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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448743/circular-rnas-with-hammerhead-ribozymes-encoded-in-eukaryotic-genomes-the-enemy-at-home
#1
Marcos de la Peña, Amelia Cervera
A new family of non-autonomous retrotransposons with self-cleaving hammerhead ribozymes, the so called retrozymes, has recently been found encoded in a number of plant genomes. These retroelements can be actively transcribed, and their RNAs accumulate in the cells as abundant non-coding circular RNAs (circRNAs) of small size (600-1000 nt). Related circRNAs with self-cleaving ribozymes had already been described in plants, and belong to a group of infectious RNA agents with an uncertain origin: the viroids and viroid-like satellites of plant RNA viruses...
April 27, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446879/the-mammalian-peptide-adrenomedullin-acts-as-a-growth-factor-in-tobacco-plants
#2
Rafael Peláez, María Niculcea, Alfredo Martínez
Growth factors are extracellular signals that regulate cell proliferation and total body mass. Some animal growth factors can work on plant tissues and vice versa. Here we show that the mammalian growth factor adrenomedullin (AM) induces growth in tobacco plants. Addition of synthetic AM resulted in a dose-dependent growth of tobacco calluses. Furthermore, AM transgenic plants showed enhanced survival and significant increases in stem diameter, plant height, leaf length, weight of all organs, and a reduction in the time to flowering when compared to plants transformed with the control vector...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445423/anthocyanin-profiles-in-flowers-of-grape-hyacinth
#3
Qian Lou, Lin Wang, Hongli Liu, Yali Liu
Grape hyacinth (Muscari spp.) is a popular ornamental bulbous perennial famous for its blue flowers. To understand the chemical basis of the rich blue colors in this plant, anthocyanin profiles of six blue flowering grape hyacinths as well as one pink and one white cultivar were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Along with two known compounds, eight putative anthocyanins were identified in the tepals of grape hyacinth for the first time. The accumulation and distribution of anthocyanins in the plant showed significant cultivar and flower development specificity...
April 26, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444386/coevolution-with-pollinating-resin-midges-led-to-resin-filled-nurseries-in-the-androecia-gynoecia-and-tepals-of-kadsura-schisandraceae
#4
Shi-Xiao Luo, Ting-Ting Liu, Fei Cui, Zi-Yin Yang, Xiao-Ying Hu, Susanne S Renner
Background and Aims: Resin is a defence against herbivores and a floral reward in a few African and South American species whose bee pollinators collect it for nest construction. Here we describe a new role for floral resin from the Asian genus Kadsura (Schisandraceae). Kadsura tepals tightly cover a globe formed by carpels (in females) or near-fused stamens with fleshy connectives (in male flowers of most, but not all species). Methods: We carried out field observations at four sites in China and used pollinator behavioural assays, chemical analyses and time-calibrated insect and plant phylogenies to investigate the specificity of the interactions and their relationship to floral structure...
April 21, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444378/how-efficient-is-apis-cerana-hymenoptera-apidae-in-pollinating-cabbage-brassica-oleracea-var-capitata-pollination-behavior-pollinator-effectiveness-pollinator-requirement-and-impact-of-pollination
#5
Johnson Stanley, Khushboo Sah, Avupati Rns Subbanna, G Preetha, JaiPrakash Gupta
Cabbage is a cross-pollinated crop because of sporophytic self-incompatibility, and honey bees play an important role in its pollination. Though Asian honey bees, Apis cerana F., are used in pollination of cabbage, the rate of visitation, behavior, pollinator efficacy, and impact on seed-set are to be determined. Apis cerana occupy a share of 19.18% of all the flower visitors of cabbage in natural habitat of North Western Indian Himalayas. Pollination behavior in terms of peak activity, flowers processed per unit time, time spent per flower, and time spent in search of flowers are studied separately for both pollen and nectar foragers...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443107/virus-based-microrna-silencing-and-overexpressing-in-common-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l
#6
Chao Jian, Ran Han, Qing Chi, Shijuan Wang, Meng Ma, Xiangli Liu, Huixian Zhao
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous small non-coding RNAs that arise from large RNA precursors with a stem-loop structure and play important roles in plant development and responses to environmental stress. Although a hundred and nineteen wheat miRNAs have been identified and registered in the miRBase (Release 21.0, June, 2014; http://www.mirbase.org), the functional characterization of these miRNAs in wheat growth and development is lagging due to lack of effective techniques to investigate endogenous miRNA functions in wheat...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443106/over-expression-of-ejlfy-1-leads-to-an-early-flowering-habit-in-strawberry-fragaria-%C3%A3-ananassa-and-its-asexual-progeny
#7
Yuexue Liu, Qian Zhao, Nan Meng, Huwei Song, Chaochao Li, Guibing Hu, Jincheng Wu, Shunquan Lin, Zhihong Zhang
As a master regulator involved in flower development, LEAFY-like gene has been demonstrated to play a key role in the flowering process regulation of angiosperms. Expression analysis of EjLFY-1, a LEAFY (LFY) homolog of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.), indicated its participation in the regulation of flowering in loquat. To verify its function and potential value in the genetic engineering to shorten the juvenile phase, ectopic expression of EjLFY-1 in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) was achieved using Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer of a plant expression vector with the loquat EjLFY-1 gene driven by the CaMV 35S promoter...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439621/qtl-mapping-of-domestication-and-diversifying-selection-related-traits-in-round-fruited-semi-wild-xishuangbanna-cucumber-cucumis-sativus-l-var-xishuangbannanesis
#8
Yupeng Pan, Shuping Qu, Kailiang Bo, Meiling Gao, Kristin R Haider, Yiqun Weng
QTL analysis revealed 11 QTL underlying flowering time and fruit size variation in the semi-wild Xishuangbanna cucumber, of which, FT6.2 and FS5.2 played the most important roles in determining photoperiod-dependent flowering time and round-fruit shape, respectively. Flowering time and fruit size are two important traits in domestication and diversifying selection in cucumber, but their genetic basis is not well understood. Here we reported QTL mapping results on flowering time and fruit size with F2 and F2:3 segregating populations derived from the cross between WI7200, a small fruited, early flowering primitive cultivated cucumber and WI7167, a round-fruited, later flowering semi-wild Xishuangbanna (XIS) cucumber...
April 24, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439467/floral-pathway-integrator-gene-expression-mediates-gradual-transmission-of-environmental-and-endogenous-cues-to-flowering-time
#9
Aalt D J van Dijk, Jaap Molenaar
The appropriate timing of flowering is crucial for the reproductive success of plants. Hence, intricate genetic networks integrate various environmental and endogenous cues such as temperature or hormonal statues. These signals integrate into a network of floral pathway integrator genes. At a quantitative level, it is currently unclear how the impact of genetic variation in signaling pathways on flowering time is mediated by floral pathway integrator genes. Here, using datasets available from literature, we connect Arabidopsis thaliana flowering time in genetic backgrounds varying in upstream signalling components with the expression levels of floral pathway integrator genes in these genetic backgrounds...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431195/feeding-behavior-and-activity-budget-of-the-southern-yellow-cheeked-crested-gibbons-nomascus-gabriellae-in-a-lowland-tropical-forest
#10
Thanh H Bach, Jin Chen, Minh D Hoang, Kingsly C Beng, Van T Nguyen
The southern yellow-cheeked crested gibbon (Nomascus gabriellae), an endangered species native to Vietnam and Cambodia, lives exclusively in undisturbed tropical forests and depends primarily on ripe fruit for food. Although this species is highly threatened, its ecology and conservation status remain relatively unknown. In order to understand how this heavily frugivorous primate adapts to the seasonal fluctuation of fruit resources in the forest, we collected feeding behavior and ranging activity data on one group of southern yellow-cheeked crested gibbons in Cat Tien National Park, Vietnam, over 1-year period...
April 21, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430865/unmet-needs-in-the-first-line-treatment-of-follicular-lymphoma
#11
C Casulo, L Nastoupil, N H Fowler, J W Friedberg, C R Flowers
For the majority of patients with newly diagnosed follicular lymphoma (FL), current treatments, while not curative, allow for long remission durations. However, several important needs remain unaddressed. Studies have consistently shown that approximately 20% of patients with FL experience disease progression within 2 years of first-line treatment, and consequently have a 50% risk of death in 5 years. Better characterization of this group of patients at diagnosis may provide insight into those in need of alternate or intensive therapies, facilitate a precision approach to inform clinical trials, and allow for improved patient counseling...
April 18, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430814/how-the-ovules-get-enclosed-in-magnoliaceous-carpels
#12
Xin Zhang, Wenzhe Liu, Xin Wang
Angiosperms distinguish themselves from gymnosperms by their ovules that are enclosed before pollination. However, how the ovules get enclosed in angiosperms remains a mystery, especially for Magnoliaceae. The only key to this mystery is finding a series of carpels transitional from fully closed with enclosed ovules to open with naked ovules. We use routine paraffin section technology, LM, SEM to document the morphology and anatomy of carpel variation in Michelia figo (Magnoliaceae). A series of carpel variations within a single flower of Michelia figo (Magnoliaceae) are documented, in which the ovules are exposed in atypical carpels...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428087/searching-for-new-sources-of-innovative-products-for-the-food-industry-within-halophyte-aromatic-plants-in-vitro-antioxidant-activity-and-phenolic-and-mineral-contents-of-infusions-and-decoctions-of-crithmum-maritimum-l
#13
Catarina Guerreiro Pereira, Luísa Barreira, Nuno da Rosa Neng, José Manuel Florêncio Nogueira, Cátia Marques, Tamára F Santos, João Varela, Luísa Custódio
Aromatic halophyte plants are an outstanding source of bioactive compounds and natural products with potential use in the food industry. This work reports the in vitro antioxidant activity, toxicity, polyphenolic profile and mineral contents of infusions and decoctions from stems, leaves and flowers of Crithmum maritimum L., an aromatic and edible maritime halophyte (sea fennel). Aspalathus linearis (Burm.f.) Dahlg. (rooibos) herbal tea was used as a reference. Sea fennel's tisanes, particularly from leaves, were rich in phenolic compounds and five of them (p-hydroxybenzoic and ferulic acids, epicatechin, pyrocatechol and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde) were here described in C...
April 17, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427633/an-efficient-approach-for-the-extraction-of-orientin-and-vitexin-from-trollius-chinensis-flowers-using-ultrasonic-circulating-technique
#14
Fengli Chen, Qiang Zhang, Junling Liu, Huiyan Gu, Lei Yang
Ultrasonic circulating extraction (UCE) approach was developed for effective extraction of orientin and vitexin from the flowers of Trollius chinensis successfully. In this study, some parameters potentially influencing the yields of orientin and vitexin were systematically investigated and optimized by Plackett-Burman and Box-Behnken design, and the optimum operational conditions obtained were 60% ethanol volume fraction, 1000r/min stirring speed, 30°C temperature, 28min ultrasonic irradiation time, 10mL/g liquid-solid ratio and 738W ultrasonic irradiation power...
July 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427103/saffron-flower-extract-promotes-scratch-wound-closure-of-keratinocytes-and-enhances-vegf-production
#15
Sheela Verjee, Eliane Garo, Sarah Pelaez, Orlando Fertig, Matthias Hamburger, Veronika Butterweck
During saffron (Crocus sativus) spice production, large amounts of floral biowaste are generated. It was the aim of this study to develop a value-added product from saffron floral biowaste to be used as a natural cosmetic ingredient. HPLC-PDA-MS analysis of saffron flower extracts revealed the presence of flavonols with the highest amounts in the acetone extract. Kaempferol-3-O-sophoroside was identified as the main flavonoid in the acetone extract (saffron flower acetone extract). Saffron flower acetone extract and kaempferol-3-O-sophoroside were tested in HaCaT cells for potential effects on cell migration, proliferation, and for anti-inflammatory properties...
April 20, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426060/hierarchically-scaffolded-cop-cop2-nanoparticles-controllable-synthesis-and-their-application-as-a-well-matched-bifunctional-electrocatalyst-for-overall-water-splitting
#16
Wan Li, Shilin Zhang, Qining Fan, Fazhi Zhang, Sailong Xu
Transition metal phosphide (TMP) nanostructures have stimulated increasing interest for use in water splitting owing to their abundant natural sources and high activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Typically, the preparation of hierarchical TMPs involves the utilization of expensive or dangerous phosphorus sources, and, in particular, the understanding of topotactic transformations of the precursors to crystalline phases-which could be utilized to enhance electrocatalytic performance-remains very limited...
April 20, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425947/deep-count-fruit-counting-based-on-deep-simulated-learning
#17
Maryam Rahnemoonfar, Clay Sheppard
Recent years have witnessed significant advancement in computer vision research based on deep learning. Success of these tasks largely depends on the availability of a large amount of training samples. Labeling the training samples is an expensive process. In this paper, we present a simulated deep convolutional neural network for yield estimation. Knowing the exact number of fruits, flowers, and trees helps farmers to make better decisions on cultivation practices, plant disease prevention, and the size of harvest labor force...
April 20, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424205/the-use-of-soil-pollen-to-determine-the-sex-of-overhead-individuals-of-a-temperate-dioecious-shrub
#18
Anna Sugiyama, Koji Shichi, Takashi Masaki, Stephen P Hubbell
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: In dioecious species, determining the sex of individual plants from one-time phenological observations is rarely feasible when some individuals capable of reproducing are not flowering or fruiting at the time of observation. Currently, sexing those individuals requires long-term phenological data on individuals and populations, but such data are rarely available or feasible to collect. We tested the hypothesis that differences in soil pollen concentrations beneath the crowns of female and male plants would exist and be sufficient to reliably determine the sex of the individual plant overhead in a dioecious species...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420049/the-spectrum-of-neuropsychiatric-lupus-in-a-black-caribbean-population-a-report-of-the-barbados-national-lupus-registry
#19
C Flower, I Hambleton, D Corbin, S Marquez, R Edghill
Objective The objective of this study was to examine neuropsychiatric lupus in a Black Caribbean population. Methods We reviewed Barbados National Lupus Registry patients with ≥4 American College of Rheumatology criteria and a diagnosis of neuropsychiatric lupus using the American College of Rheumatology 19 case definitions. Results From 366 patients with four or more American College of Rheumatology criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus, 55 (15%) had evidence of neuropsychiatric lupus. There were 51 females and four males (F:M = 13:1) with a median age of 31 years...
January 1, 2017: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419907/flc-expression-is-down-regulated-by-cold-treatment-in-diplotaxis-tenuifolia-wild-rocket-but-flowering-time-is-unaffected
#20
Jemma L Taylor, Andrea Massiah, Sue Kennedy, Yiguo Hong, Stephen D Jackson
Wild rocket (Diplotaxis tenuifolia) has become a very popular salad leaf due to its peppery taste. It is part of the Brassicaceae family and thus has a high level of homology at the DNA level to other Brassica species including Arabidopsis thaliana. The vernalization and photoperiodic requirements of wild rocket have not been reported to date. Photoperiodic experiments described here demonstrate that rocket is a facultative long day plant. To investigate the vernalization requirement, both seed and young plants were given vernalization treatments at 4°C for different lengths of time...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
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