC-rTMS. Here, we assess the safety and tolerability of right OFC-rTMS, and examine the effectiveness of inhibitory right OFC-rTMS in MDD, particularly among patients with previous nonresponse to DMPFC-rTMS...
November 16, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153446/the-instability-of-functional-connectivity-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-their-siblings-a-dynamic-connectivity-study
#4
Shuixia Guo, Wei Zhao, Haojuan Tao, Zhening Liu, Lena Palaniyappan
BACKGROUND: The distributed connectivity among brain regions is in a constant state of flux, even when a subject is at rest. This instability (temporal variability), when optimal, may contribute to efficient cross-network communications. We investigate the role of this variability in the genetic diathesis and symptom expression of schizophrenia. METHODS: Resting state functional MRI data acquired from 116 subjects (28 patients with schizophrenia, 28 siblings and 60 matched healthy controls)...
November 15, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150136/associations-between-cortical-thickness-structural-connectivity-and-severity-of-dimensional-bulimia-nervosa-symptomatology
#5
Margaret L Westwater, Jakob Seidlitz, Kelly M J Diederen, Sarah Fischer, James C Thompson
Bulimia nervosa (BN) is a psychiatric illness defined by preoccupation with body image (cognitive 'symptoms'), binge eating and compensatory behaviors. Although diagnosed BN has been related to grey matter alterations, characterization of brain structure in women with a range of BN symptoms has not been made. This study examined whether cortical thickness (CT) values scaled with severity of BN cognitions in 33 women with variable BN pathology. We then assessed global structural connectivity (SC) of CT to determine if individual differences in global SC relate to BN symptom severity...
November 11, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149149/decreased-regional-grey-matter-volume-in-women-with-chronic-whiplash-associated-disorders-relationships-with-cognitive-deficits-and-disturbed-pain-processing
#6
Iris Coppieters, Robby De Pauw, Karen Caeyenberghs, Lieven Danneels, Jeroen Kregel, Astrid Pattyn, Mira Meeus, Barbara Cagnie
BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders (CWAD) are characterized by pain of traumatic origin, cognitive deficits, and central sensitization (CS). Previous neuroimaging studies revealed altered grey matter volume (GMV) in mild traumatic brain injury patients and chronic pain conditions also characterized by CS. It can therefore be hypothesized that GMV alterations also play a role in the persistent complaints of CWAD. However, brain alterations remain poorly investigated in these patients...
November 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144973/orbitofrontal-cortex-a-neural-circuit-for-economic-decisions
#7
REVIEW
Camillo Padoa-Schioppa, Katherine E Conen
Economic choice behavior entails the computation and comparison of subjective values. A central contribution of neuroeconomics has been to show that subjective values are represented explicitly at the neuronal level. With this result at hand, the field has increasingly focused on the difficult question of where in the brain and how exactly subjective values are compared to make a decision. Here, we review a broad range of experimental and theoretical results suggesting that good-based decisions are generated in a neural circuit within the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)...
November 15, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143702/association-between-altered-neurochemical-metabolites-and-apathy-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Yi-Chun Yeh, Chun-Wei Li, Yu-Ting Kuo, Mei-Feng Huang, Tai-Ling Liu, Twei-Shiun Jaw, Yi-Hsin Yang, Kuang-Che Kuo, Cheng-Sheng Chen
BACKGROUND: Apathy is a condition characterized by a lack of motivation that manifests in emotional, behavioral, and cognitive domains. Although previous studies have indicated that apathy is associated with frontal lesions, few studies have focused on the different subdomains of apathy, and no in vivo human biochemical data have been obtained to examine the neurochemical changes related to apathy in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thus, we investigated the frontal neurochemical alterations related to apathy among patients with AD using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS)...
November 16, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133954/exogenous-ghrelin-administration-increases-alcohol-self-administration-and-modulates-brain-functional-activity-in-heavy-drinking-alcohol-dependent-individuals
#9
M Farokhnia, E N Grodin, M R Lee, E N Oot, A N Blackburn, B L Stangl, M L Schwandt, L A Farinelli, R Momenan, V A Ramchandani, L Leggio
Preclinical evidence suggests that ghrelin, a peptide synthesized by endocrine cells of the stomach and a key component of the gut-brain axis, is involved in alcohol seeking as it modulates both central reward and stress pathways. However, whether and how ghrelin administration may impact alcohol intake in humans is not clear. For, we believe, the first time, this was investigated in the present randomized, crossover, double-blind, placebo-controlled, human laboratory study. Participants were non-treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent heavy-drinking individuals...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129723/neural-correlates-of-impaired-self-regulation-in-male-youths-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-voxel-based-morphometry-study
#10
Hsing-Chang Ni, Hsiang-Yuan Lin, Wen-Yih Isaac Tseng, Yen-Nan Chiu, Yu-Yu Wu, Wen-Che Tsai, Susan Shur-Fen Gau
Although recent studies revealed impaired self-regulation (dysregulation) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), neural correlates of dysregulation and its impacts on autistic neuroanatomy remain unclear. Voxel-based morphometry was applied on structural MRI images in 81 ASD and 61 typically developing (TD) boys aged 7-17years. Dysregulation was defined by the sum of T-scores of Attention, Aggression, and Anxiety/Depression subscales in the Child Behavior Checklist>180. There were 53 and 28 boys in the ASD+Dysregulation and ASD-Dysregulation groups, respectively...
November 9, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128283/emotional-prediction-an-ale-meta-analysis-and-macm-analysis
#11
Guangming Ran, Xiaojun Cao, Xu Chen
The prediction of emotion has been explored in a variety of functional brain imaging and neurophysiological studies. However, an overall picture of the areas involved this process remains unexploited. Here, we quantitatively summarized the published literature on emotional prediction using activation likelihood estimation (ALE) in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Furthermore, the current study employed a meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM) to map the meta-analytic coactivation maps of regions of interest (ROIs)...
November 8, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126813/automated-immunohistochemical-method-to-analyze-large-areas-of-the-human-cortex
#12
Mohamad Abbass, Kathleen Trought, David Long, Anton Semechko, Albert H C Wong
BACKGROUND: There have been inconsistencies in the histological abnormalities found in the cerebral cortex from patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression. Discrepancies in previously published reports may arise from small sample sizes, inconsistent methodology and biased cell counting. METHODS: We applied automated quantification of neuron density, neuron size and cortical layer thickness in large regions of the cerebral cortex in psychiatric patients...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122037/grey-matter-volume-and-thickness-abnormalities-in-young-people-with-a-history-of-childhood-abuse
#13
L Lim, H Hart, M Mehta, A Worker, A Simmons, K Mirza, K Rubia
BACKGROUND: Childhood abuse is associated with abnormalities in brain structure and function. Few studies have investigated abuse-related brain abnormalities in medication-naïve, drug-free youth that also controlled for psychiatric comorbidities by inclusion of a psychiatric control group, which is crucial to disentangle the effects of abuse from those associated with the psychiatric conditions. METHODS: Cortical volume (CV), cortical thickness (CT) and surface area (SA) were measured in 22 age- and gender-matched medication-naïve youth (aged 13-20) exposed to childhood abuse, 19 psychiatric controls matched for psychiatric diagnoses and 27 healthy controls...
November 10, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121332/frontostriatal-and-dopamine-markers-of-individual-differences-in-reinforcement-learning-a-multi-modal-investigation
#14
Roselinde H Kaiser, Michael T Treadway, Dustin W Wooten, Poornima Kumar, Franziska Goer, Laura Murray, Miranda Beltzer, Pia Pechtel, Alexis Whitton, Andrew L Cohen, Nathaniel M Alpert, Georges El Fakhri, Marc D Normandin, Diego A Pizzagalli
Prior studies have shown that dopamine (DA) functioning in frontostriatal circuits supports reinforcement learning (RL), as phasic DA activity in ventral striatum signals unexpected reward and may drive coordinated activity of striatal and orbitofrontal regions that support updating of action plans. However, the nature of DA functioning in RL is complex, in particular regarding the role of DA clearance in RL behavior. Here, in a multi-modal neuroimaging study with healthy adults, we took an individual differences approach to the examination of RL behavior and DA clearance mechanisms in frontostriatal learning networks...
October 31, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119693/the-neural-representation-of-social-status-in-the-extended-face-processing-network
#15
Jessica E Koski, Jessica A Collins, Ingrid R Olson
Social status is a salient cue that shapes our judgment and memory for other people and ultimately guides our social interactions. Despite the pervasive influence of status on social behavior, how information about the status of others is represented in the brain remains unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that social-status information is embedded in our neural representations of other individuals. Participants learned to associate faces with names, job titles that that varied in associated status, and explicit markers of reputational status (star ratings)...
November 9, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118724/alternations-of-white-matter-structural-networks-in-first-episode-untreated-major-depressive-disorder-with-short-duration
#16
Yi Lu, Zonglin Shen, Yuqi Cheng, Hui Yang, Bo He, Yue Xie, Liang Wen, Zhenguang Zhang, Xuejin Sun, Wei Zhao, Xiufeng Xu, Dan Han
It is crucial to explore the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD) at the early stage for the better diagnostic and treatment strategies. It was suggested that MDD might be involving in functional or structural alternations at the brain network level. However, at the onset of MDD, whether the whole brain white matter (WM) alterations at network level are already evident still remains unclear. In the present study, diffusion MRI scanning was adopt to depict the unique WM structural network topology across the entire brain at the early stage of MDD...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114105/neuregulin-3-signaling-mediates-nicotine-dependent-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-orbitofrontal-cortex-and-cognition
#17
Luyi Zhou, Miranda L Fisher, Robert D Cole, Thomas J Gould, Vinay Parikh, Pavel I Ortinski, Jill R Turner
Neuregulin 3 (NRG3) and ErbB4 have been linked to nicotine addiction; however, the neuronal mechanisms and behavioral consequences of NRG3-ErbB4 sensitivity to nicotine remain elusive. Recent literature suggests that relapse to smoking is due to a lack of impulsive control, which is thought to be due to altered functioning within the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Therefore, we examined circuitry changes within this structure following nicotine application. We report that nicotine controls synaptic plasticity in the OFC through NRG3/ErbB4-dependent regulation of GABAergic inhibition...
November 7, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113929/interaction-of-the-left-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-l-dlpfc-and-right-orbitofrontal-cortex-ofc-in-hot-and-cold-executive-functions-evidence-from-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs
#18
Vahid Nejati, Mohammad Ali Salehinejad, Michael A Nitsche
An organizing principle which has recently emerged proposes that executive functions (EF) can be divided into cognitive (cold) and affective or reward-related (hot) processes related to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) respectively. A controversial question is whether cold and hot EF are functionally and structurally independent or not. This study investigated how the left DLPFC (l-DLPFC) and right OFC (r-OFC) interact in hot and cold EF using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)...
November 4, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113386/chemotherapy-induced-changes-of-cerebral-activity-in-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-cerebral-white-matter-in-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#19
Caiqin Mo, Hailong Lin, Fangmeng Fu, Lin Lin, Jie Zhang, Meng Huang, Chuan Wang, Yunjing Xue, Qing Duan, Weiwen Lin, Xiangjin Chen
While chemotherapy related cognitive disorder has been described in many studies, but we still lack relatively reliable and objective diagnostic tools, and there are few similar studies in Asian patients. We recruited Asian breast cancer patients to perform a cohort study to uncover chemotherapy related cognitive disorder by using resting-state functioning magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) and magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) combined with neuropsychologic assessments. This is the first prospective study which combines RS-fMRI and DTI to detect chemotherapy related cognitive disorder...
October 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111383/disturbed-glutathione-antioxidative-defense-is-associated-with-structural-brain-changes-in-neuroleptic-na%C3%A3-ve-first-episode-psychosis-patients
#20
K Langbein, J Hesse, A Gussew, B Milleit, S Lavoie, G P Amminger, C Gaser, G Wagner, J R Reichenbach, U-C Hipler, D Winter, S Smesny
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant defense are reported in schizophrenia and are thought to be associated with disturbed neurodevelopment, brain structural alterations, glutamatergic imbalance, negative symptomatology, and cognitive impairment. To test some of these assumptions we investigated the glutathione (GSH) antioxidant defense system (AODS) and brain structural abnormalities in drug-naïve individuals with first acute episode of psychosis (FEP). METHOD: The study involved 27 drug-naïve FEP patients and 31 healthy controls (HC)...
October 18, 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
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