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Ventromedial prefrontal cortex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103483/dynamic-interaction-between-reinforcement-learning-and-attention-in-multidimensional-environments
#1
Yuan Chang Leong, Angela Radulescu, Reka Daniel, Vivian DeWoskin, Yael Niv
Little is known about the relationship between attention and learning during decision making. Using eye tracking and multivariate pattern analysis of fMRI data, we measured participants' dimensional attention as they performed a trial-and-error learning task in which only one of three stimulus dimensions was relevant for reward at any given time. Analysis of participants' choices revealed that attention biased both value computation during choice and value update during learning. Value signals in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and prediction errors in the striatum were similarly biased by attention...
January 18, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100748/independent-neural-computation-of-value-from-other-people-s-confidence
#2
Daniel Campbell-Meiklejohn, Arndis Simonsen, Chris D Frith, Nathaniel D Daw
: Expectation of reward can be shaped by the observation of actions and expressions of other people in one's environment. A person's apparent confidence in the likely reward of an action, for instance, makes qualities of their evidence, not observed directly, socially accessible. This strategy is computationally distinguished from associative learning methods that rely on direct observation, by its use of inference from indirect evidence. In twenty-three healthy human subjects, we isolated effects of first-hand experience, other people's choices, and the mediating effect of their confidence, on decision-making and neural correlates of value within ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC)...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094034/dynamical-representation-of-dominance-relationships-in-the-human-rostromedial-prefrontal-cortex
#3
Romain Ligneul, Ignacio Obeso, Christian C Ruff, Jean-Claude Dreher
Humans and other primates have evolved the ability to represent their status in the group's social hierarchy, which is essential for avoiding harm and accessing resources. Yet it remains unclear how the human brain learns dominance status and adjusts behavior accordingly during dynamic social interactions. Here we address this issue with a combination of fMRI and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). In a first fMRI experiment, participants learned an implicit dominance hierarchy while playing a competitive game against three opponents of different skills...
December 5, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077722/higher-heart-rate-variability-is-associated-with-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-activity-and-increased-resistance-to-temptation-in-dietary-self-control-challenges
#4
Silvia U Maier, Todd A Hare
: Higher levels of self-control in decision making have been linked to better psychosocial and physical health. A similar link to health outcomes has been reported for heart-rate variability (HRV), a marker of physiological flexibility. Here, we sought to link these two, largely separate, research domains by testing the hypothesis that greater HRV would be associated with better dietary self-control in humans. Specifically, we examined whether total HRV at sedentary rest (measured as the SD of normal-to-normal intervals) can serve as a biomarker for the neurophysiological adaptability that putatively underlies self-controlled behavior...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057725/the-neuro-computational-architecture-of-value-based-selection-in-the-human-brain
#5
Philippe Domenech, Jérôme Redouté, Etienne Koechlin, Jean-Claude Dreher
Current neural models of value-based decision-making consider choices as a 2-stage process, proceeding from the "valuation" of each option under consideration to the "selection" of the best option on the basis of their subjective values. However, little is known about the computational mechanisms at play at the selection stage and its implementation in the human brain. Here, we used drift-diffusion models combined with model-based functional magnetic resonance imaging, effective connectivity, and multivariate pattern analysis to characterize the neuro-computational architecture of value-based decisions...
January 4, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054822/episodic-future-thinking-following-vmpfc-damage-impaired-event-construction-maintenance-or-narration
#6
Elena Bertossi, Vanessa Candela, Flavia De Luca, Elisa Ciaramelli
OBJECTIVE: Functional neuroimaging and lesion studies show that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) is implicated in episodic future thinking (EFT), yet its role remains unclear. In this study, we sought to (a) confirm recent findings of impaired EFT in patients with lesions to the vmPFC (vmPFC patients) using a new task, and (b) investigate the influence of nonepisodic mechanisms, namely, narrative construction and working memory maintenance, on vmPFC patients' EFT performance...
January 5, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052779/neural-indicators-of-interpersonal-anger-as-cause-and-consequence-of-combat-training-stress-symptoms
#7
G Gilam, T Lin, E Fruchter, T Hendler
BACKGROUND: Angry outbursts are an important feature of various stress-related disorders, and commonly lead to aggression towards other people. Findings regarding interpersonal anger have linked the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) to anger regulation and the locus coeruleus (LC) to aggression. Both regions were previously associated with traumatic and chronic stress symptoms, yet it is unclear if their functionality represents a consequence of, or possibly also a cause for, stress symptoms...
January 5, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036071/the-interplay-of-hippocampus-and-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-in-memory-based-decision-making
#8
REVIEW
Regina A Weilbächer, Sebastian Gluth
Episodic memory and value-based decision making are two central and intensively studied research domains in cognitive neuroscience, but we are just beginning to understand how they interact to enable memory-based decisions. The two brain regions that have been associated with episodic memory and value-based decision making are the hippocampus and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, respectively. In this review article, we first give an overview of these brain-behavior associations and then focus on the mechanisms of potential interactions between the hippocampus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex that have been proposed and tested in recent neuroimaging studies...
December 29, 2016: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031223/disrupted-prediction-errors-index-social-deficits-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#9
Joshua H Balsters, Matthew A J Apps, Dimitris Bolis, Rea Lehner, Louise Gallagher, Nicole Wenderoth
Social deficits are a core symptom of autism spectrum disorder; however, the perturbed neural mechanisms underpinning these deficits remain unclear. It has been suggested that social prediction errors-coding discrepancies between the predicted and actual outcome of another's decisions-might play a crucial role in processing social information. While the gyral surface of the anterior cingulate cortex signalled social prediction errors in typically developing individuals, this crucial social signal was altered in individuals with autism spectrum disorder...
January 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998996/effective-amygdala-prefrontal-connectivity-predicts-individual-differences-in-successful-emotion-regulation
#10
Carmen Morawetz, Stefan Bode, Juergen Baudewig, Hauke R Heekeren
The ability to voluntarily regulate our emotional response to threatening and highly arousing stimuli by using cognitive reappraisal strategies is essential for our mental and physical well-being. This might be achieved by prefrontal brain regions (e.g., inferior frontal gyrus, IFG) down-regulating activity in the amygdala. It is unknown, to which degree effective connectivity within the emotion-regulation network is linked to individual differences in reappraisal skills. Using psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analyses of functional magnetic resonance imaging data, we examined changes in inter-regional connectivity between the amygdala and IFG with other brain regions during reappraisal of emotional responses and used emotion regulation success as an explicit regressor...
December 20, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979789/age-related-reduction-of-bold-modulation-to-cognitive-difficulty-predicts-poorer-task-accuracy-and-poorer-fluid-reasoning-ability
#11
Jenny R Rieck, Karen M Rodrigue, Maria A Boylan, Kristen M Kennedy
Aging is associated with reduced resources needed to perform difficult cognitive tasks, but the neural underpinnings are not well understood, especially as there is scant evidence linking functional brain differences to aging cognition. Therefore, the current study examined modulation of fMRI activation from easier to harder spatial distance judgments across a large lifespan sample (N=161; ages 20-94) to identify when in the lifespan modulation to difficulty begins to show deficits and if age-related modulation predicts cognition...
December 13, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974616/the-right-superior-frontal-gyrus-and-individual-variation-in-proactive-control-of-impulsive-response
#12
Sien Hu, Jaime S Ide, Sheng Zhang, Chiang-Shan R Li
: A hallmark of cognitive control is the ability to rein in impulsive responses. Previously, we used a Bayesian model to describe trial-by-trial likelihood of the stop signal or p(Stop) and related regional activations to p(Stop) to response slowing in a stop signal task. Here, we characterized the regional processes of conflict anticipation in association with intersubject variation in impulse control in 114 young adults. We computed the stop signal reaction time (SSRT) and a measure of motor urgency, indexed by the reaction time (RT) difference between go and stop error trials or "GoRT - SERT," where GoRT is the go trial RT and SERT is the stop error RT...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965391/reducing-future-fears-by-suppressing-the-brain-mechanisms-underlying-episodic-simulation
#13
Roland G Benoit, Daniel J Davies, Michael C Anderson
Imagining future events conveys adaptive benefits, yet recurrent simulations of feared situations may help to maintain anxiety. In two studies, we tested the hypothesis that people can attenuate future fears by suppressing anticipatory simulations of dreaded events. Participants repeatedly imagined upsetting episodes that they feared might happen to them and suppressed imaginings of other such events. Suppressing imagination engaged the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which modulated activation in the hippocampus and in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC)...
December 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957784/d-cycloserine-enhanced-extinction-of-cocaine-induced-conditioned-place-preference-is-attenuated-in-serotonin-transporter-knockout-rats
#14
Peter Karel, Francesca Calabrese, Marco Riva, Paola Brivio, Bas Van der Veen, Liesbeth Reneman, Michel Verheij, Judith Homberg
d-Cycloserine (DCS), a partial NMDA receptor agonist, has been proposed as a cognitive enhancer to facilitate the extinction of drug-related memories. However, it is unknown whether there are individual differences in the efficacy of DCS. Here, we set out to investigate the influence of serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genotype on DCS treatment outcome and the underlying neural mechanism. To that end, we first determined the mRNA levels of several NMDA receptor subunits and observed a reduction in NR1/NR2C receptors in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens of 5-HTT(-/-) compared with 5-HTT(+/+) rats...
December 12, 2016: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940996/independent-neural-computation-of-value-from-other-people-s-confidence
#15
Daniel Campbell-Meiklejohn, Arndis Simonsen, Chris D Frith, Nathaniel D Daw
: Expectation of reward can be shaped by the observation of actions and expressions of other people in one's environment. A person's apparent confidence in the likely reward of an action, for instance, makes qualities of their evidence, not observed directly, socially accessible. This strategy is computationally distinguished from associative learning methods that rely on direct observation, by its use of inference from indirect evidence. In twenty-three healthy human subjects, we isolated effects of first-hand experience, other people's choices, and the mediating effect of their confidence, on decision-making and neural correlates of value within ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC)...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940080/sex-specific-recruitment-of-a-medial-prefrontal-cortex-hippocampal-thalamic-system-during-context-dependent-renewal-of-responding-to-food-cues-in-rats
#16
Lauren C Anderson, Gorica D Petrovich
Renewal, or reinstatement, of responding to food cues after extinction may explain the inability to resist palatable foods and change maladaptive eating habits. Previously, we found sex differences in context-dependent renewal of extinguished Pavlovian conditioned responding to food cues. Context-induced renewal involves cue-food conditioning and extinction in different contexts and the renewal of conditioned behavior is induced by return to the conditioning context (ABA renewal). Male rats showed renewal of responding while females did not...
December 8, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936814/neural-substrates-and-social-consequences-of-interpersonal-gratitude-intention-matters
#17
Hongbo Yu, Qiang Cai, Bo Shen, Xiaoxue Gao, Xiaolin Zhou
Voluntary help during a time of need fosters interpersonal gratitude, which has positive social and personal consequences such as improved social relationships, increased reciprocity, and decreased distress. In a behavioral and a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment, participants played a multiround interactive game where they received pain stimulation. An anonymous partner interacted with the participants and either intentionally or unintentionally (i.e., determined by a computer program) bore part of the participants' pain...
December 12, 2016: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928709/the-gabaergic-system-in-prefrontal-cortex-and-hippocampus-modulates-context-related-extinction-learning-and-renewal-in-humans
#18
Silke Lissek, Anne Golisch, Benjamin Glaubitz, Martin Tegenthoff
Context-related extinction learning and renewal in humans is mediated by hippocampal and prefrontal regions. Renewal is defined as the reoccurrence of an extinguished response if the contexts present during extinction learning and recall differ. Animal studies implicate hippocampal γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptors in extinction and renewal. However, human studies on GABAergic mechanisms in extinction learning are lacking. In this fMRI study, we therefore investigated the role of the GABAergic system in context-related extinction learning and renewal...
December 7, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921340/brain-activation-during-fear-extinction-predicts-exposure-success
#19
Tali Manber Ball, Sarah E Knapp, Martin P Paulus, Murray B Stein
BACKGROUND: Exposure therapy, a gold-standard treatment for anxiety disorders, is assumed to work via extinction learning, but this has never been tested. Anxious individuals demonstrate extinction learning deficits, likely related to less ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and more amygdala activation, but the relationship between these deficits and exposure outcome is unknown. We tested whether anxious individuals who demonstrate better extinction learning report greater anxiety reduction following brief exposure...
December 6, 2016: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916985/the-obese-brain-as-a-heritable-phenotype-a-combined-morphometry-and-twin-study
#20
C M Weise, P Piaggi, M Reinhardt, K Chen, C R Savage, J Krakoff, B Pleger
BACKGROUND: Body weight and adiposity are heritable traits. To date it remains unknown whether obesity-associated brain structural alterations are under a similar level of genetic control. METHODS: For this study we utilized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data from the Human Connectome Project. Voxel based morphometry (VBM) was used to investigate associations between body mass index (BMI) and regional gray matter volume (GMV) in a sample of 875 young adults with a wide BMI range (386m/489f; age 28...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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