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resistant bacteria infections

Shunjie Yan, Lingjie Song, Shifang Luan, Zhirong Xin, Shanshan Du, Hengchong Shi, Shuaishuai Yuan, Yuming Yang, Jinghua Yin
Bacterial infections are problematic in many healthcare-associated devices. Antibacterial surfaces integrating the strength of bacteria repellent and bactericidal functions exhibit an encouraging efficacy in tackling this problem. Herein, a hierarchical dual-function antibacterial polymer brush coating that integrates an antifouling bottom layer with a bactericidal top layer is facilely constructed via living photograft polymerization. Excellent resistance to bacterial attachment is correlated with the antifouling components, and good bactericidal activity is afforded by the bactericidal components, and therefore the hierarchical coating shows an excellent long-term antibacterial capability...
August 12, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Bartosz Roszniowski, Agnieszka Latka, Barbara Maciejewska, Dieter Vandenheuvel, Tomasz Olszak, Yves Briers, Giles S Holt, Miguel A Valvano, Rob Lavigne, Darren L Smith, Zuzanna Drulis-Kawa
Burkholderia phage AP3 (vB_BceM_AP3) is a temperate virus of the Myoviridae and the Peduovirinae subfamily (P2likevirus genus). This phage specifically infects multidrug-resistant clinical Burkholderia cenocepacia lineage IIIA strains commonly isolated from cystic fibrosis patients. AP3 exhibits high pairwise nucleotide identity (61.7 %) to Burkholderia phage KS5, specific to the same B. cenocepacia host, and has 46.7-49.5 % identity to phages infecting other species of Burkholderia. The lysis cassette of these related phages has a similar organization (putative antiholin, putative holin, endolysin, and spanins) and shows 29-98 % homology between specific lysis genes, in contrast to Enterobacteria phage P2, the hallmark phage of this genus...
October 21, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
A Aguirre-Quiñonero, L Martínez-Martínez
Infections caused by carbapenemase-producing bacteria are becoming a major clinical and public health concern. Detection of carbapenemase producing strains is often challenging, since susceptibility to carbapenems may vary significantly among carbapenemase producers. Some carbapenemases have shown to exhibit weak activity against carbapenems leading to minimum inhibitory concentrations of carbapenems below the breakpoint for defining clinical resistance and even below the proposed screening breakpoint. Thus, reliable and rapid detection of carbapenemase-activity is needed for an appropriate patient management and a rapid implementation of infection prevention and control measures...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Pierre Dehoux, Jean Christophe Marvaud, Amr Abouelleil, Ashlee M Earl, Thierry Lambert, Catherine Dauga
BACKGROUND: Clostridium bolteae and Clostridium clostridioforme, previously included in the complex C. clostridioforme in the group Clostridium XIVa, remain difficult to distinguish by phenotypic methods. These bacteria, prevailing in the human intestinal microbiota, are opportunistic pathogens with various drug susceptibility patterns. In order to better characterize the two species and to obtain information on their antibiotic resistance genes, we analyzed the genomes of six strains of C...
October 21, 2016: BMC Genomics
R Fussen, S Lemmen
Multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria present an increasing threat for intensive care patients. Whereas colonization of intensive care patients with methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in German ICUs has remained at a constant level in recent years and therapeutic options have improved, colonization and infections with MDR gram-negative bacteria and vancomycin-resistant enterococci are increasing year by year. Only a few or even no therapeutic options remain for the treatment of these bacteria...
October 20, 2016: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
Richard Aschbacher, Elisabetta Pagani, Massimo Confalonieri, Claudio Farina, Paolo Fazii, Francesco Luzzaro, Pier Giorgio Montanera, Aurora Piazza, Laura Pagani
BACKGROUND: Rates of colonization and infection with multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria are increasing worldwide, in both acute care hospitals and long-term care facilities (LTCFs). Italy has one of the highest prevalence of MDR bacteria in European countries, especially with regard to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) or carbapenemase producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE). METHOD: Review of studies on colonization by MDR bacteria from Italian LTCFs, risk factors for colonization and molecular characteristics of surveillance and clinical isolates, compared with other European countries...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Alexandre Boulos, Katherine Rand, Josh A Johnson, Jacqueline Gautier, Michael Koster
Infections (including sepsis, meningitis, pneumonia and tetanus) stand as a major contributor to neonatal mortality in Haiti (22%). Infants acquire bacteria that cause neonatal sepsis directly from the mother's blood, skin or vaginal tract either before or during delivery. Nosocomial and environmental pathogens introduce further risk after delivery. The absence of cohesive medical systems and methods for collecting information limits the available data in countries such as Haiti. This study seeks to add more information on the burden of severe bacterial infections and their etiology in neonates of Haiti...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Çiğdem Yılmaz, Gülay Özcengiz
The discovery of penicillin followed by streptomycin, tetracycline, cephalosporins and other natural, semi-synthetic and synthetic antimicrobials completely revolutionized medicine by reducing human morbidity and mortality from most of the common infections. However, shortly after they were introduced to clinical practice, the development of resistance was emerged. The decreasing interest from antibiotic industry in spite of rapid global emergence of antibiotic resistance is a tough dilemma from the pointview of public health...
October 17, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
Nicolás M Vázquez, Graciela Fiorilli, Paulo A Cáceres Guido, Silvia Moreno
BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is resistant to different commonly used antibiotics, stressing the need for further strategies to treat this human pathogen with worldwide prevalence. The use of phytochemicals within the current pharmacology is a promising approach to enhance the antimicrobial activity of common antibiotics in the battle against these bacteria. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the antimicrobial effectiveness of carnosic acid, the major constituent of Rosmarinus officinalis L...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Weiwei Wang, Ting Jiang, Weihong Zhang, Chunyu Li, Jun Chen, Dandan Xiang, Kejiang Cao, Lian-Wen Qi, Ping Li, Wei Zhu, Wensen Chen, Yan Chen
The study was undertaken to describe the profile of patients and the characteristics of all multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria (MDR-GNB) and to assess mortality. We examined 138 patients with bloodstream infections (BSIs) caused by MDR-GNB. Clinical characteristics, antibiotic therapy, and in-hospital mortality were analyzed. Survivor and nonsurvivor subgroups were compared to identify predictors of mortality. The in-hospital mortality rate was 25.4%. Univariate analysis revealed that comorbidities and inadequate initial antimicrobial treatment could increase risk of death...
October 17, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
Sebastien Breurec, Coralie Bouchiat, Jean-Marie Sire, Olivier Moquet, Raymond Bercion, Moussa Fafa Cisse, Philippe Glaser, Ousmane Ndiaye, Sidy Ka, Helene Salord, Abdoulaye Seck, Haby Signate Sy, Remy Michel, Benoit Garin
BACKGROUND: Neonatal infection constitutes one of Senegal's most important public health problems, with a mortality rate of 41 deaths per 1,000 live births. METHODS: Between January 2007 and March 2008, 242 neonates with suspected infection were recruited at three neonatal intensive care units in three major tertiary care centers in Dakar, the capital of Senegal. Neonatal infections were confirmed by positive bacterial blood or cerebrospinal fluid culture. The microbiological pattern of neonatal infections and the antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates were characterized...
October 20, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Keisuke Nakase, Hidemasa Nakaminami, Yuta Toda, Norihisa Noguchi
Determination of the mutant prevention concentration (MPC) and the mutant selection window (MSW) of antimicrobial agents used to treat pathogenic bacteria is important in order to apply effective antimicrobial therapies. Here, we determined the MPCs of the major topical antimicrobial agents against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus which cause skin infections and compared their MSWs. Among the MPCs of nadifloxacin and clindamycin, the clindamycin MPC was determined to be the lowest against P...
October 21, 2016: Chemotherapy
Li Fang, Qiong Chen, Keren Shi, Xi Li, Qiucheng Shi, Fang He, Jiancang Zhou, Yunsong Yu, Xiaoting Hua
Klebsiella pneumoniae is a gram-negative bacterium that causes numerous diseases, including pneumonia and urinary tract infections. An increase in multidrug resistance has complicated the treatment of these bacterial infections, and although tigecycline shows activity against a broad spectrum of bacteria, resistant strains have emerged. In this study, the whole genomes of two clinical and six laboratory-evolved strains were sequenced to identify putative mutations related to tigecycline resistance. Of seven tigecycline-resistant strains, seven (100%) had ramR mutations, five (71...
2016: PloS One
Hemlata Hemlata, Arif Tasleem Jan, Archana Tiwari
Antibiotic resistance is a global problem exacerbated due to selective pressure of antimicrobial agents, spontaneous mutation, recombination and horizontal gene transfer. Of the different mechanisms that led to spread of resistance, one notorious phenomenon is the generation of Extended Spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) preferably TEM, SHV, OXA and CTX-M. Their production and frequent mobilization through horizontal gene transfer, made bacteria to exhibit resistance against a broad range of antibiotics. Resilient development of resistance among bacteria hampers available treatment options against different infections in the health care system...
October 14, 2016: Current Drug Metabolism
Ia Kusradze, Natia Karumidze, Sophio Rigvava, Teona Dvalidze, Malkhaz Katsitadze, Irakli Amiranashvili, Marina Goderdzishvili
Acinetobacter baumannii is a gram-negative, non-motile bacterium that, due to its multidrug resistance, has become a major nosocomial pathogen. The increasing number of multidrug resistant (MDR) strains has renewed interest in phage therapy. The aim of our study was to assess the effectiveness of phage administration in Acinetobacter baumannii wound infections in an animal model to demonstrate phage therapy as non-toxic, safe and alternative antibacterial remedy. Using classical methods for the study of bacteriophage properties, we characterized phage vB-GEC_Ab-M-G7 as a dsDNA myovirus with a 90 kb genome size...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ai-Jun Pan, Qing Mei, Ying Ye, Hong-Ru Li, Bao Liu, Jia-Bin Li
The purpose of this study was to validate the mutant selection window (MSW) hypothesis in vitro and in vivo with Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa exposed to fosfomycin. Two standard strains of Gram-negative bacteria, those are E. coli ATCC 25922 and P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853, were exposed to fosfomycin at concentrations below MIC, between the MIC and the mutant prevention concentration (MPC), and above the MPC in Luria-Bertani broth and in a tissue-cage infection model, respectively. With the in vitro time-kill studies, there were bacterial re-growth and emergence of resistance thereafter for both strains at antibiotic concentrations of × 4, × 8 and × 16 MIC...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Antibiotics
Lyudmila Boyanova, Rumyana Markovska, Ivan Mitov
This review focuses on the virulence arsenal of the most pathogenic species among Gram positive anaerobic cocci, Finegoldia magna according to recently published data from 2012-2016. Virulence factors like sortase dependent pili and F. magna adhesion factor (FAF) facilitate the start of the infection. Albumin binding protein (PAB) enhances F. magna survival. FAF, subtilisin-like extracellular serine protease (SufA) and superantigen protein L protect the bacteria from factors of innate defense system. SufA, capsule and tissue-destroying enzymes provide a deep penetration or spread of the infections and the protein L is associated with infection severity...
October 15, 2016: Anaerobe
Claire E Weston, Andreas Kraemer, Felix Colin, Özkan Yildiz, Matthias G J Baud, Franz-Josef Meyer-Almes, Matthew J Fuchter
Photopharmacological agents exhibit light-dependent biological activity and may have potential in the development of new antimicrobial agents/modalities. Amidohydrolase enzymes homologous to the well known human histone deacetylases (HDACs) are present in bacteria, including resistant organisms responsible for a significant number of hospital acquired infections and deaths. We report photopharmacological inhibitors of these enzymes, using two classes of photoswitch embedded in the inhibitor pharmacophore: azobenzenes and arylazopyrazoles...
October 18, 2016: ACS Infectious Diseases
Feifei Cheng, Anzhou Ma, Guoqiang Zhuang, Rupert G Fray
In order to cope with pathogens, plants have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to sense pathogenic attacks and to induce defence responses. The N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated quorum sensing in bacteria regulates diverse physiological processes including those involved in pathogenicity. In this work, we study the interactions between AHL-producing transgenic tobacco plants and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci 11528 (P. syringae 11528). Both a reduced incidence of disease and decrease in the growth of P...
October 18, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
Dong-Lin Xia, Yan-Pei Chen, Yu-Fei Wang, Xiao-Dong Li, Ning Bao, Hong He, Hai-Ying Gu
OBJECTIVES: Diabetic patients are at increased risk of severe skin infections. Covering the wound as early as possible can prevent infection and shorten the course of treatment. In this study, the authors fabricated a waterproof and breathable composite liquid dressing (CLD) that formed a barrier to bacteria and shortened healing time of diabetic rat skin ulcers. METHODS: The CLD was prepared in a formulation that, on evaporation of the liquid carrier, acts as a waterproof, breathable coating on injured skin...
November 2016: Advances in Skin & Wound Care
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