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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778049/toxicity-screening-of-biochar-mineral-composites-using-germination-tests
#1
Jan Mumme, Josephine Getz, Munoo Prasad, Ulf Lüder, Jürgen Kern, Ondřej Mašek, Wolfram Buss
This study assessed the properties and toxicity (water cress germination trials) of 38 waste-derived, novel biochar-mineral composites (BMCs) produced via slow pyrolysis and hydrothermal carbonization (hydrochars). The biochars were produced from sewage sludge and compost-like output (CLO) by varying the type of mineral additive (zeolite, wood ash and lignite fly ash), the mineral-to-feedstock ratio and the carbonization process. While pure hydrochars completely inhibited germination of water cress, this effect was ameliorated by mineral additives...
May 8, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726244/-cadmium-adsorption-by-biochar-prepared-from-pyrolysis-of-silk-waste-at-different-temperatures
#2
Hai Yang Ji, Yu Ying Wang, Hao Hao Lyu, Yu Xue Liu, Rui Qin Yang, Sheng Mao Yang
In this study, biochars (BC300, BC500 and BC700) were produced from silk waste through pyrolysis under oxygen-limited condition at 300, 500 and 700 ℃, respectively. The physicochemical properties of biochar were detected by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and specific surface area analyzer. The Cd2+ adsorption capacities of biochars were investigated. Results showed that BET surface area, pH, and ash were increased with the increases of pyrolysis temperature...
April 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673995/investigating-the-adsorption-behavior-and-the-relative-distribution-of-cd-2-sorption-mechanisms-on-biochars-by-different-feedstock
#3
Rong-Zhong Wang, Dan-Lian Huang, Yun-Guo Liu, Chen Zhang, Cui Lai, Guang-Ming Zeng, Min Cheng, Xiao-Min Gong, Jia Wan, Hao Luo
The objective of this study was to investigate the adsorption behavior and the relative distribution of Cd2+ sorption mechanisms on biochars by different feedstock. Bamboo biochars (BBCs), corn straw biochars (CBCs) and pig manure biochars (PBCs) were prepared at 300-700 °C. Adsorption results showed PBCs have the best adsorption capacity for Cd2+ , the extra adsorption capacity of PBCs mainly attributed to the precipitation or cation exchange, which played an important role in the removal of Cd2+ by PBCs...
April 10, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665534/effect-of-minerals-on-the-stability-of-biochar
#4
Yan Yang, Ke Sun, Lanfang Han, Jie Jin, Haoran Sun, Yu Yang, Baoshan Xing
The stability of biochar is a major determinant of its potential for carbon sequestration. In previous studies, the biochar stability was evaluated by analyzing the oxidation resistance property of biochar, for which, K2 Cr2 O7 /H2 O2 oxidation and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were widely used to measure the high oxidation resistance of biochars. In this study, rice straw (RI)- and swine manure (SW)-derived biochars produced at different heating treatment temperatures (HTTs) and their corresponding de-ashed biochars and iron-biochars were selected to investigate the effect of minerals on these biochars stability...
April 12, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621679/biochar-wood-ash-and-humic-substances-mitigating-trace-elements-stress-in-contaminated-sandy-loam-soil-evidence-from-an-integrative-approach
#5
Mariia Pukalchik, Filip Mercl, Vera Terekhova, Pavel Tlustoš
We conducted a pot experiment with biochar (BC), wood ash (WA), and humic substances (HS) to investigate their effect on As, Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb mobility in soil, as well as enzyme activities involved in C-, N-, and P-cycles, and Eisenia foetida toxicity in multi-contaminated soils. Amendments were dosed to increase еру soil pH from initial 6.0 to ∼6.5 and ∼7.0. Applying amendments has revealed, that WA significantly immobilized Cu, Zn and Pb, BC - Cu and Zn, and HS decreased solely Cu mobility in soil...
March 28, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605747/sorption-mechanisms-of-chlorinated-hydrocarbons-on-biochar-produced-from-different-feedstocks-conclusions-from-single-and-bi-solute-experiments
#6
Inga J Schreiter, Wolfgang Schmidt, Christoph Schüth
Biochar is increasingly deemed a potential sorbent for contaminants in soil and water remediation. We tested three biochars from different feedstocks (cattle manure, grain husk, and wood chips) produced at relatively low pyrolysis temperature (450 °C), for their sorption behavior towards trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) in single- and bi-solute systems. In single-solute experiments, all biochars show stronger sorption for TCE (about 50% based on solubility-normalized Freundlich coefficients)...
March 26, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574374/changes-in-heavy-metal-bioavailability-and-speciation-from-a-pb-zn-mining-soil-amended-with-biochars-from-co-pyrolysis-of-rice-straw-and-swine-manure
#7
Jun Meng, Mengming Tao, Lili Wang, Xingmei Liu, Jianming Xu
Biochar has been utilized as a good amendment to immobilize heavy metals in contaminated soils. However, the effectiveness of biochar in metal immobilization depends on biochar properties and metal species. In this study, the biochars produced from co-pyrolysis of rice straw with swine manure at 400°C were investigated to evaluate their effects on bioavailability and chemical speciation of four heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) in a Pb-Zn contaminated soil through incubation experiment. Results showed that co-pyrolysis process significantly change the yield, ash content, pH, and electrical conductivity (EC) of the blended biochars compared with the single straw/manure biochar...
March 22, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534867/charcoal-from-anaerobically-digested-dairy-fiber-for-removal-of-hydrogen-sulfide-within-biogas
#8
Manuel Raul Pelaez-Samaniego, Matt W Smith, Quanbao Zhao, Tsai Garcia-Perez, Craig Frear, Manuel Garcia-Perez
Anaerobically digested fibrous solid (AD fiber) is an abundant material that offers potential to produce value-added products such as biochar. The objective of this paper is to better understand how thermochemical processing conditions affect the capacity of biochars derived from AD fiber to adsorb H2 S from biogas. AD fiber was pyrolyzed in an electric tube reactor at temperatures up to 600 °C and 60 min. The chars were employed for H2 S scrubbing tests from a synthetic biogas. Results showed that the chars' capacity for H2 S removal is comparable to that of activated carbon...
March 10, 2018: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429110/phosphorus-sorption-capacity-of-biochars-varies-with-biochar-type-and-salinity-level
#9
Abdelhafid Ahmed Dugdug, Scott X Chang, Yong Sik Ok, Anushka Upamali Rajapaksha, Anthony Anyia
Biochar is recognized as an effective material for recovering excess nutrients, including phosphorus (P), from aqueous solutions. Practically, that benefits the environment through reducing P losses from biochar-amended soils; however, how salinity influences P sorption by biochar is poorly understood and there has been no direct comparison on P sorption capacity between biochars derived from different feedstock types under non-saline and saline conditions. In this study, biochars derived from wheat straw, hardwood, and willow wood were used to compare P sorption at three levels of electrical conductivity (EC) (0, 4, and 8 dS m-1 ) to represent a wide range of salinity conditions...
February 10, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289000/pine-sawdust-biomass-and-biochars-at-different-pyrolysis-temperatures-change-soil-redox-processes
#10
Yasser Mahmoud Awad, Yong Sik Ok, Jens Abrigata, Jingzi Beiyuan, Felix Beckers, Daniel C W Tsang, Jörg Rinklebe
To date, no investigation has been carried out to explore the effects of biochars produced at different pyrolysis temperatures on the dynamics of redox potential (EH ) and pH in a contaminated floodplain soil. Thus, we aimed to quantify the dynamics of EH and pH in contaminated flooded soils treated with 70tha-1 of pine sawdust biomass (S&BM) and biochars pyrolyzed at 300°C (S&BC300) and 550°C (S&BC550) and pre-incubated for 105days in an automated biogeochemical microcosm system. Microbial community composition was also determined via analyzing phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA)...
June 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247944/sorption-mechanisms-of-neonicotinoids-on-biochars-and-the-impact-of-deashing-treatments-on-biochar-structure-and-neonicotinoids-sorption
#11
Peng Zhang, Hongwen Sun, Chao Ren, Lujuan Min, Huiming Zhang
To elucidate the sorption affinity of biochars for neonicotinoid pesticides and the influence of biochar structure on sorption mechanisms therein, 24 biochar samples were obtained by pyrolyzing maize straw and pig manure at pyrolyzing temperatures (PTs) of 200-700 °C and by further deashing them using acids, and the sorption of three typical neonicotinoids, imidacloprid, clothianidin and thiacloprid on untreated and acid-deashed biochars were evaluated. All the biochar samples could efficiently adsorb the three neonicotinoids and multiple mechanisms were involved in sorption...
March 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126051/oxidation-resistance-of-biochars-as-a-function-of-feedstock-and-pyrolysis-condition
#12
Lanfang Han, Kyoung S Ro, Yu Wang, Ke Sun, Haoran Sun, Judy A Libra, Baoshan Xing
Assessing biochar's ability to resist oxidation is fundamental to understanding its potential to sequester carbon. Chemical oxidation exhibits good performance in estimating the oxidation resistance of biochar. Herein, oxidation resistance of 14 types of biochars produced from four feedstocks at different pyrolysis conditions (hydrothermal versus thermal carbonization) was investigated via hydrogen peroxide oxidation with varying concentrations. The oxidation resistance of organic carbon (C) of hydrochars was relatively higher than that of 250°C pyrochars (P250) but was comparable to that of 450°C pyrochars (P450)...
March 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951151/the-rdf-srf-torrefaction-an-effect-of-temperature-on-characterization-of-the-product-carbonized-refuse-derived-fuel
#13
Andrzej Białowiec, Jakub Pulka, Paweł Stępień, Piotr Manczarski, Janusz Gołaszewski
The influence of Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF)/Solid Recovery Fuel (SRF) torrefaction temperature on product characteristic was investigated. RDF/SRF thermal treatment experiment was conducted with 1-h residence time, under given temperatures: 200, 220, 240, 260, 280 and 300°C. Sawdust was used as reference material. The following parameters of torrefaction char from sawdust and Carbonized Refuse Derived Fuel (CRDF) from RDF/SRF were measured: moisture, calorific value, ash content, volatile compounds and sulfur content...
December 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898073/immobilizing-arsenic-and-copper-ions-in-manure-using-a-nanocomposite
#14
Dongfang Wang, Guilong Zhang, Linglin Zhou, Dongqing Cai, Zhengyan Wu
Livestock manure (Man) commonly contains a certain quantity of heavy metal ions, such as arsenic (As) and copper (Cu) ions, resulting in a high risk on soil contamination. To solve this problem, heavy metal of manure was immobilized into sodium carbonate/biosilica/attapulgite composite (Na2 CO3 /BioSi/Attp), which was developed using a nanocomposite consisting of anhydrous sodium carbonate (Na2 CO3 ), straw ash-based biochar and biosilica (BioSi), and attapulgite (Attp). When Na2 CO3 /BioSi/Attp was mixed with Man/AsCu, the obtained nanocomposite (Na2 CO3 /BioSi/Attp/Man/AsCu) with a porous nano-network structure could effectively control the release of As and Cu ions from manure through adsorption and chemical reaction...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869124/synergistic-dye-adsorption-by-biochar-from-co-pyrolysis-of-spent-mushroom-substrate-and-saccharina-japonica
#15
Divine Damertey Sewu, Patrick Boakye, Hwansoo Jung, Seung Han Woo
The potential of activating terrestrial biomass (spent mushroom substrate, SMS) with ash-laden marine biomass [kelp seaweed, KE] via co-pyrolysis in the field of adsorption was first investigated. KE biochar (KBC), SMS biochar (SMSBC), biochar (SK10BC) from 10%-KE added SMS, and biochar (ESBC) from KE-extract added SMS were used for the adsorption of cationic dye crystal violet (CV). ESBC had highest fixed carbon content (70.60%) and biochar yield (31.6%). SK10BC exhibited high ash content, abundant functional groups, coarser surface morphology and Langmuir maximum adsorptive capacity (610...
November 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844438/air-gasification-of-biogas-derived-digestate-in-a-downdraft-fixed-bed-gasifier
#16
Guanyi Chen, Xiang Guo, Zhanjun Cheng, Beibei Yan, Zeng Dan, Wenchao Ma
Digestate is a byproduct from biomass anaerobic digestion process. Gasification of dried digestate to produce gasesous product might be a promising route. In this work, air gasification of digestate with high ash content was performed in a downdraft fixed bed gasifier at temperature varying from 600°C to 800°C and air equivalence ratio (ER) ranging from 0.25 to 0.30. The ash melting properties were firstly detected by the Intelligent Ash Melting Point Test, and the by-products (biochar and ash) were analyzed...
November 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781203/dilute-sulfuric-acid-hydrolysis-of-red-macroalgae-eucheuma-denticulatum-with-microwave-assisted-heating-for-biochar-production-and-sugar-recovery
#17
Yong Yi Teh, Keat Teong Lee, Wei-Hsin Chen, Shih-Cheng Lin, Herng-Kuang Sheen, Inn Shi Tan
This study aims to produce biochar and sugars from a macroalga Eucheuma denticulatum using dilute sulfuric acid hydrolysis along with microwave-assisted heating. The reactions were operated at sulfuric acid concentrations of 0.1 and 0.2M, reaction temperatures of 150-170°C and a heating time of 10min. Compared to the raw macroalga, biochar qualities were improved with increased carbon content and lower ash and moisture contents. The calorific value of the biochar could be intensified up to 45%, and 39% of energy yield was recovered...
July 21, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664248/biochar-physicochemical-parameters-as-a-result-of-feedstock-material-and-pyrolysis-temperature-predictable-for-the-fate-of-biochar-in-soil
#18
Kateřina Břendová, Jiřina Száková, Miloslav Lhotka, Tereza Krulikovská, Miroslav Punčochář, Pavel Tlustoš
Biochar application is a widely investigated topic nowadays, and precisely described biochar parameters are key information for the understanding of its behaviour in soil and other media. Pore structure and surface properties determine biochar fate. However, there is lack of complex, investigative studies describing the influence of biomass properties and pyrolysis conditions on the pore structure of biochars. The aim of our study was to evaluate a wide range of gathered agriculture residues and elevated pyrolysis temperature on the biochar surface properties and pore composition, predicting biochar behaviour in the soil...
December 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637163/the-impacts-of-biomass-properties-on-pyrolysis-yields-economic-and-environmental-performance-of-the-pyrolysis-bioenergy-biochar-platform-to-carbon-negative-energy
#19
Wenqin Li, Qi Dang, Robert C Brown, David Laird, Mark M Wright
This study evaluated the impact of biomass properties on the pyrolysis product yields, economic and environmental performance for the pyrolysis-biochar-bioenergy platform. We developed and applied a fast pyrolysis, feedstock-sensitive, regression-based chemical process model to 346 different feedstocks, which were grouped into five types: woody, stalk/cob/ear, grass/plant, organic residue/product and husk/shell/pit. The results show that biomass ash content of 0.3-7.7wt% increases biochar yield from 0.13 to 0...
October 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628867/the-improvement-of-multi-contaminated-sandy-loam-soil-chemical-and-biological-properties-by-the-biochar-wood-ash-and-humic-substances-amendments
#20
Maria Pukalchik, Filip Mercl, Maria Panova, Kateřina Břendová, Vera A Terekhova, Pavel Tlustoš
Nowadays trace metal contamination of soils represents an important environmental hazard. Nevertheless, the use of some secondary waste products as amendments may restore the common soil functions. This paper focuses on the chemical and biological influence of wood biochar (BC), wood ash (WA) and humic substances (HS), alone and in the mixtures, on a heavily multi-contaminated sandy loam soil. The soil was amended by above-mentioned materials to follow a pH-increasing design (pHCa from 6.0 to 6.5, 7.0 and 7...
October 2017: Environmental Pollution
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