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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239029/the-meaning-and-experience-of-stress-among-supported-employment-clients-with-mental-health-problems
#1
Christine Besse, Daniel Poremski, Vincent Laliberté, Eric Latimer
Many clinicians are concerned that competitive work may cause excessive stress for people with severe mental health problems. Individual Placement and Support (IPS) is acknowledged as the most effective model of supported employment for this population. The manner in which IPS clients define and experience employment-related stress is poorly understood. This qualitative study aims to explore how people with mental health problems receiving IPS services define and experience employment-related stress. We purposively sampled and interviewed 16 clients of an IPS programme, who had been competitively employed for more than 1 month...
December 13, 2017: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214467/different-functional-domains-measured-by-cocaine-self-administration-under-the-progressive-ratio-and-punishment-schedules-in-male-wistar-rats
#2
Udita Datta, Mariangela Martini, WenLin Sun
BACKGROUND: Current diagnosis of drug addiction like other mental disorders is based on clinical symptoms not on neural pathophysiology and consequently, does not provide useful information on the underlying pathophysiology and may impede the efforts to identify the underlying mechanisms. Identifying the functional deficits that are relevant to addiction and can be traced to the neural systems will greatly facilitate our understanding of the heterogeneity of the condition and improve future diagnosis and treatment...
December 6, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214195/work-stress-fatigue-and-risk-behaviors-at-the-wheel-data-to-assess-the-association-between-psychosocial-work-factors-and-risky-driving-on-bus-rapid-transit-drivers
#3
Sergio Useche, Boris Cendales, Viviola Gómez
This Data in Brief (DiB) article presents a hierarchical multiple linear regression model that examine the associations between psychosocial work factors and risk behaviors at the wheel in Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) drivers (n=524). The data were collected using a structured self-administrable questionnaire made of measurements of wok stress (job strain and effort- reward imbalance), fatigue (need for recovery and chronic fatigue), psychological distress and demographics (professional driving experience, hours driven per day and days working per week)...
December 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213080/from-the-age-of-5-humans-decide-economically-whereas-crows-exhibit-individual-preferences
#4
Samara Danel, François Osiurak, Auguste Marie Philippa von Bayern
Human societies greatly depend on tools, which spare us considerable time and effort. Humans might have evolved a bias to employ tools, using them even when they are unnecessary. This study aimed to investigate whether adult humans and a distantly related habitually tool-using vertebrate species, the New Caledonian crow (Corvus moneduloides), use tools depending on their necessity. In addition, children aged 3 to 5 years were examined to investigate the developmental pattern. The task involved choosing between using a body part (i...
December 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207928/occupational-gender-composition-and-mild-to-severe-depression-in-a-swedish-cohort-the-impact-of-psychosocial-work-factors
#5
Anna Nyberg, Linda L Magnusson Hanson, Constanze Leineweber, Anne Hammarström, Töres Theorell
AIMS: The aim of the present study was to investigate associations between occupational gender composition, psychosocial work factors and mild to severe depression in Swedish women and men with various educational backgrounds. METHODS: The study included 5560 participants from two waves of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health, an approximately representative sample of the Swedish working population. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals of mild to severe depression in 2014 were estimated for five strata of occupational gender composition with >20-40%, >40-60%, >60-80% and >80-100% women, using 0-20% women as the reference...
December 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200398/-stressful-work-and-heart-do-not-get-along-well
#6
Marcel Goldberg, Marie Zins
As other occupational risk factors, like noise, heat or some chemicals, stress at work may induce coronary heart disease. Occupational stress has several components and is usually measured using two different instruments: the Karasek model defines the job strain as the association between high constraints and low latitude at work, whereas the Siegrist model relies on the imbalance between efforts at work and rewards. It is now well established that occupational stress is an independent risk factor of coronary heart disease, the attributable risk fraction being about 3...
November 2017: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196430/aligning-practice-to-policies-changing-the-culture-to-recognize-and-reward-teaching-at-research-universities
#7
Michael Dennin, Zachary D Schultz, Andrew Feig, Noah Finkelstein, Andrea Follmer Greenhoot, Michael Hildreth, Adam K Leibovich, James D Martin, Mark B Moldwin, Diane K O'Dowd, Lynmarie A Posey, Tobin L Smith, Emily R Miller
Recent calls for improvement in undergraduate education within STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) disciplines are hampered by the methods used to evaluate teaching effectiveness. Faculty members at research universities are commonly assessed and promoted mainly on the basis of research success. To improve the quality of undergraduate teaching across all disciplines, not only STEM fields, requires creating an environment wherein continuous improvement of teaching is valued, assessed, and rewarded at various stages of a faculty member's career...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194534/why-not-try-harder-computational-approach-to-motivation-deficits-in-neuro-psychiatric-diseases
#8
Mathias Pessiglione, Fabien Vinckier, Sébastien Bouret, Jean Daunizeau, Raphaël Le Bouc
Motivation deficits, such as apathy, are pervasive in both neurological and psychiatric diseases. Even when they are not the core symptom, they reduce quality of life, compromise functional outcome and increase the burden for caregivers. They are currently assessed with clinical scales that do not give any mechanistic insight susceptible to guide therapeutic intervention. Here, we present another approach that consists of phenotyping the behaviour of patients in motivation tests, using computational models...
November 29, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194402/nutrition-in-the-first-1000-days-ten-practices-to-minimize-obesity-emerging-from-published-science
#9
Angelo Pietrobelli, Massimo Agosti
The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has increased in most countries the last decades. Considering this in a simplistic way, we can say that obesity is the result of an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. Moreover, the environment from conception to childhood could influence the child's future health. The first 1000 days of life start with woman's pregnancy, and offer a unique window of opportunity to contribute to obesity prevention. In light of the actual literature, the aim of our article is to discuss a proposal of 10 good practices to minimize obesity in the first 1000 days emerging from published science...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194071/revisiting-the-phenotypic-and-genetic-profiling-of-anergic-t-cells-mediating-long-term-transplant-tolerance
#10
Sylvaine You, Lucienne Chatenoud
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Herein our focus will be to revisit peripheral tolerance mechanisms and in particular 'active' or 'dominant' tolerance as originally defined and mediated by regulatory CD4FoxP3 T lymphocytes (Treg) and also T-cell anergy that appears as a major mainstay to support long-term allograft survival. RECENT FINDINGS: It is at the same time interesting and rewarding that the tool that recently guided our efforts along this path is the in-vivo use of CD3 antibody, the first monoclonal introduced in the clinic (Orthoclone OKT3) about 35 years ago to treat and prevent rejection of renal allografts...
November 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189294/using-choice-architecture-to-integrate-substance-use-services-with-primary-care-commentary-on-donohue-et-al-2017
#11
Leo Beletsky
: At a time when death and disability linked to problematic substance use have reached crisis levels, integration of substance use disorder (SUD) services into primary care settings is a clear national priority. Incentive-based interventions can catalyze such adoption, but have thus far demonstrated limited efficaciousness. Behavioral Economics can inform efforts to incentivize healthcare providers to adopt SUD interventions. Choice architecture principles dictate pegging rewards to defined quality metrics, improving provider information about effective and cost-effective practices, and reducing barriers to SUD service provision through technological tools, tackling stigma, and addressing real and perceived regulatory burdens and risks...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186459/the-long-term-impact-of-a-change-in-effort-reward-imbalance-on-mental-health-results-from-the-prospective-man-go-study
#12
Amira Barrech, Natalie Riedel, Jian Li, Raphael M Herr, Kathrin Mörtl, Peter Angerer, Harald Gündel
Background: Little is yet known on the long-term effects of stress management interventions (SMIs) in the workplace. The aim this study was to prospectively examine the effect of an improvement of psychosocial working conditions measured by the Effort-Reward (E-R) Imbalance model within 2 years following an SMI, and mental health 7 years later. Methods: The study sample consisted of 97 male industrial workers from southern Germany. Data were collected pre- and post-intervention in 2006 (T1) and 2008 (T2), respectively, as well as in 2015 (T3)...
December 1, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185626/do-resources-buffer-the-prospective-association-of-psychosocial-work-stress-with-depression-longitudinal-evidence-from-ageing-workers
#13
Thorsten Lunau, Morten Wahrendorf, Andreas Müller, Bradley Wright, Nico Dragano
Objectives There is now convincing evidence that psychosocial work stressors are linked to depression. Few studies, however, have tested if individual resources can buffer the longitudinal effects of psychosocial work stressors on depressive symptoms. This study investigates how two types of resources (internal and external resources) affect the association between psychosocial work stressors and depressive symptoms. Methods Data were obtained from the US Health and Retirement Study, with baseline information on psychosocial work stressors [job strain and effort-reward imbalance (ERI)] and on internal ("high mastery" and "low constraints") and external resources ("private social support") among initially healthy workers...
November 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181392/long-term-effectiveness-of-a-stress-management-intervention-at-work-a-9-year-follow-up-study-based-on-a-randomized-wait-list-controlled-trial-in-male-managers
#14
Jian Li, Natalie Riedel, Amira Barrech, Raphael M Herr, Birgit Aust, Kathrin Mörtl, Johannes Siegrist, Harald Gündel, Peter Angerer
Objective: Short- and medium-term effectiveness (up to 3 years) of individual level stress management interventions (SMI) at work were demonstrated, yet long-term effectiveness remains unexplored. We therefore aimed to address this research gap. Methods: 94 male middle managers participated in a randomized wait-list controlled trial between 2006 and 2008 and in a post-trial-follow-up survey in 2015. During the first two years, all received an 18-hour psychotherapeutic SMI intervention which was based on the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) model: tackling stressor on mismatch between effort and reward and promoting recovery on overcommitment...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180290/estradiol-and-the-control-of-feeding-behavior
#15
H M Rivera, T L Stincic
This review lays out the evidence for the role of E2 in homeostatic and hedonic feeding across several species. While significant effort has been expended on homeostatic feeding research, more studies for hedonic feeding need to be conducted (i.e. are there increases in meal size and enhanced motivation to natural food rewards). By identifying the underlying neural circuitry involved, one can better delineate the mechanisms by which E2 influences feeding behavior. By utilizing more selective neural targeting techniques, such as optogenetics, significant progress can be made toward this goal...
November 24, 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175446/phencyclidine-increased-while-isolation-rearing-did-not-affect-progressive-ratio-responding-in-rats-investigating-potential-models-of-amotivation-in-schizophrenia
#16
Nurith Amitai, Susan B Powell, Jared W Young
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a debilitating neurodevelopmental disorder affecting 1% of the global population with heterogeneous symptoms including positive, negative, and cognitive. While treatment for positive symptoms exists, none have been developed to treat negative symptoms. Animal models of schizophrenia are required to test targeted treatments and since patients exhibit reduced effort (breakpoints) for reward in a progressive ratio (PR) task, we examined the PR breakpoints of rats treated with the NMDA receptor antagonist phencyclidine or those reared in isolation - two common manipulations used to induce schizophrenia-relevant behaviors in rodents...
November 22, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170232/ten-month-old-infants-infer-the-value-of-goals-from-the-costs-of-actions
#17
Shari Liu, Tomer D Ullman, Joshua B Tenenbaum, Elizabeth S Spelke
Infants understand that people pursue goals, but how do they learn which goals people prefer? We tested whether infants solve this problem by inverting a mental model of action planning, trading off the costs of acting against the rewards actions bring. After seeing an agent attain two goals equally often at varying costs, infants expected the agent to prefer the goal it attained through costlier actions. These expectations held across three experiments that conveyed cost through different physical path features (height, width, and incline angle), suggesting that an abstract variable-such as "force," "work," or "effort"-supported infants' inferences...
November 24, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167090/attrition-from-web-based-cognitive-testing-a-repeated-measures-comparison-of-gamification-techniques
#18
Jim Lumsden, Andy Skinner, David Coyle, Natalia Lawrence, Marcus Munafo
BACKGROUND: The prospect of assessing cognition longitudinally and remotely is attractive to researchers, health practitioners, and pharmaceutical companies alike. However, such repeated testing regimes place a considerable burden on participants, and with cognitive tasks typically being regarded as effortful and unengaging, these studies may experience high levels of participant attrition. One potential solution is to gamify these tasks to make them more engaging: increasing participant willingness to take part and reducing attrition...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167046/changes-in-allostatic-load-during-workplace-reorganization
#19
Rikke Hinge Carlsson, Åse Marie Hansen, Martin Lindhardt Nielsen, Morten Blønd, Bo Netterstrøm
OBJECTIVE: Allostatic Load (AL) represents the strain on the body produced by repeated physiologic or allostatic responses activated during stressful situations. Several cross-sectional studies have found empirical substantiation for the relationship between impaired psychosocial work environment and high AL. The aim of this longitudinal study is to investigate changes in AL during workplace reorganization that has been shown to cause impaired psychosocial work environment. Moreover, we aim to investigate the association between changes in AL and changes in psychosocial work environment (job strain, effort-reward imbalance) and psychological distress (stress symptoms and perceived stress)...
December 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166291/job-stress-in-young-adults-is-associated-with-a-range-of-poorer-health-behaviours-in-the-childhood-determinants-of-adult-health-cdah-study
#20
Shuo Wang, Kristy Sanderson, Terence Dwyer, Alison Venn, Seana Gall
OBJECTIVE: To examine job stress and health behaviours, including their co-occurrence, in Australians aged 31-41 year assessed in 2009-11. METHODS: Cross-sectional analyses using multivariable regression models of the association between the Effort Reward Imbalance (ERI) scale and health behaviours (smoking, alcohol consumption, diet, physical activity and BMI) both individually and co-occurring (0-3 versus 4-5 behaviours) were undertaken. Covariates included sociodemographics, personality and life events...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
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