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Effort and reward

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053832/reward-deficits-in-behavioural-variant-frontotemporal-dementia-include-insensitivity-to-negative-stimuli
#1
David C Perry, Samir Datta, Virginia E Sturm, Kristie A Wood, Jessica Zakrzewski, William W Seeley, Bruce L Miller, Joel H Kramer, Howard J Rosen
During reward processing individuals weigh positive and negative features of a stimulus to determine whether they will pursue or avoid it. Though patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia display changes in their pursuit of rewards, such as food, alcohol, money, and sex, the basis for these shifts is not clearly established. In particular, it is unknown whether patients' behaviour results from excessive focus on rewards, insensitivity to punishment, or to dysfunction in a particular stage of reward processing, such as anticipation, consumption, or action selection...
October 7, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046888/imaging-sex-differences-in-regional-brain-metabolism-during-acute-opioid-withdrawal
#2
Giovanni C Santoro, Joseph Carrion, Stephen L Dewey
The rate of opioid overdose continues to rise, necessitating improved treatment options. Current therapeutic approaches rely on administration of either a blocking agent, such as naloxone, or chronic treatment with replacement drugs, including methadone and/or buprenorphine. Recent findings suggest that males and females respond to these treatments uniquely. In an effort to better understand this sex-specific variation in treatment efficacy, we investigated the effects of acute opioid withdrawal in male and female rats using 18FDG and microPET...
April 2017: Journal of Alcoholism and Drug Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033847/a-monetary-reward-alters-pacing-but-not-performance-in-competitive-cyclists
#3
Sabrina Skorski, Kevin G Thompson, Richard J Keegan, Tim Meyer, Chris R Abbiss
Money has frequently been used as an extrinsic motivator since it is assumed that humans are willing to invest more effort for financial reward. However, the influence of a monetary reward on pacing and performance in trained athletes is not well-understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyse the influence of a monetary reward in well-trained cyclists on their pacing and performance during short and long cycling time trials (TT). Twentythree cyclists (6 ♀, 17 ♂) completed 4 self-paced time trials (TTs, 2 short: 4 km and 6 min; 2 long: 20 km and 30 min); in a randomized order...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031122/allocating-effort-and-anticipating-pleasure-in-schizophrenia-relationship-with-real-world-functioning
#4
M Serper, E Payne, C Dill, C Portillo, J Taliercio
BACKGROUND: Poor motivation to engage in goal-oriented behavior has been recognized as a hallmark feature of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SZ). Low drive in SZ may be related to anticipating rewards as well as to poor working memory. However, few studies to date have examined beliefs about self-efficacy and satisfaction for future rewards (anticipatory pleasure). Additionally, few studies to date have examined how these deficits may impact SZ patients' real world functioning. METHOD: The present study examined SZ patients' (n=57) anticipatory pleasure, working memory, self-efficacy and real world functioning in relation to their negative symptom severity...
August 1, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028836/affected-pathways-and-transcriptional-regulators-in-gene-expression-response-to-an-ultra-marathon-trail-global-and-independent-activity-approaches
#5
Maria Maqueda, Emma Roca, Daniel Brotons, Jose Manuel Soria, Alexandre Perera
Gene expression (GE) analyses on blood samples from marathon and half-marathon runners have reported significant impacts on the immune and inflammatory systems. An ultra-marathon trail (UMT) represents a greater effort due to its more testing conditions. For the first time, we report the genome-wide GE profiling in a group of 16 runners participating in an 82 km UMT competition. We quantified their differential GE profile before and after the race using HuGene2.0st microarrays (Affymetrix Inc., California, US)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016877/work-related-stress-assessed-by-a-text-message-single-item-stress-question
#6
B Arapovic-Johansson, C Wåhlin, L Kwak, C Björklund, I Jensen
Background: Given the prevalence of work stress-related ill-health in the Western world, it is important to find cost-effective, easy-to-use and valid measures which can be used both in research and in practice. Aims: To examine the validity and reliability of the single-item stress question (SISQ), distributed weekly by short message service (SMS) and used for measurement of work-related stress. Methods: The convergent validity was assessed through associations between the SISQ and subscales of the Job Demand-Control-Support model, the Effort-Reward Imbalance model and scales measuring depression, exhaustion and sleep...
August 18, 2017: Occupational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993575/the-reciprocal-relationship-between-sickness-presenteeism-and-psychological-distress-in-response-to-job-stressors-evidence-from-a-three-wave-cohort-study
#7
Takashi Oshio, Akizumi Tsutsumi, Akiomi Inoue, Tomoko Suzuki, Koichi Miyaki
OBJECTIVES: Sickness presenteeism (SP) is postulated as workers' response to their general state of health; hence, SP is expected to affect workers' future health. In the present study, we examined the reciprocal relationship between SP and health in response to job stressors, with specific reference to psychological distress (PD) as workers' state of health. METHODS: We conducted mediation analysis, using data from a three-wave cohort occupational survey conducted at 1-year intervals in Japan; it involved 1,853 employees (1,661 men and 192 women) of a manufacturing firm...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Occupational Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991118/truncated-%C3%AE-opioid-receptors-with-6-transmembrane-domains-are-essential-for-opioid-analgesia
#8
Zhigang Lu, Jin Xu, Mingming Xu, Grace C Rossi, Susruta Majumdar, Gavril W Pasternak, Ying-Xian Pan
BACKGROUND: Most clinical opioids act through μ-opioid receptors. They effectively relieve pain but are limited by side effects, such as constipation, respiratory depression, dependence, and addiction. Many efforts have been made toward developing potent analgesics that lack side effects. Three-iodobenzoyl-6β-naltrexamide (IBNtxA) is a novel class of opioid active against thermal, inflammatory, and neuropathic pain, without respiratory depression, physical dependence, and reward behavior...
October 4, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986339/the-promise-and-pitfalls-of-using-crowdsourcing-in-research-prioritization-for-back-pain-cross-sectional-surveys
#9
Matthew A Bartek, Anjali R Truitt, Sierra Widmer-Rodriguez, Jordan Tuia, Zoya A Bauer, Bryan A Comstock, Todd C Edwards, Sarah O Lawrence, Sarah E Monsell, Donald L Patrick, Jeffrey G Jarvik, Danielle C Lavallee
BACKGROUND: The involvement of patients in research better aligns evidence generation to the gaps that patients themselves face when making decisions about health care. However, obtaining patients' perspectives is challenging. Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) has gained popularity over the past decade as a crowdsourcing platform to reach large numbers of individuals to perform tasks for a small reward for the respondent, at small cost to the investigator. The appropriateness of such crowdsourcing methods in medical research has yet to be clarified...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986299/reversible-inactivation-of-the-lateral-hypothalamus-reversed-high-reward-choices-in-cost-benefit-decision-making-in-rats
#10
Sara Karimi, Azam Mesdaghinia, Zahra Farzinpour, Gholamali Hamidi, Abbas Haghparast
The Lateral hypothalamus (LH) is an important component of the networks underlying the control of feeding and other motivated behaviors. Cost-benefit decision-making is mediated largely by the prefrontal cortex (PFC) which strongly innervates the LH. Therefore, in the current study, we conducted a series of experiments to elucidate the role of the perifornical area of the lateral hypothalamus (PeF-LH) in effort and/or delay-based decision-making. We trained different groups of rats in a delay-based and/or an effort-based form of cost-benefit T-maze decision- making task in which they could either choose to pay the cost to obtain a high reward in one arm or could obtain a low reward in the other arm with no cost...
October 3, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967777/pseudo-set-framing
#11
Kate Barasz, Leslie K John, Elizabeth A Keenan, Michael I Norton
Pseudo-set framing-arbitrarily grouping items or tasks together as part of an apparent "set"-motivates people to reach perceived completion points. Pseudo-set framing changes gambling choices (Study 1), effort (Studies 2 and 3), giving behavior (Field Data and Study 4), and purchase decisions (Study 5). These effects persist in the absence of any reward, when a cost must be incurred, and after participants are explicitly informed of the arbitrariness of the set. Drawing on Gestalt psychology, we develop a conceptual account that predicts what will-and will not-act as a pseudo-set, and defines the psychological process through which these pseudo-sets affect behavior: over and above typical reference points, pseudo-set framing alters perceptions of (in)completeness, making intermediate progress seem less complete...
October 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965318/the-drd2-taq1a-a1-allele-may-magnify-the-risk-of-alzheimer-s-in-aging-african-americans
#12
REVIEW
Kenneth Blum, Rajendra D Badgaiyan, Georgia M Dunston, David Baron, Edward J Modestino, Thomas McLaughlin, Bruce Steinberg, Mark S Gold, Marjorie C Gondré-Lewis
Alzheimer's disease is an irreversible, progressive brain disorder that slowly destroys cognitive skills and the ability to perform the simplest tasks. More than 5 million Americans are afflicted with Alzheimer's; a disorder which ranks third, just behind heart disease and cancer, as a cause of death for older people. With no real cure and in spite of enormous efforts worldwide, the disease remains a mystery in terms of treatment. Importantly, African-Americans are two times as likely as Whites to develop late-onset Alzheimer's disease and less likely to receive timely diagnosis and treatment...
September 30, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958916/how-can-the-depressed-mind-extract-and-remember-predictive-relationships-of-the-environment-evidence-from-implicit-probabilistic-sequence-learning
#13
Karolina Janacsek, Emőke Borbély-Ipkovich, Dezso Nemeth, Xénia Gonda
A growing body of evidence suggests that emotion and cognition are fundamentally intertwined; impairments in explicit, more effortful and attention-dependent cognitive functions have widely been observed in negative mood. Here we aimed to test how negative mood affects implicit cognition that is less susceptible to motivational and attentional factors associated with negative mood. Therefore, we examined implicit learning and retention of predictive relationships in patients with major depressive episode (MDE)...
September 25, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956080/-ultrasound-training-in-the-professional-development-of-radiological-specialists-concepts-and-challenges
#14
REVIEW
Marc-André Weber, Stefan Delorme
ISSUE: Ultrasound is an integral part of imaging diagnostics but, unlike CT or MRI, requires the physician to have advanced technical skills for the implementation and documentation of studies. CURRENT SITUATION: Owing to poor remuneration and the large effort required, ultrasound is not a priority at many institutions, and compared to CT, MRI or interventions, little reward is given to those committed to ultrasound. Intense practical teaching is rarely given. As a result, residents have to teach themselves or gain experience during rotations outside radiology...
September 27, 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951967/assessing-the-role-of-reward-in-task-selection-using-a-reward-based-voluntary-task-switching-paradigm
#15
David A Braun, Catherine M Arrington
People exhibit a remarkable ability to both maintain controlled focus on executing a single task and flexibly shift between executing several tasks. Researchers studying human multitasking have traditionally focused on the cognitive control mechanisms that allow for such stable and flexible task execution, but there has been a recent interest in how cognitive control mechanisms drive the decision of task selection. The present research operationalizes a foraging analogy to investigate what factors drive the decision to either exploit task repetitions or explore task switches...
September 26, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948979/effort-but-not-reward-sensitivity-is-altered-by-acute-sickness-induced-by-experimental-endotoxemia-in-humans
#16
Amelia Draper, Rebecca M Koch, Jos Wm van der Meer, M Apps, Peter Pickkers, Masud Husain, Marieke E van der Schaaf
Sickness behavior in humans is characterized by low mood and fatigue, which have been suggested to reflect changes in motivation involving reorganization of priorities. However, it is unclear which specific processes underlying motivation are altered. We tested whether bacterial endotoxin E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) affected two dissociable constructs of motivational behavior, ie effort and reward sensitivity. After familiarization with 5 effort levels, participants made a series of accept/reject decisions on whether the stake offered (1, 4, 8, 12 or 15 apples)) was 'worth the effort' (10, 27...
September 26, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947115/contemporary-health-care-for-huntington-disease
#17
Mary C Edmondson, Lavonne Goodman
Providing medical care for people and families affected by Huntington disease (HD) can be a rewarding effort when realistic goals of improved quality of life and optimized functional status are set. Multiple disease symptoms can remit or improve with currently available pharmacologic and behavioral interventions, even though barriers exist that interfere with access to treatment. Connecting expert multidisciplinary teams with community-based care, developing treatment guidelines, and involving the HD family community in quality improvements can achieve an integrated system of health care delivery...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931706/diabetes-research-and-care-through-the-ages
#18
Bernard Zinman, Jay S Skyler, Matthew C Riddle, Ele Ferrannini
As has been well established, the Diabetes Care journal's most visible signature event is the Diabetes Care Symposium held each year during the American Diabetes Association's Scientific Sessions. Held this past year on 10 June 2017 in San Diego, California, at the 77th Scientific Sessions, this event has become one of the most attended sessions during the Scientific Sessions. Each year, in order to continue to have the symposium generate interest, we revise the format and content of this event. For this past year, our 6th annual symposium, I felt it was time to provide a comprehensive overview of our efforts in diabetes care to determine, first and foremost, how we arrived at our current state of management...
October 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929228/mental-health-among-norwegian-priests-associations-with-effort-reward-imbalance-and-overcommitment
#19
Bjørn Lau
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms among Norwegian priests and to examine their associations with effort-reward imbalance (ERI) and overcommitment. METHODS: Eight hundred four priests in the Norwegian Church completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire (ERI-Q), and the Intrinsic Effort Scale, measuring overcommitment. RESULTS: A significant proportion of the priests (23...
September 19, 2017: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927378/genome-wide-imaging-association-study-implicates-functional-activity-and-glial-homeostasis-of-the-caudate-in-smoking-addiction
#20
David C Qian, David L Molfese, Jennifer L Jin, Alexander J Titus, Yixuan He, Yafang Li, Maxime Vaissié, Humsini Viswanath, Philip R Baldwin, Ralf Krahe, Ramiro Salas, Christopher I Amos
BACKGROUND: Nearly 6 million deaths and over a half trillion dollars in healthcare costs worldwide are attributed to tobacco smoking each year. Extensive research efforts have been pursued to elucidate the molecular underpinnings of smoking addiction and facilitate cessation. In this study, we genotyped and obtained both resting state and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging from 64 non-smokers and 42 smokers. Smokers were imaged after having smoked normally ("sated") and after having not smoked for at least 12 h ("abstinent")...
September 19, 2017: BMC Genomics
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