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Ventromedial prefrontal cortex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225852/tryptophan-overloading-activates-brain-regions-involved-with-cognition-mood-and-anxiety
#1
Luana C A Silva, Milena B Viana, José S Andrade, Melyssa A Souza, Isabel C Céspedes, Vânia D'Almeida
Tryptophan is the only precursor of serotonin and mediates serotonergic activity in the brain. Previous studies have shown that the administration of tryptophan or tryptophan depletion significantly alters cognition, mood and anxiety. Nevertheless, the neurobiological alterations that follow these changes have not yet been fully investigated. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of a tryptophan-enriched diet on immunoreactivity to Fos-protein in the rat brain. Sixteen male Wistar rats were distributed into two groups that either received standard chow diet or a tryptophan-enriched diet for a period of thirty days...
February 16, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214544/can-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-studies-help-with-the-optimization-of-health-messaging-for-lifestyle-behavior-change-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Maxine E Whelan, Paul S Morgan, Lauren B Sherar, Mark W Orme, Dale W Esliger
Unhealthy behaviors, including smoking, poor nutrition, excessive alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and sedentary lifestyles, are global risk factors for non-communicable diseases and premature death. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) offers a unique approach to optimize health messages by examining how the brain responds to information relating to health. Our aim was to systematically review fMRI studies that have investigated variations in brain activation in response to health messages relating to (i) smoking; (ii) alcohol consumption; (iii) physical activity; (iv) diet; and (v) sedentary behavior...
February 15, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212814/human-striatal-dopaminergic-and-regional-serotonergic-synaptic-degeneration-with-lewy-body-disease-and-inheritance-of-apoe-%C3%AE%C2%B54
#3
Nadia Postupna, Caitlin S Latimer, Eric B Larson, Emily Sherfield, Julie Paladin, Carol A Shively, Matthew J Jorgensen, Rachel N Andrews, Jay R Kaplan, Paul K Crane, Kathleen S Montine, Suzanne Craft, C Dirk Keene, Thomas J Montine
Cognitive impairment in older individuals is a complex trait that in population-based studies most commonly derives from an individually varying mixture of Alzheimer disease, Lewy body disease, and vascular brain injury. We investigated the molecular composition of synaptic particles from three sources: consecutive rapid autopsy brains from the adult changes in thought study, a population-based cohort; four aged nonhuman primate brains optimally processed for molecular investigation; and targeted replacement transgenic mice homozygous for APOE ε4...
February 14, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207733/beyond-negative-valence-2-week-administration-of-a-serotonergic-antidepressant-enhances-both-reward-and-effort-learning-signals
#4
Jacqueline Scholl, Nils Kolling, Natalie Nelissen, Michael Browning, Matthew F S Rushworth, Catherine J Harmer
To make good decisions, humans need to learn about and integrate different sources of appetitive and aversive information. While serotonin has been linked to value-based decision-making, its role in learning is less clear, with acute manipulations often producing inconsistent results. Here, we show that when the effects of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI, citalopram) are studied over longer timescales, learning is robustly improved. We measured brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in volunteers as they performed a concurrent appetitive (money) and aversive (effort) learning task...
February 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202787/dysregulated-glycine-signaling-contributes-to-increased-impulsivity-during-protracted-alcohol-abstinence
#5
Cristina Irimia, Matthew W Buczynski, Luis A Natividad, Sarah A Laredo, Nathaniel Avalos, Loren H Parsons
Persons with alcoholism who are abstinent exhibit persistent impairments in the capacity for response inhibition, and this form of impulsivity is significantly associated with heightened relapse risk. Brain-imaging studies implicate aberrant prefrontal cortical function in this behavioral pathology, although the underlying mechanisms are not understood. Here we present evidence that deficient activation of glycine and serine release in the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) contributes to increased motor impulsivity during protracted abstinence from long-term alcohol exposure...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199912/in-patients-suffering-from-major-depressive-disorders-quantitative-eeg-showed-favorable-changes-in-left-and-right-prefrontal-cortex
#6
Mohammad Haghighi, Sebastian Ludyga, Boshra Rahimi, Leila Jahangard, Mohammad Ahmadpanah, Saadat Torabian, Farzaneh Esnaashari, Marzieh Nazaribadie, Hafez Bajoghli, Dena Sadeghi Bahmani, Edith Holsboer-Trachsler, Serge Brand
BACKGROUND: Patients suffering from major depressive disorders (MDD) report anhedonia, low concentration and lack of goal-oriented behavior. Data from imaging and quantitative EEG (QEEG) studies show an asymmetry in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), with lower left as compared to right PFC-activity, associated with specific depression-related behavior. Cordance is a QEEG measurement, which combines absolute and relative power of EEG-spectra with strong correlations with regional perfusion...
February 6, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195568/military-deployment-correlates-with-smaller-prefrontal-gray-matter-volume-and-psychological-symptoms-in-a-subclinical-population
#7
O Butler, J Adolf, T Gleich, G Willmund, P Zimmermann, U Lindenberger, J Gallinat, S Kühn
Research investigating the effects of trauma exposure on brain structure and function in adults has mainly focused on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), whereas trauma-exposed individuals without a clinical diagnoses often serve as controls. However, this assumes a dichotomy between clinical and subclinical populations that may not be supported at the neural level. In the current study we investigate whether the effects of repeated or long-term stress exposure on brain structure in a subclinical sample are similar to previous PTSD neuroimaging findings...
February 14, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182906/ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-encodes-a-latent-estimate-of-cumulative-reward
#8
Keno Juechems, Jan Balaguer, Maria Ruz, Christopher Summerfield
Humans and other animals accumulate resources, or wealth, by making successive risky decisions. If and how risk attitudes vary with wealth remains an open question. Here humans accumulated reward by accepting or rejecting successive monetary gambles within arbitrarily defined temporal contexts. Risk preferences changed substantially toward risk aversion as reward accumulated within a context, and blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signals in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (PFC) tracked the latent growth of cumulative economic outcomes...
February 8, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182902/money-in-the-bank-distortive-effects-of-accumulated-earnings-on-risky-choice
#9
Arkady Konovalov, Ian Krajbich
A new study by Juechems et al. (2017) demonstrates that individuals take fewer risks as they accumulate monetary reward. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex plays a key role in the decision process, encoding both momentary reward and the context of the accumulated wealth.
February 8, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167897/meg-signatures-of-a-perceived-match-or-mismatch-between-individual-and-group-opinions
#10
Ivan Zubarev, Vasily Klucharev, Alexei Ossadtchi, Victoria Moiseeva, Anna Shestakova
Humans often adjust their opinions to the perceived opinions of others. Neural responses to a perceived match or mismatch between individual and group opinions have been investigated previously, but some findings are inconsistent. In this study, we used magnetoencephalographic source imaging to investigate further neural responses to the perceived opinions of others. We found that group opinions mismatching with individual opinions evoked responses in the anterior and posterior medial prefrontal cortices, as well as in the temporoparietal junction and ventromedial prefrontal cortex in the 220-320 and 380-530 ms time windows...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167379/within-session-effect-of-repeated-stress-exposure-on-extinction-circuitry-function-in-social-anxiety-disorder
#11
Fredrik Åhs, Malin Gingnell, Tomas Furmark, Mats Fredrikson
Anxiety reduction following repeated exposure to stressful experiences is generally held to depend on neural processes involved in extinction of conditioned fear. We predicted that repeated exposure to stressful experiences would change activity throughout the circuitry serving extinction, including ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), the hippocampus and the amygdala. To test this prediction, 36 participants diagnosed with SAD performed two successive speeches in front of an observing audience while regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was recorded using positron emission tomography...
January 28, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162895/the-brain-basis-for-misophonia
#12
Sukhbinder Kumar, Olana Tansley-Hancock, William Sedley, Joel S Winston, Martina F Callaghan, Micah Allen, Thomas E Cope, Phillip E Gander, Doris-Eva Bamiou, Timothy D Griffiths
Misophonia is an affective sound-processing disorder characterized by the experience of strong negative emotions (anger and anxiety) in response to everyday sounds, such as those generated by other people eating, drinking, chewing, and breathing [1-8]. The commonplace nature of these sounds (often referred to as "trigger sounds") makes misophonia a devastating disorder for sufferers and their families, and yet nothing is known about the underlying mechanism. Using functional and structural MRI coupled with physiological measurements, we demonstrate that misophonic subjects show specific trigger-sound-related responses in brain and body...
February 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160686/knowing-me-knowing-you-resting-state-functional-connectivity-of-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-dissociates-memory-related-to-self-from-a-familiar-other
#13
Irene de Caso, Theodoros Karapanagiotidis, Elena Aggius-Vella, Mahiko Konishi, Daniel S Margulies, Elizabeth Jefferies, Jonathan Smallwood
Material related to the self, as well as to significant others, often displays mnemonic superiority through its associations with highly organised and elaborate representations. Neuroimaging studies suggest this effect is related to activation in regions of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Incidental memory scores for trait adjectives, processed in relation to the self, a good friend and David Cameron were collected. Scores for each referent were used as regressors in seed-based analyses of resting state fMRI data performed in ventral, middle and dorsal mPFC seeds, as well as hippocampal formation...
February 1, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159906/identity-specific-reward-representations-in-orbitofrontal-cortex-are-modulated-by-selective-devaluation
#14
James D Howard, Thorsten Kahnt
: Goal-directed behavior is sensitive to the current value of expected outcomes. This requires independent representations of specific rewards, which have been linked to orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) function. However, the mechanisms by which the human brain updates specific goals on the fly, and translates those updates into choices, have remained unknown. Here we implemented selective devaluation of appetizing food odors in combination with pattern-based neuroimaging and a decision-making task...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154520/a-coordinate-based-meta-analysis-of-overlaps-in-regional-specialization-and-functional-connectivity-across-subjective-value-and-default-mode-networks
#15
M Yavuz Acikalin, Krzysztof J Gorgolewski, Russell A Poldrack
Previous research has provided qualitative evidence for overlap in a number of brain regions across the subjective value network (SVN) and the default mode network (DMN). In order to quantitatively assess this overlap, we conducted a series of coordinate-based meta-analyses (CBMA) of results from 466 functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments on task-negative or subjective value-related activations in the human brain. In these analyses, we first identified significant overlaps and dissociations across activation foci related to SVN and DMN...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150390/gray-matter-relationships-to-diagnostic-and-transdiagnostic-features-of-drug-and-behavioral-addictions
#16
Sarah W Yip, Patrick D Worhunsky, Jiansong Xu, Kristen P Morie, R Todd Constable, Robert T Malison, Kathleen M Carroll, Marc N Potenza
Alterations in neural structure have been reported in both cocaine-use disorder and gambling disorder, separately, suggesting similarities across addiction diagnoses. Individual variation in neural structure has also been associated with impulsivity, a dimensional construct implicated in addictions. This study combines categorical (diagnosis-based) and dimensional (transdiagnostic) approaches to identify neural structural alterations linked to addiction subtypes and trait impulsivity, respectively, across individuals with gambling disorder (n = 35), individuals with cocaine-use disorder (n = 37) and healthy comparison individuals (n = 37)...
February 1, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131758/volitional-regulation-of-brain-responses-to-food-stimuli-in-overweight-and-obese-subjects-a-real-time-fmri-feedback-study
#17
Maartje S Spetter, Rahim Malekshahi, Niels Birbaumer, Michael Lührs, Albert H van der Veer, Klaus Scheffler, Sophia Spuckti, Hubert Preissl, Ralf Veit, Manfred Hallschmid
Obese subjects who achieve weight loss show increased functional connectivity between dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), key areas of executive control and reward processing. We investigated the potential of real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI) neurofeedback training to achieve healthier food choices by enhancing self-control of the interplay between these brain areas. We trained eight male individuals with overweight or obesity (age: 31.8 ± 4...
January 25, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131626/alcohol-vapor-exposure-differentially-impacts-mesocorticolimbic-cytokine-expression-in-a-sex-region-and-duration-specific-manner
#18
Lydia N Baxter-Potter, Angela M Henricks, Anthony L Berger, Kennedy V Bieniasz, Janelle M Lugo, Ryan J McLaughlin
Alcohol exposure elicits the production of cytokines that regulate the host response to infection, immunity, inflammation, and trauma. Although increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines has been linked to symptoms of alcoholism, few studies have evaluated whether cytokine expression changes across the development of alcohol dependence, or whether these changes are region and/or sex specific. In the present study, we subjected adult male and female rats to different regimens of alcohol vapor exposure (acute, subchronic, or chronic) and measured relative mRNA expression for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) in reward-related brain regions...
January 25, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111829/no-association-of-goal-directed-and-habitual-control-with-alcohol-consumption-in-young-adults
#19
Stephan Nebe, Nils B Kroemer, Daniel J Schad, Nadine Bernhardt, Miriam Sebold, Dirk K Müller, Lucie Scholl, Sören Kuitunen-Paul, Andreas Heinz, Michael A Rapp, Quentin J M Huys, Michael N Smolka
Alcohol dependence is a mental disorder that has been associated with an imbalance in behavioral control favoring model-free habitual over model-based goal-directed strategies. It is as yet unknown, however, whether such an imbalance reflects a predisposing vulnerability or results as a consequence of repeated and/or excessive alcohol exposure. We, therefore, examined the association of alcohol consumption with model-based goal-directed and model-free habitual control in 188 18-year-old social drinkers in a two-step sequential decision-making task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging before prolonged alcohol misuse could have led to severe neurobiological adaptations...
January 23, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103483/dynamic-interaction-between-reinforcement-learning-and-attention-in-multidimensional-environments
#20
Yuan Chang Leong, Angela Radulescu, Reka Daniel, Vivian DeWoskin, Yael Niv
Little is known about the relationship between attention and learning during decision making. Using eye tracking and multivariate pattern analysis of fMRI data, we measured participants' dimensional attention as they performed a trial-and-error learning task in which only one of three stimulus dimensions was relevant for reward at any given time. Analysis of participants' choices revealed that attention biased both value computation during choice and value update during learning. Value signals in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and prediction errors in the striatum were similarly biased by attention...
January 18, 2017: Neuron
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