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Effort and reward

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639611/masked-hypertension-and-effort-reward-imbalance-at-work-among-2369-white-collar-workers
#1
P Boucher, M Gilbert-Ouimet, X Trudel, C S Duchaine, A Milot, C Brisson
Hypertension is an important risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, the leading cause of death worldwide. Adverse effects of psychosocial factors at work might increase the risk of masked hypertension, but evidences are still scarce. The objective of this study is then to determine whether adverse psychosocial work factors from the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model are associated with the prevalence of masked hypertension in a population of white-collar workers. White-collar workers were recruited from three public organizations...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Human Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639382/preferred-intervention-strategies-to-improve-dietary-and-physical-activity-behaviors-among-african-american-mothers-and-daughters
#2
Monique Reed, Wrenetha Julion, Diane McNaughton, JoEllen Wilbur
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify cultural- and age-appropriate intervention strategies to improve dietary and physical activity (PA) behaviors in African-American adolescent daughters and their mothers. DESIGN AND SAMPLE: A convergent parallel mixed methods design with interactive quantitative and qualitative measures was used. Twenty-four 9th- and 10th-grade African-American daughters from a large urban high school and their mothers participated...
June 22, 2017: Public Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614710/anterior-cingulate-cortex-modulation-of-the-ventral-tegmental-area-in-an-effort-task
#3
Thomas W Elston, David K Bilkey
Information gained during goal pursuit motivates adaptive behavior. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) supports adaptive behavior, but how ACC signals are translated into motivational signals remains unclear. Rats with implants in the ACC and ventral tegmental area (VTA), a dopaminergic brain area implicated in motivation, were trained to run laps around a rectangular track for a fixed reward, where each lap varied in physical effort (a 30-cm climbable barrier). Partial directed coherence analysis of local field potentials revealed that ACC theta (4-12 Hz) activity increased as rats entered the barrier-containing region of the maze in trials when the barrier was absent and predicted similar changes in VTA theta activity...
June 13, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614441/prevalence-and-factors-associated-with-minor-psychiatric-disorders-in-hospital-housekeeping-workers
#4
Cintia da Silva Marconato, Ana Carolina de Souza Magnago, Tânia Solange Bosi de Souza Magnago, Graziele de Lima Dalmolin, Rafaela Andolhe, Juliana Petri Tavares
OBJECTIVE: Investigating the prevalence and factors associated with minor psychiatric disorders (MPDs) in Hospital housekeeping workers. METHOD: A cross-sectional study carried out in 2013 with workers from the cleaning service of a public university hospital in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Data were collected through a form containing sociodemographic, occupational, habits and health variables. The Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20 was used in order to evaluate MPDs...
June 12, 2017: Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da U S P
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607405/neural-basis-of-self-initiative-in-relation-to-apathy-in-a-student-sample
#5
Claire Kos, Nicky G Klaasen, Jan-Bernard C Marsman, Esther M Opmeer, Henderikus Knegtering, André Aleman, Marie-José van Tol
Human behaviour can be externally driven, e.g. catching a falling glass, or self-initiated and goal-directed, e.g. drinking a cup of coffee when one deems it is time for a break. Apathy refers to a reduction of self-initiated goal-directed or motivated behaviour, frequently present in neurological and psychiatric disorders. The amount of undertaken goal-directed behaviour varies considerably in clinical as well as healthy populations. In the present study, we investigated behavioural and neural correlates of self-initiated action in a student sample (N = 39) with minimal to high levels of apathy...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599820/towards-reinforcing-telemedicine-adoption-amongst-clinicians-in-nigeria
#6
Kayode I Adenuga, Noorminshah A Iahad, Suraya Miskon
Telemedicine systems have been considered as a necessary measure to alleviate the shortfall in skilled medical specialists in developing countries. However, the obvious challenge is whether clinicians are willing to use this technological innovation, which has aided medical practice globally. One factor which has received little academic attention is the provision of suitable encouragement for clinicians to adopt telemedicine, in the form of rewards, motivation or incentives. A further consideration for telemedicine usage in developing countries, especially sub-Saharan Africa and Nigeria in particular, are to the severe shortage of available practising clinicians...
August 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598929/association-of-job-stressors-with-panic-attack-and-panic-disorder-in-a-working-population-in-japan-a-cross-sectional-study
#7
Yumi Asai, Kotaro Imamura, Norito Kawakami
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate associations of job stressors with panic attack (PA) and panic disorder (PD) among Japanese workers. METHODS: A cross-sectional online questionnaire survey was conducted of 2060 workers. Job strain, effort/reward imbalance, and workplace social support were measured by the job content questionnaire and effort/reward imbalance questionnaire. These variables were classified into tertiles. PA/PD were measured by self-report based on the mini international neuropsychiatric interview (MINI)...
June 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595512/effects-of-psychosocial-work-characteristics-on-hair-cortisol-findings-from-a-post-trial-study
#8
Raphael M Herr, Amira Barrech, Harald Gündel, Jessica Lang, Natalia Soares Quinete, Peter Angerer, Jian Li
Prolonged work stress, as indicated by the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model, jeopardizes health. Cortisol represents a candidate mechanism connecting stress to ill health. However, previous findings appear inconclusive, and recommendations were made to assess work stress at multiple time points and also to investigate ERI (sub-)components. This study therefore examines the effects of two single time points, as well as the mean and change scores between time points of ERI and its components on hair cortisol concentration (HCC), a long-term cortisol measurement...
June 8, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593190/nucleus-accumbens-shell-dopamine-preferentially-tracks-information-related-to-outcome-value-of-reward
#9
Deirdre A Sackett, Michael P Saddoris, Regina M Carelli
Effective decision-making requires organisms to predict reward values and bias behavior toward the best available option. The mesolimbic dopamine system, including the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell and core, is involved in this process. Although studies support a role of the shell and core in specific aspects of decision-making (e.g., risk, effort, delay), no studies have directly compared dopamine release dynamics in these subregions to cues exclusively signaling the availability of different reward magnitudes...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587895/a-novel-operant-task-to-assess-social-reward-and-motivation-in-rodents
#10
Johnathan M Borland, Kyle J Frantz, Lauren M Aiani, Kymberly N Grantham, Zhimin Song, H Elliott Albers
BACKGROUND: Social reward plays a critical role in the development of beneficial social relationships, and disorders of the mechanisms controlling social reward are involved in the etiology of many psychiatric diseases. NEW METHOD: We present a novel operant social preference task to quantify social reward in rodents using an apparatus with three chambers separated by one-way vertical-swing doors. The experimental animal is placed in the larger chamber while the two smaller chambers either remain empty or contain a stimulus animal or other potential reward stimulus...
June 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584929/steep-effort-discounting-of-a-preferred-reward-over-a-freely-available-option-in-prolonged-methamphetamine-withdrawal-in-male-rats
#11
Andrew B Thompson, Julian Gerson, Alexandra Stolyarova, Amador Bugarin, Evan E Hart, J David Jentsch, Alicia Izquierdo
RATIONALE: Drug addiction can be described as aberrant allocation of effort toward acquiring drug, despite associated costs. It is unclear if this behavioral pattern results from an overvaluation of reward or to an altered sensitivity to costs. OBJECTIVE: Present experiments assessed reward sensitivity and effortful choice in rats following 1 week of withdrawal from methamphetamine (mAMPH). METHODS: Rats were treated with either saline or an escalating dose mAMPH regimen, then tested after a week without the drug...
June 6, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582947/age-related-associations-between-work-over-commitment-and-zest-for-work-among-swedish-employees-from-a-cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-perspective
#12
Roma Runeson-Broberg, Jean-Baptist du Prel, Peter Westerholm, Maria Nordin, Anders Knutsson, Lars Alfredsson, Göran Fahlén, Richard Peter
BACKGROUND: In aging societies, zest for work may be pivotal when deciding to stay occupationally active longer. Psychosocial work stress is a prevalent public health problem and may have an impact on zest for work. Work over-commitment (WOC) is a personal coping strategy for work stress with excessive striving and a health risk. However, the long-term effect of WOC on zest for work is poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the age-related associations of work over-commitment with zest for work...
June 1, 2017: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570567/and-not-or-quality-quantity-in-scientific-publishing
#13
Matthew J Michalska-Smith, Stefano Allesina
Scientists often perceive a trade-off between quantity and quality in scientific publishing: finite amounts of time and effort can be spent to produce few high-quality papers or subdivided to produce many papers of lower quality. Despite this perception, previous studies have indicated the opposite relationship, in which productivity (publishing more papers) is associated with increased paper quality (usually measured by citation accumulation). We examine this question in a novel way, comparing members of the National Academy of Sciences with themselves across years, and using a much larger dataset than previously analyzed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570388/effort-reward-imbalance-at-work-and-incident-coronary-heart-disease-a-multicohort-study-of-90-164-individuals
#14
Nico Dragano, Johannes Siegrist, Solja T Nyberg, Thorsten Lunau, Eleonor I Fransson, Lars Alfredsson, Jakob B Bjorner, Marianne Borritz, Hermann Burr, Raimund Erbel, Göran Fahlén, Marcel Goldberg, Mark Hamer, Katriina Heikkilä, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, Anders Knutsson, Ida E H Madsen, Martin L Nielsen, Maria Nordin, Tuula Oksanen, Jan H Pejtersen, Jaana Pentti, Reiner Rugulies, Paula Salo, Jürgen Schupp, Archana Singh-Manoux, Andrew Steptoe, Töres Theorell, Jussi Vahtera, Peter J M Westerholm, Hugo Westerlund, Marianna Virtanen, Marie Zins, G David Batty, Mika Kivimäki
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic evidence for work stress as a risk factor for coronary heart disease is mostly based on a single measure of stressful work known as job strain, a combination of high demands and low job control. We examined whether a complementary stress measure that assesses an imbalance between efforts spent at work and rewards received predicted coronary heart disease. METHODS: This multicohort study (the "IPD-Work" consortium) was based on harmonized individual-level data from 11 European prospective cohort studies...
July 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555294/the-longitudinal-relationship-of-work-stress-with-peak-expiratory-flow-a-cohort-study
#15
Adrian Loerbroks, Stefan Karrasch, Thorsten Lunau
PURPOSE: Research has suggested that psychological stress is associated with reduced lung function and with the development of respiratory disease. Among the major potential sources of stress in adulthood are working conditions. We aimed to examine the relationship of work stress with lung function. METHODS: We drew on 4-year prospective data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe. The analyzed sample comprised 2627 workers aged 50 years or older who were anamnestically free of respiratory disease...
May 29, 2017: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555096/role-of-anterior-cingulate-cortex-in-instrumental-learning-blockade-of-dopamine-d1-receptors-suppresses-overt-but-not-covert-learning
#16
Mayada Aly-Mahmoud, Pascal Carlier, Sherine A Salam, Mariam Houari Selmani, Marie Z Moftah, Monique Esclapez, Driss Boussaoud
HIGHLIGHTS Blockade of dopamine D1 receptors in ACC suppressed instrumental learning when overt responding was required.Covert learning through observation was not impaired.After treatment with a dopamine antagonist, instrumental learning recovered but not the rat's pretreatment level of effort tolerance.ACC dopamine is not necessary for acquisition of task-relevant cues during learning, but regulates energy expenditure and effort based decision. Dopamine activity in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is essential for various aspects of instrumental behavior, including learning and effort based decision making...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554369/effects-and-mediators-of-psychosocial-work-characteristics-on-somatic-symptoms-six-years-later-prospective-findings-from-the-mannheim-industrial-cohort-studies-mics
#17
Raphael M Herr, Jian Li, Adrian Loerbroks, Peter Angerer, Johannes Siegrist, Joachim E Fischer
OBJECTIVE: Ample evidence documented the adverse health effects of work stressors, and recent research has increasingly focused on somatic symptoms which are very common and costly. Prospective evidence is however sparse and yielded mixed findings. Furthermore, there is reason to assume that depression and anxiety might mediate the effects of adverse psychosocial work conditions on somatic symptoms. This study aimed to investigate longitudinal effects of work stressors on somatic symptoms and the potential mediation by anxiety and/or depression...
July 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554160/applying-economic-incentives-to-increase-effectiveness-of-an-outpatient-weight-loss-program-trio-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Eric A Finkelstein, Kwang-Wei Tham, Benjamin A Haaland, Aarti Sahasranaman
The prevalence of overweight and obesity has more than doubled in the past three decades, leading to rising rates of non-communicable diseases. This study tests whether adding a payment/rewards (term reward) program to an existing evidence-based weight loss program can increase weight loss and weight loss maintenance. We conducted a parallel-group randomized controlled trial from October 2012 to October 2015 with 161 overweight or obese individuals randomized to either control or reward arm in a 1:2 ratio. Control and reward arm participants received a four month weight loss program at the LIFE (Lifestyle Improvement and Fitness Enhancement) Centre at Singapore General Hospital...
May 15, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553839/a-primer-on-foraging-and-the-explore-exploit-trade-off-for-psychiatry-research
#19
REVIEW
M A Addicott, J M Pearson, M M Sweitzer, D L Barack, M L Platt
Foraging is a fundamental behavior, and many types of animals appear to have solved foraging problems using a shared set of mechanisms. Perhaps the most common foraging problem is the choice between exploiting a familiar option for a known reward and exploring unfamiliar options for unknown rewards-the so-called explore-exploit trade-off. This trade-off has been studied extensively in behavioral ecology and computational neuroscience, but is relatively new to the field of psychiatry. Explore/exploit paradigms can offer psychiatry research a new approach to studying motivation, outcome valuation, and effort-related processes, which are disrupted in many mental and emotional disorders...
May 29, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547127/the-relationship-between-outcome-prediction-and-cognitive-fatigue-a-convergence-of-paradigms
#20
G R Wylie, H M Genova, J DeLuca, E Dobryakova
Cognitive fatigue is common after strenuous cognitive effort. A large body of literature has implicated a network of brain areas in fatigue, including the basal ganglia and cortical areas including ventro-medal prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Furthermore, the ACC has been shown to be involved in processes such as error and conflict monitoring, outcome prediction, and effort processing. Thus, the ACC appears to be one common denominator between clinical work on fatigue and research on outcome prediction and effort...
May 25, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
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