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Adrian N Buttazzoni, Emily S Van Kesteren, Tayyab I Shah, Jason A Gilliland
CONTEXT: As children's lifestyles have become increasingly sedentary, active school travel can be a relatively accessible way to increase their daily physical activity. In recent years, several different models of interventions have been utilized to promote children participating in active school travel. This review documents and analyzes the different active school travel intervention methodologies that have been used in North America (Canada or U.S.) by collecting, organizing, and evaluating data relating to all phases of active school travel interventions...
May 15, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Saeideh Ghahghaei, Karina J Linnell
The spatio-temporal distribution of covert attention has usually been studied under unfamiliar tasks with static viewing. It is important to extend this work to familiar tasks such as reading where sequential eye movements are made. Our previous work with reading showed that covert spatial attention around the gaze location is affected by the fixated word frequency, or the processing load exerted by the word, as early as 40 ms into the fixation. Here, we hypothesised that this early effect of frequency is only possible when the word is previewed and thus pre-processed before being fixated...
May 12, 2018: Vision Research
Kevin S Masters
This manuscript introduces a special section of Annals of Behavioral Medicine consisting of six independent articles examining the development of theoretically based behavior change interventions as well as consideration of the associated mechanisms of behavior change. The specific behaviors that are the focus of the papers are of lesser importance than the more general information that may be applied in many different settings with various behaviors. Each of the six articles is briefly previewed along with introductory and concluding comments...
May 9, 2018: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
Cristina Manferdini, Nicoletta Zini, Elena Gabusi, Francesca Paolella, Elisabetta Lambertini, Letizia Penolazzi, Roberta Piva, Gina Lisignoli
Purpose/Aim of the study. Collagen type XV (ColXV) was identified, in our previews studies, as a novel component of bone extracellular matrix. The present study aims to investigate ColXV localization during mineralization of osteodifferentiated human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). MATERIAL AND METHODS: hMSCs cultured in osteogenic medium have been analyzed at day 14 and 28 for mineral matrix deposition by alizarin red S staining, ultrastructural analysis and ColXV localization by immunogold electron microscopy...
December 2018: Connective Tissue Research
Stuart P Atkinson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 3, 2018: Stem Cells
Zeyad T Sahli, Philip W Smith, Christopher B Umbricht, Martha A Zeiger
The need for distinguishing benign from malignant thyroid nodules has led to the pursuit of differentiating molecular markers. The most common molecular tests in clinical use are Afirma® Gene Expression Classifier (GEC) and Thyroseq® V2. Despite the rapidly developing field of molecular markers, several limitations exist. These challenges include the recent introduction of the histopathological diagnosis "Non-Invasive Follicular Thyroid neoplasm with Papillary-like nuclear features", the correlation of genetic mutations within both benign and malignant pathologic diagnoses, the lack of follow-up of molecular marker negative nodules, and the cost-effectiveness of molecular markers...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Zijian Lu, Mathias Klinghammer, Katja Fiehler
In this study, we investigated the influence of gaze and prior knowledge about the reach target on the use of allocentric information for memory-guided reaching. Participants viewed a breakfast scene with five objects in the background and six objects on the table. Table objects served as potential reach targets. Participants first encoded the scene and, after a short delay, a test scene was presented with one table object missing and one, three, or five table objects horizontally shifted in the same direction...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
Flavio Nobili, Annachiara Cagnin, Maria L Calcagni, Andrea Chincarini, Ugo P Guerra, Silvia Morbelli, Alessandro Padovani, Barbara Paghera, Sabina Pappatà, Lucilla Parnetti, Stelvio Sestini, Orazio Schillaci
In May, 2017 some representatives of the Italian nuclear medicine and neurological communities spontaneously met to discuss the issues emerged during the first two years of routine application of amyloid PET with fluorinated radiopharmaceuticals in the real world. The limitations of a binary classification of scans, the possibility to obtain early images as a surrogate marker of regional cerebral bloos flow, the need for (semi-)quantification and, thus, the opportunity of ranking brain amyloidosis, the correlation with Aβ42 levels in the cerebrospinal fluid, the occurrence and biological meaning of uncertain/boderline scans, the issue of incidental amyloidosis, the technical pittfalls leading to false negative/positive results, the position of the tool in the diagnostic flow- chart in the national reality, are the main topics that have been discussed...
April 24, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Susan R Kahn, David R Morrison, Gisèle Diendéré, Alexandre Piché, Kristian B Filion, Adi J Klil-Drori, James D Douketis, Jessica Emed, André Roussin, Vicky Tagalakis, Martin Morris, William Geerts
BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. While numerous randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have shown that the appropriate use of thromboprophylaxis in hospitalized patients at risk for VTE is safe, effective, and cost-effective, thromboprophylaxis remains underused or inappropriately used. Our previous review suggested that system-wide interventions, such as education, alerts, and multifaceted interventions were more effective at improving the prescribing of thromboprophylaxis than relying on individual providers' behaviors...
April 24, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Nora Kenworthy, Matthew Thomann, Richard Parker
This special symposium critically examines optimistic promises about an imminent 'end of AIDS,' currently circulating in global health discourse and policy. We aim not simply to interrogate the discourse surrounding calls to end AIDS, but to also explore the broader practices, contexts, and policy landscapes that have transformed the global HIV response during the fourth decade of the epidemic and allowed this discourse to gain such political traction. In this introduction we preview the collection's five substantive papers, which delve beneath the 'end of AIDS' rhetoric, bringing greater realism as well as resolve together with empirical evidence about the state of efforts to end AIDS in diverse locations and populations...
April 20, 2018: Global Public Health
Adrian Staub, Kirk Goddard
A word's predictability, as measured by its cloze probability, has a robust influence on the time a reader's eyes spend on the word, with more predictable words receiving shorter fixations. However, several previous studies using the boundary paradigm have found no apparent effect of predictability on early reading time measures when the reader does not have valid parafoveal preview of the target word. The present study directly assesses this pattern in two experiments, demonstrating evidence for a null effect of predictability on first fixation and gaze duration with invalid preview, supported by Bayes factor analyses...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Thiago Carrazoni, Christine Nguyen, Lucas F Maciel, Andres Delgado-Cañedo, Bryan A Stewart, Angela B Lange, Chariston A Dal Belo, Celia R Carlini, Ian Orchard
BACKGROUND: Plants have developed a vast range of mechanisms to compete with phytophagous insects, including entomotoxic proteins such as ureases. The legume Canavalia ensiformis produces several urease isoforms, of which the more abundant is called Jack Bean Urease (JBU). Previews work has demonstrated the potential insecticidal effects of JBU, by mechanisms so far not entirely elucidated. In this work, we investigated the mechanisms involved in the JBU-induced activity upon neurotransmitter release on insect neuromuscular junctions...
April 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Yi Ting Huang
Skilled reading requires coordinating real-time visual fixations, orthographic analyses, and phonological encoding across multiple words in sentences. These procedures are well studied in experienced readers, but less is known about their status during development. To investigate how visual properties influence the origins of coordinated processing, the current study combined rapid automatized naming (RAN) with an eye-tracking paradigm and compared the timing of fixations and vocalizations in typically developing adults and 6-year-old children...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Vidya V Pai, Suzan L Carmichael, Peiyi Kan, Stephanie A Leonard, Henry C Lee
BACKGROUND: Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and pre-pregnancy obesity and underweight have been linked to inflammatory states. We hypothesize that IVH in preterm infants is associated with pre-pregnancy obesity and underweight due to an inflammatory intrauterine environment. METHODS: Population-based study of infants born between 22 and 32 weeks' gestation from 2007 to 2011. Data were extracted from vital statistics and the California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative...
April 6, 2018: Pediatric Research
Rebecca L Johnson, Elizabeth C Oehrlein, William L Roche
The current study utilized the gaze-contingent boundary paradigm (Rayner, 1975) to examine the effects of predictability and parafoveal preview on reading behavior of developing readers. Participants ranging in age from 6- to 12-years-old read target words placed in a predictable or neutral context. Target words were manipulated to give either a valid identity preview, a visually similar preview that provided partial letter identity information, or a visually dissimilar preview where all of the letters were substituted...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
Yu-Ning Huang, Xing-Chun Peng, Shuoxin Ma, Hong Yu, Yu-Biao Jin, Jun Zheng, Guo-Hui Fu
BACKGROUND: The smartphone-based whole slide imaging (WSI) system represents a low-cost and effective alternative to automatic scanners for telepathology. In a previous study, the development of one such solution, named scalable whole slide imaging (sWSI), was presented and analyzed. A clinical evaluation of its iOS version with 100 frozen section samples verified the diagnosis-readiness of the produced virtual slides. OBJECTIVE: The first aim of this study was to delve into the quantifying issues encountered in the development of an Android version...
April 4, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Ahmad Ainurofiq, Rachmat Mauludin, Diky Mudhakir, Sundani Nurono Soewandhi
This study describes the formation of multicomponent crystal (MCC) of desloratadine (DES). The objective of this study was to discover the new pharmaceutical MCC of DES using several coformers. The MCC synthesis was performed between DES and 26 coformers using an equimolar ratio with a solvent evaporation technique. The selection of the appropriate solvent was carried out using 12 solvents. The preview of the MCC of DES was performed using polarized light microscopy (PLM). The formation of MCC was confirmed using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
April 2018: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences
Stuart P Atkinson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 31, 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Rebecca A Muhle, Hannah E Reed, Katharine A Stratigos, Jeremy Veenstra-VanderWeele
Importance: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly prevalent disorder, and community psychiatrists are likely to treat many individuals with ASD during their clinical practice. This clinical case challenge describes a routine evaluation of irritability and self-injury in a preschool-aged child who meets the criteria for ASD. The case also illustrates the importance of known risk factors for ASD, such as chromosomal deletion and prematurity. This clinical neuroscience article seeks to educate the clinician of current avenues of research that can inform and may already affect clinical practice for this patient, while providing a preview of research that may yield biological treatments for ASD within the next decade...
March 28, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Christopher A Turski, Gabrielle Turski, Bingming Chen, Hauhui Wang, Moones Heidari, Lingjun Li, Kevin Noguchi, Cara Westmark, Ian Duncan, Chrysanthy Ikonomidou
BACKGROUND: Pelizaeus Merzbacher disease (PMD) is a dysmyelinating disorder of the central nervous system caused by impaired differentiation of oligodendrocytes. This study was prompted by findings that anti-muscarinic compounds enhance oligodendrocyte differentiation and remyelination in vitro. One of these compounds, clemastine fumarate, is licensed for treatment of allergic conditions. We tested whether clemastine fumarate can promote myelination in two rodent PMD-models, the myelin deficient and the PLP transgenic rat...
March 27, 2018: Pediatric Research
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