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Ventromedial prefrontal cortex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923533/subjective-memory-complaints-are-associated-with-brain-activation-supporting-successful-memory-encoding
#1
Jessica M Hayes, Lingfei Tang, Raymond P Viviano, Sanneke van Rooden, Noa Ofen, Jessica S Damoiseaux
Subjective memory complaints, the perceived decline in cognitive abilities in the absence of clinical deficits, may precede Alzheimer's disease. Individuals with subjective memory complaints show differential brain activation during memory encoding; however, whether such differences contribute to successful memory formation remains unclear. Here, we investigated how subsequent memory effects, activation which is greater for hits than misses during an encoding task, differed between healthy older adults aged 50 to 85 years with (n = 23) and without (n = 41) memory complaints...
August 24, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922858/contributions-of-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-to-social-influence-in-economic-decision-making
#2
M A J Apps, N Ramnani
Economic decisions are guided by highly subjective reward valuations (SVs). Often these SVs are over-ridden when individuals conform to social norms. Yet, the neural mechanisms that underpin the distinct processing of such normative reward valuations (NVs) are poorly understood. The dorsomedial and ventromedial portions of the prefrontal cortex (dmPFC/vmPFC) are putatively key regions for processing social and economic information respectively. However, the contribution of these regions to economic decisions guided by social norms is unclear...
September 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886760/network-mechanisms-of-clinical-response-to%C3%A2-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-major-depressive-disorder
#3
Noah S Philip, Jennifer Barredo, Mascha van 't Wout-Frank, Audrey R Tyrka, Lawrence H Price, Linda L Carpenter
BACKGROUND: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) therapy can modulate pathological neural network functional connectivity in major depressive disorder (MDD). Posttraumatic stress disorder is often comorbid with MDD, and symptoms of both disorders can be alleviated with TMS therapy. This is the first study to evaluate TMS-associated changes in connectivity in patients with comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder and MDD. METHODS: Resting-state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging was acquired before and after TMS therapy in 33 adult outpatients in a prospective open trial...
August 8, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884874/cerebral-dopaminergic-and-glutamatergic-transmission-relate-to-different-subjective-responses-of-acute-alcohol-intake-an-in-vivo-multimodal-imaging-study
#4
Gil Leurquin-Sterk, Jenny Ceccarini, Cleo Lina Crunelle, Akila Weerasekera, Bart de Laat, Uwe Himmelreich, Guy Bormans, Koen Van Laere
Converging preclinical evidence links extrastriatal dopamine release and glutamatergic transmission via the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) to the rewarding properties of alcohol. To date, human evidence is lacking on how and where in the brain these processes occur. Mesocorticolimbic dopamine release upon intravenous alcohol administration and mGluR5 availability were measured in 11 moderate social drinkers by single-session [(18) F]fallypride and [(18) F]FPEB positron emission tomography, respectively...
September 8, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881454/hypersensitivity-to-low-intensity-fearful-faces-in-autism-when-fixation-is-constrained-to-the-eyes
#5
Amandine Lassalle, Jakob Åsberg Johnels, Nicole R Zürcher, Loyse Hippolyte, Eva Billstedt, Noreen Ward, Eric Lemonnier, Christopher Gillberg, Nouchine Hadjikhani
Previous studies that showed decreased brain activation in people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) viewing expressive faces did not control that participants looked in the eyes. This is problematic because ASD is characterized by abnormal attention to the eyes. Here, we collected fMRI data from 48 participants (27 ASD) viewing pictures of neutral faces and faces expressing anger, happiness, and fear at low and high intensity, with a fixation cross between the eyes. Group differences in whole brain activity were examined for expressive faces at high and low intensity versus neutral faces...
September 7, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875535/disrupted-intrinsic-and-remote-functional-connectivity-in-heterotopia-related-epilepsy
#6
W Liu, X Hu, D An, Q Gong, D Zhou
OBJECTIVES: Several neuroimaging studies have examined neural interactions in patients with periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH). However, features of the underlying functional network remain poorly understood. In this study, we examined alterations in the local (regional) and remote (interregional) cerebral networks in this disorder. METHODS: Twenty-eight subjects all having suffered from PNH with epilepsy, as well as 28 age- and sex- matched healthy controls, were enrolled in this study...
September 6, 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872745/neural-mechanisms-of-extinguishing-drug-and-pleasant-cue-associations-in-human-addiction-role-of-the-vmpfc
#7
Anna B Konova, Muhammad A Parvaz, Vladimir Bernstein, Anna Zilverstand, Scott J Moeller, Mauricio R Delgado, Nelly Alia-Klein, Rita Z Goldstein
The neurobiological mechanisms that underlie the resistance of drug cue associations to extinction in addiction remain unknown. Fear extinction critically depends on the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC). Here, we tested if this same region plays a role in extinction of non-fear, drug and pleasant cue associations. Eighteen chronic cocaine users and 15 matched controls completed three functional MRI scans. Participants first learned to associate an abstract cue (the conditioned stimulus, CS) with a drug-related (CSD+ ) or pleasant (CSP+ ) image...
September 5, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870286/attenuation-of-dopamine-modulated-prefrontal-value-signals-underlies-probabilistic-reward-learning-deficits-in-old-age
#8
Lieke de Boer, Jan Axelsson, Katrine Riklund, Lars Nyberg, Peter Dayan, Lars Bäckman, Marc Guitart-Masip
Probabilistic reward learning is characterised by individual differences that become acute in aging. This may be due to age-related dopamine (DA) decline affecting neural processing in striatum, prefrontal cortex, or both. We examined this by administering a probabilistic reward learning task to younger and older adults, and combining computational modelling of behaviour, fMRI and PET measurements of DA D1 availability. We found that anticipatory value signals in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) were attenuated in older adults...
September 5, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867340/bdnf-val-66-met-polymorphism-tunes-frontolimbic-circuitry-during-affective-contextual-learning
#9
Mbemba Jabbi, Brett Cropp, Tiffany Nash, Philip Kohn, J Shane Kippenhan, Joseph C Masdeu, Raghav Mattay, Bhaskar Kolachana, Karen F Berman
Adaptive learning impairments are common in cognitive and behavioral disorders, but the neurogenetic mechanisms supporting human affective learning are poorly understood. We designed a higher-order contextual learning task in which healthy participants genotyped for the Val(66)Met polymorphism of the brain derived neurotropic factor gene (BDNF) were required to choose the member of a picture pair most congruent with the emotion in a previously-viewed facial expression video in order to produce an advantageous monetary outcome...
August 31, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860564/differential-effects-of-antidepressant-treatment-on-long-range-and-short-range-functional-connectivity-strength-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#10
Jing An, Li Wang, Ke Li, Yawei Zeng, Yunai Su, Zhen Jin, Xin Yu, Tianmei Si
Although we have some basic understanding of the neurochemical mechanisms of the antidepressants, the network-level effect of antidepressant treatment is still not fully understood. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of antidepressant on functional brain networks of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). We performed resting-state fMRI scans on 20 first-episode drug-naive MDD patients at baseline and after escitalopram medication for 8 weeks. Twenty healthy controls also received MRI scans with an 8-week interval...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860449/reduced-age-associated-brain-changes-in-expert-meditators-a-multimodal-neuroimaging-pilot-study
#11
Gaël Chételat, Florence Mézenge, Clémence Tomadesso, Brigitte Landeau, Eider Arenaza-Urquijo, Géraldine Rauchs, Claire André, Robin de Flores, Stéphanie Egret, Julie Gonneaud, Géraldine Poisnel, Anne Chocat, Anne Quillard, Béatrice Desgranges, Jean-Gérard Bloch, Matthieu Ricard, Antoine Lutz
Aging is associated with progressive cerebral volume and glucose metabolism decreases. Conditions such as stress and sleep difficulties exacerbate these changes and are risk factors for Alzheimer's disease. Meditation practice, aiming towards stress reduction and emotion regulation, can downregulate these adverse factors. In this pilot study, we explored the possibility that lifelong meditation practice might reduce age-related brain changes by comparing structural MRI and FDG-PET data in 6 elderly expert meditators versus 67 elderly controls...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843539/neuroanatomical-foundations-of-delayed-reward-discounting-decision-making
#12
Max M Owens, Joshua C Gray, Michael T Amlung, Assaf Oshri, Lawrence H Sweet, James MacKillop
Resolving tradeoffs between smaller immediate rewards and larger delayed rewards is ubiquitous in daily life and steep discounting of future rewards is associated with several psychiatric conditions. This form of decision-making is referred to as delayed reward discounting (DRD) and the features of brain structure associated with DRD are not well understood. The current study characterized the relationship between gray matter volume (GMV) and DRD in a sample of 1038 healthy adults (54.7% female) using cortical parcellation, subcortical segmentation, and voxelwise cortical surface-based group analyses...
August 29, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836726/dynamic-causal-modeling-in-ptsd-and-its-dissociative-subtype-bottom-up-versus-top-down-processing-within-fear-and-emotion-regulation-circuitry
#13
Andrew A Nicholson, Karl J Friston, Peter Zeidman, Sherain Harricharan, Margaret C McKinnon, Maria Densmore, Richard W J Neufeld, Jean Théberge, Frank Corrigan, Rakesh Jetly, David Spiegel, Ruth A Lanius
OBJECTIVE: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with decreased top-down emotion modulation from medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) regions, a pathophysiology accompanied by hyperarousal and hyperactivation of the amygdala. By contrast, PTSD patients with the dissociative subtype (PTSD + DS) often exhibit increased mPFC top-down modulation and decreased amygdala activation associated with emotional detachment and hypoarousal. Crucially, PTSD and PTSD + DS display distinct functional connectivity within the PFC, amygdala complexes, and the periaqueductal gray (PAG), a region related to defensive responses/emotional coping...
August 24, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828396/metabolomics-reveals-distinct-neurochemical-profiles-associated-with-stress-resilience
#14
Brooke N Dulka, Allen K Bourdon, Catherine T Clinard, Mohan B K Muvvala, Shawn R Campagna, Matthew A Cooper
Acute social defeat represents a naturalistic form of conditioned fear and is an excellent model in which to investigate the biological basis of stress resilience. While there is growing interest in identifying biomarkers of stress resilience, until recently, it has not been feasible to associate levels of large numbers of neurochemicals and metabolites to stress-related phenotypes. The objective of the present study was to use an untargeted metabolomics approach to identify known and unknown neurochemicals in select brain regions that distinguish susceptible and resistant individuals in two rodent models of acute social defeat...
December 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827088/comparing-and-contrasting-the-cognitive-effects-of-hippocampal-and-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-damage-a-review-of-human-lesion-studies
#15
REVIEW
Cornelia McCormick, Elisa Ciaramelli, Flavia De Luca, Eleanor A Maguire
The hippocampus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) are closely connected brain regions whose functions are still debated. In order to offer a fresh perspective on understanding the contributions of these two brain regions to cognition, in this review we considered cognitive tasks that usually elicit deficits in hippocampal-damaged patients (e.g., autobiographical memory retrieval), and examined the performance of vmPFC-lesioned patients on these tasks. We then took cognitive tasks where performance is typically compromised following vmPFC damage (e...
August 4, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820016/why-we-stay-with-our-social-partners-neural-mechanisms-of-stay-leave-decision-making
#16
Amber Heijne, Filippo Rossi, Alan G Sanfey
How do we decide to keep interacting (e.g., stay) with a social partner or to switch (e.g., leave) to another? This paper investigated the neural mechanisms of stay/leave decision-making. We hypothesized that these decisions fit within a framework of value-based decision-making, and explored four potential mechanisms underlying a hypothesized bias to stay. Twenty-six participants underwent functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) while completing social and nonsocial versions of a stay/leave decision-making task...
September 3, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814810/amygdala-centred-functional-connectivity-affects-daily-cortisol-concentrations-a-putative-link-with-anxiety
#17
Yuko Hakamata, Shotaro Komi, Yoshiya Moriguchi, Shuhei Izawa, Yuki Motomura, Eisuke Sato, Shinya Mizukami, Yoshiharu Kim, Takashi Hanakawa, Yusuke Inoue, Hirokuni Tagaya
The amygdala plays a critical role in emotion. Its functional coupling with the hippocampus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex extending to a portion of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is implicated in anxiogenesis and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system regulation. However, it remains unclear how amygdala-centred functional connectivity (FC) affects anxiety and cortisol concentrations in everyday life. Here, we investigate the relationship between daily cortisol concentrations (dCOR) and amygdala-centred FC during emotional processing in forty-one healthy humans...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814465/the-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-in-a-model-of-traumatic-stress-fear-inhibition-or-contextual-processing
#18
Zachary T Pennington, Austin S Anderson, Michael S Fanselow
The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) has consistently appeared altered in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although the vmPFC is thought to support the extinction of learned fear responses, several findings support a broader role for this structure in the regulation of fear. To further characterize the relationship between vmPFC dysfunction and responses to traumatic stress, we examined the effects of pretraining vmPFC lesions on trauma reactivity and enhanced fear learning in a rodent model of PTSD...
September 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806707/deviant-functional-activation-and-connectivity-of-the-right-insula-are-associated-with-lack-of-awareness-of-episodic-memory-impairment-in-nonamnesic-alcoholism
#19
Anne-Pascale Le Berre, Eva M Müller-Oehring, Tilman Schulte, Matthew R Serventi, Adolf Pfefferbaum, Edith V Sullivan
A disorder of metamemory, expressed as unawareness of mnemonic ability, is typically associated with the profound amnesia of Korsakoff's Syndrome (KS). A similar but less severe type of limited awareness can also occur in non-KS alcoholism and is observed as an impairment in generating Feeling-of-Knowing (FOK) predictions about future recognition performance. We previously found that FOK accuracy was selectively related to volumes of the insula in alcoholics involved in the present study. Unknown, however, are the neural substrates of unawareness of memory impairment in alcoholism...
July 25, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803766/different-neural-routes-to-autobiographical-memory-recall-in-healthy-people-and-individuals-with-left-medial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#20
Cornelia McCormick, Morris Moscovitch, Taufik A Valiante, Melanie Cohn, Mary Pat McAndrews
Individuals with medial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) are poor at recalling vivid details from autobiographical memories (AM), instead retrieving gist-like schematic memories. Recent research has suggested that this impoverished recall in comparison to controls may reflect (1) differential engagement of anterior vs posterior regions of the hippocampus (HC) and/or (2) differences between the engagement of the HC vs the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Here we examined these hypotheses by comparing connectivity amongst hippocampal regions and between vmPFC and other brain regions during construction (retrieval of a particular event) vs elaboration (retrieval of perceptual detail) phases of AM recall in 12 individuals with left mTLE and 12 matched controls...
August 10, 2017: Neuropsychologia
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