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hematological pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147753/defective-wnt-signaling-associates-with-bone-marrow-fibrosis-a-cross-sectional-cohort-study-in-a-family-with-wnt1-osteoporosis
#1
R E Mäkitie, R Niinimäki, S Kakko, T Honkanen, P E Kovanen, O Mäkitie
This study explores bone marrow function in patients with defective WNT1 signaling. Bone marrow samples showed increased reticulin and altered granulopoiesis while overall hematopoiesis was normal. Findings did not associate with severity of osteoporosis. These observations provide new insight into the role of WNT signaling in bone marrow homeostasis. INTRODUCTION: WNT signaling regulates bone homeostasis and survival and self-renewal of hematopoietic stem cells. Aberrant activation may lead to osteoporosis and bone marrow pathology...
November 16, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145678/-thrombocytosis-and-thrombocytopenia-background-and-clinical-relevance
#2
Kai Wille, Parvis Sadjadian, Martin Griesshammer
Due to the central role of platelets in hemostasis, the clinical relevance of quantitative changes in platelet counts (< 150 G/l or > 450 G/l) may be significant. Thrombopoesis (= production of platelets) occurs in the bone marrow, and the hormone thrombopoetin takes control on its regulation.In thrombocytosis, primary causes have to be distinguished from the far more common reactive (= secondary) reasons. The most important form of primary thrombocytosis occurs in myeloproliferative neoplasms especially in essential thrombocythemia (ET)...
November 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141947/aging-of-hematopoietic-stem-cells
#3
Gerald de Haan, Seka Lazare
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) ensure a balanced production of all blood cells throughout life. As they age, HSCs gradually lose their self-renewal and regenerative potential, while the occurrence of cellular derailment strongly increases. Here we review our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms that contribute to HSC aging. We argue that most of the causes that underlie HSC aging result from cell-intrinsic pathways, and reflect on which aspects of the aging process may be reversible. As many hematological pathologies are strongly age-associated, strategies to intervene in aspects of the stem cell aging process may have significant clinical relevance...
November 15, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141946/age-related-clonal-hematopoiesis-arch
#4
Liran I Shlush
Age related alterations in the human blood system occur in B cells, T cells, cells of the innate system, as well as in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). Interestingly, age related, reduced genetic diversity can be identified both at the stem cell level, but also independently in B cells and T cells. This reduced diversity is most probably related to somatic mutations, or to changes in the micro-environmental niche. Either process can select for specific clones, or cause repeated evolutionary bottlenecks...
November 15, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137941/acute-and-sub-acute-oral-toxicity-studies-of-the-aqueous-extract-from-radix-radix-with-cortex-and-cortex-of-psammosilene-tunicoides-in-mice-and-rats
#5
Yi-Chen, Min-Xuan Wu, Jie-Liu, Xiao-Jie Ma, Jin-Li Shi, Sheng-Nan Wang, Zhi-Quan Zheng, Jian-You Guo
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Psammosilene tunicoides is one of the important ingredients of a famous Chinese traditional medicine formulation "Yunnan Baiyao". Also, this plant is commonly used as an anodyne and hemostatic agent in southwest China. Currently, little toxicological information is available on its safety following prolonged use. AIM OF THE STUDY: In this study, we sought to evaluate the toxicity of the three different parts of Psammosilene tunicoides: Psammosilenes Radix (PR), Psammosilenes Radix with Cortex (PRC) and Psammosilenes Cortex (PC) by acute and sub-acute toxicity studies...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128573/26-week-oral-chronic-toxicity-study-of-geniposide-in-rats
#6
Jingzhuo Tian, Yan Yi, Yong Zhao, Chunying Li, Yushi Zhang, Lianmei Wang, Chen Pan, Jiayin Han, Guiqin Li, Xiaolong Li, Jing Liu, Nuo Deng, Yue Gao, Aihua Liang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Geniposide, the major active constituent of Fructus Gardeniae (FG), has been widely used to treat the various diseases in China. AIM OF THE STUDY: The chronic toxicity study was conducted to investigate the safety of Geniposide. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats of both sexes were administered orally Geniposide 25, 50, 100mg/kg by gavage once daily at volume of 10mL/kg for 26 weeks repeated. Endpoints evaluated included clinical observations, food consumption, body weights, blood biochemistry, hematology, and histomorphological observation...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124333/assessment-of-hepatotoxicity-of-first-line-anti-tuberculosis-drugs-on-wistar-rats
#7
Radhika Sharma, Ramneek Kaur, Manishi Mukesh, Vijay L Sharma
Adverse drug reactions are inevitable risk factors associated with use of modern medicines. First-line anti-tuberculosis drugs contribute to diverse pathological complications, and hepatotoxicity is one of them. This study investigated the effects of anti-TB drugs in combination (rifampicin [RIF] + isoniazid [INH] + pyrazinamide [PZA]) on Wistar rats. Rats were grouped as control group (saline), toxicant group that was given (30.85 mg/kg b.wt., INH + 61.7 mg/kg b.wt., RIF + 132.65 mg/kg b.wt. PZA in dosage extrapolated from dose that is used in human)...
November 9, 2017: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114436/preferred-names-preferred-pronouns-and-gender-identity-in-the-electronic-medical-record-and-laboratory-information-system-is-pathology-ready
#8
Katherine L Imborek, Nicole L Nisly, Michael J Hesseltine, Jana Grienke, Todd A Zikmund, Nicholas R Dreyer, John L Blau, Maia Hightower, Robert M Humble, Matthew D Krasowski
Background: Electronic medical records (EMRs) and laboratory information systems (LISs) commonly utilize patient identifiers such as legal name, sex, medical record number, and date of birth. There have been recommendations from some EMR working groups (e.g., the World Professional Association for Transgender Health) to include preferred name, pronoun preference, assigned sex at birth, and gender identity in the EMR. These practices are currently uncommon in the United States. There has been little published on the potential impact of these changes on pathology and LISs...
2017: Journal of Pathology Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107008/acute-and-a-28-day-repeated-dose-toxicity-study-of-total-flavonoids-from-clinopodium-chinense-benth-o-ktze-in-mice-and-rats
#9
Yonglin Gao, Yunzhi Wang, Kezhou Wang, Jing Zhu, Guisheng Li, Jingwei Tian, Chunmei Li, Zhenhua Wang, Ji Li, Albert W Lee, Chenghua Guo
Clinopodium chinense (Benth.) O. Ktze (Labiatae), known as 'Duanxueliu' in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, has been widely used as a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of hemorrhagic disease. Total flavonoids from Clinopodium chinense (Benth.) O. Ktze (TFCC), the most active ingredient, possess a variety of properties, such as antioxygenation. Until now, evidence-based toxicity data on TFCC has been limited. This study evaluated the acute (in mice and rat) and the 28-day repeated-dose (in rat) toxicity study of TFCC, respectively...
October 30, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105402/adipose-derived-stem-cells-affect-mir-145-and-p53-expressions-of-co-cultured-hematopoietic-stem-cells
#10
Tahereh Foroutan, Aisan Farhadi, Saeed Abroun, Bahram Mohammad Soltani
OBJECTIVES: Umbilical cord blood is used for transplantation purposes in regenerative medicine of hematological disorders. MicroRNAs are important regulators of gene expression that control both physiological and pathological processes such as cancer development and incidence. There is a new relation between p53 (tumor suppressor gene) and miR-145 (suppressor of cell growth) upregulation. In this study, we have assessed how adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) affect the expansion of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), as well as miR-145 and p53 expressions...
January 2018: Cell Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100977/evaluation-of-weekly-paclitaxel-plus-carboplatin-followed-by-anthracycline-chemotherapy-on-the-neoadjuvant-treatment-of-patients-with-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#11
Aurelio B Castrellon
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness and tolerability of neoadjuvant chemotherapy with weekly paclitaxel in combination with weekly carboplatin area under curve 2 followed by anthracycline chemotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective review of electronic medical records of patients (N = 32) with stage 1c-III triple-negative breast cancer. Patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy with paclitaxel 80 mg/m(2) once per week for 12 weeks in combination with carboplatin area under curve 2 once per week for 12 weeks (wP + wCb), followed by a standard anthracycline regimen including either doxorubicin 60 mg/m(2) and cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m(2) every 2 or 3 weeks, or epirubicin 90 mg/m(2) and cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m(2) every 3 weeks for four cycles with myeloid growth factor support...
October 28, 2017: Hematology/oncology and Stem Cell Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096655/complete-mimicry-a-case-of-alveolar-rhabdomyosarcoma-masquerading-as-acute-leukemia
#12
Osamu Imataki, Makiko Uemura, Shumpei Uchida, Shigeyuki Yokokura, Akihiro Takeuchi, Ryo Ishikawa, Akihiro Kondo, Kayoko Seo, Norimitsu Kadowaki
BACKGROUND: A small number of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) cases involve the bone marrow. A leukemic presentation of RMS has been reported in a few case series, although almost all cases of leukemic RMS are not completely mimicking leukemia. We encountered a case with RMS cell infiltration of the bone marrow that resembled floating hematological cells. CASE PRESENTATION: We encountered a rare case of a 15-year-old boy with a 2-week history of left femoral pain. Upon admission, he was afebrile with no other symptoms...
November 2, 2017: Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080249/concise-review-epigenetic-regulation-of-hematopoiesis-biological-insights-and-therapeutic-applications
#13
REVIEW
Chiara Antoniani, Oriana Romano, Annarita Miccio
Hematopoiesis is the process of blood cell formation starting from hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs). The understanding of regulatory networks involved in hematopoiesis and their impact on gene expression is crucial to decipher the molecular mechanisms that control hematopoietic development in physiological and pathological conditions, and to develop novel therapeutic strategies. An increasing number of epigenetic studies aim at defining, on a genome-wide scale, the cis-regulatory sequences (e.g., promoters and enhancers) used by human HSPCs and their lineage-restricted progeny at different stages of development...
October 28, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080125/clinical-breast-concerns-in-low-risk-pediatric-patients-practice-review-with-proposed-recommendations
#14
Linda M Sanders, Pinky Sharma, Miriam El Madany, Alexander B King, Koren S Goodman, Alison Esteva Sanders
BACKGROUND: Fibroadenoma is overwhelmingly the most common pediatric breast lesion. Breast malignancy is quite uncommon in children, most frequently metastatic or hematological malignancy. Core biopsy has largely replaced excision for diagnosis of breast masses in adults. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is two-fold: (1) compare utilization at our institution of interventional procedures vs. surgery for breast mass diagnosis in patients ≤18 years and (2) propose guidelines for breast imaging and biopsy in this population...
October 27, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076873/molecular-profiling-of-mammary-analog-secretory-carcinoma-revealed-a-subset-of-tumors-harboring-a-novel-etv6-ret-translocation-report-of-10-cases
#15
Alena Skalova, Tomas Vanecek, Petr Martinek, Ilan Weinreb, Todd M Stevens, Roderick H W Simpson, Martin Hyrcza, Niels J Rupp, Martina Baneckova, Michael Michal, David Slouka, Tomas Svoboda, Alena Metelkova, Arghavan Etebarian, Jaroslav Pavelka, Steven J Potts, Jason Christiansen, Petr Steiner, Michal Michal
ETV6 gene abnormalities are well described in tumor pathology. Many fusion partners of ETV6 have been reported in a variety of epithelial, mesenchymal, and hematological malignancies. In salivary gland tumor pathology, however, the ETV6-NTRK3 translocation is specific for (mammary analog) secretory carcinoma, and has not been documented in any other salivary tumor type. The present study comprised a clinical, histologic, and molecular analysis of 10 cases of secretory carcinoma, with typical morphology and immunoprofile harboring a novel ETV6-RET translocation...
October 26, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070128/-clinical-observation-of-therapeutic-regimen-consisted-of-decitabine-combined-with-low-dose-ia-regimen-for-myelodysplastic-syndrome-eb
#16
Di Wu, Jin-Xia Hao, Jing Li, Mei Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical efficacy of decitabine combined with low-dose IA for treating patients with myelodysplastic syndrome-EB. METHODS: Thirty-seven cases of myelodysplastic syndrome-EB patients diagnosed in the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University from June 2015 to January 2017 were analyzed retrospectively. These patients accepted DAC+IA(19 cases) and DAC(18 cases) treatment separately, and the differences of clinical efficacy between them were compared...
October 2017: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069071/clinical-signi%C3%AF-cance-of-routine-blood-test-associated-inflammatory-index-in-breast-cancer-patients
#17
Hong Sun, Chang-Qing Yin, Qing Liu, Fubing Wang, Chun-Hui Yuan
BACKGROUND It is now widely acknowledged that chronic inflammation is closely associated with the process of cancer development. As a simple noninvasive blood-based test, hematological parameters in the routine blood test have been considered as inflammation markers. We aimed to evaluate platelet count (PC), red blood cell distribution width (RDW), white blood cell count (WBC), mean platelet volume (MPV), number of neutrophils/lymphocytes ratio (NLR), and platelet count/lymphocytes ratio (PLR) as surrogate inflammatory markers in breast cancer (BC) patients, and we compared these to those in healthy individuals...
October 25, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068577/which-organ-should-be-considered-a-reference-in-diffusion-weighted-imaging-of-the-abdomen-the-reproducibility-of-adc-measurements-of-the-spleen-and-the-renal-cortex-on-a-1-5t-mr
#18
Aleksander Pawluś, Kinga Szymańska, Mateusz Łasecki, Joanna Bladowska, Dąbrówka Sokołowska-Dąbek, Małgorzata Szumarska-Czech, Krzysztof Kaczorowski, Bartosz D Markiewicz, Krzysztof Dudek, Urszula Zaleska-Dorobisz
BACKGROUND: Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) is a useful tool for the evaluation of focal lesions in the liver or kidneys, as well as for the diagnosis and assessment of the liver fibrosis process. Some reports show that the spleen and kidneys may serve as reference organs in the staging of liver fibrosis or the evaluation of focal liver lesions. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to determine whether the spleen and renal cortex can be used as reference organs in the DWI technique...
August 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064025/analysis-of-first-year-twitter-metrics-of-a-rare-disease-community-for-blastic-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cell-neoplasm-bpdcn-on-social-media-bpdcn
#19
REVIEW
Naveen Pemmaraju, Audun Utengen, Vikas Gupta, Michael A Thompson, Andrew A Lane
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The use of Twitter, one of the most commonly engaged social media platforms in the world, is increasing among the general public. Notably, this trend has also been observed among those involved in the healthcare field. With its ability to readily connect diverse groups of stakeholders in a given area of interest, Twitter has become a focal point for those involved in increasing awareness and information exchange in orphan disease fields. Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare, aggressive hematologic malignancy with generally poor long-term outcomes for adult patients and no standard therapeutic guidelines...
October 24, 2017: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053611/glucosylsphingosine-causes-hematological-and-visceral-changes-in-mice-evidence-for-a-pathophysiological-role-in-gaucher-disease
#20
Jan Lukas, Claudia Cozma, Fan Yang, Guido Kramp, Anja Meyer, Anna-Maria Neßlauer, Sabrina Eichler, Tobias Böttcher, Martin Witt, Anja U Bräuer, Peter Kropp, Arndt Rolfs
Glucosylceramide and glucosylsphingosine are the two major storage products in Gaucher disease (GD), an inherited metabolic disorder caused by a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase. The build-up of glucosylceramide in the endoplasmic reticulum and prominent accumulation in cell lysosomes of tissue macrophages results in decreased blood cell and platelet counts, and skeletal abnormalities. The pathological role of the deacylated form of glucosylceramide, glucosylsphingosine (lyso-Gb1), a recently identified sensitive and specific biomarker for GD, is not well investigated...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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