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Stem cell use in eye surgery

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233750/fibrin-hydrogels-as-a-xenofree-and-rapidly-degradable-support-for-transplantation-of-retinal-pigment-epithelium-monolayers
#1
Jarel K Gandhi, Zahid Manzar, Lori A Bachman, Cynthia Andrews-Pfannkoch, Travis Knudsen, Matthew Hill, Hannah Schmidt, Raymond Iezzi, Jose S Pulido, Alan D Marmorstein
Recent phase 1 trials of embryonic stem cell and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSCs) derived RPE transplants for the treatment of macular degeneration have demonstrated the relative safety of this process. However, there is concern over clumping, thickening, folding, and wrinkling of the transplanted RPE. To deliver a flat RPE monolayer, current phase 1 trials are testing synthetic substrates for RPE transplantation. These substrates, however, cause localized inflammation and fibrosis in animal models due to long degradation times...
February 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210839/cataract-surgery-in-ocular-surface-diseases-clinical-challenges-and-outcomes
#2
REVIEW
Virender S Sangwan, Swati Gupta, Shilpa Das
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cataracts are a significant cause of blindness and visual impairment worldwide. With the recent advances in cataract surgery techniques, outcomes have improved significantly in uncomplicated cases. This article discusses the challenges and outcomes of cataract surgery in complex cases targeting eyes with ocular surface diseases like Stevens-Johnson syndrome, ocular cicatricial pemphigoid, Mooren's ulcer, vernal keratoconjunctivitis and limbal stem cell deficiency. RECENT FINDINGS: Ocular surface diseases are commonly associated with corneal scarring and vascularization, conjunctival inflammation, symblepharon and forniceal shortening...
January 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130158/crispr-in-the-retina-evaluation-of-future-potential
#3
Galaxy Y Cho, Sally Justus, Jesse D Sengillo, Stephen H Tsang
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) has been gaining widespread attention for its ability for targeted genome surgery. In treating inherited retinal degenerations, gene therapies have had varied results; the ones effective in restoring eye sight are limited by transiency in its effect. Genome surgery, however, is a solution that could potentially provide the eye with permanent healthy cells. As retinal degenerations are irreversible and the retina has little regenerative potential, permanent healthy cells are vital for vision...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061512/injectable-hydrogels-for-ophthalmic-applications
#4
REVIEW
Kai Wang, Zongchao Han
The demand for effective eye therapies is driving the development of injectable hydrogels as new medical devices for controlled delivery and filling purposes. This article introduces the properties of injectable hydrogels and summarizes their versatile application in the treatment of ophthalmic diseases, including age-related macular degeneration, cataracts, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and intraocular cancers. A number of injectable hydrogels are approved by FDA as surgery sealants, tissue adhesives, and are now being investigated as a vitreous humor substitute...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049728/surgically-induced-focal-retinal-detachment-does-not-cause-detectable-sd-oct-retinal-changes-in-normal-human-retina
#5
MULTICENTER STUDY
Kaitlin Kogachi, Jeremy D Wolfe, Amir H Kashani
Purpose: Induction of focal retinal detachment (RD) for subretinal delivery of stem cells and gene therapy is increasingly common. In order to determine if this procedure has an adverse impact on the retina, we use spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) to evaluate the pre- and postoperative retinal anatomy of the incidentally detached normal retina surrounding large submacular hemorrhages (SMH) during surgical displacement procedures. Methods: Retrospective, observational study of human subjects with monocular SMH evaluated before and after surgical displacement using clinical exam, fundus photography, and SD-OCT...
October 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018761/using-stem-cell-biology-to-study-and-treat-ophthalmologic-and-oculoplastic-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Albert Y Wu, Michael G Daniel
With the rapid growth of the stem cell biology field, the prospect of regenerative medicine across multiple tissue types comes closer to reality. Several groundbreaking steps paved the way for applying stem cell biology to the several subfields within ophthalmology and oculoplastic surgery. These steps include the use of stem cell transplants as well as studies of various ophthalmologic pathologies at the molecular level. The necessity of stem cell transplant is readily apparent, having already been used for several studies such as artificial lacrimal gland design and eyelid reconstruction...
April 2017: Taiwan Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731936/case-series-keratolimbal-allograft-as-a-patch-graft-for-glaucoma-drainage-devices
#7
Sarah F Ahmed, Mason Schmutz, Sameh Mosaed
PURPOSE: Tube exposure remains one of the most common complications after glaucoma drainage device (GDD) implantation, despite various types of patch grafts available today. We present a 4 patient case series following the effectivity of the keratolimbal allograft (KLAL) as a patch graft for cases of tube exposure. Given its inherent population of stem cells, our hypothesis was that this highly replicative, biological tissue would provide an adequate means of glaucoma tube coverage. The subset of patients chosen for the KLAL patch graft all had a history of abnormally scarred conjunctiva or thin sclera...
September 2017: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715851/paradigm-shifts-peregrinations-and-pixies-in-ophthalmology
#8
REVIEW
A O Minas Coroneo
Defending vision, our highest bandwidth sense, challenges human ingenuity. Replacing or repairing highly specialized but scarce tissue within constraints of transparency, tissue shape and alignment, tissue borders and pressure maintenance, presents special challenges. Many, mostly destructive surgical procedures, were developed prior to an understanding of underlying pathophysiology. For a number of conditions, both reconstructive and destructive procedures co-exist yet there are few guidelines as to the better approach...
July 17, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586929/-keratoprosthesis-with-biological-haptic-the-d%C3%A3-sseldorf-offenburg-experience-with-osteo-odonto-and-tibia-keratoprosthesis
#9
Gerd Geerling, Konrad Hille
In severe ocular surface disease with limbal stem cell deficiency associated with severe dry eye, penetrating keratoplasty is likely to fail. In these cases, and provided the posterior segment is normal, keratoprosthesis surgery (KPro) can achieve visual rehabilitation. In KPros with an autologous biological haptic, a bone-tooth-complex (osteo-odonto-keratoprothesis, OOKPro) or a piece of tibial cortex (tibia-keratoprosthesis, TKPro) is used to carry a PMMA cylinder. This construct can successfully be implanted even in severely dry eyes and in those with autoimmune disease, in which other KPro designs frequently fail...
June 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337874/the-biomedical-aspects-of-oral-mucosal-epithelial-cell-culture-in-mammals
#10
REVIEW
A Bryja, M Dyszkiewicz-Konwińska, J Budna, W Kranc, A Chachuła, S Borys, S Ciesiółka, J Sokalski, M Prylinski, D Bukowska, P Antosik, M Bruska, M Nowicki, M Zabel, B Kempisty
In recent years, there has been a growing interest in epithelial cell tissue culture, particularly oral mucosa and its application utilizing in vitro cell culture in medicine. This involves tests using animal models to better understand oral mucosa function, and the differences in its construction in various animal models. The use of buccal pouch mucosal cell culture provides insight into the processes of trans mucosal transport and regeneration of the oral epithelium. The processes associated with epithelium regeneration is the base for stem cell research and/or oral cancer investigation...
January 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141764/crispr-applications-in-ophthalmologic-genome-surgery
#11
REVIEW
Thiago Cabral, James E DiCarlo, Sally Justus, Jesse D Sengillo, Yu Xu, Stephen H Tsang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review seeks to summarize and discuss the application of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated systems (Cas) for genome editing, also called genome surgery, in the field of ophthalmology. RECENT FINDINGS: Precision medicine is an emerging approach for disease treatment and prevention that takes into account the variability of an individual's genetic sequence. Various groups have used CRISPR-Cas genome editing to make significant progress in mammalian preclinical models of eye disease, the basic science of eye development in zebrafish, the in vivo modification of ocular tissue, and the correction of stem cells with therapeutic applications...
May 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881591/vernal-keratoconjunctivitis-culmination-of-management-using-immunosuppression-surgical-and-prosthetic-therapy-over-quarter-century
#12
Shilpa Das, Anand S Pasari, Virender S Sangwan
A 22-year-old male patient presented in 1988 with active vernal keratoconjunctivitis. He was treated with topical mast cell stabilisers and corticosteroids. Chronic inflammation despite topical treatment necessitated oral immunosuppressants. Active disease came under control with this; however, the patient gradually developed limbal stem cell deficiency. He underwent bilateral pannus resection with amniotic membrane transplantation that resulted in improved ocular surface. In 2007, patient was found to have significant bilateral posterior subcapsular cataracts and underwent bilateral cataract surgery with intraocular lens implantation with good visual outcome...
November 23, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800245/chemotherapy-in-retinoblastoma-current-approaches
#13
REVIEW
Özge Yanık, Kaan Gündüz, Kıvılcım Yavuz, Nurdan Taçyıldız, Emel Ünal
Retinoblastoma (RB) is the most common childhood malignant intraocular tumor. Although enucleation and external beam radiotherapy have been historically used, today the most commonly used eye-sparing approach is chemotherapy. Chemotherapy can be used in both intraocular and extraocular RB cases. Chemotherapeutic agents may be applied in different ways, including systemic, subconjunctival, intra-arterial and intravitreal routes. The main purposes of application of systemic therapy are to reduce the tumor size for local treatment (chemoreduction), or to reduce the risk of metastasis after enucleation surgery (adjuvant therapy)...
December 2015: Turkish Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504323/simple-limbal-epithelial-transplantation-in-acid-injury-and-severe-dry-eye
#14
Sudesh Kumar Arya, Anubha Bhatti, Amit Raj, Ravi Kant Bamotra
The epithelial cells of cornea constantly undergo renewal and regeneration and the stem cells responsible for renewal resides within basal epithelium at the limbus in palisades of Vogt. Simple limbal epithelial transplantation (SLET) is a simplified technique for limbal stem cell deficiency and it combines the benefits of both conjunctival limbal autografting and cultivated limbal epithelial transplantation by being single-stage and utilizing minimal donor tissue. We will be discussing two cases of ocular surface disorder which were managed successfully by new technique simple limbal epithelial transplantation...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27335025/subretinal-implantation-of-a-monolayer-of-human-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-retinal-pigment-epithelium-a-feasibility-and-safety-study-in-yucat%C3%A3-n-minipigs
#15
Michael J Koss, Paulo Falabella, Francisco R Stefanini, Marcel Pfister, Biju B Thomas, Amir H Kashani, Rodrigo Brant, Danhong Zhu, Dennis O Clegg, David R Hinton, Mark S Humayun
PURPOSE: A subretinal implant termed CPCB-RPE1 is currently being developed to surgically replace dystrophic RPE in patients with dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and severe vision loss. CPCB-RPE1 is composed of a terminally differentiated, polarized human embryonic stem cell-derived RPE (hESC-RPE) monolayer pre-grown on a biocompatible, mesh-supported submicron parylene C membrane. The objective of the present delivery study was to assess the feasibility and 1-month safety of CPCB-RPE1 implantation in Yucatán minipigs, whose eyes are similar to human eyes in size and gross retinal anatomy...
August 2016: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27233037/survival-and-functionality-of-hesc-derived-retinal-pigment-epithelium-cells-cultured-as-a-monolayer-on-polymer-substrates-transplanted-in-rcs-rats
#16
Biju B Thomas, Danhong Zhu, Li Zhang, Padmaja B Thomas, Yuntao Hu, Hossein Nazari, Francisco Stefanini, Paulo Falabella, Dennis O Clegg, David R Hinton, Mark S Humayun
PURPOSE: To determine the safety, survival, and functionality of human embryonic stem cell-derived RPE (hESC-RPE) cells seeded on a polymeric substrate (rCPCB-RPE1 implant) and implanted into the subretinal (SR) space of Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats. METHODS: Monolayers of hESC-RPE cells cultured on parylene membrane were transplanted into the SR space of 4-week-old RCS rats. Group 1 (n = 46) received vitronectin-coated parylene membrane without cells (rMSPM+VN), group 2 (n = 59) received rCPCB-RPE1 implants, and group 3 (n = 13) served as the control group...
May 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27224077/assessment-of-surgical-outcomes-of-limbal-transplantation-using-simple-limbal-epithelial-transplantation-technique-in-patients-with-total-unilateral-limbal-deficiency
#17
Ana Gabriela Queiroz, Martina Maria Oiticica Barbosa, Myrna Serapião Santos, Telma Pereira Barreiro, José Álvaro Pereira Gomes
This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the novel simple limbal epithelial transplantation (SLET) technique, which reduces the risk of iatrogenic limbal stem cell deficiency in the donor eye. Four patients with total unilateral limbal stem cell deficiency received a limbal graft, measuring 4 mm × 2 mm, from the contralateral healthy eye in a single surgical procedure. The graft was divided into 10-20 pieces and distributed on the corneal surface. At 6-month follow-up, a completely avascular corneal epithelial surface was obtained in two patients, and there was improvement in visual acuity in one patient...
April 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27206262/applications-of-stem-cell-biology-to-oculoplastic-surgery
#18
REVIEW
Michael G Daniel, Albert Y Wu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review examines the utility of stem cell biology in ophthalmology and oculoplastic surgery. RECENT FINDINGS: The applicability of stem cell biology varies across a range of different subfields within ophthalmology and oculoplastic surgery. Resident stem cells have been identified in the lacrimal gland, corneal limbus, orbital fat, and muscles of the eye, and can potentially be applied for in-vitro cell and organ cultures with the intent of disease modeling and transplants...
September 2016: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27164758/-retinal-cell-therapy-using-ips-cells
#19
Masayo Takahashi
Progress in basic research, starting with the work on neural stem cells in the middle 1990's to embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells at present, will lead the cell therapy (regenerative medicine) of various organs, including the central nervous system to a big medical field in the future. The author's group transplanted iPS cell-derived retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell sheets to the eye of a patient with exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in 2014 as a clinical research...
March 2016: Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27065374/an-innovative-surgical-technique-for-subretinal-transplantation-of-human-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-retinal-pigmented-epithelium-in-yucatan-mini-pigs-preliminary-results
#20
Rodrigo A Brant Fernandes, Michael Janusz Koss, Paulo Falabella, Francisco Rosa Stefanini, Mauricio Maia, Bruno Diniz, Ramiro Ribeiro, Yuntao Hu, David Hinton, Dennis O Clegg, Gerald Chader, Mark S Humayun
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To develop a safe and efficient surgical procedure for subretinal implantation into porcine eyes of a human embryonic stem cell-derived retinal pigmented epithelium (hESC-RPE) monolayer seeded onto a Parylene-C scaffold. This implant is referred to as CPCB-RPE1. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ultrathin Parylene-C scaffolds were seeded with hESC-RPE and surgically implanted into the subretinal space of Yucatan mini pigs (n = 8). The surgery consisted of pars plana vitrectomy, induction of a limited retinal detachment, and peripheral retinotomy for insertion of the monolayer using a novel tissue injector, followed by silicone oil tamponade injection, laser photocoagulation around the retinotomy site, and inferior iridectomy...
April 1, 2016: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
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