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Ventromedial prefrontal cortex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776789/transdiagnostic-effects-of-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-on-cue-reactivity
#1
Tonisha E Kearney-Ramos, Logan T Dowdle, Daniel H Lench, Oliver J Mithoefer, William H Devries, Mark S George, Raymond F Anton, Colleen A Hanlon
BACKGROUND: Elevated frontal and striatal reactivity to drug cues is a transdiagnostic hallmark of substance use disorders. The goal of these experiments was to determine if it is possible to decrease frontal and striatal reactivity to drug cues in both cocaine users and heavy alcohol users through continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) to the left ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC). METHODS: Two single-blinded, within-subject, active sham-controlled experiments were performed wherein neural reactivity to drug/alcohol cues versus neutral cues was evaluated immediately before and after receiving real or sham cTBS (110% resting motor threshold, 3600 pulses, Fp1 location; N = 49: 25 cocaine users [experiment 1], 24 alcohol users [experiment 2]; 196 total functional magnetic resonance imaging scans)...
April 10, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760060/corticoinsular-circuits-encode-subjective-value-expectation-and-violation-for-effortful-goal-directed-behavior
#2
Amanda R Arulpragasam, Jessica A Cooper, Makiah R Nuutinen, Michael T Treadway
We are presented with choices each day about how to invest our effort to achieve our goals. Critically, these decisions must frequently be made under conditions of incomplete information, where either the effort required or possible reward to be gained is uncertain. Such choices therefore require the development of potential value estimates to guide effortful goal-directed behavior. To date, however, the neural mechanisms for this expectation process are unknown. Here, we used computational fMRI during an effort-based decision-making task where trial-wise information about effort costs and reward magnitudes was presented separately over time, thereby allowing us to model distinct effort/reward computations as choice-relevant information unfolded...
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744798/the-effect-of-future-time-perspective-on-procrastination-the-role-of-parahippocampal-gyrus-and-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex
#3
Peiwei Liu, Tingyong Feng
Procrastination is an almost universal affliction, which occurs across culture and brings serious consequences across multiple fields, such as finance, health and education. Previous research has showed procrastination can be influenced by future time perspective (FTP). However, little is known about the neural basis underlying the impact of FTP on procrastination. To address this question, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) based on brain structure. In line with previous findings, the behavioral result indicated that FTP inventory scores were significantly negatively correlated with procrastination inventory scores (r = -0...
May 9, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743496/complex-housing-causes-a-robust-increase-in-dendritic-complexity-and-spine-density-of-medial-prefrontal-cortical-neurons
#4
Archana Ashokan, Jamien Wee Han Lim, Nicholas Hang, Rupshi Mitra
Prelimbic cortex and infralimbic cortex, parts of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, are critical brain regions for generating a flexible behavioral response to changing environmental contingencies. This includes the role of these brain structures in the extinction of learned fear, decision making and retrieval of remote memories. Dendritic structure of medial prefrontal cortex neurons retains significant structural plasticity in adulthood. This has been mainly demonstrated as dendritic atrophy and loss of dendritic spines due to chronic stress...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742026/cortical-sources-of-the-auditory-attentional-blink
#5
Dawei Shen, Dominique T Vuvan, Claude Alain
Attentional blink (AB) refers to the situation where correctly identifying a target impairs the processing of a subsequent probe in a sequence of stimuli. Although the AB often coincides with a modulation of scalp-recorded cognitive event-related potentials (ERPs), the neural sources of this effect remain unclear. In two separate experiments, we used Classical LORETA Analysis Recursively Applied (CLARA) to estimate the neural sources of ERPs elicited by an auditory probe when it immediately followed an auditory target (i...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741803/modulating-emotional-experience-using-electrical-stimulation-of-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-a-preliminary-tdcs-fmri-study
#6
Rany Abend, Roy Sar-El, Tal Gonen, Itamar Jalon, Sharon Vaisvaser, Yair Bar-Haim, Talma Hendler
OBJECTIVES: Implicit regulation of emotions involves medial-prefrontal cortex (mPFC) regions exerting regulatory control over limbic structures. Diminished regulation relates to aberrant mPFC functionality and psychopathology. Establishing means of modulating mPFC functionality could benefit research on emotion and its dysregulation. Here, we tested the capacity of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) targeting mPFC to modulate subjective emotional states by facilitating implicit emotion regulation...
May 9, 2018: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739481/ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-activity-and-pathological-worry-in-generalised-anxiety-disorder
#7
E Via, M A Fullana, X Goldberg, D Tinoco-González, I Martínez-Zalacaín, C Soriano-Mas, C G Davey, J M Menchón, B Straube, T Kircher, J Pujol, N Cardoner, B J Harrison
BACKGROUND: Pathological worry is a hallmark feature of generalised anxiety disorder (GAD), associated with dysfunctional emotional processing. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) is involved in the regulation of such processes, but the link between vmPFC emotional responses and pathological v. adaptive worry has not yet been examined.AimsTo study the association between worry and vmPFC activity evoked by the processing of learned safety and threat signals. METHOD: In total, 27 unmedicated patients with GAD and 56 healthy controls (HC) underwent a differential fear conditioning paradigm during functional magnetic resonance imaging...
May 9, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739476/altered-brain-gyrification-in-deficit-and-non-deficit-schizophrenia
#8
Yoichiro Takayanagi, Daiki Sasabayashi, Tsutomu Takahashi, Yuko Komori, Atsushi Furuichi, Mikio Kido, Yumiko Nishikawa, Mihoko Nakamura, Kyo Noguchi, Michio Suzuki
BACKGROUND: Patients with the deficit form of schizophrenia (D-SZ) are characterized by severe primary negative symptoms and differ from patients with the non-deficit form of schizophrenia (ND-SZ) in several aspects. No study has measured brain gyrification, which is a potential marker of neurodevelopment, in D-SZ and ND-SZ. METHODS: We obtained magnetic resonance scans from 135 schizophrenia patients and 50 healthy controls. The proxy scale for deficit syndrome (PDS) was used for the classification of D-SZ and ND-SZ...
May 9, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735014/value-generalization-in-human-avoidance-learning
#9
Agnes Norbury, Trevor W Robbins, Ben Seymour
Generalization during aversive decision-making allows us to avoid a broad range of potential threats following experience with a limited set of exemplars. However, over-generalization, resulting in excessive and inappropriate avoidance, has been implicated in a variety of psychological disorders. Here, we use reinforcement learning modelling to dissect out different contributions to the generalization of instrumental avoidance in two groups of human volunteers ( N =26, N =482). We found that generalization of avoidance could be parsed into perceptual and value-based processes, and further, that value-based generalization could be subdivided into that relating to aversive and neutral feedback - with corresponding circuits including primary sensory cortex, anterior insula, amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex...
May 8, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722327/structural-neural-connectivity-of-the-vestibular-nuclei-in-the-human-brain-a-diffusion-tensor-imagings-study
#10
Sung Ho Jang, Mi Young Lee, Sang Seok Yeo, Hyeok Gyu Kwon
Many animal studies have reported on the neural connectivity of the vestibular nuclei (VN). However, little is reported on the structural neural connectivity of the VN in the human brain. In this study, we attempted to investigate the structural neural connectivity of the VN in 37 healthy subjects using diffusion tensor tractography. A seed region of interest was placed on the isolated VN using probabilistic diffusion tensor tractography. Connectivity was defined as the incidence of connection between the VN and each brain region...
April 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706587/frontostriatal-dysfunction-during-decision-making-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#11
Luke J Norman, Christina O Carlisi, Anastasia Christakou, Clodagh M Murphy, Kaylita Chantiluke, Vincent Giampietro, Andrew Simmons, Michael Brammer, David Mataix-Cols, Katya Rubia
BACKGROUND: The aim of the current paper is to provide the first comparison of computational mechanisms and neurofunctional substrates in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) during decision making under ambiguity. METHODS: Sixteen boys with ADHD, 20 boys with OCD, and 20 matched control subjects (12-18 years of age) completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging version of the Iowa Gambling Task...
March 24, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700724/facing-temptation-the-neural-correlates-of-gambling-availability-during-sports-picture-exposure
#12
Damien Brevers, Sarah C Herremans, Qinghua He, Marie-Anne Vanderhasselt, Mathieu Petieau, Dimitri Verdonck, Tasha Poppa, Sara De Witte, Charles Kornreich, Antoine Bechara, Chris Baeken
Nowadays, sports betting has become increasingly available and easy to engage in. Here we examined the neural responses to stimuli that represent sporting events available for betting as compared to sporting events without a gambling opportunity. We used a cue exposure task in which football (soccer) fans (N = 42) viewed cues depicting scheduled football games that would occur shortly after the scanning session. In the "betting" condition, participants were instructed to choose, at the end of each block, the game (and the team) they wanted to bet on...
April 26, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700303/neuro-computational-account-of-how-mood-fluctuations-arise-and-affect-decision-making
#13
Fabien Vinckier, Lionel Rigoux, Delphine Oudiette, Mathias Pessiglione
The influence of mood on choices is a well-established but poorly understood phenomenon. Here, we suggest a three-fold neuro-computational account: (1) the integration of positive and negative events over time induce mood fluctuations, (2) which are underpinned by variations in the baseline activities of critical brain valuation regions, (3) which in turn modulate the relative weights assigned to key dimensions of choice options. We validate this model in healthy participants, using feedback in a quiz task to induce mood fluctuations, and a choice task (accepting vs...
April 26, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695997/the-anatomo-electrical-network-underlying-hypermotor-seizures
#14
Xiu Wang, Wenhan Hu, Kai Zhang, Xiaoqiu Shao, Yanshan Ma, Lin Sang, Zhong Zheng, Chao Zhang, Junjv Li, Jian-Guo Zhang
Purpose: Hypermotor seizures (HMS) can be triggered by different epileptogenic foci and thus common symptomatic networks generating HMS may exist among these patients. The goal of the present study was to investigate the specialized networks underlying HMS by analyzing interictal 18 FDG-PET imaging and ictal stereo-electroencephalography (SEEG) recordings. Methods: Fourteen patients with HMS were retrospectively analyzed. HMS were classified into HMS1 and HMS2 according to the speed and intensity of the motor seizure behavior...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681803/anger-modulates-influence-hierarchies-within-and-between-emotional-reactivity-and-regulation-networks
#15
Yael Jacob, Gadi Gilam, Tamar Lin, Gal Raz, Talma Hendler
Emotion regulation is hypothesized to be mediated by the interactions between emotional reactivity and regulation networks during the dynamic unfolding of the emotional episode. Yet, it remains unclear how to delineate the effective relationships between these networks. In this study, we examined the aforementioned networks' information flow hierarchy during viewing of an anger provoking movie excerpt. Anger regulation is particularly essential for averting individuals from aggression and violence, thus improving prosocial behavior...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679735/age-dependent-effects-of-brain-stimulation-on-network-centrality
#16
Daria Antonenko, Till Nierhaus, Marcus Meinzer, Kristin Prehn, Axel Thielscher, Bernd Ittermann, Agnes Flöel
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have suggested that advanced age may mediate the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on brain function. However, studies directly comparing neural tDCS effects between young and older adults are scarce and limited to task-related imaging paradigms. Resting-state (rs-) fMRI, that is independent of age-related differences in performance, is well suited to investigate age-associated differential neural tDCS effects. Three "online" tDCS conditions (anodal, cathodal, sham) were compared in a cross-over, within-subject design, in 30 young and 30 older adults...
April 18, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673625/abnormal-target-detection-and-novelty-processing-neural-response-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#17
Pilar M Sanjuan, Chloe Andrews, Eric D Claus
Attention impairments are common symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, the nature of these impairments remains elusive. Attention impairment may arise as the result of either excessive response to task-irrelevant stimuli or reduced response to task-relevant information. To test the association between PTSD and response to task-relevant and task-irrelevant stimuli, we used a 3-tone novelty auditory oddball task (AOD). We hypothesized that participants with PTSD relative to trauma controls would have less response during novelty processing in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and the anterior cingulate cortex, as well as less response in the dlPFC and the orbitofrontal cortex during target detection...
April 16, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673474/fronto-thalamic-architectures-for-cognitive-algorithms
#18
Michael M Halassa
In this issue of Neuron, Collins et al. (2018) delineate the functional circuit architecture connecting the prefrontal cortex with two major thalamic territories, the mediodorsal and ventromedial.
April 18, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672741/multimodal-brain-changes-in-first-episode-mania-a-voxel-based-morphometry-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-connectivity-study
#19
José M Goikolea, Danai Dima, Ramón Landín-Romero, Imma Torres, Giuseppe DelVecchio, Marc Valentí, Benedikt L Amann, Caterina Mar Bonnín, Peter J McKenna, Edith Pomarol-Clotet, Sophia Frangou, Eduard Vieta
Background: Brain structural and functional changes in bipolar disorder (BD) are well-established findings, but it is uncertain whether these changes are already present in first episode mania (FEM). Methods: We compared 31 FEM subjects, with 31 healthy individuals matched for age, sex, and premorbid IQ. Whole-brain voxel-wise morphometry, functional magnetic resonance imaging during the n-back task, and a functional connectivity analysis were performed. Results: There were no volumetric differences between the 2 groups...
April 17, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670143/overcoming-bias-cognitive-control-reduces-susceptibility-to-framing-effects-in-evaluating-musical-performance
#20
Gökhan Aydogan, Nicole Flaig, Srekar N Ravi, Edward W Large, Samuel M McClure, Elizabeth Hellmuth Margulis
Prior expectations can bias evaluative judgments of sensory information. We show that information about a performer's status can bias the evaluation of musical stimuli, reflected by differential activity of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Moreover, we demonstrate that decreased susceptibility to this confirmation bias is (a) accompanied by the recruitment of and (b) correlated with the white-matter structure of the executive control network, particularly related to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC)...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
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