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Effort and reward

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819649/prosocial-apathy-for-helping-others-when-effort-is-required
#1
Patricia L Lockwood, Mathilde Hamonet, Samuel H Zhang, Anya Ratnavel, Florentine U Salmony, Masud Husain, Matthew A J Apps
Prosocial acts - those that are costly to ourselves but benefit others - are a central component of human co-existence1-3. While the financial and moral costs of prosocial behaviours are well understood4-6, everyday prosocial acts do not typically come at such costs. Instead, they require effort. Here, using computational modelling of an effort-based task we show that people are prosocially apathetic. They are less willing to choose to initiate highly effortful acts that benefit others compared to benefitting themselves...
July 2017: Nature Human Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808037/separate-mesocortical-and-mesolimbic-pathways-encode-effort-and-reward-learning-signals
#2
Tobias U Hauser, Eran Eldar, Raymond J Dolan
Optimal decision making mandates organisms learn the relevant features of choice options. Likewise, knowing how much effort we should expend can assume paramount importance. A mesolimbic network supports reward learning, but it is unclear whether other choice features, such as effort learning, rely on this same network. Using computational fMRI, we show parallel encoding of effort and reward prediction errors (PEs) within distinct brain regions, with effort PEs expressed in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and reward PEs in ventral striatum...
August 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803713/a-review-of-the-key-factors-to-improve-adult-immunization-coverage-rates-what-can-the-clinician-do
#3
Litjen L J Tan
Adult immunization coverage rates remain low in the United States and internationally, despite obvious benefits to vaccinating and maintaining a well-vaccinated adult population. Broad policy changes are required to identify and address gaps in financing, in immunization infrastructure, and patient and provider awareness and knowledge to improve the protection of our adult and aging population from vaccine-preventable diseases. There is good evidence that efforts are now underway both within the United States and across the world to advance these policy changes...
August 10, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801694/work-overcommitment-is-it-a-trait-or-a-state
#4
Jean-Baptist du Prel, Roma Runeson-Broberg, Peter Westerholm, Lars Alfredsson, Göran Fahlén, Anders Knutsson, Maria Nordin, Richard Peter
PURPOSE: Effort-reward imbalance (ERI) is a well-tested work-related stress model with three components, the two extrinsic components "efforts" and "rewards" and the one intrinsic component "overcommitment". While an imbalance between "efforts" and "rewards" leads to strain reactions, "work-related overcommitment" (OC) has been described as a personal characteristic with a set of attitudes, behaviours, and emotions reflecting excessive striving combined with a strong desire for approval...
August 11, 2017: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797600/the-rat-retrosplenial-cortex-as-a-link-for-frontal-functions-a-lesion-analysis
#5
Anna L Powell, Andrew J D Nelson, Emma Hindley, Moira Davies, John P Aggleton, Seralynne D Vann
Cohorts of rats with excitotoxic retrosplenial cortex lesions were tested on four behavioural tasks sensitive to dysfunctions in prelimbic cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, or both. In this way the study tested whether retrosplenial cortex has nonspatial functions that reflect its anatomical interactions with these frontal cortical areas. In Experiment 1, retrosplenial cortex lesions had no apparent effect on a set-shifting digging task that taxed intradimensional and extradimensional attention, as well as reversal learning...
August 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793793/making-oncolytic-virotherapy-a-clinical-reality-the-european-contribution
#6
Margaret R Duffy, Kerry D Fisher, Leonard W Seymour
Oncolytic viruses are quickly moving toward the forefront of modern medicines. The reward for the decades of research invested into developing viral platforms that selectively replicate in and lyse tumour cells whilst sparking anti-cancer adaptive immunity, is presenting in the form of durable therapeutic responses. Whilst it has certainly been a concerted global effort, in this review for the 25th anniversary of the ESGCT we will describe the current status of the major classes of oncolytic viruses, and focus on the contributions made by European researchers...
August 10, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792231/the-impact-of-perceived-effort-reward-imbalance-on-workplace-bullying-also-a-matter-of-organizational-identification
#7
Dina Guglielmi, Greta Mazzetti, Paola Villano, Gabriela Topa Cantisano
Work environments characterized by inadequate work conditions have been widely recognized as being particularly prone to the occurrence and exacerbation of bullying behavior. Accordingly, this longitudinal study aimed to explore whether the impact of effort-reward imbalance (ERI) on workplace bullying was mediated by a lower perception of organizational justice, and whether the association between ERI and perceptions of justice was moderated by organizational identification. In the current study, a sample of N = 195 Spanish employees from different occupational sectors filled in an online questionnaire at two different times with a time lag of 8 months...
August 9, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790900/maladaptive-decision-making-in-adults-with-a-history-of-adolescent-alcohol-use-in-a-preclinical-model-is-attributable-to-the-compromised-assignment-of-incentive-value-during-stimulus-reward-learning
#8
Lauren C Kruse, Abigail G Schindler, Rapheal G Williams, Sophia J Weber, Jeremy J Clark
According to recent WHO reports, alcohol remains the number one substance used and abused by adolescents, despite public health efforts to curb its use. Adolescence is a critical period of biological maturation where brain development, particularly the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, undergoes substantial remodeling. These circuits are implicated in complex decision making, incentive learning and reinforcement during substance use and abuse. An appealing theoretical approach has been to suggest that alcohol alters the normal development of these processes to promote deficits in reinforcement learning and decision making, which together make individuals vulnerable to developing substance use disorders in adulthood...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782916/reduced-willingness-to-expend-effort-for-reward-in-obesity-link-to-adherence-to-a-3-month-weight-loss-intervention
#9
Fernanda Mata, Michael Treadway, Alastair Kwok, Helen Truby, Murat Yücel, Julie C Stout, Antonio Verdejo-Garcia
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to (1) compare the willingness to expend effort for rewards between young adults with healthy weight, overweight, and obesity; and (2) to examine how individual differences in the willingness to expend effort for rewards predict adherence to weight loss treatment. METHODS: Seventy-three participants completed the Effort Expenditure for Rewards Task (EEfRT). Of those 73 participants, 42 young adults with excess weight took part in a 3-month weight loss treatment after completing the EEfRT...
August 7, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780567/association-between-childhood-health-socioeconomic-and-school-related-factors-and-effort-reward-imbalance-at-work-a-25-year-follow-up-study
#10
Shuo Wang, Kristy Sanderson, Alison Venn, Terence Dwyer, Seana Gall
OBJECTIVES: Stress pathways can have origins in childhood, but few early predictors have been explored in relation to adult job stress. This study examined whether childhood school, health or socioeconomic factors were associated with adult job stress. METHODS: Data came from the Childhood Determinants of Adult Health study that began in 1985 with children aged 7-15 years who reported effortreward imbalance (ERI) scales at ages 31-41 years. Linear regression assessed the association between childhood factors and adult ERI adjusted for age and socioeconomic position (SEP) in childhood and adulthood...
August 5, 2017: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775183/examining-the-mediating-effect-of-work-to-family-conflict-on-the-associations-between-job-stressors-and-employee-psychological-distress-a-prospective-cohort-study
#11
Takashi Oshio, Akiomi Inoue, Akizumi Tsutsumi
OBJECTIVES: The mediating effect of work-to-family conflict (WFC) on the associations between eight types of job stressors (measured based on the job demands-control, effort-reward imbalance and organisational justice models) and psychological distress in employees was examined. DESIGN: This study employed a prospective design. SETTING: An occupational cohort study in Japan (Japanese Study of Health, Occupation, and Psychosocial Factors Related Equity; J-HOPE)...
August 3, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771776/developing-and-rewarding-teachers-as-educators-and-scholars-remarkable-progress-and-daunting-challenges
#12
David M Irby, Patricia S O'Sullivan
CONTEXT: This article describes the scholarly work that has addressed the fifth recommendation of the 1988 World Conference on Medical Education: 'Train teachers as educators, not content experts alone, and reward excellence in this field as fully as excellence in biomedical research or clinical practice'. PROGRESS: Over the past 30 years, scholars have defined the preparation needed for teaching and other educator roles, and created faculty development delivery systems to train teachers as educators...
August 3, 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759631/physical-and-cognitive-effort-discounting-across-different-reward-magnitudes-tests-of-discounting-models
#13
Wojciech Białaszek, Przemysław Marcowski, Paweł Ostaszewski
The effort required to obtain a rewarding outcome is an important factor in decision-making. Describing the reward devaluation by increasing effort intensity is substantial to understanding human preferences, because every action and choice that we make is in itself effortful. To investigate how reward valuation is affected by physical and cognitive effort, we compared mathematical discounting functions derived from research on discounting. Seven discounting models were tested across three different reward magnitudes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756417/the-combined-effects-of-job-demand-and-control-effort-reward-imbalance-and-work-family-conflicts-on-the-risk-of-major-depressive-episode-a-4-year-longitudinal-study
#14
Yeshambel T Nigatu, JianLi Wang
PURPOSE: Work-related psychosocial factors may precipitate the onset of depression. In occupational mental health research, there are three widely used theoretical models, namely, job demand and control (JD-C), effort-reward imbalance (ERI) and work-family conflicts (WFC). However, the interaction between these models and their combined effect on the risk of major depression in the workplace is largely unknown. The aim of this study is to examine the longitudinal combined effects of JD-C, ERI and WFC on the risk of major depression in the working population...
July 29, 2017: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754790/the-medicare-access-and-chip-reauthorization-act-implications-for-nephrology
#15
Eugene Lin, Thomas MaCurdy, Jay Bhattacharya
In response to rising Medicare costs, Congress passed the Medicare Access and Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act in 2015. The law fundamentally changes the way that health care providers are reimbursed by implementing a pay for performance system that rewards providers for high-value health care. As of the beginning of 2017, providers will be evaluated on quality and in later years, cost as well. High-quality, cost-efficient providers will receive bonuses in reimbursement, and low-quality, expensive providers will be penalized financially...
July 28, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754160/a-school-based-epidemiological-field-survey-difficulties-in-collecting-psychiatric-outcome-data-in-a-middle-income-country
#16
T M Fidalgo, Z M Sanchez, M Ribeiro, S R Healy, S C Caetano, S S Martins
BACKGROUND: Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) face a lack of epidemiological data. The development of high-quality surveys is a key research priority in countries such as Brazil. Our aim is to discuss the difficulties in conducting a longitudinal epidemiological survey in a pilot study of a school-based sample in São Paulo. METHODS: Data came from a cohort of school-attending adolescents in two neighborhoods with different levels of urbanicity in São Paulo...
July 28, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753833/training-research-and-working-conditions-for-urology-residents-in-germany-a-contemporary-survey
#17
Hendrik Borgmann, Hannah K Arnold, Christian P Meyer, Johannes Bründl, Justus König, Tim Nestler, Christian Ruf, Julian Struck, Johannes Salem
BACKGROUND: Excellent uniform training of urology residents is crucial to secure both high-quality patient care and the future of our specialty. Residency training has come under scrutiny following the demands of subspecialized care, economical aspects, and working hour regulations. OBJECTIVE: To comprehensively assess the surgical training, research opportunities, and working conditions among urology residents in Germany. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We sent a 29-item online survey via email to 721 members of the German Society of Residents in Urology...
December 16, 2016: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751460/optogenetic-central-amygdala-stimulation-intensifies-and-narrows-motivation-for-cocaine
#18
Shelley M Warlow, Mike J F Robinson, Kent C Berridge
Addiction is often characterized by intense motivation for a drug, which may be narrowly focused at the expense of other rewards. Here we examined the role of amygdala-related circuitry in the amplification and narrowing of motivation focus for intravenous cocaine. We paired optogenetic channelrhodopsin (ChR2) stimulation in either central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) or basolateral amygdala (BLA) of female rats with one particular nosepoke-porthole option for earning cocaine infusions (0.3 mg/kg, i.v.). A second alternative porthole earned identical cocaine but without ChR2 stimulation...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750817/endocannabinoid-transport-proteins-discovery-of-tools-to-study-sterol-carrier-protein-2
#19
Cecilia J Hillard, Huan Huang, Caleb D Vogt, Beatriz E Rodrigues, Terrence S Neumann, Daniel S Sem, Friedhelm Schroeder, Christopher W Cunningham
The endocannabinoid (eCB) neurotransmitter system regulates diverse neurological functions including stress and anxiety, pain, mood, and reward. Understanding the mechanisms underlying eCB regulation is critical for developing targeted pharmacotherapies to treat these and other neurologic disorders. Cellular studies suggest that the arachidonate eCBs, N-arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), are substrates for intracellular binding and transport proteins, and several candidate proteins have been identified...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740616/unlocking-the-potential-of-established-products-toward-new-incentives-rewarding-innovation-in-europe
#20
Gabrielle Nayroles, Sandrine Frybourg, Sylvie Gabriel, Åsa Kornfeld, Fernando Antoñanzas-Villar, Jaime Espín, Claudio Jommi, Nello Martini, Gérard de Pouvourville, Keith Tolley, Jürgen Wasem, Mondher Toumi
Background: Many established products (EPs - marketed for eight years or more) are widely used off-label despite little evidence on benefit-risk ratio. This exposes patients to risks related to safety and lack of efficacy, and healthcare providers to liability. Introducing new indications for EPs may represent a high societal value; however, manufacturers rarely invest in R&D for EPs. The objective of this research was to describe incentives and disincentives for developing new indications for EPs in Europe and to investigate consequences of current policies...
2017: Journal of Market Access & Health Policy
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