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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353050/helicobacter-pylori-infection-an-update-for-the-internist-in-the-age-of-increasing-global-antibiotic-resistance
#1
REVIEW
Osama Siddique, Anais Ovalle, Ayesha S Siddique, Steven F Moss
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infects approximately half the world's population and is especially prevalent in the developing world. H. pylori is as an important cause of global ill health due to its known etiological role in peptic ulcer disease, dyspepsia, gastric cancer, lymphoma and, more recently recognised in iron deficiency anemia and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Increased antibiotic usage worldwide has led to antibiotic resistance among many bacteria, including H. pylori, resulting in falling success rates of first-line anti-H...
January 15, 2018: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351769/protocol-to-disseminate-a-hospital-site-controlled-intervention-using-audit-and-feedback-to-implement-guidelines-concerning-inappropriate-treatment-of-asymptomatic-bacteriuria
#2
Barbara W Trautner, Pooja Prasad, Larissa Grigoryan, Sylvia J Hysong, Jennifer R Kramer, Suja Rajan, Nancy J Petersen, Tracey Rosen, Dimitri M Drekonja, Christopher Graber, Payal Patel, Paola Lichtenberger, Timothy P Gauthier, Steve Wiseman, Makoto Jones, Anne Sales, Sarah Krein, Aanand Dinkar Naik
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial stewardship to combat the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has become a national priority. This project focuses on reducing inappropriate use of antimicrobials for asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB), a very common condition that leads to antimicrobial overuse in acute and long-term care. We previously conducted a successful intervention, entitled "Kicking Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infection (CAUTI): the No Knee-Jerk Antibiotics Campaign," to decrease guideline-discordant ordering of urine cultures and antibiotics for ASB...
January 19, 2018: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351622/antimicrobial-peptide-resistance-mechanism-contributes-to-staphylococcus-aureus-infection
#3
Gordon Y C Cheung, Emilie L Fisher, Joshua W McCausland, Justin Choi, John W M Collins, Seth W Dickey, Michael Otto
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) constitute an important part of innate host defense. Possibly limiting the therapeutic potential of AMPs is the fact that bacteria have developed AMP resistance mechanisms during their co-evolution with humans. However, there is no direct evidence that AMP resistance per se is important during an infection. Here we show that the Staphylococcus aureus Pmt ABC transporter defends the bacteria from killing by important human AMPs and elimination by human neutrophils. By showing that Pmt contributes to virulence during skin infection in an AMP-dependent manner, we provide evidence that AMP resistance plays a key role in bacterial infection...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350201/moth-eye-mimetic-cytocompatible-bactericidal-nanotopography-a-convergent-design
#4
Felipe Viela, Iván Navarro-Baena, Jaime J Hernández, Manuel R Osorio, Isabel Rodriguez
The rapid emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria has prompted the need for radically different approaches to combat bacterial infections. Among these, bioinspired surface topographies have emerged as an effective sustainable strategy to deter bacterial infection. This study demonstrates the bactericidal activity and cytocompatibility of the moth eye mimetic topography produced by thermal polymer nanoimprinting. The moth eye topography was found to have bactericidal capabilities against Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria...
January 19, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350155/yersinia-pestis-survival-and-replication-in-potential-ameba-reservoir
#5
David W Markman, Michael F Antolin, Richard A Bowen, William H Wheat, Michael Woods, Mercedes Gonzalez-Juarrero, Mary Jackson
Plague ecology is characterized by sporadic epizootics, then periods of dormancy. Building evidence suggests environmentally ubiquitous amebae act as feral macrophages and hosts to many intracellular pathogens. We conducted environmental genetic surveys and laboratory co-culture infection experiments to assess whether plague bacteria were resistant to digestion by 5 environmental ameba species. First, we demonstrated that Yersinia pestis is resistant or transiently resistant to various ameba species. Second, we showed that Y...
February 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350131/antimicrobial-resistance-in-stenotrophomonas-spp
#6
Yang Wang, Tao He, Zhangqi Shen, Congming Wu
Bacteria of the genus Stenotrophomonas are found throughout the environment, in close association with soil, sewage, and plants. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, the first member of this genus, is the predominant species, observed in soil, water, plants, animals, and humans. It is also an opportunistic pathogen associated with the increased number of infections in both humans and animals in recent years. In this article, we summarize all Stenotrophomonas species (mainly S. maltophilia) isolated from animals and food products of animal origin and further distinguish all isolates based on antimicrobial susceptibility and resistance phenotypes...
January 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349932/isolation-and-characterization-of-lectin-with-antibacterial-antibiofilm-and-antiproliferative-activities-from-acinetobacter-baumannii-of-environmental-origin
#7
Abdullah A Alyousef, Abdulaziz Alqasim, Mustafa Sawsan Aloahd
AIMS: Lectin is a non-immunogenic glycoprotein, have been extracted majority from the plant source primarily leguminoasea. Its ability to precisely recognize and bind to the complex cell bound structure to enable it playing diverse roles. In this study, we obligate to define new sources of lectins since the production of lectins is very expensive. Therefore, we performed a study with the goal to isolate and characterize lectin from bacteria of plant origin and screen its ability as an antibacterial, antibiofilm and antiproliferative agent...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348804/lysine-analogue-of-polymyxin-b-as-a-significant-opportunity-for-photodynamic-antimicrobial-chemotherapy
#8
Florent Le Guern, Tan-Sothea Ouk, Catherine Ouk, Regis Vanderesse, Yves Champavier, Emilie Pinault, Vincent Sol
In order to highlight the potential of photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy in case of infections by antibiotic resistant-strains, a new antimicrobial peptide conjugate has been synthesized, consisting of a derivative of polymyxin B and a cationic porphyrin covalently attached together to a spacer. A polymyxin-derived moiety was subjected to a primary structural modification in the replacement of four diaminobutyrate residues with lysine ones. This modification was done in order to strongly reduce bactericidal activity, with the aim to eliminate the potential rise of polymyxin-resistant strains...
January 11, 2018: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348522/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-antimicrobial-activity-of-ts2037-a-novel-aminoglycoside-antibiotic
#9
Yoko Hirai, Kazunori Maebashi, Hideki Fushimi, Yukiko Hiraiwa, Shoichi Murakami, Takayuki Usui, Yoshihisa Akiyama, Nobuto Minowa, Daishiro Ikeda
To overcome serious methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections, we synthesized TS2037, 5,4″-diepi-arbekacin, a novel aminoglycoside antibiotic, and evaluated its biological properties. TS2037 showed broad-range, as well as robust antibacterial activities against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The MIC50 and MIC90 of TS2037 against clinical isolates of MRSA (n = 54) were both 0.25 µg/mL, and no resistant strain was observed. The MIC50 and MIC90 of TS2037 against clinical isolates of P...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348452/combination-therapy-strategy-of-quorum-quenching-enzyme-and-quorum-sensing-inhibitor-in-suppressing-multiple-quorum-sensing-pathways-of-p-aeruginosa
#10
July Fong, Chaodong Zhang, Renliang Yang, Zhao Zhi Boo, Soon Keat Tan, Thomas E Nielsen, Michael Givskov, Xue-Wei Liu, Wu Bin, Haibin Su, Liang Yang
The threat of antibiotic resistant bacteria has called for alternative antimicrobial strategies that would mitigate the increase of classical resistance mechanism. Many bacteria employ quorum sensing (QS) to govern the production of virulence factors and formation of drug-resistant biofilms. Targeting the mechanism of QS has proven to be a functional alternative to conventional antibiotic control of infections. However, the presence of multiple QS systems in individual bacterial species poses a challenge to this approach...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348433/speciation-of-common-gram-negative-pathogens-using-a-highly-multiplexed-high-resolution-melt-curve-assay
#11
Thomas Edwards, Shugo Sasaki, Christopher Williams, Glyn Hobbs, Nicholas A Feasey, Katie Evans, Emily R Adams
The identification of the bacterial species responsible for an infection remains an important step for the selection of antimicrobial therapy. Gram-negative bacteria are an important source of hospital and community acquired infections and frequently antimicrobial resistant. Speciation of bacteria is typically carried out by biochemical profiling of organisms isolated from clinical specimens, which is time consuming and delays the initiation of tailored treatment. Whilst molecular methods such as PCR have been used, they often struggle with the challenge of detecting and discriminating a wide range of targets...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346119/the-role-of-tedizolid-in-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections
#12
Emilio Bouza, Patricia Muñoz, Almudena Burillo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tedizolid is a second-generation oxazolidinone with activity against Gram-positive bacteria, including MRSA isolates resistant to linezolid. Pivotal clinical trials showed that tedizolid at 200 mg once-daily for 6 days is not inferior to linezolid 600 mg twice daily for 10 days in patients with SSTI. The comparison of adverse events is favorable to tedizolid under the circumstances of the clinical trials. This is a review of recent literature on tedizolid, its use in special populations and potential adverse effects...
January 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345354/lack-of-functional-selectin-ligand-interactions-enhances-innate-immune-resistance-to-systemic-listeria-monocytogenes-infection
#13
Gerard Agbayani, Komal Gurnani, Ahmed Zafer, Subash Sad, Lakshmi Krishnan
Selectin-ligand interactions are important for leukocyte homing and functionality. The roles of selectin-ligand interactions in modulating immunity to intracellular infections are not completely understood. Mice lacking the expression of fucosyltransferase-IV and -VII (Fucosyltransferase-IV and -VII double knockout, FtDKO) exhibit deficient functionality of selectin-ligand interactions. We addressed the kinetics of infection and immunity to Listeria monocytogenes (LM), an intracellular pathogen, in FtDKO mice...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345345/autophagy-inhibition-promotes-phagocytosis-of-macrophage-and-protects-mice-from-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-pneumonia
#14
Yulin Zhu, Huichun Li, Shenggang Ding, Yating Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of autophagy in macrophages and the protection of mouse models against MRSA invasion, which provide new potential therapeutic direction for lung infection. METHODS: The effect of ST239 in macrophages were analyzed by western blot and immunofluorescence to observe the influence of autophagy inhibitor 3-MA in macrophages. Then we established MRSA mice model and the models were divided into different groups of drugs. As well as analyzed the effect of autophagy in macrophage with MRSA and the changes of lung pathological in the mouse model by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343832/infection-dynamics-of-insecticide-degrading-symbionts-from-soil-to-insects-in-response-to-insecticide-spraying
#15
Hideomi Itoh, Tomoyuki Hori, Yuya Sato, Atsushi Nagayama, Kanako Tago, Masahito Hayatsu, Yoshitomo Kikuchi
Insecticide resistance is a serious concern in modern agriculture, and an understanding of the underlying evolutionary processes is pivotal to prevent the problem. The bean bug Riptortus pedestris, a notorious pest of leguminous crops, acquires a specific Burkholderia symbiont from the environment every generation, and harbors the symbiont in the midgut crypts. The symbiont's natural role is to promote insect development but the insect host can also obtain resistance against the insecticide fenitrothion (MEP) by acquiring MEP-degrading Burkholderia from the environment...
January 17, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343413/exposure-to-and-colonisation-by-antibiotic-resistant-e-coli-in-uk-coastal-water-users-environmental-surveillance-exposure-assessment-and-epidemiological-study-beach-bum-survey
#16
Anne F C Leonard, Lihong Zhang, Andrew J Balfour, Ruth Garside, Peter M Hawkey, Aimee K Murray, Obioha C Ukoumunne, William H Gaze
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) present a global public health problem. With numbers of community-acquired resistant infections increasing, understanding the mechanisms by which people are exposed to and colonised by ARB can help inform effective strategies to prevent their spread. The role natural environments play in this is poorly understood. This is the first study to combine surveillance of ARB in bathing waters, human exposure estimates and association between exposure and colonisation by ARB in water users...
December 7, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342931/transcriptome-analysis-based-on-rna-seq-in-understanding-pathogenic-mechanisms-of-diseases-and-the-immune-system-of-fish-a-comprehensive-review
#17
REVIEW
Arun Sudhagar, Gokhlesh Kumar, Mansour El-Matbouli
In recent years, with the advent of next-generation sequencing along with the development of various bioinformatics tools, RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq)-based transcriptome analysis has become much more affordable in the field of biological research. This technique has even opened up avenues to explore the transcriptome of non-model organisms for which a reference genome is not available. This has made fish health researchers march towards this technology to understand pathogenic processes and immune reactions in fish during the event of infection...
January 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342216/in-vitro-activity-of-novel-glycopolymer-against-clinical-isolates-of-multidrug-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#18
Vidya P Narayanaswamy, Scott A Giatpaiboon, John Uhrig, Paul Orwin, William Wiesmann, Shenda M Baker, Stacy M Townsend
The incidence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) organisms, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), is a serious threat to public health. Progress in developing new therapeutics is being outpaced by antibiotic resistance development, and alternative agents that rapidly permeabilize bacteria hold tremendous potential for treating MDR infections. A new class of glycopolymers includes polycationic poly-N (acetyl, arginyl) glucosamine (PAAG) is under development as an alternative to traditional antibiotic strategies to treat MRSA infections...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341934/advances-in-the-delivery-of-antisense-oligonucleotides-for-combating-bacterial-infectious-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Xiao-Yan Xue, Xing-Gang Mao, Ying Zhou, Zhou Chen, Yue Hu, Zheng Hou, Ming-Kai Li, Jing-Ru Meng, Xiao-Xing Luo
Discovery and development of new antibacterial drugs against multidrug resistant bacterial strains have become more and more urgent. Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) show immense potential to control the spread of resistant microbes due to its high specificity of action, little risk to human gene expression, and easy design and synthesis to target any possible gene. However, efficient delivery of ASOs to their action sites with enough concentration remains a major obstacle, which greatly hampers their clinical application...
January 13, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341373/antibiotic-allergy-labels-the-impact-of-taking-a-clinical-history
#20
Adrienne Torda, Victor Chan
BACKGROUND: Many patients admitted to hospital have an antibiotic allergy (AAL) documented in their medical record. In many of these, the reaction is not a hypersensitivity reaction or may no longer be relevant. Despite this, the label adversely affects patient care directly in terms of antibiotic selection, and indirectly in terms of patient costs and the development of antimicrobial resistance. AIMS: To estimate the prevalence of AALs in a cohort of hospitalised patients, to investigate the feasibility of de-labelling through re-challenge based solely upon clinical grounds...
January 17, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Practice
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