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Effort and reward

Adrian Loerbroks, Sung-Il Cho, Maureen F Dollard, Jianfang Zou, Joachim E Fischer, Yueying Jiang, Peter Angerer, Raphael M Herr, Jian Li
OBJECTIVE: Epidemiological evidence suggests that work stress is associated with suicidal ideation (SI). However, only few studies in this area have drawn on well-established theoretical work stress models (i.e., the job-demand-control [JDC] model, the effort-reward-imbalance [ERI] model, and the model of organizational injustice [OJ]). Utilization of such models allows though for theory-based assessments and workplace interventions. Since evidence on those models' relationship with suicide-related outcomes is currently inconclusive (with regard to JDC), markedly sparse (OJ) or lacking (ERI), we aimed to provide additional or initial evidence...
November 2016: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
Denice Kamugumya, Jill Olivier
BACKGROUND: Public-private partnership (PPP) has been suggested as a tool to assist governments in lower to middle income countries fulfil their responsibilities in the efficient delivery of health services. In Tanzania, although the idea of PPP has existed for many years in the health sector, there has been limited coordination, especially at a district level - which has contributed to limited health gains or systems strengthening obviously seen as a result of PPP. METHODS: This case study was conducted in the Bagamoyo district of Tanzania, and employed in-depth interviews, document reviews, and observations methods...
October 21, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Alexandre Caron, Denis Richard
With the still-growing prevalence of obesity worldwide, major efforts are made to understand the various behavioral, environmental, and genetic factors that promote excess fat gain. Obesity results from an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure, which emphasizes the importance of deciphering the mechanisms behind energy balance regulation to understand its physiopathology. The control of energy balance is assured by brain systems/circuits capable of generating adequate ingestive and thermogenic responses to maintain the stability of energy reserves, which implies a proper integration of the homeostatic signals that inform about the status of the energy stores...
October 21, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Briony Hill, Skye McPhie, Lisa J Moran, Paul Harrison, Terry T-K Huang, Helena Teede, Helen Skouteris
Maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) are significant contributors to the global obesity epidemic. However, isolated lifestyle interventions to address this in pregnancy appear to have only modest benefit and responses can be variable. This paper aims to address the question of why the success of lifestyle interventions to prevent excessive GWG is suboptimal and variable. We suggest that there are inherent barriers to lifestyle change within pregnancy as a life stage, including the short window available for habit formation; the choice for women not to prioritise their weight; competing demands including physiological, financial, relationship, and social situations; and lack of self-efficacy among healthcare professionals on this topic...
September 28, 2016: Midwifery
Andrea Tran
The purpose of the Baby-Friendly hospital initiative is to encourage hospitals to use best practices to support infant feeding, as demonstrated by implementing the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding recommended by the World Health Organization. The journey to becoming a Baby-Friendly designated hospital is challenging but ultimately rewarding. In October 2015, Boulder Community Foothills Hospital, a community hospital with a strong breastfeeding culture and a 98% rate of women who initiate breastfeeding postpartum, became one of the approximately 300 Baby-Friendly designated hospitals in the United States...
October 14, 2016: MCN. the American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing
Jonas Geuens, Thijs Willem Swinnen, Rene Westhovens, Kurt de Vlam, Luc Geurts, Vero Vanden Abeele
BACKGROUND: Chronic arthritis (CA), an umbrella term for inflammatory rheumatic and other musculoskeletal diseases, is highly prevalent. Effective disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs for CA are available, with the exception of osteoarthritis, but require a long-term commitment of patients to comply with the medication regimen and management program as well as a tight follow-up by the treating physician and health professionals. Additionally, patients are advised to participate in physical exercise programs...
October 13, 2016: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
T Y Brumback, Matthew Worley, Tam T Nguyen-Louie, Lindsay M Squeglia, Joanna Jacobus, Susan F Tapert
Adolescence is a period marked by increases in risk taking, sensation seeking, and emotion dysregulation. Neurobiological models of adolescent development propose that lagging development in brain regions associated with affect and behavior control compared to regions associated with reward and emotion processing may underlie these behavioral manifestations. Cross-sectional studies have identified several functional brain networks that may contribute to risk for substance use and psychopathology in adolescents...
November 2016: Development and Psychopathology
Ayaka Kato, Kenji Morita
It has been suggested that dopamine (DA) represents reward-prediction-error (RPE) defined in reinforcement learning and therefore DA responds to unpredicted but not predicted reward. However, recent studies have found DA response sustained towards predictable reward in tasks involving self-paced behavior, and suggested that this response represents a motivational signal. We have previously shown that RPE can sustain if there is decay/forgetting of learned-values, which can be implemented as decay of synaptic strengths storing learned-values...
October 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Yochanan E Bigman, Maya Tamir
If good intentions pave the road to hell, what paves the road to heaven? We propose that moral judgments are based, in part, on the degree of effort exerted in performing the immoral or moral act. Because effort can serve as an index of goal importance, greater effort in performing immoral acts would lead to more negative judgments, whereas greater effort in performing moral acts would lead to more positive judgments. In support of these ideas, we found that perceived effort intensified judgments of both immoral (Studies 1-2) and moral (Studies 2-7) agents...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Morgane Milienne-Petiot, James P Kesby, Mary Graves, Jordy van Enkhuizen, Svetlana Semenova, Arpi Minassian, Athina Markou, Mark A Geyer, Jared W Young
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD) mania patients exhibit poor cognition and reward-seeking/hypermotivation, negatively impacting a patient's quality of life. Current treatments (e.g., lithium), do not treat such deficits. Treatment development has been limited due to a poor understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying these behaviors. Here, we investigated putative mechanisms underlying cognition and reward-seeking/motivational changes relevant to BD mania patients using two validated mouse models and neurochemical analyses...
October 9, 2016: Neuropharmacology
Sandra J Tanenbaum
The formulation of the triple aim responds to three problems facing the US health care system: high cost, low quality, and poor health status. The purpose of this article is to analyze the potential of the health care system to achieve the triple aim and, specifically, the attempt to improve population health by rewarding providers who contain costs. The first section of the article will consider the task of improving population health through the health care system. The second section of the article will discuss CMS's efforts to pay providers to achieve the triple aim, that is, to improve health care and population health while containing cost...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law
Subhashis Basu, Hasan Qayyum, Suzanne Mason
INTRODUCTION: Occupational stress is a major modern health and safety challenges. While the ED is known to be a high-pressure environment, the specific organisational stressors which affect ED staff have not been established. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of literature examining the sources of organisational stress in the ED, their link to adverse health outcomes and interventions designed to address them. A narrative review of contextual factors that may contribute to occupational stress was also performed...
October 11, 2016: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
F Xavier Castellanos, Yuta Aoki
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) without an explicit task, i.e., resting state fMRI, of individuals with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is growing rapidly. Early studies were unaware of the vulnerability of this method to even minor degrees of head motion, a major concern in the field. Recent efforts are implementing various strategies to address this source of artifact along with a growing set of analytical tools. Availability of the ADHD-200 Consortium dataset, a large-scale multi-site repository, is facilitating increasingly sophisticated approaches...
May 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Stefanie Horndasch, Sophie O'Keefe, Anneka Lamond, Katie Brown, Ciara McCabe
BACKGROUND: We have previously shown increased anticipatory and consummatory neural responses to rewarding and aversive food stimuli in women recovered from anorexia nervosa (AN). AIMS: To determine whether these differences are trait markers for AN, we examined the neural response in those with a familial history but no personal history of AN. METHOD: Thirty-six volunteers were recruited: 15 who had a sister with anorexia nervosa (family history) and 21 control participants...
July 2016: BJPsych Open
Francesco Chirico
In Europe, the Council Directive 89/391 for improvement of workers' safety and health has emphasized the importance of addressing all occupational risk factors, and hence also psychosocial and organizational risk factors. Nevertheless, the construct of "work-related stress" elaborated from EU-OSHA is not totally corresponding with the "psychosocial" risk, that is a broader category of risk, comprising various and different psychosocial risk factors. The term "burnout", without any binding definition, tries to integrate symptoms as well as cause of the burnout process...
July 2016: Annali Dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità
Teri M Furlong, Jhodie R Duncan, Laura H Corbit, Caroline D Rae, Benjamin D Rowlands, Anthony D Maher, Fatima A Nasrallah, Carol J Milligan, Steven Petrou, Andrew J Lawrence, Bernard W Balleine
Toluene is a commonly abused inhalant that is easily accessible to adolescents. Despite the increasing incidence of use, our understanding of its long-term impact remains limited. Here we used a range of techniques to examine the acute and chronic effects of toluene exposure on glutameteric and GABAergic function, and on indices of psychological function in adult rats after adolescent exposure. Metabolomics conducted on cortical tissue established that acute exposure to toluene produces alterations in cellular metabolism indicative of a glutamatergic and GABAergic profile...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Francesca Happé, Jennifer L Cook, Geoffrey Bird
Social cognition is a topic of enormous interest and much research, but we are far from having an agreed taxonomy or factor structure of relevant processes. The aim of this review is to outline briefly what is known about the structure of social cognition and to suggest how further progress can be made to delineate the in(ter)dependence of core sociocognitive processes. We focus in particular on several processes that have been discussed and tested together in typical and atypical (notably autism spectrum disorder) groups: imitation, biological motion, empathy, and theory of mind...
September 21, 2016: Annual Review of Psychology
Miriam C Klein-Flügge, Steven W Kennerley, Karl Friston, Sven Bestmann
UNLABELLED: Integrating costs and benefits is crucial for optimal decision-making. Although much is known about decisions that involve outcome-related costs (e.g., delay, risk), many of our choices are attached to actions and require an evaluation of the associated motor costs. Yet how the brain incorporates motor costs into choices remains largely unclear. We used human fMRI during choices involving monetary reward and physical effort to identify brain regions that serve as a choice comparator for effort-reward trade-offs...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
X Q Liao, J Li, Q Zhang, Y J Lan
Objective: To investigate the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in the lower limbs and occupational stress in bus drivers, as well as the association between occupational stress and MSDs in the lower limbs, and to provide a reference for the prevention and control of MSDs in the lower limbs in bus drivers. Methods: Cluster sampling was used to collect 598 bus drivers from those who underwent physical examination in a hospital in Chengdu, China, from June to July, 2015. The data on demographic features and living habits were collected, and the Chinese version of effort-reward imbalance questionnaire and Nordic Standardized Questionnaires for Musculoskeletal Disorders were used to investigate occupational stress and the development of MSDs...
August 20, 2016: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
Vincent Finger, Karine Baumstarck, Rafika Boufercha, Marie Pascale Lehucher-Michel, Anderson Loundou, Pascal Auquier, Irene Sari-Minodier
BACKGROUND: In order to improve the well-being, health, and performance of hospital workers, it should be important to focus on the psychosocial risk (PSR) factors in the work environment and on job satisfaction. Although many epidemiological questionnaires are used to measure PSR among healthcare workers, no specific existing model can be applied to all categories of hospital workers. OBJECTIVE: To develop a short French self-administered instrument for measuring the PSR for hospital workers: the PSRH questionnaire...
2016: La Medicina del Lavoro
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