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Effort and reward

Rose-Marie Karlsson, Alice S Wang, Anup N Sonti, Heather A Cameron
Decreased motivation to seek rewards is a key feature of mood disorders that correlates with severity and treatment outcome. This anhedonia, or apathy, likely reflects impairment in reward circuitry, but the specific neuronal populations controlling motivation are unclear. Granule neurons generated in the adult hippocampus have been implicated in mood disorders, but are not generally considered as part of reward circuits. We investigated a possible role of these new neurons in motivation to work for food and sucrose rewards in operant conditioning tasks using GFAP-TK pharmacogenetic ablation of adult neurogenesis in both rats and mice...
April 16, 2018: Hippocampus
Noemí SanMiguel, Marta Pardo, Carla Carratalá-Ros, Laura López-Cruz, John D Salamone, Mercè Correa
Motivated behavior is characterized by activation and high work output. Nucleus accumbens (Nacb) modulates behavioral activation and effort-based decision-making. Caffeine is widely consumed because of its energizing properties. This methylxanthine is a non-selective adenosine A1 /A2A receptor antagonist. Adenosine receptors are highly concentrated in Nacb. Adenosine agonists injected into Nacb, shift preference towards low effort alternatives. The present studies characterized effort-related effects of caffeine in a concurrent progressive ratio (PROG)/free reinforcer choice procedure that requires high levels of work output, and generates great variability among different animals...
April 12, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
John D Salamone, Merce Correa, Jen-Hau Yang, Renee Rotolo, Rose Presby
Operant behavior is not only regulated by factors related to the quality or quantity of reinforcement, but also by the work requirements inherent in performing instrumental actions. Moreover, organisms often make effort-related decisions involving economic choices such as cost/benefit analyses. Effort-based decision making is studied using behavioral procedures that offer choices between high-effort options leading to relatively preferred reinforcers vs. low effort/low reward choices. Several neural systems, including the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system and other brain circuits, are involved in regulating effort-related aspects of motivation...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Louise L Hardy, Louise A Baur, Li Ming Wen, Sarah P Garnett, Seema Mihrshahi
OBJECTIVE: Over the past 10-15 years there has been substantial investment in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, to reduce child obesity through interventions in children aged 0-5 years. We report changes in weight and weight-related behaviours of 5-year-old children. DESIGN: Cross-sectional surveys conducted in 2010 and 2015. SETTING: NSW schools (2010 n=44; 2015 n=41) PARTICIPANTS: Australian children in kindergarten (2010 n=1141 and 2015 n=1150)...
April 7, 2018: BMJ Open
Jing Li, Mark J Williams
The accountable care organization (ACO) concept is advocated as a promising value-based payment model that could successfully realign the current payment system to financially reward improvements in quality and efficiency. Focusing on the care of hospitalized patients and controlling a substantive portion of variable hospital expenses, hospitalists are poised to play an essential role in system-level transformational change to achieve clinical integration. Especially through hospital and health system quality improvement (QI) initiatives, hospitalists can directly impact and share accountability for measures ranging from care coordination to implementation of evidence-based care and the patient and family caregiver experience...
April 2018: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
Paula Lopez-Gamundi, Margaret C Wardle
Research in animals suggests that decisions about physical versus cognitive effort have distinct neural bases, but exploration of this question in humans is hampered by lack of parallel measures of physical and cognitive effort for rewards. We developed a novel measure of willingness to exert cognitive effort for rewards, the C-EEfRT, paralleling the validated physical effort expenditure for rewards task (EEfRT). To validate the C-EEfRT we: (a) tested whether EEfRT and C-EEfRT tasks were equivalently difficult; (b) tested whether decisions on the EEfRT and C-EEfRT were equivalently responsive to changes in reward; (c) examined relationships between the C-EEfRT and anhedonia, intelligence, and working memory...
April 5, 2018: Psychological Assessment
Chitra Tomy, Naveen Ramesh, Farah N Fathima, Rodney L D'cunha, Kote A Chakravathi
Context: Work-related stress is associated with cardiovascular diseases, musculoskeletal disorders, psychological ailments, and work-related injuries. Imbalance between high effort and low reward at work can lead to work stress among plantation workers. Aims: To assess the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) among pluckers in tea plantations in South India and its association on chronic health problems, substance abuses, and workplace injuries. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 346 tea pluckers from May to June 2015 in six selected tea plantations in Anamalai, South India...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Kendra L Seaman, Nickolas Brooks, Teresa M Karrer, Jaime J Castrellon, Scott F Perkins, Linh Dang, Ming Hsu, David H Zald, Gregory R Samanez-Larkin
Every day, humans make countless decisions which require the integration of information about potential benefits (i.e., rewards) with other decision features (i.e., effort required, probability of an outcome, or time delays). Here we examine the overlap and dissociation of behavioral preferences and neural representations of subjective value in the context of three different decision features (physical effort, probability, time delays) in a healthy adult life-span sample. While undergoing functional neuroimaging, participants (N = 75) made incentive-compatible choices between a smaller monetary reward with lower physical effort, higher probability, or a shorter time delay, versus a larger monetary reward with higher physical effort, lower probability, or a longer time delay...
March 28, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Andre Der-Avakian, Diego A Pizzagalli
Loss of pleasure (clinically referred to as anhedonia), impairments in other reward-related processes such as reward learning, motivation, and reward valuation, and blunted affect characterize several mood and other psychiatric disorders. Despite the availability of many therapeutic options for these disorders, reward-related impairments remain challenging to treat and often persist despite alleviation of other symptoms. Lack of animal models of reward-related impairments and affect that have high construct and predictive validity is a key obstacle to developing novel treatments...
February 24, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Nicola Magnavita
The workplace is an ideal setting for health promotion. The regular medical examination of workers enables us to screen for numerous diseases, spread good practices and correct lifestyles, and obtain a favourable risk/benefit ratio. The continuous monitoring of the level of workers' wellbeing using a holistic approach during medical surveillance enables us to promptly identify problems in work organisation and the company climate. Problems of this kind can be adequately managed by using a participatory approach...
April 2, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Mark D Lindner, Karina D Torralba, Nasim A Khan
Competitive pressure to maximize the current bibliometric measures of productivity is jeopardizing the integrity of the scientific literature. Efforts are underway to address the 'reproducibility crisis' by encouraging the use of more rigorous, confirmatory methods. However, as long as productivity continues to be defined by the number of discoveries scientists publish, the impact factor of the journals they publish in and the number of times their papers are cited, they will be reluctant to accept high quality methods and consistently conduct and publish confirmatory/replication studies...
2018: PloS One
Adam J Culbreth, Erin K Moran, Deanna M Barch
Motivational impairment has long been associated with schizophrenia but the underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. Recently, a small but growing literature has suggested that aberrant effort-based decision-making may be a potential contributory mechanism for motivational impairments in psychosis. Specifically, multiple reports have consistently demonstrated that individuals with schizophrenia are less willing than healthy controls to expend effort to obtain rewards. Further, this effort-based decision-making deficit has been shown to correlate with severity of negative symptoms and level of functioning, in many but not all studies...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
Stijn A A Massar, Julian Lim, Karen Sasmita, Michael W L Chee
Sleep deprivation (SD) consistently degrades performance in tasks requiring sustained attention, resulting in slower and more variable response times that worsen with time-on-task. Loss of motivation to exert effort may exacerbate performance degradation during SD. To test this, we evaluated sustained performance on a vigilance task, combining this with an effort-based decision-making task and pupillometry. Vigilance was tested at rest and after sleep deprivation, under different incentive conditions (1, 5 or 15 cents for fast responses)...
March 27, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Marina Milyavskaya, Michael Inzlicht, Travis Johnson, Michael J Larson
What do people feel like doing after they have exerted cognitive effort or are bored? Here, we empirically test whether people are drawn to rewards (at the neural level) following cognitive effort and boredom. This elucidates the experiences and consequences of engaging in cognitive effort, and compares it to the consequences of experiencing boredom, an affective state with predicted similar motivational consequences. Event-related potentials were recorded after participants (N=243) were randomized into one of three conditions - boredom (passively observing strings of numbers), cognitive effort (adding 3 to each digit of a four-digit number), or control...
March 27, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Joseph M Patt, Paul S Robbins, Randy Niedz, Greg McCollum, Rocco Alessandro
Huanglongbing, also known as citrus greening, is a destructive disease that threatens citrus production worldwide. It is putatively caused by the phloem-limited bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las). Currently, the disease is untreatable and efforts focus on intensive insecticide use to control the vector, Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri). Emerging psyllid resistance to multiple insecticides has generated investigations into the use of exogenously applied signaling compounds to enhance citrus resistance to D...
2018: PloS One
Jaana I Halonen, Marianna Virtanen, Constanze Leineweber, Naja H Rod, Hugo Westerlund, Linda L Magnusson Hanson
Existing evidence of an association between effort-reward imbalance (ERI) at work and musculoskeletal pain is limited, preventing reliable conclusions about the magnitude and direction of the relation. In a large longitudinal study, we examined whether the onset of ERI is associated with subsequent onset of musculoskeletal pain among those free of pain at baseline, and vice versa, whether onset of pain leads to onset of ERI. Data were from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) study...
March 27, 2018: Pain
Philip J Spelman, Jeffrey S Simons
Reward-related stimuli can induce motivation to obtain rewards both within and across domains. We tested within- and cross-domain effects of environmental context (mock bar vs. laboratory) and sexually arousing stimuli (pornography vs. nature film) on acute motivation for alcohol as measured by a state-based alcohol purchase task in 109 male and female college students. Our results showed significant effects of both sexual arousal and environmental context on acute motivation for alcohol. A limited subsample analysis (N = 84) revealed significant effects of both sexual arousal and environmental context conditions on elasticity...
March 26, 2018: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Marie-Anne S Rosemberg, Yang Li
This study explored the relationship between effort-reward imbalance (ERI) at work and work productivity among hotel housekeepers. A community-based approach was used to recruit 23 hotel housekeepers who completed the ERI and Work Performance Questionnaires. Work productivity was determined by combining self-report absenteeism and presenteeism. More than 40% of the participants reported high ERI (ERI >1). Also, 59.1% reported low work productivity. Interestingly, despite the individualized high reports of ERI and low work productivity, correlation analysis showed that high ERI was correlated with high presenteeism and work productivity as a whole...
March 1, 2018: Workplace Health & Safety
Heidi A Wayment, Rosemary Al-Kire, Kristina Brookshire
Posttraumatic growth theory posits that when life circumstances are perceived as stressful, secondary appraisal processes can be recruited in ways to facilitate both coping efforts and personal growth. Using a mixed-methods approach, we found mothers' most challenging experiences involved child behavior (e.g. aggression, communication, and social issues) and psychosocial impacts (e.g. lack of social support, perceived judgment of others, perceived loss, and personal distress). Descriptions of most rewarding experiences reflect posttraumatic growth frameworks including constructive perceptions about themselves, life, and their relationships as well as evidence for what Maercker and Zoellner call illusory types of posttraumatic growth...
March 1, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
Andrew R Abela, Zhaoxia Li, Anh D Lê, Paul J Fletcher
People with schizophrenia display significantly higher rates of smoking than the general population, which may be due to an interaction between nicotine and antipsychotic medication. While the conventional antipsychotic drug haloperidol sometimes increases cigarette smoking in patients with schizophrenia, there is some evidence suggesting that clozapine, an atypical antipsychotic drug, may reduce nicotine use in these patients. However, the effects of antipsychotic drugs like clozapine on aspects of nicotine self-administration and reinstatement have not been systematically examined...
March 25, 2018: Addiction Biology
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