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Effort and reward

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926453/quantifying-motivation-with-effort-based-decision-making-paradigms-in-health-and-disease
#1
T T-J Chong, V Bonnelle, M Husain
Motivation can be characterized as a series of cost-benefit valuations, in which we weigh the amount of effort we are willing to expend (the cost of an action) in return for particular rewards (its benefits). Human motivation has traditionally been measured with self-report and questionnaire-based tools, but an inherent limitation of these methods is that they are unable to provide a mechanistic explanation of the processes underlying motivated behavior. A major goal of current research is to quantify motivation objectively with effort-based decision-making paradigms, by drawing on a rich literature from nonhuman animals...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926449/the-role-of-dopamine-in-the-pathophysiology-and-treatment-of-apathy
#2
T T-J Chong, M Husain
Disorders of diminished motivation, such as apathy, are common and prevalent across a wide range of medical conditions, including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's dementia, stroke, depression, and schizophrenia. Such disorders have a significant impact on morbidity and quality of life, yet their management lacks consensus and remains unsatisfactory. Here, we review laboratory and clinical evidence for the use of dopaminergic therapies in the treatment of apathy. Dopamine is a key neurotransmitter that regulates motivated decision making in humans and other species...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926441/a-benefit-cost-framework-of-motivation-for-a-specific-activity
#3
B Studer, S Knecht
How can an individual be motivated to perform a target exercise or activity? This question arises in training, therapeutic, and education settings alike, yet despite-or even because of-the large range of extant motivation theories, finding a clear answer to this question can be challenging. Here we propose an application-friendly framework of motivation for a specific activity or exercise that incorporates core concepts from several well-regarded psychological and economic theories of motivation. The key assumption of this framework is that motivation for performing a given activity is determined by the expected benefits and the expected costs of (performance of) the activity...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926437/involvement-of-opioid-signaling-in-food-preference-and-motivation-studies-in-laboratory-animals
#4
I Morales, L Font, P J Currie, R Pastor
Motivation is a complex neurobiological process that initiates, directs, and maintains goal-oriented behavior. Although distinct components of motivated behavior are difficult to investigate, appetitive and consummatory phases of motivation are experimentally separable. Different neurotransmitter systems, particularly the mesolimbic dopaminergic system, have been associated with food motivation. Over the last two decades, however, research focusing on the role of opioid signaling has been particularly growing in this area...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926435/brain-correlates-of-the-intrinsic-subjective-cost-of-effort-in-sedentary-volunteers
#5
J Bernacer, I Martinez-Valbuena, M Martinez, N Pujol, E Luis, D Ramirez-Castillo, M A Pastor
One key aspect of motivation is the ability of agents to overcome excessive weighting of intrinsic subjective costs. This contribution aims to analyze the subjective cost of effort and assess its neural correlates in sedentary volunteers. We recruited a sample of 57 subjects who underwent a decision-making task using a prospective, moderate, and sustained physical effort as devaluating factor. Effort discounting followed a hyperbolic function, and individual discounting constants correlated with an indicator of sedentary lifestyle (global physical activity questionnaire; R=-0...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918353/removal-and-repositioning-of-intracorneal-ring-segments-improving-corneal-topography-and-clinical-outcomes-in-keratoconus-and-ectasia
#6
Kahei Chan, Peter S Hersh
PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of removal and relocation of intracorneal ring segments for improving outcomes in treatment of keratoconus and corneal ectasia. METHODS: This is a retrospective case series conducted at a cornea and refractive surgery subspecialty practice setting. Patients with previous insertion of 2 intracorneal ring segments underwent surgical removal and repositioning of segments because of unsatisfactory visual and topographic outcomes. The principal outcomes included uncorrected and corrected visual acuities, manifest refraction, topography-derived maximum keratometry (Kmax), inferior-superior topography power difference (I - S), and higher-order aberration profile derived from wavefront analysis...
December 1, 2016: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917145/illegitimate-tasks-as-an-impediment-to-job-satisfaction-and-intrinsic-motivation-moderated-mediation-effects-of-gender-and-effort-reward-imbalance
#7
Rachel Omansky, Erin M Eatough, Marcus J Fila
The current work examines a contemporary workplace stressor that has only recently been introduced into the literature: illegitimate tasks. Illegitimate tasks are work tasks that violate identity role norms about what can reasonably be expected from an employee in a given position. Although illegitimate tasks have been linked to employee well-being in past work, we know little about the potential explanatory mechanisms linking illegitimate tasks to work-relevant negative psychological states. Using a sample of 213 US-based employees of mixed occupations and a cross-sectional design, the present study examines job satisfaction and intrinsic motivation as outcomes of illegitimate tasks...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910188/comparing-rewarding-and-reinforcing-properties-between-bath-salt-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-mdpv-and-cocaine-using-ultrasonic-vocalizations-in-rats
#8
Steven J Simmons, Ryan A Gregg, Fionya H Tran, Lili Mo, Eva von Weltin, David J Barker, Taylor A Gentile, Lucas R Watterson, Scott M Rawls, John W Muschamp
Abuse of synthetic psychostimulants like synthetic cathinones has risen in recent years. 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is one such synthetic cathinone that demonstrates a mechanism of action similar to cocaine. Compared to cocaine, MDPV is more potent at blocking dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake and is readily self-administered by rodents. The present study compared the rewarding and reinforcing properties of MDPV and cocaine using systemic injection dose-response and self-administration models...
December 1, 2016: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903012/-shift-work-among-men-and-women-on-the-threshold-to-higher-working-age-working-conditions-and-health-status
#9
C Leser, A Tisch, S Tophoven
Background: The number of older employees in shift and night work has increased significantly in recent years. Furthermore, the proportion of women in shift and night work has increased markedly. This is due to the aging workforce and the expansion of shift work in the tertiary sector. Previous research shows that shift work is often associated with health risks. Against this background, the aim of the present study is to examine the situation of working men and women on the threshold to higher working age with regard to the relationship between shift work and physical health...
November 2016: Das Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898498/intention-to-drive-after-drinking-among-medical-students-contributions-of-the-protection-motivation-theory
#10
Ricardo Abrantes Amaral, André Malbergier, Danielle Ruiz Lima, Verena Castellani Vitor Santos, Clarice Gorenstein, Arthur Guerra de Andrade
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether cognitive variables proposed by the protection motivation theory (PMT) were predictive of occasional and frequent intention to drive after drinking in medical students. METHODS: One hundred fifty-five students attending preclinical years at a Medical School in São Paulo, Brazil, participated in the study. They were asked about their last month substance use, history of drinking and driving, including driving after binge drinking, and risk perceptions based on a self-report questionnaire with statements about protection motivation, threat, and coping appraisals from the PMT model...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894456/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-effort-reward-imbalance-model-of-workplace-stress-with-indicators-of-immune-function
#11
REVIEW
Pennie Eddy, Rachael Heckenberg, Eleanor H Wertheim, Stephen Kent, Bradley J Wright
OBJECTIVE: Despite considerable research into associations between the effort reward imbalance (ERI) model and various health outcomes over the past 20years, the underlying mechanisms responsible for the association remain unclear. Recently, ERI investigations have examined associations with immune sub-systems (e.g., leukocytes, cytokines and immunoglobulins). Synthesis of the amalgamated research evidence will aid clarity to this field of enquiry. We conducted a meta-analysis and reviewed the associations of ERI and over-commitment (OC) in the workplace with immunity...
December 2016: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893230/ecological-momentary-assessment-of-negative-symptoms-in-schizophrenia-relationships-to-effort-based-decision-making-and-reinforcement-learning
#12
Erin K Moran, Adam J Culbreth, Deanna M Barch
Negative symptoms are a core clinical feature of schizophrenia, but conceptual and methodological problems with current instruments can make their assessment challenging. One hypothesis is that current symptom assessments may be influenced by impairments in memory and may not be fully reflective of actual functioning outside of the laboratory. The present study sought to investigate the validity of assessing negative symptoms using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Participants with schizophrenia (N = 31) completed electronic questionnaires on smartphones 4 times a day for 1 week...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887034/epicurus-and-b-f-skinner-in-search-of-the-good-life
#13
Allen Neuringer, Walter Englert
This paper examines similarities in the works of Epicurus, an ancient Greek philosopher, and B. F. Skinner, a behavioral psychologist. They both were empiricists who argued in favor of the lawfulness of behavior while maintaining that random events were included within those laws. They both devoted much effort to describing how individuals could live effective, rewarding and pleasurable lives. They both emphasized simple and natural pleasures (or reinforcers) and the importance of combining personal pleasures with actions that benefit friends and community...
November 25, 2016: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882999/activation-of-ventral-tegmental-area-5-ht2c-receptors-reduces-incentive-motivation
#14
Lourdes Valencia-Torres, Cristian M Olarte-Sánchez, David J Lyons, Teodora Georgescu, Megan Greenwald-Yarnell, Martin G Myers, Christopher M Bradshaw, Lora K Heisler
Obesity is primarily due to food intake in excess of the body's energetic requirements, intake that is not only associated with hunger but also the incentive value of food. The 5-hydroxytryptamine 2C receptor (5-HT2CR) is a target for the treatment of human obesity. Mechanistically, 5-HT2CRs are positioned to influence both homeostatic feeding circuits within the hypothalamus and reward circuits within the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Here we investigated the role of 5-HT2CRs in incentive motivation using a mathematical model of progressive ratio (PR) responding in mice...
November 24, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878711/a-framework-for-guiding-efforts-to-reward-value-instead-of-volume
#15
Taylor J Christensen
The U.S. healthcare system is in the midst of a major shift from fee-for-service to value-based reimbursement models. To date, these new reimbursement models have been focused on quality-contingent bonuses and cost-of-care risk sharing for providers, both of which have yielded only modest success.An analysis of health policy and business strategy literature was performed to identify the mechanisms of how value is rewarded in other industries and to understand the barriers to those mechanisms operating in the healthcare industry...
June 2016: Int J Health Econ Manag
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869247/effort-reward-imbalance-overcommitment-and-their-associations-with-all-cause-and-mental-disorder-long-term-sick-leave-a-case-control-study-of-the-swedish-working-population
#16
Ulrik Lidwall
OBJECTIVES: To investigate if effort-reward imbalance (ERI) and overcommitment (OC) are associated with all-cause and mental disorder long-term sick leave (LS), and to identify differences in associations between genders, private versus public sector employees and socioeconomic status groups. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study uses a cross-sectional case-control design with a sample of 3477 persons on long-term sick leave of more than 59 days and a control group of 2078 in employment...
November 18, 2016: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863536/how-to-support-staff-deploying-on-overseas-humanitarian-work-a-qualitative-analysis-of-responder-views-about-the-2014-15-west-african-ebola-outbreak
#17
Gideon James Rubin, Sarah Harper, Paolo Diaz Williams, Sanna Öström, Samantha Bredbere, Richard Amlôt, Neil Greenberg
BACKGROUND: Responding to health crises overseas can be both rewarding and distressing for staff involved. OBJECTIVE: We interviewed UK staff involved in the 2014/15 Ebola response to identify experiences that positively or negatively affected them. METHOD: We conducted qualitative telephone interviews with 30 Public Health England (PHE) staff and 21 non-governmental organisation (NGO) staff who had deployed to West Africa. RESULTS: The main motivations for deploying were for moral reasons and personal development...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863286/perceived-community-environmental-influences-on-eating-behaviors-a-photovoice-analysis
#18
Ana Paula Belon, Laura M Nieuwendyk, Helen Vallianatos, Candace I J Nykiforuk
People's perceptions of local food environments influence their abilities to eat healthily. PhotoVoice participants from four communities in Alberta, Canada took pictures of barriers and opportunities for healthy eating and shared their stories in one-on-one semi-structured interviews. Using a socioecological framework, emergent themes were organized by type and size of environment. Findings show that, while availability and access to food outlets influence healthy eating practices, these factors may be eclipsed by other non-physical environmental considerations, such as food regulations and socio-cultural preferences...
December 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852879/examining-the-sources-of-occupational-stress-in-an-emergency-department
#19
S Basu, C Yap, S Mason
BACKGROUND: Previous work has established that health care staff, in particular emergency department (ED) personnel, experience significant occupational stress but the underlying stressors have not been well quantified. Such data inform interventions that can reduce cases of occupational mental illness, burnout, staff turnover and early retirement associated with cumulative stress. AIMS: To develop, implement and evaluate a questionnaire examining the origins of occupational stress in the ED...
November 16, 2016: Occupational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852199/paying-hospitals-for-quality-can-we-buy-better-care
#20
Jane P Hall, Kees C van Gool
Economic theory predicts that changing financial rewards will change behaviour. This is valid in terms of service use; higher costs reduce health care use. It should follow that paying more for quality should improve quality; however, the research evidence thus far is equivocal, particularly in terms of better health outcomes. One reason is that "financial incentives" encompass a range of payment types and sizes of reward. The design of financial incentives should take into account the desired change and the context of existing payment structures, as well as other strategies for improving quality; further, financial incentives should be fair in rewarding effort...
November 21, 2016: Medical Journal of Australia
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