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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524238/psychosocial-work-factors-and-low-back-pain-in-taxi-drivers
#1
Barbara J Burgel, Rami A Elshatarat
INTRODUCTION: Taxi drivers are at high risk for low back pain (LBP). AIM: Identify the association between psychosocial-work factors (Job strain, Iso-strain, effort-reward imbalance [ERI], unfairness, and mental exertion) and LBP in taxi drivers. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was done with 129 taxi drivers. RESULTS: Approximately 63% reported LBP in the prior 12 months. Chi square or t-test analyses identified the associations between demographic, work, health, and psychosocial work factors, and self-report of LBP in the prior 12 months...
May 19, 2017: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524181/common-pitfalls-in-preclinical-cancer-target-validation
#2
REVIEW
William G Kaelin
An alarming number of papers from laboratories nominating new cancer drug targets contain findings that cannot be reproduced by others or are simply not robust enough to justify drug discovery efforts. This problem probably has many causes, including an underappreciation of the danger of being misled by off-target effects when using pharmacological or genetic perturbants in complex biological assays. This danger is particularly acute when, as is often the case in cancer pharmacology, the biological phenotype being measured is a 'down' readout (such as decreased proliferation, decreased viability or decreased tumour growth) that could simply reflect a nonspecific loss of cellular fitness...
May 19, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523610/motivators-for-alzheimer-s-disease-clinical-trial-participation
#3
Shoshana H Bardach, Sarah D Holmes, Gregory A Jicha
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) research progress is impeded due to participant recruitment challenges. This study seeks to better understand, from the perspective of individuals engaged in clinical trials (CTs), research motivations. METHODS: Participants, or their caregivers, from AD treatment and prevention CTs were surveyed about research motivators. RESULTS: The 87 respondents had a mean age of 72.2, were predominantly Caucasian, 55...
May 18, 2017: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511579/does-an-attention-bias-to-appetitive-and-aversive-words-modulate-interference-control-in-youth-with-adhd
#4
Ili Ma, Gabry W Mies, Nanda N J Lambregts-Rommelse, Jan K Buitelaar, Antonius H N Cillessen, Anouk Scheres
Interference control refers to the ability to selectively attend to certain information while ignoring distracting information. This ability can vary as a function of distractor relevance. Distractors that are particularly relevant to an individual may attract more attention than less relevant distractors. This is referred to as attention bias. Weak interference control and altered reward sensitivity are both important features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, interference control is typically studied in isolation...
May 16, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511301/-mediating-role-of-over-commitment-in-the-relationship-between-effort-reward-and-burnout
#5
C Wang, S Li, S F Yu, J M Dai, X M Liu, T Li
Objective: To explore the mediating role of over-commitment in the relationship between occupational stressors and job burnout, and to offer more specificevidence-based information in exploring the work related health effects of over-commitment. Methods: A total of 1994 samples from electronic manufacturing service industry were collected in Guangdong province based on self-rated questionnaire after written consent from June to July, 2015. The Effort-Reward Imbalance questionnaire and Maslach Burnout Invertory-General Survey were used for the measurement of occupational stress and job burnout...
March 20, 2017: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507522/nicotine-acutely-enhances-reinforcement-from-non-drug-rewards-in-humans
#6
REVIEW
Kenneth A Perkins, Joshua L Karelitz, Margaret C Boldry
Preclinical research documents that, aside from the primary and secondary reinforcing effects of nicotine intake itself, nicotine also acutely enhances the reinforcing efficacy of non-drug reinforcers ("rewards"). Study of these effects in humans has largely been overlooked, but very recent findings suggest they may have clinical implications for more fully understanding the persistence of tobacco dependence. This overview first outlines the topic and notes some recent human studies indirectly addressing nicotine effects on related responses (e...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505699/-psychological-stress-in-hospital-nursing-staff-effects-of-status-and-organizational-structures
#7
Stefan Bär, Sebastian Starystach
Objective The study investigates the impact of organizational structures in hospitals on nursing staff's psychological stress. The stress level that is caused by the specific working conditions of a major hospital is presented in a cross-sectional analysis differentiated by organizational categories with regard to effects of structure and status. Methods Data were collected via Impuls-Test and by a context-specific supplementary questionnaire among the registered nursing staff of a major maximum care hospital...
May 15, 2017: Das Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499401/are-general-and-strategic-measures-of-organizational-context-and-leadership-associated-with-knowledge-and-attitudes-toward-evidence-based-practices-in-public-behavioral-health-settings-a-cross-sectional-observational-study
#8
Byron J Powell, David S Mandell, Trevor R Hadley, Ronnie M Rubin, Arthur C Evans, Matthew O Hurford, Rinad S Beidas
BACKGROUND: Examining the role of modifiable barriers and facilitators is a necessary step toward developing effective implementation strategies. This study examines whether both general (organizational culture, organizational climate, and transformational leadership) and strategic (implementation climate and implementation leadership) organizational-level factors predict therapist-level determinants of implementation (knowledge of and attitudes toward evidence-based practices). METHODS: Within the context of a system-wide effort to increase the use of evidence-based practices (EBPs) and recovery-oriented care, we conducted an observational, cross-sectional study of 19 child-serving agencies in the City of Philadelphia, including 23 sites, 130 therapists, 36 supervisors, and 22 executive administrators...
May 12, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498137/physical-and-organizational-job-stressors-in-pregnancy-and-associations-with-primary-cesarean-deliveries
#9
Sylvia Guendelman, Alison Gemmill, Nap Hosang, Leslie A MacDonald
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between exposure to physical and organizational job stressors during pregnancy and cesarean delivery. METHODS: We sampled 580 employed women in California who participated in a nested population-based case-control study of birth outcomes. Adjusted multivariate regression analyses estimated associations between heavy lifting, frequent bending, high noise, extreme temperature, prolonged standing and organizational stressors (shift work, inflexible schedules, effort-reward ratio), and primary cesarean (vs vaginal) delivery, controlling for covariates...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495358/animal-to-human-translational-paradigms-relevant-for-approach-avoidance-conflict-decision-making
#10
Namik Kirlic, Jared Young, Robin L Aupperle
Avoidance behavior in clinical anxiety disorders is often a decision made in response to approach-avoidance conflict, resulting in a sacrifice of potential rewards to avoid potential negative affective consequences. Animal research has a long history of relying on paradigms related to approach-avoidance conflict to model anxiety-relevant behavior. This approach includes punishment-based conflict, exploratory, and social interaction tasks. There has been a recent surge of interest in the translation of paradigms from animal to human, in efforts to increase generalization of findings and support the development of more effective mental health treatments...
April 24, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494258/stress-related-psychosocial-factors-at-work-fatigue-and-risky-driving-behavior-in-bus-rapid-transport-brt-drivers
#11
Sergio A Useche, Viviola Gómez Ortiz, Boris E Cendales
INTRODUCTION: There is consistent scientific evidence that professional drivers constitute an occupational group that is highly exposed to work related stressors. Furthermore, several recent studies associate work stress and fatigue with unsafe and counterproductive work behaviors. This study examines the association between stress-related work conditions of Bus Rapid Transport (BRT) drivers and risky driving behaviors; and examines whether fatigue is a mechanism that mediates the association between the two...
May 8, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486615/effort-reward-imbalance-at-work-and-the-prevalence-of-unsuccessfully-treated-hypertension-among-white-collar-workers
#12
Xavier Trudel, Alain Milot, Mahée Gilbert-Ouimet, Caroline Duchaine, Line Guénette, Violaine Dalens, Chantal Brisson
We examined the association between effort-reward imbalance (ERI) exposure at work and unsuccessfully treated hypertension among white-collar workers from a large cohort in Quebec City, Canada. The study used a repeated cross sectional design involving three waves of data collection (2000-09). The study sample was composed of 474 workers treated for hypertension, accounting for 739 observations. At each time, ERI was measured using validated scales and ambulatory blood pressure (BP) was measured every 15 minutes during the working day...
May 9, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469564/pavlovian-conditioning-of-larval-drosophila-an-illustrated-multilingual-hands-on-manual-for-odor-taste-associative-learning-in-maggots
#13
Birgit Michels, Timo Saumweber, Roland Biernacki, Jeanette Thum, Rupert D V Glasgow, Michael Schleyer, Yi-Chun Chen, Claire Eschbach, Reinhard F Stocker, Naoko Toshima, Teiichi Tanimura, Matthieu Louis, Gonzalo Arias-Gil, Manuela Marescotti, Fabio Benfenati, Bertram Gerber
Larval Drosophila offer a study case for behavioral neurogenetics that is simple enough to be experimentally tractable, yet complex enough to be worth the effort. We provide a detailed, hands-on manual for Pavlovian odor-reward learning in these animals. Given the versatility of Drosophila for genetic analyses, combined with the evolutionarily shared genetic heritage with humans, the paradigm has utility not only in behavioral neurogenetics and experimental psychology, but for translational biomedicine as well...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464086/extension-education-symposium-getting-the-most-out-of-your-extension-appointment-and-still-having-a-life
#14
W Powers, N Cockett, G Lardy
Managing the demands of an academic appointment in extension can be a challenging task. Demands from constituent groups, expectations of supervisors, and rigors of promotion and tenure processes can create pressures that young faculty did not expect. Throw in spousal and family duties and you have created a situation that many will find hard to navigate. However, there are ways to cope and, even better news, there are ways to excel in meeting the demands of an academic appointment and enjoying life. Because many new extension faculty members do not have prior experience in extension, best practices in documenting programs and extension scholarship over the pretenure period are provided in this paper...
April 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463383/on-effort-reward-imbalance-and-depression
#15
EDITORIAL
Töres Theorell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443994/relationship-between-psychosocial-stress-dimensions-and-salivary-cortisol-in-military-police-officers
#16
Juliana Petri Tavares, Liana Lautert, Tânia Solange Bosi de Souza Magnago, Angélica Rosat Consiglio, Daiane Dal Pai
OBJECTIVE: to analyze the relationship between psychosocial stress dimensions and salivary cortisol in military police officers. METHOD: cross-sectional and analytical study with 134 military police officers. The Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) Model scale has been used to assess psychosocial stress. Salivary cortisol was collected in three samples. The following tests were used: Student's t-test, Mann-Whitney, ANOVA, Bonferroni, Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn. Pearson and Spearman correlation methods were used, as well as multiple linear regression...
April 20, 2017: Revista Latino-americana de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434180/stated-uptake-of-physical-activity-rewards-programmes-among-active-and-insufficiently-active-full-time-employees
#17
Semra Ozdemir, Marcel Bilger, Eric A Finkelstein
BACKGROUND: Employers are increasingly relying on rewards programmes in an effort to promote greater levels of activity among employees; however, if enrolment in these programmes is dominated by active employees, then they are unlikely to be a good use of resources. OBJECTIVE: This study uses a stated-preference survey to better understand who participates in rewards-based physical activity programmes, and to quantify stated uptake by active and insufficiently active employees...
April 22, 2017: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430935/sensation-seeking-and-adolescent-alcohol-use-exploring-the-mediating-role-of-unstructured-socializing-with-peers
#18
Sharon Sznitman, Batya Engel-Yeger
Background: Researchers have theorized that adolescents high in sensation seeking are particularly sensitive to positive reinforcement and the rewarding outcomes of alcohol use, and thus that the personality vulnerability is a direct causal risk factor for alcohol use. In contrast, the routine activity perspective theorizes that part of the effect of sensation seeking on alcohol use goes through the propensity that sensation seekers have towards unstructured socializing with peers. The study tests a model with indirect and direct paths from sensation seeking and participation in unstructured peer socialization to adolescent alcohol use...
May 1, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429107/psychosocial-factors-at-work-and-sleep-problems-a-longitudinal-study-of-the-general-working-population-in-norway
#19
Håkon A Johannessen, Tom Sterud
PURPOSE: A growing number of longitudinal studies report associations between adverse psychosocial factors at work and sleep problems. However, the evidence regarding the direction of these associations and the effects of changes in exposure across time is limited. This study examined the plausibility of normal, reverse, and reciprocal associations between ten psychosocial factors at work and sleep problems. In addition, we analyzed if reduced exposure across time had the anticipated result of reducing the risk of sleep problems...
April 20, 2017: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428748/resting-state-neuroimaging-and-neuropsychological-findings-in-opioid-use-disorder-during-abstinence-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Hada Fong-Ha Ieong, Zhen Yuan
Dependence to opiates, including illicit heroin and prescription pain killers, and treatment of the opioid use disorder (OUD) have been longstanding problems over the world. Despite intense efforts to scientific investigation and public health care, treatment outcomes have not significantly improved for the past 50 years. One reason behind the continuing use of heroin worldwide despite such efforts is its highly addictive nature. Brain imaging studies over the past two decades have made significant contribution to the understanding of the addictive properties as to be due in part to biological processes, specifically those in the brain structure and function...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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