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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348064/magnetic-mapping-of-distribution-of-wood-ash-used-for-fertilization-of-forest-soil
#1
Eduard Petrovský, Jiří Remeš, Aleš Kapička, Vilém Podrázský, Hana Grison, Luboš Borůvka
The effect of wood-ash fertilization on forest soils has been assessed mainly through geochemical methods (e.g., content of soil organic matter or nutrients). However, a simple and fast method of determining the distribution of the ash and the extent of affected soil is missing. In this study we present the use of magnetic susceptibility, which is controlled by Fe-oxides, in comparing the fertilized soil in the forest plantation of pine and oak with intact forest soil. Spatial and vertical distribution of magnetic susceptibility was measured in an oak and pine plantation next to stems of young plants, where wood ash was applied as fertilizer...
January 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348059/synthesis-and-evaluation-of-a-superabsorbent-fertilizer-composite-for-maximizing-the-nutrient-and-water-use-efficiency-in-forestry-plantations
#2
E Tubert, V A Vitali, M S Alvarez, F A Tubert, I Baroli, G Amodeo
Reducing fertilizer use is a priority in the quest for sustainable forestry systems. In short rotation Eucalyptus plantations, NPK pellets are routinely added to the seedling's top soil layer at planting, potentially leading to increased seedling mortality, nutrient loss and environmental degradation. To address this triple challenge, the development of efficient fertilization practices is essential. In the present work, we synthesized a crosslinked acrylic-cellulosic superabsorbent composite (SAPH-BAL) containing small amounts of specific nutrients integrated in the polymer matrix...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340863/effects-of-urease-and-nitrification-inhibitors-on-the-soil-mineral-nitrogen-dynamics-and-nitrous-oxide-n2o-emissions-on-calcareous-soil
#3
Rui Tao, Jun Li, Yu Guan, Yongchao Liang, Baowei Hu, Jun Lv, Guixin Chu
Urease inhibitors and nitrification inhibitors can reduce nitrogen (N) loss in agriculture soil. However, the effect of inhibitors on soil N2O emissions under the drip irrigation system remains unclear. A pot and a field experiment with two inhibitors were conducted to explore how inhibitors regulate soil nitrogen transformation and N2O emissions. In the pot experiment, three treatments included control, urea, and urea + N-(n-butyl)thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT, urease inhibitor). In the field experiment, three treatments included control, urea, and urea + NBPT + 2-chloro-6-(trichloromethyl)pyridine (nitrapyrin, nitrification inhibitor)...
January 17, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339265/spatio-temporal-distribution-of-soil-nitrogen-in-poyang-lake-ecological-economic-zone-south-china
#4
Yefeng Jiang, Lei Rao, Kai Sun, Yi Han, Xi Guo
Revealing the spatio-temporal distribution of soil nitrogen (N) contributes to N management and prevention of N pollution. The objective of this work is to study the spatio-temporal distribution of soil N and their driving factors in the topsoil (0-20 cm) of farmland in Yugan county, China in 1982 and 2012. Data were collected from 200 sampling sites of the second national soil survey in Yugan in 1982 and 423 sampling sites of the soil testing and formula fertilization project in 2012. On average total N (TN) and available N (AN) significantly increased from 1...
January 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338085/the-century-experiment-the-first-twenty-years-of-uc-davis-mediterranean-agroecological-experiment
#5
Kristina M Wolf, Emma E Torbert, Dennis Bryant, Martin Burger, R Ford Denison, Israel Herrera, Jan Hopmans, Will Horwath, Stephen Kaffka, Angela Y Y Kong, R F Norris, Johan Six, Thomas P Tomich, Kate M Scow
The Century Experiment at the Russell Ranch Sustainable Agriculture Facility at the University of California, Davis provides long-term agroecological data from row crop systems in California's Central Valley starting in 1993. The Century Experiment was initially designed to study the effects of a gradient of water and nitrogen availability on soil properties and crop performance in ten different cropping systems to measure tradeoffs and synergies between agricultural productivity and sustainability. Currently systems include 11 different cropping systems-consisting of four different crops and a cover crop mixture-and one native grass system...
January 16, 2018: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335873/agricultural-non-point-source-pollution-management-in-a-reservoir-watershed-based-on-ecological-network-analysis-of-soil-nitrogen-cycling
#6
Wen Xu, Yanpeng Cai, Qiangqiang Rong, Zhifeng Yang, Chunhui Li, Xuan Wang
The Miyun Reservoir plays a pivotal role in providing drinking water for the city of Beijing. In this research, ecological network analysis and scenario analysis were integrated to explore soil nitrogen cycling of chestnut and Chinese pine forests in the upper basin of the Miyun Reservoir, as well as to seek favorable fertilization modes to reduce agricultural non-point source pollution. Ecological network analysis results showed that (1) the turnover time was 0.04 to 0.37 year in the NH4+ compartment and were 15...
January 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332147/phosphorus-allocation-and-phosphatase-activity-in-grasses-with-different-growth-rates
#7
Leandro Bittencourt de Oliveira, Anderson Cesar Ramos Marques, Fernando Luiz Ferreira de Quadros, Júlia Gomes Farias, Rogério Piccin, Gustavo Brunetto, Fernando Teixeira Nicoloso
Different growth rates of grasses from South American natural grasslands are adaptations to soils of low fertility. Grasses with fast growth rate are species with an accumulation of nutrients in soluble forms, with a high metabolic rate. This work aimed to study whether grasses with different growth rates have different phosphorus (P) uptake and efficiency of P use with high and low P availability in soil, as well as whether phosphatase activity is related to the species growth rate and variations in P biochemical forms in the tissues...
January 13, 2018: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330622/association-of-soil-potassium-and-sodium-concentrations-with-spatial-disparities-of-prevalence-and-mortality-rates-of-hypertensive-diseases-in-the-usa
#8
Hongbing Sun
Crop available soil potassium is generally low and on the decline in the southeastern states of the USA because of the increasing crop and runoff removal and decreasing application of potassium fertilizer. Hypertension-related mortality rates are also high in the southeastern states and are on the rise. Among 41 elements analyzed from 4856 sites across all 48 states, potassium is identified as the only independent element whose soil concentration has significant association with spatial disparities of essential hypertension and hypertension-related mortality rates in the 48 states between 1999 and 2014...
January 12, 2018: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330452/assessment-of-the-responses-of-soil-pore-properties-to-combined-soil-structure-amendments-using-x-ray-computed-tomography
#9
Yonghui Yang, Jicheng Wu, Shiwei Zhao, Qingyuan Han, Xiaoying Pan, Fang He, Chun Chen
Soil amendments, such as straw mulch, organic fertilizers and superabsorbent polymer (SAP), are extensively applied to improve soil structure and porosity, and we reported the functional consequences of the individual application of these amendments in our previous study. However, whether combined amendments are more effective than their individual applications for improving soil pore structure is unknown. Here, we conducted X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanning on undisturbed soil columns to investigate the efficiency of two-amendment application, including straw mulch and organic manure, SAP and organic manure, or SAP and straw mulch, for improving soil pore properties and pore distribution...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329086/effect-of-exogenous-phosphate-on-the-lability-and-phytoavailability-of-arsenic-in-soils
#10
Jinjin Wang, Xibai Zeng, Hao Zhang, Yongtao Li, Shizhen Zhao, Shiming Su, Lingyu Bai, Yanan Wang, Tuo Zhang
The effect of exogenous phosphate (P, 200 mg⋅kg-1 soil) on the lability and phytoavailability of arsenic (As) was studied using the diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique. Lettuce were grown on the As-amended soils following the stabilization of soil labile As after 90 days incubation. Phosphate (P) application generally facilitated plant growth except one grown on P-sufficient soil. Soil labile As concentration increased in all the soils after P application due to a competition effect. Plant As concentration increased in red soils collected from Hunan Province, while decreases were observed in the other soils...
December 30, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327196/biochar-amendment-with-fertilizers-increases-peanut-n-uptake-alleviates-soil-n2o-emissions-without-affecting-nh3-volatilization-in-field-experiments
#11
Guangcai Tan, Hongyuan Wang, Nan Xu, Hongbin Liu, Limei Zhai
Biochar application to soil is currently widely advocated for a variety of reasons related to sustainability. However, the synergistic effects of biochar combined with mineral or organic fertilizer on soil N2O emissions, NH3 volatilization, and plant N uptake are poorly documented. Field plot experiments planted with peanut were conducted under the application of biochar (derived from rice husk and cottonseed husk, 50 t ha-1) with organic or mineral fertilizer. It was found that biochar increased soil nutrient availability and decreased surface soil bulk density, demonstrating that biochar could improve the soil quality especially in the 0-20-cm profile...
January 12, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324992/increasing-and-declining-native-species-in-urban-remnant-grasslands-respond-differently-to-nitrogen-addition-and-disturbance
#12
Ben J Zeeman, John W Morgan
Background and Aims: Atmospheric nitrogen deposition and natural fire regime suppression are key drivers of vegetation change in urbanizing grasslands. Some species thrive under these conditions, while others face local extinction. In the natural grasslands that surround Melbourne, Australia, biotic homogenization has occurred with intensifying urbanization. Some native species have become rarer (decreaser species) across the landscape, while others have become more widespread (increaser species)...
January 9, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324980/traits-determining-the-digestibility-decomposability-relationships-in-species-from-mediterranean-rangelands
#13
Iris Bumb, Eric Garnier, Sylvain Coq, Johanne Nahmani, Maria Del Rey Granado, Olivier Gimenez, Elena Kazakou
Background and Aims: Forage quality for herbivores and litter quality for decomposers are two key plant properties affecting ecosystem carbon and nutrient cycling. Although there is a positive relationship between palatability and decomposition, very few studies have focused on larger vertebrate herbivores while considering links between the digestibility of living leaves and stems and the decomposability of litter and associated traits. The hypothesis tested is that some defences of living organs would reduce their digestibility and, as a consequence, their litter decomposability, through 'afterlife' effects...
January 6, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324845/soil-microbial-communities-and-enzyme-activities-in-sea-buckthorn-hippophae-rhamnoides-plantation-at-different-ages
#14
Miao Yang, Dan Yang, Xuan Yu
The aim of this study was to assess the impact of forest age and season on the soil microbial community and enzyme activities in sea-buckthorn plantation system and to determine the relative contributions to soil microbial properties. Soil sampling was carried out in the dry season (April) and wet season (September) in four areas, including: abandoned farmland (NH), an 8-year- old plantation (young plantation, 8Y), a 13-year-old plantation (middle-aged plantation, 13Y), and an 18-year-old plantation (mature plantation, 18Y)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324750/biochar-derived-from-corn-straw-affected-availability-and-distribution-of-soil-nutrients-and-cotton-yield
#15
Xiaofei Tian, Chengliang Li, Min Zhang, Yongshan Wan, Zhihua Xie, Baocheng Chen, Wenqing Li
Biochar application as a soil amendment has been proposed as a strategy to improve soil fertility and increase crop yields. However, the effects of successive biochar applications on cotton yields and nutrient distribution in soil are not well documented. A three-year field study was conducted to investigate the effects of successive biochar applications at different rates on cotton yield and on the soil nutrient distribution in the 0-100 cm soil profile. Biochar was applied at 0, 5, 10, and 20 t ha-1 (expressed as Control, BC5, BC10, and BC20, respectively) for each cotton season, with identical doses of chemical fertilizers...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323793/atmospheric-nitrogen-deposition-on-petals-enhances-seed-quality-of-the-forest-herb-anemone-nemorosa
#16
Pieter De Frenne, Haben Blondeel, Jörg Brunet, Maria Mercedes Caron, Olivier Chabrerie, Mathias Cougnon, Sara A O Cousins, Guillaume Decocq, Martin Diekmann, Bente J Graae, Mick E Hanley, Thilo Heinken, Martin Hermy, Annette Kolb, Jonathan Lenoir, Jaan Liira, Anna Orczewska, Anna Shevtsova, Thomas Vanneste, Kris Verheyen
Elevated atmospheric input of nitrogen (N) is currently affecting plant biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. The growth and survival of numerous plant species is known to respond strongly to N fertilization. Yet, few studies have assessed the effects of N deposition on seed quality and reproductive performance, which is an important life-history stage of plants. Here we address this knowledge gap by assessing the effects of atmospheric N deposition on seed quality of the ancient forest herb Anemone nemorosa using two complementary approaches...
January 11, 2018: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323411/demographic-quantification-of-carbon-and-nitrogen-dynamics-associated-with-root-turnover-in-white-clover
#17
Gavin D Scott, John A Baddeley, Christine A Watson, David Robinson
As well as capturing resources, roots lose resources during their lives. We quantified carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) losses associated with root turnover in white clover (Trifolium repens L.). We grew contrasting cultivars for 18 weeks in soil microcosms. Using repeated in situ observations, destructive sampling, and demographic analysis, we measured changes in C and N concentrations in dry matter of 1st - or 2nd -order (terminal) roots to derive C and N fluxes into and out of root cohorts. C and N fluxes from roots during turnover depended on cohort age and order...
January 11, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323288/impacts-of-simulated-erosion-and-soil-amendments-on-greenhouse-gas-fluxes-and-maize-yield-in-miamian-soil-of-central-ohio
#18
Yanru Liang, Rattan Lal, Shengli Guo, Ruiqiang Liu, Yaxian Hu
Erosion-induced topsoil loss is a threat to sustainable productivity. Topsoil removal from, or added to, the existing surface is an efficient technique to simulate on-site soil erosion and deposition. A 15-year simulated erosion was conducted at Waterman Farm of Ohio State University to assess impacts of topsoil depth on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and maize yield. Three topsoil treatments were investigated: 20 cm topsoil removal, 20 cm topsoil addition, and undisturbed control. Results show that the average global warming potential (GWP) (Mg CO2 Eq ha-1 growing season-1) from the topsoil removal plot (18...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322391/feet-in-danger-short-exposure-to-contaminated-soil-causing-health-damage-an-experimental-study
#19
Flavio Manoel Rodrigues da Silva Júnior, Edlaine Acosta Pinto, Tatiane Britto da Silveira, Edariane Menestrino Garcia, Adriane Maria Netto de Oliveira, Ana Luíza Muccillo-Baisch
In this study, hematological and behavioral changes in Wistar rats exposed to soil collected from urban areas next to an industrial complex were investigated. Animals were exposed to soil samples placed at the bottom of cages for 4 days. After this period, behavioral parameters were measured by the open field test and the elevated plus-maze. Blood was collected to measure hematological parameters. The soil from the vicinity of the oil refining industry caused changes in hematological parameters and altered behavioral parameters in both tests...
January 10, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322104/soil-total-carbon-and-nitrogen-and-crop-yields-after-eight-years-of-tillage-crop-rotation-and-cultural-practice
#20
Upendra M Sainju, Andrew W Lenssen, Brett L Allen, William B Stevens, Jalal D Jabro
Information on the long-term effect of management practices on soil C and N stocks is lacking. An experiment was conducted from 2004 to 2011 in the northern Great Plains, USA to examine the effects of tillage, crop rotation, and cultural practice on annualized crop residue (stems + leaves) returned to the soil and grain yield, and soil total C (STC) and total N (STN) stocks at the 0-120 cm depth. Tillage practices were no-tillage (NT) and conventional tillage (CT) and crop rotations were continuous spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L...
December 2017: Heliyon
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