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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430935/sensation-seeking-and-adolescent-alcohol-use-exploring-the-mediating-role-of-unstructured-socializing-with-peers
#1
Sharon Sznitman, Batya Engel-Yeger
Background: Researchers have theorized that adolescents high in sensation seeking are particularly sensitive to positive reinforcement and the rewarding outcomes of alcohol use, and thus that the personality vulnerability is a direct causal risk factor for alcohol use. In contrast, the routine activity perspective theorizes that part of the effect of sensation seeking on alcohol use goes through the propensity that sensation seekers have towards unstructured socializing with peers. The study tests a model with indirect and direct paths from sensation seeking and participation in unstructured peer socialization to adolescent alcohol use...
May 1, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429107/psychosocial-factors-at-work-and-sleep-problems-a-longitudinal-study-of-the-general-working-population-in-norway
#2
Håkon A Johannessen, Tom Sterud
PURPOSE: A growing number of longitudinal studies report associations between adverse psychosocial factors at work and sleep problems. However, the evidence regarding the direction of these associations and the effects of changes in exposure across time is limited. This study examined the plausibility of normal, reverse, and reciprocal associations between ten psychosocial factors at work and sleep problems. In addition, we analyzed if reduced exposure across time had the anticipated result of reducing the risk of sleep problems...
April 20, 2017: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428748/resting-state-neuroimaging-and-neuropsychological-findings-in-opioid-use-disorder-during-abstinence-a-review
#3
REVIEW
Hada Fong-Ha Ieong, Zhen Yuan
Dependence to opiates, including illicit heroin and prescription pain killers, and treatment of the opioid use disorder (OUD) have been longstanding problems over the world. Despite intense efforts to scientific investigation and public health care, treatment outcomes have not significantly improved for the past 50 years. One reason behind the continuing use of heroin worldwide despite such efforts is its highly addictive nature. Brain imaging studies over the past two decades have made significant contribution to the understanding of the addictive properties as to be due in part to biological processes, specifically those in the brain structure and function...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421402/the-effect-of-losses-disguised-as-wins-and-near-misses-in-electronic-gaming-machines-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
K R Barton, Y Yazdani, N Ayer, S Kalvapalle, S Brown, J Stapleton, D G Brown, K A Harrigan
Near misses and losses disguised as wins have been of interest to gambling researchers and policymakers for many years (e.g., Griffiths in J Gambl Stud 9(2):101-120, 1993). This systematic literature review describes the behavioural, psychological, and psychobiological effects of near misses and losses disguised as wins (LDWs) in an effort to evaluate their precise influence on the player and to highlight areas requiring further investigation. A systematic search for relevant studies was conducted using Scopus, PubMed, PsycINFO, ProQuest Sociology databases, and the Gambling Research Exchange Ontario Knowledge Repository...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Gambling Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421175/factors-influencing-usability-of-a-smartphone-app-to-reduce-excessive-alcohol-consumption-think-aloud-and-interview-studies
#5
David Crane, Claire Garnett, Jamie Brown, Robert West, Susan Michie
BACKGROUND: Interventions delivered by smartphone apps have the potential to help drinkers reduce their consumption of alcohol. To optimize engagement and reduce the high rates of attrition associated with the use of digital interventions, it is necessary to ensure that an app's design and functionality is appropriate for its intended purposes and target population. AIMS: To understand the usability of an app to help people reduce their alcohol consumption. METHOD: The app, Drink Less, contains a core module focusing on goal setting, supplemented by five additional modules: self-monitoring and feedback, identity change, cognitive bias re-training, action planning, and social comparison...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410485/impact-of-posttraumatic-stress-symptom-dimensions-on-psychophysiological-reactivity-to-threat-and-reward
#6
Lynne Lieberman, Stephanie M Gorka, Carter J Funkhouser, Stewart A Shankman, K Luan Phan
Posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) are associated with significant distress and impairment. Research has therefore focused on identifying neurobehavioral deficits that contribute to the pathophysiology of PTSS. One issue that has contributed to difficulty in identifying these deficits is the highly heterogeneous nature of PTSS. PTSS is comprised of four, factor analytically distinct dimensions of symptoms - re-experiencing, avoidance, hyperarousal, and negative cognitions and mood. It is therefore unlikely that there is one single mechanism that accounts for all of PTSS and elucidating neurobehavioral deficits associated with specific PTSS symptom dimensions may better inform clinical prevention and intervention efforts...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405786/maternal-responsiveness-as-a-predictor-of-self-regulation-development-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-symptoms-across-preschool-ages
#7
Ursula Pauli-Pott, Susan Schloß, Katja Becker
Preschool-age "hot" executive function capacity (i.e. reward-related effortful control) represents an early kind of self-regulation that is involved in social adjustment development as well as the development of subtypes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Early self-regulation development might be malleable by responsive parenting. We analyzed whether maternal responsiveness/sensitivity predicts reward-related control (RRC) development within the preschool period, and whether RRC mediates a negative link between maternal responsiveness and ADHD symptoms...
April 12, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405351/kea-show-no-evidence-of-inequity-aversion
#8
Megan Heaney, Russell D Gray, Alex H Taylor
It has been suggested that inequity aversion is a mechanism that evolved in humans to maximize the pay-offs from engaging in cooperative tasks and to foster long-term cooperative relationships between unrelated individuals. In support of this, evidence of inequity aversion in nonhuman animals has typically been found in species that, like humans, live in complex social groups and demonstrate cooperative behaviours. We examined inequity aversion in the kea (Nestor notabilis), which lives in social groups but does not appear to demonstrate wild cooperative behaviours, using a classic token exchange paradigm...
March 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403499/psychische-belastungsfaktoren-in-der-arbeitswelt-modelle-und-pr%C3%A3-vention
#9
Florian Junne, Monika Rieger, Martina Michaelis, Christoph Nikendei, Harald Gündel, Stephan Zipfel, Eva Rothermund
Psycho-mental stressors and increased perceived stress in workplace settings may determine the onset and course of stress-related mental and psychosomatic disorders. For the description of psycho-mental stressors three distinct models have widely been used in the analyses of the matter: the Demand-Control-Model by Karasek and Theorell, the Effort-Reward-Imbalance Model by Siegrist, and the Model of Organisational Justice.The interactional or social dimension in work-place settings can be seen as a cross-sectional dimension to the above mentioned models...
April 2017: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400136/reservoir-souring-latest-developments-for-application-and-mitigation
#10
Richard J Johnson, Benjamin D Folwell, Alexander Wirekoh, Max Frenzel, Torben Lund Skovhus
Sulphate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP) have been identified in oil field fluids since the 1920s. SRP reduce sulphate to sulphide, a toxic and corrosive species that impacts on operational safety, metallurgy and both capital and operational cost. Differences in water cut, temperature, pressure and fluid chemistry can impact on the observed H2S concentration, meaning that an increase in H2S concentration does not always correlate with activity of SRP. However it wasn't until the 1990s that SRP activity was accepted as the leading cause of reservoir souring (i...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391111/neural-reactivity-to-reward-and-internalizing-symptom-dimensions
#11
Katie L Burkhouse, Stephanie M Gorka, Kaveh Afshar, K Luan Phan
BACKGROUND: Reduced reward responsiveness, measured via the event-related potential (ERP) component the reward positivity (RewP), has been linked to several internalizing psychopathologies (IPs). Specifically, prior studies suggest that a reduced RewP is robustly related to depression and to a lesser extent anxiety. No studies to date, however, have examined the relation between the RewP and IP symptom dimensions in a heterogeneous, clinically representative patient population that includes both depressed and/or anxious subjects...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389340/genetic-predisposition-to-obesity-affects-behavioural-traits-including-food-reward-and-anxiety-like-behaviour-in-rats
#12
Heike Vogel, Maria Kraemer, Cristina Rabasa, Kaisa Askevik, Roger A H Adan, Suzanne L Dickson
Here we sought to define behavioural traits linked to anxiety, reward, and exploration in different strains of rats commonly used in obesity research. We hypothesized that genetic variance may contribute not only to their metabolic phenotype (that is well documented) but also to the expression of these behavioural traits. Rat strains that differ in their susceptibility to develop an obese phenotype (Sprague-Dawley, Obese Prone, Obese Resistant, and Zucker rats) were exposed to a number of behavioural tests starting at the age of 8 weeks...
April 5, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388511/won-t-stop-or-can-t-stop-food-restriction-as-a-habitual-behavior-among-individuals-with-anorexia-nervosa-or-atypical-anorexia-nervosa
#13
Kathryn A Coniglio, Kendra R Becker, Debra L Franko, Lazaro V Zayas, Franziska Plessow, Kamryn T Eddy, Jennifer J Thomas
Food restriction among individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) is regarded as a goal-directed behavior. However, Walsh (2013) theorized that, although restriction is initially maintained by operant conditioning (with successful weight loss and external praise as salient rewards), it ultimately becomes a classically conditioned habit, persisting regardless of the presence of these once-salient rewards. Understanding food restriction as a well-ingrained habit may provide insight into treatment resistance. Further, it is not clear whether habitual food restriction is present among individuals with atypical AN (i...
March 22, 2017: Eating Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382927/-occupational-exposure-to-psychosocial-factors-and-presence-of-musculoskeletal-disorders-in-nursing-staff-a-review-of-studies-and-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Antonio Ramón Ballester Arias, Ana María García
BACKGROUND: There is scientific evidence that psychosocial factors are significantly associated with discomfort and / or pain musculoskeletal complaints in nursing staff. The objective of the research was to analyze the association between occupational exposure to psychosocial factors at work and musculoskeletal damage in nursing staff. METHODS: Systematic review and meta-analysis of studies published up to 2015 in English, French, Italian, Portuguese or Spanish evaluating the association between musculoskeletal disorders and psychosocial factors in the work of nursing staff...
April 7, 2017: Revista Española de Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381213/assessing-junk-food-consumption-among-australian-children-trends-and-associated-characteristics-from-a-cross-sectional-study
#15
S Boylan, L L Hardy, B A Drayton, A Grunseit, S Mihrshahi
BACKGROUND: The ubiquitous supply of junk foods in our food environment has been partly blamed for the increased rates in overweight and obesity. However, consumption of these foods has generally been examined individually perhaps obscuring the true extent of their combined consumption and impact on health. An overall measure of children's junk food consumption may prove useful in the development of child obesity prevention strategies. We describe the development of a children's Junk Food Intake Measure (JFIM) to summarise temporal change in junk food consumption and examine the association between the JFIM and health-related behaviours...
April 5, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378511/dissociation-of-reward-and-effort-sensitivity-in-methcathinone-induced-parkinsonism
#16
Trevor T-J Chong, Valerie Bonnelle, Kai-Riin Veromann, Julius Juurmaa, Pille Taba, Olivia Plant, Masud Husain
Methcathinone-induced Parkinsonism is a recently described extrapyramidal syndrome characterized by globus pallidus and substantia nigra lesions, which provides a unique model of basal ganglia dysfunction. We assessed motivated behaviour in this condition using a novel cost-benefit decision-making task, in which participants decided whether it was worth investing effort for reward. Patients showed a dissociation between reward and effort sensitivity, such that pallidonigral complex dysfunction caused them to become less sensitive to rewards, while normal sensitivity to effort costs was maintained...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377811/perceptions-of-work-stress-causes-and-effective-interventions-in-employees-working-in-public-private-and-non-governmental-organisations-a-qualitative-study
#17
Kamaldeep Bhui, Sokratis Dinos, Magdalena Galant-Miecznikowska, Bertine de Jongh, Stephen Stansfeld
Aims and method To identify causes of stress at work as well as individual, organisational and personal interventions used by employees to manage stress in public, private and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Qualitative interviews were conducted with 51 employees from a range of organisations. Results Participants reported adverse working conditions and management practices as common causes of work stress. Stress-inducing management practices included unrealistic demands, lack of support, unfair treatment, low decision latitude, lack of appreciation, effort-reward imbalance, conflicting roles, lack of transparency and poor communication...
December 2016: BJPsych Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376520/will-the-fixes-fall-flat-prospects-for-quality-measures-and-payment-incentives-to-control-healthcare-spending
#18
Erik Hauswald, David Sklar
Payment systems in the US healthcare system have rewarded physicians for services and attempted to control healthcare spending, with rewards and penalties based upon projected goals for future spending. The incorporation of quality goals and alternatives to fee-for-service was introduced to replace the previous system of rewards and penalties. We describe the history of the US healthcare payment system, focusing on Medicare and the efforts to control spending through the Sustainable Growth Rate. We describe the latest evolution of the payment system, which emphasizes quality measurement and alternative payment models...
April 2017: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375493/the-continuum-of-neurosurgical-care-increasing-the-neurosurgeon-s-role-and-responsibility
#19
Edie E Zusman, Deborah L Benzil
The Health Care Reform Act has fostered a shift toward capitation and shared risk among providers to improve quality and reduce the escalating costs of healthcare. Like all physicians, neurosurgeons are increasingly being incentivized to participate in efforts to streamline care through the use of surgical pathways to reduce hospital length of stay and prevent readmissions. These changes have expanded the role of the neurosurgeon along the continuum of care for the neurosurgery patient. This paper predicts and advocates for a further broadening of neurosurgery participation from programs that reward physicians for helping to prevent a high-risk patient's need for surgery to management of postacute rehabilitation...
April 1, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373651/fatigue-modulates-dopamine-availability-and-promotes-flexible-choice-reversals-during-decision-making
#20
Pierpaolo Iodice, Claudio Ferrante, Luigi Brunetti, Simona Cabib, Feliciano Protasi, Mark E Walton, Giovanni Pezzulo
During decisions, animals balance goal achievement and effort management. Despite physical exercise and fatigue significantly affecting the levels of effort that an animal exerts to obtain a reward, their role in effort-based choice and the underlying neurochemistry are incompletely known. In particular, it is unclear whether fatigue influences decision (cost-benefit) strategies flexibly or only post-decision action execution and learning. To answer this question, we trained mice on a T-maze task in which they chose between a high-cost, high-reward arm (HR), which included a barrier, and a low-cost, low-reward arm (LR), with no barrier...
April 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
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