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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081179/effect-of-straw-amendment-on-soil-zn-availability-and-ageing-of-exogenous-water-soluble-zn-applied-to-calcareous-soil
#1
Yanlong Chen, Juan Cui, Xiaohong Tian, Aiqing Zhao, Meng Li, Shaoxia Wang, Xiushaung Li, Zhou Jia, Ke Liu
Organic matter plays a key role in availability and transformation of soil Zn (zinc), which greatly controls Zn concentrations in cereal grains and human Zn nutrition level. Accordingly, soils homogenized with the wheat straw (0, 12 g straw kg-1) and Zn fertilizer (0, 7 mg Zn kg-1) were buried and incubated in the field over 210 days to explore the response of soil Zn availability and the ageing of exogenous Zn to straw addition. Results indicated that adding straw alone scarcely affected soil DTPA-Zn concentration and Zn fractions because of the low Zn concentration of wheat straw and the high soil pH, and large clay and calcium carbonate contents...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081161/factors-related-with-ch4-and-n2o-emissions-from-a-paddy-field-clues-for-management-implications
#2
Chun Wang, Derrick Y F Lai, Jordi Sardans, Weiqi Wang, Congsheng Zeng, Josep Peñuelas
Paddy fields are major sources of global atmospheric greenhouse gases, including methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). The different phases previous to emission (production, transport, diffusion, dissolution in pore water and ebullition) despite well-established have rarely been measured in field conditions. We examined them and their relationships with temperature, soil traits and plant biomass in a paddy field in Fujian, southeastern China. CH4 emission was positively correlated with CH4 production, plant-mediated transport, ebullition, diffusion, and concentration of dissolved CH4 in porewater and negatively correlated with sulfate concentration, suggesting the potential use of sulfate fertilizers to mitigate CH4 release...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078520/effects-of-screenhouse-cultivation-and-organic-materials-incorporation-on-global-warming-potential-in-rice-fields
#3
Guochun Xu, Xin Liu, Qiangsheng Wang, Ruiheng Xiong, Yuhao Hang
Global rice production will be increasingly challenged by providing healthy food for a growing population at minimal environmental cost. In this study, a 2-year field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of a novel rice cultivation mode (screenhouse cultivation, SHC) and organic material (OM) incorporation (wheat straw and wheat straw-based biogas residue) on methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and rice yields. In addition, the environmental factors and soil properties were also determined...
January 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076998/phosphate-phytate-and-phytases-in-plants-from-fundamental-knowledge-gained-in-arabidopsis-to-potential-biotechnological-applications-in-wheat
#4
David Secco, Nadia Bouain, Aida Rouached, Chanakan Prom-U-Thai, Moez Hanin, Ajay K Pandey, Hatem Rouached
Phosphorus (P) is an essential macronutrient for all living organisms. In plants, P is taken up from the rhizosphere by the roots mainly as inorganic phosphate (Pi), which is required in large and sufficient quantities to maximize crop yields. In today's agricultural society, crop yield is mostly ensured by the excessive use of Pi fertilizers, a costly practice neither eco-friendly or sustainable. Therefore, generating plants with improved P use efficiency (PUE) is of major interest. Among the various strategies employed to date, attempts to engineer genetically modified crops with improved capacity to utilize phytate (PA), the largest soil P form and unfortunately not taken up by plants, remains a key challenge...
January 12, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075523/extreme-rainfall-and-snowfall-alter-responses-of-soil-respiration-to-nitrogen-fertilization-a-3-year-field-experiment
#5
Zengming Chen, Yehong Xu, Xuhui Zhou, Jianwu Tang, Yakov Kuzyakov, Hongyan Yu, Jianling Fan, Weixin Ding
Extreme precipitation is predicted to be more frequent and intense accompanying global warming, and may have profound impacts on soil respiration (Rs) and its components, i.e., autotrophic (Ra) and heterotrophic (Rh) respiration. However, how natural extreme rainfall or snowfall events affect these fluxes are still lacking, especially under nitrogen (N) fertilization. In this study, extreme rainfall and snowfall events occurred during a 3-year field experiment, allowing us to examine their effects on the response of Rs, Rh and Ra to N supply...
January 11, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072458/liana-effects-on-biomass-dynamics-strengthen-during-secondary-forest-succession
#6
Hao Ran Lai, Jefferson S Hall, Benjamin L Turner, Michiel van Breugel
Secondary forests are important carbon sinks, but their biomass dynamics vary markedly within and across landscapes. The biotic and abiotic drivers of this variation are still not well understood. We tested the effects of soil resource availability and competition by lianas on the biomass dynamics of young secondary tropical forests in Panama and assessed the extent to which liana effects were mediated by soil resource availability. Over a five year period, growth, mortality, and recruitment of woody plants of ≥1 cm diameter were monitored in 84 plots in 3-30 y-old secondary forests across the Agua Salud site in central Panama...
January 10, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070814/source-identification-and-spatial-distribution-of-heavy-metals-in-tobacco-growing-soils-in-shandong-province-of-china-with-multivariate-and-geostatistical-analysis
#7
Haiwei Liu, Yan Zhang, Xue Zhou, Xiuxuan You, Yi Shi, Jialai Xu
Samples of surface soil from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) fields were analysed for heavy metals and showed the following concentrations (mean of 246 samples, mg/kg): As, 5.10; Cd, 0.11; Cr, 49.49; Cu, 14.72; Hg, 0.08; Ni, 19.28; Pb. 20.20 and Zn, 30.76. The values of the index of geoaccumulation (I geo) and of the enrichment factor indicated modest enrichment with As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni or Pb. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis correctly allocated each investigated element to its source, whether anthropogenic or natural...
January 9, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068396/effects-of-pulp-and-na-bentonite-amendments-on-the-mobility-of-trace-elements-soil-enzymes-activity-and-microbial-parameters-under-ex-situ-aided-phytostabilization
#8
Daniel Wasilkowski, Anna Nowak, Grażyna Płaza, Agnieszka Mrozik
The objective of this study was to explore the potential use of pulp (by-product) from coffee processing and Na-bentonite (commercial product) for minimizing the environmental risk of Zn, Pb and Cd in soil collected from a former mine and zinc-lead smelter. The effects of soil amendments on the physicochemical properties of soil, the structural and functional diversity of the soil microbiome as well as soil enzymes were investigated. Moreover, biomass of Festuca arundinacea Schreb. (cultivar Asterix) and the uptake of trace elements in plant tissues were studied...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067821/influence-of-nitrogen-availability-on-growth-of-two-transgenic-birch-species-carrying-the-pine-gs1a-gene
#9
Vadim G Lebedev, Nina P Kovalenko, Konstantin A Shestibratov
An alternative way to increase plant productivity through the use of nitrogen fertilizers is to improve the efficiency of nitrogen utilization via genetic engineering. The effects of overexpression of pine glutamine synthetase (GS) gene and nitrogen availability on growth and leaf pigment levels of two Betula species were studied. Untransformed and transgenic plants of downy birch (B. pubescens) and silver birch (B. pendula) were grown under open-air conditions at three nitrogen regimes (0, 1, or 10 mM) for one growing season...
January 6, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067656/magnetite-nanoparticles-influence-the-ammonium-oxidizing-bacteria-activity-during-nitritation-process
#10
Simone Perazzoli, Camila Michels, Hugo M Soares
With nanotechnology dissemination, nanomaterials' (NMs) release into the environment is inevitable and may adversely affect the wastewater treatment processes. Among the NMs, the iron oxide nanoparticles have a considerable commercial potential, mainly because their magnetic properties, high catalytic ability and antimicrobial activity. However, few studies have examined their potential effect on the biological wastewater treatment. In this process, ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) are sensitive to the presence of inhibitory compounds and are useful as biosensors to assess contaminant toxicity information...
January 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065921/plant-carnivory-beyond-bogs-reliance-on-prey-feeding-in-drosophyllum-lusitanicum-drosophyllaceae-in-dry-mediterranean-heathland-habitats
#11
M Paniw, E Gil-Cabeza, F Ojeda
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In a cost-benefit framework, plant carnivory is hypothesized to be an adaptation to nutrient-poor soils in sunny, wetland habitats. However, apparent exceptions to this cost-benefit model exist, although they have been rarely studied. One of these exceptions is the carnivorous subshrub Drosophyllum lusitanicum, which thrives in Mediterranean heathlands on dry sandstone soils and has relatively well-developed, xeromorphic roots. Here, the roles of leaf (carnivory) and root (soil) nutrient uptake in growth promotion of this particular species were assessed...
January 8, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065545/geochemical-isotopic-composition-in-the-loess-plateau-and-corresponding-source-analyses-a-case-study-of-china-s-yangjuangou-catchment
#12
Yafeng Wang, Liding Chen, Yang Gao, Shibo Chen, Weiliang Chen, Zhuo Hao, Junjie Jia, Ning Han
Isotopic fractionation technology is widely used in identifying sources and the speciation of geochemical isotopic elements. With the increase in human activity, geochemical element transport by soil erosion has become the most critical environmental problem in the Loess Plateau, so tracing the geochemical element source would help in the identification and management of local soil erosion. In this study, we investigated the spatial distribution of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), and hydrogen (H) isotopes in water and then further analyzed (13)C and (15)N in soil and vegetation to better understand the C and N sources and their biogeochemical cycling function in the Loess Plateau...
January 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063709/radical-change-of-zn-speciation-in-pig-slurry-amended-soil-key-role-of-nano-sized-sulfide-particles
#13
Thiago Augusto Formentini, Samuel Legros, Cristovão Vicente Scapulatempo Fernandes, Adilson Pinheiro, Maureen Le Bars, Clément Levard, Fábio Joel Kochem Mallmann, Milton da Veiga, Emmanuel Doelsch
Spreading livestock manure as fertilizer on farmlands is a widespread practice. It represents the major source of heavy metal(loid)s (HM) input in agricultural soils. Since zinc (Zn) is present at high concentrations in manure, it poses special environmental concerns related to phytotoxicity, groundwater contamination, and introduction in the food chain. Therefore, investigations on the fate and behavior of manure-borne Zn, when it enters the soil environment, are necessary to predict the environmental effects...
January 4, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063658/potential-role-of-biochars-in-decreasing-soil-acidification-a-critical-review
#14
REVIEW
Zhongmin Dai, Xiaojie Zhang, C Tang, Niaz Muhammad, Jianjun Wu, Philip C Brookes, Jianming Xu
A large number of soils, worldwide, are acid (normally pH<5.5) and suffering from on-going soil acidification. Acid soils or soils undergoing acidification generally have low fertility and low crop productivity. Biochars have been reported to be of potential value in agriculture for improving soil properties and in reducing the hazards caused by soil acidification and in naturally acidic soils. However, the ameliorant effects of biochars on acid soils and the mechanisms involved have not previously been critically reviewed...
January 4, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063128/improved-production-of-doubled-haploids-of-winter-and-spring-triticale-hybrids-via-combination-of-colchicine-treatments-on-anthers-and-regenerated-plants
#15
Aurelia Ślusarkiewicz-Jarzina, Hanna Pudelska, Jolanta Woźna, Tomasz Pniewski
Double haploids (DH), obtained during androgenesis in vitro or by genome diploidisation in regenerated haploids, are one type of basic materials used in triticale breeding programmes. The aim of this study was to improve DH production by a combination of colchicine treatment methods on a sample of five winter and five spring triticale hybrids. Colchicine was applied in vitro either in the C17 medium to induce embryo-like structures (ELS) or in the 190-2 medium for green plant (GP) development. Regenerants which remained haploid were immersed in a colchicine solution either when placed on the medium prior to transferring to soil or when growing in pots, followed by the application or absence of cooling...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062461/diverse-bacteria-affiliated-with-the-genera-microvirga-phyllobacterium-and-bradyrhizobium-nodulate-lupinus-micranthus-growing-in-soils-of-northern-tunisia
#16
Abdelhakim Msaddak, David Durán, Mokhtar Rejili, Mohamed Mars, Tomás Ruiz-Argüeso, Juan Imperial, José Palacios, Luis Rey
: The genetic diversity of bacterial populations nodulating Lupinus micranthus in five geographical sites from Northern Tunisia was examined. Phylogenetic analyses of fifty isolates based on recA and gyrB gene partial sequences grouped strains in seven clusters, five of which belong to genus Bradyrhizobium (28 isolates), one to Phyllobacterium (2 isolates), and one, remarkably, to Microvirga (20 isolates). The largest Bradyrhizobium cluster (17 isolates) grouped with the B. lupini species and the other five clusters were close to different, recently defined Bradyrhizobium species...
January 6, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057418/improving-the-product-stability-and-fertilizer-value-of-cattle-slurry-solid-fraction-through-co-composting-or-co-ensiling
#17
Jarinda Viaene, Victoria Nelissen, Bert Reubens, Koen Willekens, Frank Driehuis, Stefaan De Neve, Bart Vandecasteele
Separating dairy cattle slurry in a liquid and solid fraction (SF) is gaining more interest, since it enables a more targeted use of both fractions. However, the valorization of the SF is limited on P-rich soils, due to its high P content, and the export or use as bedding material requires sanitation. Therefore, we investigated the influence of composting or ensiling the SF, whether or not mixed with bulking agents, on the product quality in terms of fertilizer value, sanitation and stability. Ensiling can be considered as a controlled storage method for conserving C and nutrients...
January 2, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053585/comparative-efficacy-of-different-approaches-to-managing-meloidogyne-incognita-on-green-bean
#18
Ahmad S Al-Hazmi, Ahmed A M Dawabah, Saleh N Al-Nadhari, Fahad A Al-Yahya
A greenhouse study was conducted to compare the relative efficacy of different approaches to managing Meloidogyne incognita on green bean. These approaches included chemical (fumigant, non-fumigant, seed dressing, and seed dip), biological (the egg-parasitic fungus, Paecilomyces lilacinus and the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus sp.), physical (soil solarization), and cultural (chicken litter and urea) methods. Accordingly, nine different control materials and application methods plus nematode-infected and non-infected controls were compared...
January 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052498/solute-and-sediment-export-from-amazon-forest-and-soybean-headwater-streams
#19
Shelby H Riskin, Christopher Neill, KathiJo Jankowski, Alex V Krusche, Richard McHorney, Helmut Elsenbeer, Marcia N Macedo, Darlisson Nunes, Stephen Porder
Intensive cropland agriculture commonly increases streamwater solute concentrations and export from small watersheds. In recent decades, the lowland tropics have become the world's largest and most important region of cropland expansion. Although the effects of intensive cropland agriculture on streamwater chemistry and watershed export have been widely studied in temperate regions, their effects in tropical regions are poorly understood. We sampled seven headwater streams draining watersheds in forest (n = 3) or soybeans (n = 4) to examine the effects of soybean cropping on stream solute concentrations and watershed export in a region of rapid soybean expansion in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso...
January 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052075/field-based-estimates-of-global-warming-potential-in-bioenergy-systems-of-hawaii-crop-choice-and-deficit-irrigation
#20
Meghan N Pawlowski, Susan E Crow, Manyowa N Meki, James R Kiniry, Andrew D Taylor, Richard Ogoshi, Adel Youkhana, Mae Nakahata
Replacing fossil fuel with biofuel is environmentally viable from a climate change perspective only if the net greenhouse gas (GHG) footprint of the system is reduced. The effects of replacing annual arable crops with perennial bioenergy feedstocks on net GHG production and soil carbon (C) stock are critical to the system-level balance. Here, we compared GHG flux, crop yield, root biomass, and soil C stock under two potential tropical, perennial grass biofuel feedstocks: conventional sugarcane and ratoon-harvested, zero-tillage napiergrass...
2017: PloS One
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