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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921270/halogenated-indoles-eradicate-bacterial-persister-cells-and-biofilms
#1
Jin-Hyung Lee, Yong-Guy Kim, Giyeon Gwon, Thomas K Wood, Jintae Lee
The emergence of antibiotic resistance has necessitated new therapeutic approaches to combat recalcitrant bacterial infections. Persister cells, often found in biofilms, are metabolically dormant, and thus, are highly tolerant to all traditional antibiotics and represent a major drug resistance mechanism. In the present study, 36 diverse indole derivatives were investigated with the aim of identifying novel compounds that inhibit persisters and biofilm formation by Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus...
December 2016: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920884/novel-combinations-of-synthesized-zno-nps-and-ceftazidime-evaluation-of-their-activity-against-standards-and-new-clinically-isolated-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#2
Elham Isaei, Shahla Mansouri, Fereshteh Mohammadi, Sadegh Taheritarigh, Zohreh Mohammadi
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistant bacteria can be considered as a main problem in infection management. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs), individually or in combination with antibiotics, can be considered as good candidates for struggling against drug resistant bacteria. METHODS: In this study, Zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized using sol-gel method in low temperature as a cost effective procedure and characterized by X-ray diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy...
October 2016: Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920756/salmonella-typhimurium-and-multidirectional-communication-in-the-gut
#3
REVIEW
Elena V Gart, Jan S Suchodolski, Thomas H Welsh, Robert C Alaniz, Ronald D Randel, Sara D Lawhon
The mammalian digestive tract is home to trillions of microbes, including bacteria, archaea, protozoa, fungi, and viruses. In monogastric mammals the stomach and small intestine harbor diverse bacterial populations but are typically less populated than the colon. The gut bacterial community (microbiota hereafter) varies widely among different host species and individuals within a species. It is influenced by season of the year, age of the host, stress and disease. Ideally, the host and microbiota benefit each other...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920755/finding-potential-therapeutic-targets-against-shigella-flexneri-through-proteome-exploration
#4
Mohammad Uzzal Hossain, Md Arif Khan, Abu Hashem, Md Monirul Islam, Mohammad Neaz Morshed, Chaman Ara Keya, Md Salimullah
Background:Shigella flexneri is a gram negative bacteria that causes the infectious disease "shigellosis." S. flexneri is responsible for developing diarrhea, fever, and stomach cramps in human. Antibiotics are mostly given to patients infected with shigella. Resistance to antibiotics can hinder its treatment significantly. Upon identification of essential therapeutic targets, vaccine and drug could be effective therapy for the treatment of shigellosis. Methods: The study was designed for the identification and qualitative characterization for potential drug targets from S...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920430/biomimetic-antimicrobial-cloak-by-graphene-oxide-agar-hydrogel
#5
Massimiliano Papi, Valentina Palmieri, Francesca Bugli, Marco De Spirito, Maurizio Sanguinetti, Carlotta Ciancico, Maria Chiara Braidotti, Silvia Gentilini, Luca Angelani, Claudio Conti
Antibacterial surfaces have an enormous economic and social impact on the worldwide technological fight against diseases. However, bacteria develop resistance and coatings are often not uniform and not stable in time. The challenge is finding an antibacterial coating that is biocompatible, cost-effective, not toxic, and spreadable over large and irregular surfaces. Here we demonstrate an antibacterial cloak by laser printing of graphene oxide hydrogels mimicking the Cancer Pagurus carapace. We observe up to 90% reduction of bacteria cells...
December 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920384/antibiotic-resistance-in-the-wild-an-eco-evolutionary-perspective
#6
REVIEW
Teppo Hiltunen, Marko Virta, Anna-Liisa Laine
The legacy of the use and misuse of antibiotics in recent decades has left us with a global public health crisis: antibiotic-resistant bacteria are on the rise, making it harder to treat infections. At the same time, evolution of antibiotic resistance is probably the best-documented case of contemporary evolution. To date, research on antibiotic resistance has largely ignored the complexity of interactions that bacteria engage in. However, in natural populations, bacteria interact with other species; for example, competition and grazing are import interactions influencing bacterial population dynamics...
January 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917849/presence-and-resistance-of-streptococcus-agalactiae-in-vaginal-specimens-of-pregnant-and-adult-non-pregnant-women-and-association-with-other-aerobic-bacteria
#7
Fatima Numanović, Jasmina Smajlović, Merima Gegić, Zineta Delibegović, Sabaheta Bektaš, Emir Halilović, Jasmina Nurkić
Aim To determine the prevalence rate and resistance profile of Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) in vaginal swabs of pregnant and adult non-pregnant women in the Tuzla region, Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H), as well as its association with other aerobic bacteria. Methods This prospective study included 200 women, 100 pregnant and 100 adult non-pregnant. The research was conducted at the Institute of Microbiology, University Clinical Center Tuzla from October to December 2015. Standard aerobic microbiological techniques were used for isolation and identification of S...
February 1, 2017: Medicinski Glasnik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917795/lytic-activity-of-various-phage-cocktails-on-multidrug-resistant-bacteria
#8
I Ozkan, E Akturk, N Yeshenkulov, S Atmaca, N Rahmanov, H I Atabay
PURPOSE: A bacteriophage is a virus that infects and replicates within a bacterium following the injection of phage genome into the bacterial cytoplasm. They are seen as a possible therapy for multi-drug-resistant strains of many bacteria. The aim of this study is to evaluate the lytic activity of the Pyo, Intesti and Fersisi bacteriophage cocktails on P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. METHODS: Ten different S. aureus and P. aeruginosa strains, which were isolated from hospitalized patients in Turkey, were used in the study...
December 1, 2016: Clinical and Investigative Medicine. Médecine Clinique et Experimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916867/methods-of-synthesis-properties-and-biomedical-applications-of-cuo-nanoparticles
#9
REVIEW
Madalina Elena Grigore, Elena Ramona Biscu, Alina Maria Holban, Monica Cartelle Gestal, Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu
This study aims to provide an updated survey of the main synthesis methods of copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles in order to obtain tailored nanosystems for various biomedical applications. The synthesis approach significantly impacts the properties of such nanoparticles and these properties in turn have a significant impact on their biomedical applications. Although not widely investigated as an efficient drug delivery system, CuO nanoparticles have great biological properties including effective antimicrobial action against a wide range of pathogens and also drug resistant bacteria...
November 30, 2016: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916419/comparative-transcriptomics-analyses-of-the-different-growth-states-of-multidrug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii
#10
Shuai Li, Haitao Li, Tianjie Qi, Xixin Yan, Boli Wang, Jitao Guan, Yu Li
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii is an important bacterial pathogen commonly associated with hospital acquired infections. A. baumannii can remain viable and hence virulent in the environment for a long period of time due primarily to its ability to form biofilms. A total of 459 cases of MDR A. baumannii our hospital collected from March 2014 to March 2015 were examined in this study, and a representative isolate selected for high-throughput mRNA sequencing and comparison of gene expression profiles under the biofilm and exponential growth conditions...
December 1, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915018/design-and-surface-immobilization-of-short-anti-biofilm-peptides
#11
Biswajit Mishra, Tamara Lushnikova, Radha M Golla, Xiuqing Wang, Guangshun Wang
: Short antimicrobial peptides are essential to keep us healthy and their lasting potency can inspire the design of new types of antibiotics. This study reports the design of a family of eight-residue tryptophan-rich peptides (TetraF2W) obtained by converting the four phenylalanines in temporin-SHf to tryptophans. The temporin-SHf template was identified from the antimicrobial peptide database (http://aps.unmc.edu/AP). Remarkably, the double arginine variant (TetraF2W-RR) was more effective in killing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) USA300, but less cytotoxic to human skin HaCat and kidney HEK293 cells, than the lysine-containing dibasic combinations (KR, RK and KK)...
November 30, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914159/-molecular-mechanisms-for-adhesion-and-colonization-of-human-gastric-mucosa-by-helicobacter-pylori-and-its-clinical-implications
#12
REVIEW
Elisabete Coelho, Ana Magalhães, Mário Dinis-Ribeiro, Celso A Reis
INTRODUCTION: Helicobacter pylori infection is very prevalent worldwide and is associated with the progression of the gastric carcinogenesis cascade, being one of the main risk factors for the development of gastric carcinoma. Several factors are determinant for the infection and for the development of gastric disease, including environmental factors, host genetic factors and virulence factors of the bacteria. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this review, we present an overview of the current knowledge on the determinants of the infection and on the recently described molecular mechanisms of Helicobacter pylori adhesion to the gastric mucosa, as well as its possible future therapeutic application...
August 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914088/murine-mycobacterium-marinum-infection-as-a-model-for-tuberculosis
#13
Julia Lienard, Fredric Carlsson
Mycobacteria are a major human health problem globally. Regarding tuberculosis the situation is worsened by the poor efficacy of current vaccine regimens and by emergence of drug-resistant strains (Manjelievskaia J et al, Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 110: 110, 2016; Pereira et al., Lancet Infect Dis 12:300-306, 2012; http://www.who.int/tb/publications/global_report/en/) undermining both disease-prevention and available treatments. Thus, increased basic understanding of mycobacterial-and particularly Mycobacterium tuberculosis-virulence strategies and pathogenesis is of great importance...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912130/acidity-triggered-charge-convertible-nanoparticles-that-can-cause-bacterium-specific-aggregation-in-situ-to-enhance-photothermal-ablation-of-focal-infection
#14
Chiranjeevi Korupalli, Chieh-Cheng Huang, Wei-Chih Lin, Wen-Yu Pan, Po-Yen Lin, Wei-Lin Wan, Meng-Ju Li, Yen Chang, Hsing-Wen Sung
Focal infections that are caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria are becoming an ever-growing challenge to human health. To address this challenge, a pH-responsive amphiphilic polymer of polyaniline-conjugated glycol chitosan (PANI-GCS) that can self-assemble into nanoparticles (NPs) in situ is developed. The PANI-GCS NPs undergo a unique surface charge conversion that is induced by their local pH, favoring bacterium-specific aggregation without direct contact with host cells. Following conjugation onto GCS, the optical-absorbance peak of PANI is red-shifted toward the near-infrared (NIR) region, enabling PANI-GCS NPs to generate a substantial amount of heat, which is emitted to their neighborhood...
November 24, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909820/genomic-analysis-reveals-the-presence-of-a-class-d-beta-lactamase-with-broad-substrate-specificity-in-animal-bite-associated-capnocytophaga-species
#15
S Zangenah, A F Andersson, V Özenci, P Bergman
Capnocytophga canimorsus and Capnocytophga cynodegmi can be transmitted from cats and dogs to humans, and can cause a wide range of infections including wound infections, sepsis, or endocarditis. We and others recently discovered two new Capnocytophaga species, C. canis and C. stomatis, mainly associated with wound infections. The first-line treatment of animal bite related infections is penicillin, and in case of allergy, doxycycline and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. However, there is a lack of antibiotic susceptibility patterns for animal bite associated Capnocytophaga species...
December 1, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909433/sponge-microbiota-are-a-reservoir-of-functional-antibiotic-resistance-genes
#16
Dennis Versluis, Mari Rodriguez de Evgrafov, Morten O A Sommer, Detmer Sipkema, Hauke Smidt, Mark W J van Passel
Wide application of antibiotics has contributed to the evolution of multi-drug resistant human pathogens, resulting in poorer treatment outcomes for infections. In the marine environment, seawater samples have been investigated as a resistance reservoir; however, no studies have methodically examined sponges as a reservoir of antibiotic resistance. Sponges could be important in this respect because they often contain diverse microbial communities that have the capacity to produce bioactive metabolites. Here, we applied functional metagenomics to study the presence and diversity of functional resistance genes in the sponges Aplysina aerophoba, Petrosia ficiformis, and Corticium candelabrum...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908758/thermally-triggered-release-of-the-bacteriophage-endolysin-chapk-and-the-bacteriocin-lysostaphin-for-the-control-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa
#17
Hollie Hathaway, Jude Ajuebor, Liam Stephens, Aidan Coffey, Ursula Potter, J Mark Sutton, A Toby A Jenkins
Staphylococcus aureus infections of the skin and soft tissue pose a major concern to public health, largely owing to the steadily increasing prevalence of drug resistant isolates. As an alternative mode of treatment both bacteriophage endolysins and bacteriocins have been shown to possess antimicrobial efficacy against multiple species of bacteria including otherwise drug resistant strains. Despite this, the administration and exposure of such antimicrobials should be restricted until required in order to discourage the continued evolution of bacterial resistance, whilst maintaining the activity and stability of such proteinaceous structures...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908581/sonodynamic-inactivation-of-gram-positive-and-gram-negative-bacteria-using-a-rose-bengal-antimicrobial-peptide-conjugate
#18
David Costley, Heather Nesbitt, Nigel Ternan, James Dooley, Ying-Ying Huang, Michael R Hamblin, Anthony P McHale, John F Callan
Combating antimicrobial resistance is one of the most serious public health challenges facing society today. The development of new antibiotics or alternative techniques that can help combat antimicrobial resistance is being prioritised by many governments and stakeholders across the globe. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy is one such technique that has received considerable attention but is limited by the inability of light to penetrate through human tissue, reducing its effectiveness when used to treat deep-seated infections...
November 17, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907208/interaction-between-salmonella-and-schistosomiasis-a-review
#19
REVIEW
Amber Hsiao, Trevor Toy, Hye Jin Seo, Florian Marks
The interaction between schistosomiasis and Salmonella is a particularly important issue in Africa, where dual infection by the parasite and the bacterium are likely common. In this review, the ways in which schistosomiasis affects human biology as it relates to Salmonella are described. Those who are infected by both organisms experience reduced immunological functioning, exhibit irreversible organ damage due to prolonged schistosomiasis infection, and become latent carriers of Salmonella enterica serotypes Typhi and Paratyphi and S...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904808/effect-of-common-and-experimental-anti-tuberculosis-treatments-on-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-growing-as-biofilms
#20
James P Dalton, Benedict Uy, Narisa Phummarin, Brent R Copp, William A Denny, Simon Swift, Siouxsie Wiles
Much is known regarding the antibiotic susceptibility of planktonic cultures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacterium responsible for the lung disease tuberculosis (TB). As planktonically-grown M. tuberculosis are unlikely to be entirely representative of the bacterium during infection, we set out to determine how effective a range of anti-mycobacterial treatments were against M. tuberculosis growing as a biofilm, a bacterial phenotype known to be more resistant to antibiotic treatment. Light levels from bioluminescently-labelled M...
2016: PeerJ
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