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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150962/genotype-and-diet-affect-resistance-survival-and-fecundity-but-not-fecundity-tolerance
#1
Megan A M Kutzer, Joachim Kurtz, Sophie A O Armitage
Insects are exposed to a variety of potential pathogens in their environment, many of which can severely impact fitness and health. Consequently, hosts have evolved resistance and tolerance strategies to suppress or cope with infections. Hosts utilising resistance improve fitness by clearing or reducing pathogen loads and hosts utilising tolerance reduce harmful fitness effects per pathogen load. To understand variation in, and selective pressures on resistance and tolerance we asked to what degree they are shaped by host genetic background, whether plasticity in these responses depends upon dietary environment, and whether there are interactions between these two factors...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150510/characterization-of-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-and-vibrio-vulnificus-recovered-from-oysters-during-an-oyster-relay-study
#2
Sara Elmahdi, Salina Parveen, Sylvia Ossai, Ligia V DaSilva, Michael Jahncke, John Bowers, John Jacobs
Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp) and Vibrio vulnificus (Vv) are naturally occurring estuarine bacteria and are the leading causes of seafood-associated infections and mortality in the USA. Though multiple-antibiotic resistant Vp and Vv have been reported resistance patterns in vibrios are not as well documented as other food-borne bacterial pathogens. Salinity relaying (SR) is a Post-Harvest Processing (PHP) treatment to reduce the abundance of these pathogens in shellfish harvested during the warmer months. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility (AMS), pathogenicity and genetic profiles of Vp and Vv recovered from oysters during an oyster relay study...
November 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147662/effectiveness-of-a-lytic-phage-srg1-against-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecalis-in-compost-and-soil
#3
Sidra Rahmat Ullah, Saadia Andleeb, Taskeen Raza, Muhsin Jamal, Khalid Mehmood
Nosocomial infections caused by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus have become a major problem. Bacteriophage therapy is proposed as a potential alternative therapy. Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria and are ubiquitous in nature. Lytic bacteriophage was isolated from sewage water that infects VREF, the causative agent of endocarditis, bacteraemia, and urinary tract infections (UTIs). The phage produced clear plaques with unique clear morphology and well-defined boundaries. TEM results of phage revealed it to be 108 ± 0...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146596/structure-and-function-of-the-leptospira-interrogans-peroxide-stress-regulator-perr-an-atypical-perr-devoid-of-a-structural-metal-binding-site
#4
Mounira Kebouchi, Frederick Saul, Raleb Taher, Annie Landier, Benedicte Beaudeau, Sarah Dubrac, Patrick Weber, Ahmed Haouz, Mathieu Picardeau, Nadia Benaroudj
Peroxide sensing is essential for bacteria survival during aerobic metabolism and host infection. Peroxide stress regulators (PerRs) are homodimeric transcriptional repressors with each monomer typically containing both structural and regulatory metal-binding sites. PerR binding to gene promoters is controlled by the presence of iron in the regulatory site, and iron-catalyzed oxidation of PerR by H2O2 leads to the dissociation of PerR from DNA. In addition to a regulatory metal, most PerRs require a structural metal for proper dimeric assembly...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146383/not-just-antibiotics-is-cancer-chemotherapy-driving-antimicrobial-resistance
#5
REVIEW
Lito E Papanicolas, David L Gordon, Steve L Wesselingh, Geraint B Rogers
The global spread of antibiotic-resistant pathogens threatens to increase the mortality of cancer patients significantly. We propose that chemotherapy contributes to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria within the gut and, in combination with antibiotics, drives pathogen overgrowth and translocation into the bloodstream. In our model, these processes are mediated by the effects of chemotherapy on bacterial mutagenesis and horizontal gene transfer, the disruption of commensal gut microbiology, and alterations to host physiology...
November 13, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146304/extensive-evaluation-of-fastidious-anaerobic-bacteria-recovery-from-the-copan-eswab%C3%A2-transport-system
#6
Thomas Demuyser, Deborah De Geyter, Daisy Van Dorpe, Kristof Vandoorslaer, Ingrid Wybo
Anaerobic infections are difficult to diagnose and treat, because of the often slow in vitro growth, the polymicrobial nature and the increasing antimicrobial resistance. Furthermore because of their fastidiousness, anaerobic bacteria often stay unrecognized in clinical practice. Clinical specimens potentially harboring these species require special handling to permit satisfactory recovery of these potential important pathogens. In a clinical setting, temporary storage and transportation to the laboratory are unavoidable before these specimens can be cultured...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145017/membrane-interactions-of-microgels-as-carriers-of-antimicrobial-peptides
#7
Randi Nordström, Lina Nyström, Oliver C J Andrén, Michael Malkoch, Anita Umerska, Mina Davoudi, Artur Schmidtchen, Martin Malmsten
Microgels are interesting as potential delivery systems for antimicrobial peptides. In order to elucidate membrane interactions of such systems, we here investigate effects of microgel charge density on antimicrobial peptide loading and release, as well as consequences of this for membrane interactions and antimicrobial effects, using ellipsometry, circular dichroism spectroscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis, dynamic light scattering and z-potential measurements. Anionic poly(ethyl acrylate-co-methacrylic acid) microgels were found to incorporate considerable amounts of the cationic antimicrobial peptides LL-37 (LLGDFFRKSKEKIGKEFKRIVQRIKDFLRNLVPRTES) and DPK-060 (GKHKNKGKKNGKHNGWKWWW) and to protect incorporated peptides from degradation by infection-related proteases at high microgel charge density...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144958/isolation-of-blandm-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-a-public-hospital-in-salvador-bahia-brazil
#8
Maria Goreth Barberino, Silvia de Araujo Cruvinel, Célio Faria, Marco Aurélio Salvino, Márcio Oliveira
Carbapenemases have great importance in the global epidemiological scenario since infections with carbapenemase-producing bacteria are associated with high mortality, especially in hospitalized patients in intensive care units. This study describes two microorganisms producers of the New Delhi Metallo-b-lactamase (NDM), Klebsiella pneumoniae and Citrobacter freundii, from two patients admitted to a public hospital in Salvador, Bahia. These are the first clinical cases of NDM described in microorganisms in the north and northeast Brazil...
November 13, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142798/verification-of-diagnosis-in-tuberculosis-a-case-report-and-discussion
#9
Amanda M Dave, Abed Adelrahman, Vishist Mehta, Stephen Cavalieri, Renuga Vivekanadan
Tuberculosis (TB), caused by strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (M. tuberculosis), is a pulmonary infection that is spread by airborne droplet transmission. The development and spread of drug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosisgreatly jeopardize TB control efforts. We report the case of a previously healthy 43-year-old male, visiting from China, who presented to the emergency department complaining of hemoptysis of 10 days' duration. Cultures were positive for acid fast bacteria and negative for fungi...
September 3, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142383/assessment-of-doripenem-meropenem-and-imipenem-against-respiratory-isolates-of-pseudomonas-aeroginosa-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-of-north-india
#10
Arti Negi, Mridu Anand, Avinash Singh, Awadhesh Kumar, Chinmoy Sahu, Kashi Nath Prasad
Objective: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the leading pathogen causing healthcare-associated infections, particularly in immunocompromised and critically ill patients. The development of carbapenem resistance in P. aeruginosa infections is worrisome. Data specifically comparing the susceptibility of the three available carbapenems are lacking in the Indian subcontinent. Materials and Methods: We evaluated the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the three commonly used carbapenems- imipenem, meropenem, and doripenem against, 435 P...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142211/the-microbiota-protects-against-respiratory-infection-via-gm-csf-signaling
#11
Rebecca L Brown, Richard P Sequeira, Thomas B Clarke
The microbiota promotes resistance to respiratory infection, but the mechanistic basis for this is poorly defined. Here, we identify members of the microbiota that protect against respiratory infection by the major human pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae and Klebsiella pneumoniae. We show that the microbiota enhances respiratory defenses via granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) signaling, which stimulates pathogen killing and clearance by alveolar macrophages through extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling...
November 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141147/a-water-soluble-galactose-decorated-cationic-photodynamic-therapy-agent-based-on-bodipy-to-selectively-eliminate-biofilm
#12
Xiaomei Dai, Xuelei Chen, Yu Zhao, Yunjian Yu, Xiaosong Wei, Xinge Zhang, Chaoxing Li
A multitude of serious chronic infections involved in bacterial biofilms that are difficult to eradicate. Here, a water-soluble galactose functionalized cationic 4,4-difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene (BODIPY)-based photodynamic therapy agent was synthesized for selectively eliminating the bacterial biofilm. These conjugates can capture bacteria to form aggregations through electrostatic interaction and then generate a large number of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under visible light irradiation to kill the bacteria without the emergence of bacterial resistance...
November 15, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139579/topical-adjuvants-incompletely-remove-adherent-staphylococcus-aureus-from-implant-materials
#13
Emily P Ernest, Anthony S Machi, Brock A Karolcik, P Rocco LaSala, Matthew J Dietz
Adjuvant treatments including Betadine, Dakin's solution (sodium hypochlorite), or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) have been attempted to eradicate prosthetic joint infection caused by biofilm or intracellular bacteria. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro abilities of chemical adjuvants to decrease Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) biofilm presence on orthopaedic implant grade materials, including titanium, stainless steel, and cobalt chrome. S. aureus biofilms were grown for 48 hours and evaluated for baseline colony forming units/centimeter squared (CFU/cm(2) ) and compared to treatments with Betadine, Dakin's solution, H2 O2 , or 1% chlorine dioxide (ClO2 )...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138462/the-antibacterial-and-anti-inflammatory-activity-of-chicken-cathelicidin-2-combined-with-exogenous-surfactant-for-the-treatment-of-cystic-fibrosis-associated-pathogens
#14
Brandon J H Banaschewski, Brandon Baer, Christina Arsenault, Teah Jazey, Edwin J A Veldhuizen, Johan Delport, Tracey Gooyers, James F Lewis, Henk P Haagsman, Ruud A W Veldhuizen, Cory Yamashita
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is characterized by recurrent airway infections with antibiotic-resistant bacteria and chronic inflammation. Chicken cathelicin-2 (CATH-2) has been shown to exhibit antimicrobial activity against antibiotic-resistant bacteria and to reduce inflammation. In addition, exogenous pulmonary surfactant has been suggested to enhance pulmonary drug delivery. It was hypothesized that CATH-2 when combined with an exogenous surfactant delivery vehicle, bovine lipid extract surfactant (BLES), would exhibit antimicrobial activity against CF-derived bacteria and downregulate inflammation...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138439/abma-a-small-molecule-that-inhibits-intracellular-toxins-and-pathogens-by-interfering-with-late-endosomal-compartments
#15
Yu Wu, Valérie Pons, Amélie Goudet, Laetitia Panigai, Annette Fischer, Jo-Ana Herweg, Sabrina Kali, Robert A Davey, Jérôme Laporte, Céline Bouclier, Rahima Yousfi, Céline Aubenque, Goulven Merer, Emilie Gobbo, Roman Lopez, Cynthia Gillet, Sandrine Cojean, Michel R Popoff, Pascal Clayette, Roger Le Grand, Claire Boulogne, Noël Tordo, Emmanuel Lemichez, Philippe M Loiseau, Thomas Rudel, Didier Sauvaire, Jean-Christophe Cintrat, Daniel Gillet, Julien Barbier
Intracellular pathogenic microorganisms and toxins exploit host cell mechanisms to enter, exert their deleterious effects as well as hijack host nutrition for their development. A potential approach to treat multiple pathogen infections and that should not induce drug resistance is the use of small molecules that target host components. We identified the compound 1-adamantyl (5-bromo-2-methoxybenzyl) amine (ABMA) from a cell-based high throughput screening for its capacity to protect human cells and mice against ricin toxin without toxicity...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138303/cxc-chemokines-exhibit-bactericidal-activity-against-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-pathogens
#16
Matthew A Crawford, Debra J Fisher, Lisa M Leung, Sara Lomonaco, Christine Lascols, Antonio Cannatelli, Tommaso Giani, Gian Maria Rossolini, Yohei Doi, David R Goodlett, Marc W Allard, Shashi K Sharma, Erum Khan, Robert K Ernst, Molly A Hughes
The continued rise and spread of antimicrobial resistance among bacterial pathogens pose a serious challenge to global health. Countering antimicrobial-resistant pathogens requires a multifaceted effort that includes the discovery of novel therapeutic approaches. Here, we establish the capacity of the human CXC chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10 to kill multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, including New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-1-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and colistin-resistant members of the family Enterobacteriaceae that harbor the mobile colistin resistance protein MCR-1 and thus possess phosphoethanolamine-modified lipid A...
November 14, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137595/study-of-bacterial-infections-among-patients-receiving-kidney-transplant-in-mashhad-iran
#17
Davood Mansury, Azad Khaledi, Kiarash Ghazvini, Mahin Ghorban Sabbagh, Hosna Zare, Mohammad Hossein Rokni-Hosseini, Hossein Vazini
OBJECTIVES: Over the past 2 decades, significant advances have been made in the management of infections after transplant; however, transplant recipients are still at high risk of infectious complications. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of bacterial infections and antimicrobial resistance patterns in kidney transplant recipients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 356 patients who received kidney transplants, regardless of the underlying disease, from 2013 to 2015 at the Montaserieh Transplant Hospital (Mashhad, Iran)...
November 15, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136469/novel-linear-lipopeptide-paenipeptins-with-potential-for-eradicating-biofilms-and-sensitizing-gram-negative-bacteria-to-rifampicin-and-clarithromycin
#18
Sun Hee Moon, Xuan Zhang, Guangrong Zheng, Daniel G Meeker, Mark S Smeltzer, En Huang
We report the structure-activity relationship (SAR) analyses of 17 linear lipopeptide paenipeptin analogues. Analogues 7, 12 and 17 were more potent than the lead compound. Analogue 17 was active against carbapenem-resistant and polymyxin-resistant pathogens. This compound at 40 μg/mL resulted in 3 log and 2.6 log reductions of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively, in catheter-associated biofilms in vitro. Analogue 17 showed little hemolysis at 32 µg/ml and lysed 11% of red blood cells at 64 µg/ml...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136156/increase-in-antimicrobial-resistance-and-emergence-of-major-international-high-risk-clonal-lineages-in-dogs-and-cats-with-urinary-tract-infection-16-year-retrospective-study
#19
Cátia Marques, Adriana Belas, Andreia Franco, Catarina Aboim, Luís Telo Gama, Constança Pomba
Objectives: To evaluate temporal trends in antimicrobial resistance, over 16 years, in bacteria isolated from dogs and cats with urinary tract infection (UTI) and the clonal lineages of bacteria harbouring critical antimicrobial resistance mechanisms. Methods: Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted for 948 bacteria isolated from dogs and cats with UTI (1999-2014). Resistance mechanisms were detected by PCR, namely ESBL/AmpC in third-generation cephalosporin (3GC)-resistant Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis, mecA in methicillin-resistant staphylococci, and aac(6')-Ieaph(2″)-Ia and aph(2″)-1d in high-level gentamicin-resistant (HLGR) enterococci...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134555/ciprofloxacin-loaded-calcium-alginate-wafers-prepared-by-freeze-drying-technique-for-potential-healing-of-chronic-diabetic-foot-ulcers
#20
Asif Ahmed, Giulia Getti, Joshua Boateng
Calcium alginate (CA) wafer dressings were prepared by lyophilization of hydrogels to deliver ciprofloxacin (CIP) directly to the wound site of infected diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs). The dressings were physically characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), texture analysis (for mechanical and in vitro adhesion properties), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Further, functional properties essential for wound healing, i.e., porosity, in vitro swelling index, water absorption (Aw), equilibrium water content (EWC), water vapor transmission rate (WVTR), evaporative water loss (EWL), moisture content, in vitro drug release and kinetics, antimicrobial activity, and cell viability (MTT assay) were investigated...
November 13, 2017: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
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