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Ventromedial prefrontal cortex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633076/resting-state-functional-connectivity-of-anterior-and-posterior-hippocampus-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#1
Amit Lazarov, Xi Zhu, Benjamin Suarez-Jimenez, Bret R Rutherford, Yuval Neria
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with altered resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) of several brain regions within the salience (SN) and default-mode (DMN) networks, including the hippocampus. However, most rs-FC studies have not focused primarily on the hippocampus, nor have they appreciated its structural heterogeneity, despite clear evidence for a dissociation between posterior and anterior hippocampal connectivity. Here, we examine rs-FC of anterior and posterior hippocampus with key regions in the SN (amygdala, insula, and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex/pre-supplementary motor area) and DMN (ventromedial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, and precuneus) previously implicated in PTSD, using a seed-based approach...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632120/basolateral-amygdala-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-connectivity-predicts-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-outcome-in-adults-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#2
Miquel A Fullana, Xi Zhu, Pino Alonso, Narcís Cardoner, Eva Real, Clara López-Solà, Cinto Segalàs, Marta Subirà, Hanga Galfalvy, José M Menchón, H Blair Simpson, Rachel Marsh, Carles Soriano-Mas
BACKGROUND: Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), including exposure and ritual prevention, is a first-line treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), but few reliable predictors of CBT outcome have been identified. Based on research in animal models, we hypothesized that individual differences in basolateral amygdala-ventromedial prefrontal cortex (BLA-vmPFC) communication would predict CBT outcome in patients with OCD. METHODS: We investigated whether BLA-vmPFC resting-state functional connectivity (rs-fc) predicts CBT outcome in patients with OCD...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630257/contrasting-effects-of-medial-and-lateral-orbitofrontal-cortex-lesions-on-credit-assignment-and-decision-making-in-humans
#3
MaryAnn P Noonan, Bolton Chau, Matthew Fs Rushworth, Lesley K Fellows
The orbitofrontal cortex is critical for goal-directed behavior. Recent work in macaques has suggested the lateral orbitofrontal cortex (lOFC) is relatively more concerned with assignment of credit for rewards to particular choices during value-guided learning, while the medial orbitofrontal cortex (often referred to as ventromedial prefrontal cortex in humans; vmPFC/mOFC) is involved in constraining the decision to the relevant options. We examined whether people with damage restricted to sub-regions of prefrontal cortex showed the patterns of impairment observed in prior investigations of the effects of lesions to homologous regions in macaques...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630256/the-small-gtpase-rac1-contributes-to-extinction-of-aversive-memories-of-drug-withdrawal-by-facilitating-gabaa-receptor-endocytosis-in-the-vmpfc
#4
Wei-Sheng Wang, Yun-Yue Ju, Qi-Xin Zhou, Jian-Xin Tang, Meng Li, Lei Zhang, Shuo Kang, Zhong-Guo Chen, Yu-Jun Wang, Hui Ji, Yu-Qiang Ding, Lin Xu, Jing-Gen Liu
Extinction of aversive memories has been a major concern in neuropsychiatric disorders such as anxiety disorders and drug addiction. However, the mechanisms underlying extinction of aversive memories are not fully understood. Here, we report that extinction of conditioned place aversion (CPA) to naloxone-precipitated opiate withdrawal in male rats activates Rho GTPase Rac1 in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in a BDNF-dependent manner, which determines GABAA receptor (GABAAR) endocytosis via triggering synaptic translocation of activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) through facilitating actin polymerization...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627957/fronto-striatal-network-activation-leads-to-less-fatigue-in-multiple-sclerosis
#5
Ekaterina Dobryakova, Hanneke E Hulst, Angela Spirou, Nancy D Chiaravalloti, Helen M Genova, Glenn R Wylie, John DeLuca
BACKGROUND: The fronto-striatal network has been implicated in both fatigue, a common multiple sclerosis (MS) symptom, and goal attainment, which has been shown to reduce fatigue in healthy individuals. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether stimulation of the fronto-striatal network through goal attainment (potential monetary gain) leads to fatigue reduction in MS and healthy control (HC) participants. METHODS: In all, 14 healthy and 19 MS participants performed a gambling task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
June 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627133/mesocorticolimbic-hemodynamic-response-in-parkinson-s-disease-patients-with-compulsive-behaviors
#6
Daniel O Claassen, Adam J Stark, Charis A Spears, Kalen J Petersen, Nelleke C van Wouwe, Robert M Kessler, David H Zald, Manus J Donahue
BACKGROUND: PD patients treated with dopamine therapy can develop maladaptive impulsive and compulsive behaviors, manifesting as repetitive participation in reward-driven activities. This behavioral phenotype implicates aberrant mesocorticolimbic network function, a concept supported by past literature. However, no study has investigated the acute hemodynamic response to dopamine agonists in this subpopulation. OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that dopamine agonists differentially alter mesocortical and mesolimbic network activity in patients with impulsive-compulsive behaviors...
June 19, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618857/state-independent-and-dependent-neural-responses-to-psychosocial-stress-in-current-and-remitted-depression
#7
Qingsen Ming, Xue Zhong, Xiaocui Zhang, Weidan Pu, Daifeng Dong, Yali Jiang, Yidian Gao, Xiang Wang, John A Detre, Shuqiao Yao, Hengyi Rao
OBJECTIVE: Stress is a strong risk factor for major depressive disorder, while sensitization to stress in remitted individuals plays a key role in depression recurrence. The present study explored the state-independent (trait) and dependent (state) neural responses to psychosocial stress in major depressive disorder. METHOD: Thirty-six patients with medication-naive first-episode current depression, 33 patients with remitted depression, and 36 demographically matched healthy control participants were administered the Montreal Imaging Stress Task during functional MRI...
June 16, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612049/episodic-tags-enhance-striatal-valuation-signals-during-temporal-discounting-in-pathological-gamblers
#8
Antonius Wiehler, Frederike Hermi Petzschner, Klaas Enno Stephan, Jan Peters
Similar to many addiction disorders, pathological gambling is associated with an increased preference for immediate rewards (steep temporal discounting). In healthy participants, episodic future thinking has been shown to reduce impulsivity during intertemporal choice. Here, we examine for the first time a modulation of temporal discounting via episodic future thinking in a group of pathological gamblers. We investigated a sample of 24 pathological gamblers and 24 matched healthy controls with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598432/neural-correlates-of-evidence-accumulation-during-value-based-decisions-revealed-via-simultaneous-eeg-fmri
#9
M Andrea Pisauro, Elsa Fouragnan, Chris Retzler, Marios G Philiastides
Current computational accounts posit that, in simple binary choices, humans accumulate evidence in favour of the different alternatives before committing to a decision. Neural correlates of this accumulating activity have been found during perceptual decisions in parietal and prefrontal cortex; however the source of such activity in value-based choices remains unknown. Here we use simultaneous EEG-fMRI and computational modelling to identify EEG signals reflecting an accumulation process and demonstrate that the within- and across-trial variability in these signals explains fMRI responses in posterior-medial frontal cortex...
June 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587695/hyper-responsivity-to-losses-in-the-anterior-insula-during-economic-choice-scales-with-depression-severity
#10
J B Engelmann, G S Berns, B W Dunlop
BACKGROUND: Commonly observed distortions in decision-making among patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) may emerge from impaired reward processing and cognitive biases toward negative events. There is substantial theoretical support for the hypothesis that MDD patients overweight potential losses compared with gains, though the neurobiological underpinnings of this bias are uncertain. METHODS: Twenty-one unmedicated patients with MDD were compared with 25 healthy controls (HC) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) together with an economic decision-making task over mixed lotteries involving probabilistic gains and losses...
June 7, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558004/diagnostic-potential-of-multimodal-neuroimaging-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#11
Jooyeon Jamie Im, Binna Kim, Jaeuk Hwang, Jieun E Kim, Jung Yoon Kim, Sandy Jeong Rhie, Eun Namgung, Ilhyang Kang, Sohyeon Moon, In Kyoon Lyoo, Chang-Hyun Park, Sujung Yoon
Despite accumulating evidence of physiological abnormalities related to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the current diagnostic criteria for PTSD still rely on clinical interviews. In this study, we investigated the diagnostic potential of multimodal neuroimaging for identifying posttraumatic symptom trajectory after trauma exposure. Thirty trauma-exposed individuals and 29 trauma-unexposed healthy individuals were followed up over a 5-year period. Three waves of assessments using multimodal neuroimaging, including structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion-weighted MRI, were performed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554848/sex-and-hormone-dependent-alterations-in-alcohol-withdrawal-induced-anxiety-and-corticolimbic-endocannabinoid-signaling
#12
Angela M Henricks, Anthony L Berger, Janelle M Lugo, Lydia N Baxter-Potter, Kennedy V Bieniasz, Gavin Petrie, Martin A Sticht, Matthew N Hill, Ryan J McLaughlin
Alcohol dependence is associated with anxiety during withdrawal. The endocannabinoid (ECB) system participates in the neuroendocrine and behavioral response to stress and changes in corticolimbic ECB signaling may contribute to alcohol withdrawal-induced anxiety. Moreover, symptoms of alcohol withdrawal differ between sexes and sexual dimorphism in withdrawal-induced ECB recruitment may be a contributing factor. Herein, we exposed intact male and female rats and ovariectomized (OVX) female rats with or without estradiol (E2) replacement to 6 weeks of chronic intermittent alcohol vapor and measured anxiety-like behavior, ECB content, and ECB-related mRNA in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC)...
May 26, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551107/neurobiology-of-schemas-and-schema-mediated-memory
#13
REVIEW
Asaf Gilboa, Hannah Marlatte
Schemas are superordinate knowledge structures that reflect abstracted commonalities across multiple experiences, exerting powerful influences over how events are perceived, interpreted, and remembered. Activated schema templates modulate early perceptual processing, as they get populated with specific informational instances (schema instantiation). Instantiated schemas, in turn, can enhance or distort mnemonic processing from the outset (at encoding), impact offline memory transformation and accelerate neocortical integration...
May 24, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549132/selective-impairment-of-goal-directed-decision-making-following-lesions-to-the-human-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex
#14
Justin Reber, Justin S Feinstein, John P O'Doherty, Mimi Liljeholm, Ralph Adolphs, Daniel Tranel
HASH(0x53c0120)
June 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544994/12h-abstinence-induced-right-anterior-insula-network-pattern-changes-in-young-smokers
#15
Yanzhi Bi, Yajuan Zhang, Yangding Li, Dahua Yu, Kai Yuan, Jie Tian
BACKGROUND: The strong craving to smoke is a core factor of smoking abstinence that precipitates relapse. Insula plays critical roles in maintaining nicotine dependence, especially in the interoceptive awareness of craving. Despite evidence indicating a link between insula and abstinence-induced craving, less is known about the neural basis of abstinence-induced craving from the circuit level of insula. METHODS: The present study examined the effects of 12h of abstinence from smoking on the resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) of anterior (AI) and posterior insula in young smokers using a within-subject design...
May 15, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529874/shared-and-disorder-specific-task-positive-and-default-mode-network-dysfunctions-during-sustained-attention-in-paediatric-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#16
Luke J Norman, Christina O Carlisi, Anastasia Christakou, Ana Cubillo, Clodagh M Murphy, Kaylita Chantiluke, Andrew Simmons, Vincent Giampietro, Michael Brammer, David Mataix-Cols, Katya Rubia
Patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and obsessive/compulsive disorder (OCD) share problems with sustained attention, and are proposed to share deficits in switching between default mode and task positive networks. The aim of this study was to investigate shared and disorder-specific brain activation abnormalities during sustained attention in the two disorders. Twenty boys with ADHD, 20 boys with OCD and 20 age-matched healthy controls aged between 12 and 18 years completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) version of a parametrically modulated sustained attention task with a progressively increasing sustained attention load...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527791/neural-substrates-of-male-parochial-altruism-are-modulated-by-testosterone-and-behavioral-strategy
#17
Luise Reimers, Christian Büchel, Esther K Diekhof
Parochial altruism refers to ingroup favoritism and outgroup hostility and has recently been linked to testosterone. Here, we investigated the neurobiological mechanism of parochial altruism in male soccer fans playing the ultimatum game (UG) against ingroup and outgroup members (i.e., fans of the favorite or of a rivalling team) using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Our results suggest that individual differences in altruistic tendency influence the tendency for parochialism. While altruistic subjects rejected unfair offers independent of team membership, the more self-oriented 'pro-selfs' displayed a stronger ingroup bias and rejected outgroup offers more often...
May 17, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523223/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-may-modulate-extinction-memory-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#18
Mascha Van't Wout, Sharon M Longo, Madhavi K Reddy, Noah S Philip, Marguerite T Bowker, Benjamin D Greenberg
BACKGROUND: Abnormalities in fear extinction and recall are core components of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Data from animal and human studies point to a role of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in extinction learning and subsequent retention of extinction memories. Given the increasing interest in developing noninvasive brain stimulation protocols for psychopathology treatment, we piloted whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) during extinction learning, vs...
May 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523217/relation-between-patterns-of-intrinsic-network-connectivity-cognitive-functioning-and-symptom-presentation-in-trauma-exposed-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#19
Melissa Parlar, Maria Densmore, Geoffrey B Hall, Paul A Frewen, Ruth A Lanius, Margaret C McKinnon
OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated resting fMRI connectivity within the default mode (DMN), salience (SN), and central executive (CEN) networks in relation to neurocognitive performance and symptom severity in trauma-exposed patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). METHOD: Group independent component analysis was conducted among patients with MDD (n = 21), examining DMN, SN, and CEN connectivity in relation to neurocognitive performance and symptom severity...
May 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516827/bold-activation-of-the-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-in-patients-with-late-life-depression-and-comparison-participants
#20
Akshya Vasudev, Michael J Firbank, Joseph S Gati, Emily Ionson, Alan J Thomas
The ventromedial prefrontal cortex's (vMPFC) role in regulating emotions in late life depression (LLD) remains unclarified. We assessed vMPFC activation in an emotional valence blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic neuroimaging (fMRI) task and related the findings to extent of white matter hyperintensities (WMH). Sixteen participants with mild to moderate LLD were compared to 14 similar aged comparison participants. Participants in the scanner viewed words matched for length and arousal, indicated the perceived valence by pressing one of the three buttons i...
May 18, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
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