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Effort and reward

Surajit Ganguly, Subhendu Seth
A large volume of research now provides evidence correlating aberrant histone deacetylase (HDAC) activities and hypoacetylation of histones to disruptions in synaptic plasticity, neuronal survival/regeneration, memory formation and consolidation. Hence, maintaining the acetyl-histone homeostasis as a component of neuronal mechanisms by targeting HDACs has emerged as an exciting intervention strategy for several neuropsychiatric disorders. Though extensive preclinical animal studies have elevated the translational potential of HDAC inhibitors (HDACis) in psychiatric disorders, so far, the translational gain remains low...
June 19, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Laura McGeown, Ron Davis
High global incidence of obesity has led to efforts to identify factors that may contribute to elevated body mass index (BMI). Studies have shown individuals with obesity tend to display an attentional bias (AB) towards food. Left frontal EEG alpha asymmetry (FA) has been associated with motivation to approach rewards and may heighten reactivity to food cues. The current study thus explored whether the association between AB to food and BMI is moderated by FA. EEG was recorded while 93 female participants watched a video confederate incidentally consume potato chips...
June 15, 2018: Biological Psychology
Tobias Otto, Fred R H Zijlstra, Rainer Goebel
Investing mental effort is costly, and the investment has to be matched by a reward to make a person engage in task performance. However, the neural structures underlying the continued management of mental effort are not known. Previous work has identified left-lateralized structures, most prominently the left anterior Insular Cortex (aIC) as regions implied in post-hoc evaluation and also anticipation of mental effort investment. We present a study aimed at identifying neural structures that are sensitive to changes in both task load and fatigue-induced state load...
2018: PloS One
Mark Morrison, Kevin Parton, Donald W Hine
Using national Australian samples collected in 2011 (n = 1927) and 2016 (n = 2503), we identified six Australian household segments which we labelled Alarmed, Concerned, Cautious, Disengaged, Doubtful and Dismissive. Between the two periods, we found the proportion of households in the Alarmed and Concerned segments was stable; however there was a decrease (28% to 20%) in the proportion of households in the Doubtful and Dismissive segments and an increase (27% to 33%) in the Cautious and Disengaged segments...
2018: PloS One
Susanna Järvelin-Pasanen, Sanna Sinikallio, Mika P Tarvainen
The aim of this systematic review was to explore studies regarding association between occupational stress and heart rate variability (HRV) during work. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Cinahl and PsycINFO for peer-reviewed articles published in English between January 2005 and September 2017. A total of 10 articles met the inclusion criteria. The included articles were analyzed in terms of study design, study population, assessment of occupational stress and HRV, and the study limitations. Among the studies there were cross-sectional (n=9) studies and one longitudinal study design...
June 16, 2018: Industrial Health
Jessica Franzen, Kerstin Brinkmann, Guido H E Gendolla, Othman Sentissi
BACKGROUND: The present study tested the hypothesis of a differential pattern of reward and punishment responsiveness in depression measuring effort mobilization during anticipation and facial expressions during consumption. METHODS: Twenty patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 20 control participants worked on a memory task under neutral, reward, and punishment instructions. Effort mobilization was operationalized as cardiovascular reactivity, while facial expressions were measured by facial electromyographic reactivity...
June 18, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Akina Umemoto, Michael Inzlicht, Clay B Holroyd
Successful execution of goal-directed behaviors often requires the deployment of cognitive control, which is thought to require cognitive effort. Recent theories have proposed that anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) regulates control levels by weighing the reward-related benefits of control against its effort-related costs. However, given that the sensations of cognitive effort and reward valuation are available only to introspection, this hypothesis is difficult to investigate empirically. We have proposed that two electrophysiological indices of ACC function, frontal midline theta and the reward positivity (RewP), provide objective measures of these functions...
June 14, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Holly Sullivan-Toole, Ekaterina Dobryakova, Samantha DePasque, Elizabeth Tricomi
Research at the intersection of social neuroscience and cognitive effort is an interesting new area for exploration. There is great potential to broaden our understanding of how social context and cognitive effort processes, currently addressed in disparate literatures, interact with one another. In this paper, we briefly review the literature on cognitive effort, focusing on effort-linked valuation and the gap in the literature regarding cognitive effort in the social domain. Next, we present a study designed to explore valuation processes linked to cognitive effort within the social context of an inequality manipulation...
June 12, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Maria Clelia Zurlo, Federica Vallone, Andrew P Smith
The Demand Resources and Individual Effects Model (DRIVE Model) is a transactional model that integrates Demands- Control-Support and Effort-Reward Imbalance models emphasising the role of individual (Coping Strategies; Overcommitment) and job characteristics (Job Demands, Social Support, Decision Latitude, Skill Discretion, Effort, Rewards) in the work-related stress process. The present study aimed to test the DRIVE Model in a sample of 450 Italian nurses and to compare findings with those of a study conducted in a sample of UK nurses...
March 2018: Europe's Journal of Psychology
Gavin Jenkins, Paul Tupper
Transposition is a tendency for organisms to generalize relationships between stimuli in situations where training does not objectively reward relationships over absolute, static associations. Transposition has most commonly been explained as either conceptual understanding of relationships (Köhler, 1938) as nonconceptual effects of neural memory gradients (as in Spence's stimulus discrimination theory, 1937). Most behavioral evidence can be explained by the gradient account, but a key finding unexplained by gradients is intermediate transposition, where a central (of three) stimulus, "relationally correct response," is generalized from training to test...
June 12, 2018: Neural Computation
Liza Jachens, Jonathan Houdmont, Roslyn Thomas
This study sought to examine stress-related working conditions-defined in terms of effort-reward imbalance (ERI)-and their association with burnout among a large, international sample of humanitarian aid workers. Descriptive statistics were applied to cross-sectional survey data (N=1,980) to profile ERI and burnout and Pearson's χ2 tests were used to characterise associated socio- and occupational-demographic factors. Associations between ERI and burnout were established using binary logistic regression to generate odds ratios and 95 per cent confidence intervals adjusted for potential confounding variables...
June 12, 2018: Disasters
Paolo Cariati, Blas Garcia Medina, Pablo Galvez, Almudena Cabello Serrano, Miguel Garcia Martin, Guillermo Valencia Moya
Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is one of the most used joint of the body. Moreover, it is common knowledge that TMJ may show degenerative changes 10 years earlier than other joints. Recently, the use of arthroscopic surgery is revolutionizing the classic management of TMJ pathologies. In fact, the minimal invasiveness of this procedure allows faster results and fewer complications than other procedures. In this article, we present our arthroscopic technique. In this line, we would like to emphasize that we used this approach in different temporomandibular disorders such as anchored disk syndrome, habitual dislocation of TMJ, and internal derangement...
June 2018: Craniomaxillofacial Trauma & Reconstruction
Jessica L Bolton, Christina M Ruiz, Neggy Rismanchi, Gissell A Sanchez, Erik Castillo, Jeff Huang, Christopher Cross, Tallie Z Baram, Stephen V Mahler
Early-life adversity increases the risk for emotional disorders such as depression and schizophrenia. Anhedonia, thought to be a core feature of these disorders, is provoked by our naturalistic rodent model of childhood adversity (i.e., rearing pups for one week in cages with limited bedding and nesting, LBN). Drug use and addiction are highly comorbid with psychiatric disorders featuring anhedonia, yet effects of LBN on drug-seeking behavior and the reward and stress-related circuits that underlie it remain unknown...
February 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
Elisabeth G Vichaya, Robert Dantzer
Inflammation can profoundly impact motivated behavior, as is the case with inflammation-induced depression. By evaluating objectively measurable basic neurobehavioral processes involved in motivation, recent research indicates that inflammation generally reduces approach motivation and enhances avoidance motivation. Increased effort valuation largely mediates the effects of inflammation on approach motivation. Changes in reward valuation are not uniformly observed in approach motivation. However, inflammation increases the averseness of negative stimuli...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
Firdaous Sekkay, Daniel Imbeau, Yuvin Chinniah, Philippe-Antoine Dubé, Nathalie de Marcellis-Warin, Nancy Beauregard, Martin Trépanier
AIM: This study investigated and compared the associations between self-reported exposures to individual as well as work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors for musculoskeletal (MS) disorders and the prevalence of MS symptoms in different body areas among short- (P&D) and long-distance (Bulk delivery) truck drivers working for the same large gas delivery company in Canada. METHODS: 123 truck drivers nationwide participated in this questionnaire-based cross-sectional study...
October 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Mika Kivimäki, Jaana Pentti, Jane E Ferrie, G David Batty, Solja T Nyberg, Markus Jokela, Marianna Virtanen, Lars Alfredsson, Nico Dragano, Eleonor I Fransson, Marcel Goldberg, Anders Knutsson, Markku Koskenvuo, Aki Koskinen, Anne Kouvonen, Ritva Luukkonen, Tuula Oksanen, Reiner Rugulies, Johannes Siegrist, Archana Singh-Manoux, Sakari Suominen, Töres Theorell, Ari Väänänen, Jussi Vahtera, Peter J M Westerholm, Hugo Westerlund, Marie Zins, Timo Strandberg, Andrew Steptoe, John Deanfield
BACKGROUND: Although some cardiovascular disease prevention guidelines suggest a need to manage work stress in patients with established cardiometabolic disease, the evidence base for this recommendation is weak. We sought to clarify the status of stress as a risk factor in cardiometabolic disease by investigating the associations between work stress and mortality in men and women with and without pre-existing cardiometabolic disease. METHODS: In this multicohort study, we used data from seven cohort studies in the IPD-Work consortium, initiated between 1985 and 2002 in Finland, France, Sweden, and the UK, to examine the association between work stress and mortality...
June 5, 2018: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
Daniel Fulford, Tim Campellone, David E Gard
Limited quantity and quality of interpersonal exchanges and relationships predict worse symptomatic and hospitalization outcomes and limit functional recovery in people with schizophrenia. While deficits in social skills and social cognition contribute to much of the impairment in social functioning in schizophrenia, our focus on the current review is social motivation-the drive to connect with others and form meaningful, lasting relationships. We pay particular attention to how recent research on reward informs, and limits, our understanding of the construct...
May 28, 2018: Clinical Psychology Review
Susana Da Silva, Areti Apatsidou, Sarah Saperia, Ishraq Siddiqui, Eliyas Jeffay, Aristotle N Voineskos, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Gary Remington, Konstantine K Zakzanis, George Foussias
Background: Amotivation is a prevalent symptom in schizophrenia (SZ) and depression (MDD), and is linked to poor functional outcomes in affected individuals. Conceptualizations of motivation have outlined a multi-faceted construct comprised of reward responsiveness, reward expectancy, reward valuation, effort valuation, and action selection/preference-based decision making. To date, findings from studies utilizing variable-centered approaches to examining isolated facets of motivation in SZ and MDD have been inconsistent...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Daria J Kuss, Halley M Pontes, Mark D Griffiths
Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) is a potential mental disorder currently included in the third section of the latest (fifth) edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as a condition that requires additional research to be included in the main manual. Although research efforts in the area have increased, there is a continuing debate about the respective criteria to use as well as the status of the condition as mental health concern. Rather than using diagnostic criteria which are based on subjective symptom experience, the National Institute of Mental Health advocates the use of Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) which may support classifying mental disorders based on dimensions of observable behavior and neurobiological measures because mental disorders are viewed as biological disorders that involve brain circuits that implicate specific domains of cognition, emotion, and behavior...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Jillian M Rung, Patrick S Johnson, Gregory J Madden
Delay discounting refers to one process by which an individual devalues delayed outcomes. Typical discounting tasks provide no information about events during delays to larger-later rewards. Imposing opportunity costs during the delay increases how steeply delayed rewards are discounted (P. S. Johnson, Herrmann, & Johnson, 2015). The present research evaluated whether distress tolerance (i.e., one's ability to tolerate distressing emotions and events) is related to discounting rates when opportunity costs are low, high, or unspecified...
June 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
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