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Ventromedial prefrontal cortex

Bei-Bei Wu, Ye Ma, Lei Xie, Jin-Zhuang Huang, Zong-Bo Sun, Zhi-Duo Hou, Rui-Wei Guo, Zhi-Rong Lin, Shou-Xing Duan, Shan-Shan Zhao, Yao-Xie, Dan-Miao Sun, Chun-Min Zhu, Shu-Hua Ma
BACKGROUND: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is associated with cognitive deficit but the exact neural mechanisms remain unclear. PURPOSE: To explore sequential brain activities using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the performance of a decision-making task, and to determine whether serum or clinical markers can reflect the involvement of the brain in SLE. SUBJECTS: Sixteen female SLE patients without overt clinical neuropsychiatric symptoms and 16 healthy controls were included...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Miquel A Fullana, Anton Albajes-Eizagirre, Carles Soriano-Mas, Bram Vervliet, Narcís Cardoner, Olívia Benet, Joaquim Radua, Ben J Harrison
The study of fear extinction represents an important example of translational neuroscience in psychiatry and promises to improve the understanding and treatment of anxiety and fear-related disorders. We present the results of a set of meta-analyses of human fear extinction studies in healthy participants, conducted with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and reporting whole-brain results. Meta-analyses of fear extinction learning primarily implicate consistent activation of brain regions linked to threat appraisal and experience, including the dorsal anterior cingulate and anterior insular cortices...
March 9, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Katherine E Manning, Roger Tait, John Suckling, Anthony J Holland
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder of genomic imprinting, presenting with a characteristic overeating disorder, mild to moderate intellectual disability, and a variable range of social and behavioral difficulties. Consequently, widespread alterations in neural structure and developmental and maturational trajectory would be expected. To date, there have been few quantitative and systematic studies of brain morphology in PWS, although alterations of volume and of cortical organisation have been reported...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Masaya Misaki, Raquel Phillips, Vadim Zotev, Chung-Ki Wong, Brent E Wurfel, Frank Krueger, Matthew Feldner, Jerzy Bodurka
Altered resting-state functional connectivity in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) suggests neuropathology of the disorder. While seed-based fMRI connectivity analysis is often used for the studies, such analysis requires defining a seed location a priori , which restricts search scope and could bias findings toward presupposed areas. Recently, a comprehensive exploratory voxel-wise connectivity analysis, the connectome-wide association approach, has been introduced using multivariate distance matrix regression (MDMR) for resting-state functional connectivity analysis...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Katherine C Lopez, Joan L Luby, Andy C Belden, Deanna M Barch
Recent interest has emerged in understanding the neural mechanisms by which deficits in emotion regulation (ER) early in development may relate to later depression. Corticolimbic alterations reported in emotion dysregulation and depression may be one possible link. We examined the relationships between emotion dysregulation in school age, corticolimbic resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) in preadolescence, and depressive symptoms in adolescence. Participants were 143 children from a longitudinal preschool onset depression study who completed the Children Sadness Management Scale (CSMS; measuring ER), Child Depression Inventory (CDI-C; measuring depressive symptoms), and two resting-state MRI scans...
March 9, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Xiangfei Geng, Junhai Xu, Baolin Liu, Yonggang Shi
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a mental disorder characterized by at least 2 weeks of low mood, which is present across most situations. Diagnosis of MDD using rest-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data faces many challenges due to the high dimensionality, small samples, noisy and individual variability. To our best knowledge, no studies aim at classification with effective connectivity and functional connectivity measures between MDD patients and healthy controls. In this study, we performed a data-driving classification analysis using the whole brain connectivity measures which included the functional connectivity from two brain templates and effective connectivity measures created by the default mode network (DMN), dorsal attention network (DAN), frontal-parietal network (FPN), and silence network (SN)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Song Qi, Demis Hassabis, Jiayin Sun, Fangjian Guo, Nathaniel Daw, Dean Mobbs
Flight initiation distance (FID), the distance at which an organism flees from an approaching threat, is an ecological metric of cost-benefit functions of escape decisions. We adapted the FID paradigm to investigate how fast- or slow-attacking "virtual predators" constrain escape decisions. We show that rapid escape decisions rely on "reactive fear" circuits in the periaqueductal gray and midcingulate cortex (MCC), while protracted escape decisions, defined by larger buffer zones, were associated with "cognitive fear" circuits, which include posterior cingulate cortex, hippocampus, and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, circuits implicated in more complex information processing, cognitive avoidance strategies, and behavioral flexibility...
March 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Julien Volle, Tatiana Bregman, Brian Scott, Mustansir Diwan, Roger Raymond, Paul J Fletcher, José N Nobrega, Clement Hamani
Both selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) deep brain stimulation (DBS) modulate serotonergic activity. We compared the acute (1 day) and long-term (12 days) effects of vmPFC stimulation and fluoxetine on serotonin (5-HT) release and receptor expression in rats. Samples to measure serotonin levels were collected from the hippocampus using microdialysis. Serotonin transporter (SERT), 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B mRNA were measured using in situ hybridization. [3 H]8-OH-DPAT and [125 I]cyanopindolol autoradiography were used to measure 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B binding...
March 2, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Lauren C Anderson, Gorica D Petrovich
Persistent responding to food cues may underlie the difficulty to resist palatable foods and to maintain healthy eating habits. Renewal of responding after extinction is a model of persistent food seeking that can be used to study the underlying neural mechanisms. In context-mediated renewal, a return to the context in which the initial cue-food learning occurred induces robust responding to the cues that were extinguished elsewhere. Previous work found sex differences in context-mediated renewal and in the recruitment of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) during that behavior...
February 26, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Liu Yang, Yu Lei, Lubin Wang, Pinhong Chen, Shan Cheng, Shanshan Chen, Jicheng Sun, Yanyan Li, Yihan Wang, Wendong Hu, Zheng Yang
Sleep deprivation (SD) can alter the intrinsic brain functional organization. However, its effects on intrinsic low-frequency connectivity in the whole brain have not been well characterized. In this study, we used voxel-based functional connectivity density (FCD) analysis to investigate the effects of SD on the spontaneous functional organization of the brain. Thirty-seven healthy participants underwent this within-subject crossover functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study during rested wakefulness (RW) and after 36 h of total sleep deprivation (TSD)...
February 27, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
James A Waltz, Ziye Xu, Elliot C Brown, Rebecca R Ruiz, Michael J Frank, James M Gold
BACKGROUND: The current study was designed to test the hypothesis that motivational deficits in schizophrenia (SZ) are tied to a reduced ability to differentially signal gains and instances of loss-avoidance in the brain, leading to reduced ability to form adaptive representations of expected value. METHODS: We administered a reinforcement learning paradigm to 27 medicated SZ patients and 27 control subjects in which participants learned three probabilistic discriminations...
March 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Hye-Geum Kim, Eun-Jin Cheon, Dai-Seg Bai, Young Hwan Lee, Bon-Hoon Koo
Objective: Physical or mental imbalance caused by harmful stimuli can induce stress to maintain homeostasis. During chronic stress, the sympathetic nervous system is hyperactivated, causing physical, psychological, and behavioral abnormalities. At present, there is no accepted standard for stress evaluation. This review aimed to survey studies providing a rationale for selecting heart rate variability (HRV) as a psychological stress indicator. Methods: Term searches in the Web of Science®, National Library of Medicine (PubMed), and Google Scholar databases yielded 37 publications meeting our criteria...
February 28, 2018: Psychiatry Investigation
M P Dandekar, A J Fenoy, A F Carvalho, J C Soares, J Quevedo
Although deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established treatment choice for Parkinson's disease (PD), essential tremor and movement disorders, its effectiveness for the management of treatment-resistant depression (TRD) remains unclear. Herein, we conducted an integrative review on major neuroanatomical targets of DBS pursued for the treatment of intractable TRD. The aim of this review article is to provide a critical discussion of possible underlying mechanisms for DBS-generated antidepressant effects identified in preclinical studies and clinical trials, and to determine which brain target(s) elicited the most promising outcomes considering acute and maintenance treatment of TRD...
February 27, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Daehyun Jung, Sunhae Sul, Minwoo Lee, Hackjin Kim
Although it is now well documented that observation by others can be a powerful elicitor of prosocial behaviour, the underlying neural mechanism is yet to be explored. In the present fMRI study, we replicated the previously reported observer effect in ethical consumption, in that participants were more likely to purchase social products that are sold to support people in need than non-social products when being observed by others. fMRI data revealed that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) encoded subject-specific value parameters of purchase decisions for social and non-social products, respectively, under social observation...
February 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Caitlin R Bowman, Dagmar Zeithamova
Memory function involves both the ability to remember details of individual experiences and the ability to link information across events to create new knowledge. Prior research has identified the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) and the hippocampus as important for integrating across events in service of generalization in episodic memory. The degree to which these memory integration mechanisms contribute to other forms of generalization, such as concept learning, is unclear. The present study used a concept-learning task in humans (both sexes) coupled with model-based fMRI to test whether VMPFC and hippocampus contribute to concept generalization, and whether they do so by maintaining specific category exemplars or abstract category representations...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Miklos Argyelan, Mohammad Herzallah, Wataru Sako, Ivana DeLucia, Deepak Sarpal, An Vo, Toni Fitzpatrick, Ahmed A Moustafa, David Eidelberg, Mark Gluck
It is well established that Parkinson's disease leads to impaired learning from reward and enhanced learning from punishment. The administration of dopaminergic medications reverses this learning pattern. However, few studies have investigated the neural underpinnings of these cognitive processes. In this study, using fMRI, we tested a group of Parkinson's disease patients on and off dopaminergic medications and matched healthy individuals. All individuals completed an fMRI cognitive task that dissociates feedback learning from reward versus punishment...
February 9, 2018: Neuroreport
Raphael T Gerraty, Juliet Y Davidow, Karin Foerde, Adriana Galvan, Danielle S Bassett, Daphna Shohamy
Complex learned behaviors must involve the integrated action of distributed brain circuits. While the contributions of individual regions to learning have been extensively investigated, much less is known about how distributed brain networks orchestrate their activity over the course of learning. To address this gap, we used fMRI combined with tools from dynamic network neuroscience to obtain time-resolved descriptions of network coordination during reinforcement learning in humans. We found that learning to associate visual cues with reward involves dynamic changes in network coupling between the striatum and distributed brain regions, including visual, orbitofrontal, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (n=22, 13 females)...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Asako Mitsuto Nagase, Keiichi Onoda, Jerome Clifford Foo, Tomoki Haji, Rei Akaishi, Shuhei Yamaguchi, Katsuyuki Sakai, Kenji Morita
Humans tend to avoid mental effort. Previous studies have demonstrated this tendency using various demand-selection tasks; participants generally avoid options associated with higher cognitive demand. However, it remains unclear whether humans avoid mental effort adaptively in uncertain and non-stationary environments, and if so, what neural mechanisms underlie this learned avoidance and whether they remain the same irrespective of cognitive-demand types. We addressed these issues by developing novel demand-selection tasks where associations between choice options and cognitive-demand levels change over time, with two variations using mental arithmetic and spatial reasoning problems (29:4 and 18:2 males:females)...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
H Hart, L Lim, M A Mehta, A Simmons, K A H Mirza, K Rubia
BACKGROUND: Children with a history of maltreatment suffer from altered emotion processing but the neural basis of this phenomenon is unknown. This pioneering functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated the effects of severe childhood maltreatment on emotion processing while controlling for psychiatric conditions, medication and substance abuse. METHOD: Twenty medication-naive, substance abuse-free adolescents with a history of childhood abuse, 20 psychiatric control adolescents matched on psychiatric diagnoses but with no maltreatment and 27 healthy controls underwent a fMRI emotion discrimination task comprising fearful, angry, sad happy and neutral dynamic facial expressions...
February 12, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Jacklynn M Fitzgerald, Kerry L Kinney, K Luan Phan, Heide Klumpp
Neuroimaging research has characterized underlying neural mechanisms of attentional control and cognitive reappraisal, common implicit and explicit forms of emotion regulation, respectively. This research suggests attentional control and reappraisal may engage similar midline and lateral areas in the prefrontal cortex (PFC); however, findings are largely based on separate studies. Therefore, the extent to which mechanisms of implicit versus explicit regulation are independent or overlapping is not clear. In the current study, 49 healthy participants completed well-validated implicit and explicit regulation tasks in the form of attentional control and cognitive reappraisal during functional magnetic resonance imaging...
February 8, 2018: Neuropsychologia
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