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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641247/modeling-task-fmri-data-via-deep-convolutional-autoencoder
#1
Heng Huang, Xintao Hu, Yu Zhao, Milad Makkie, Qinglin Dong, Shijie Zhao, Lei Guo, Tianming Liu
Task-based fMRI (tfMRI) has been widely used to study functional brain networks under task performance. Modeling tfMRI data is challenging due to at least two problems: the lack of the ground truth of underlying neural activity and the highly complex intrinsic structure of tfMRI data. To better understand brain networks based on fMRI data, data-driven approaches have been proposed, for instance, Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and Sparse Dictionary Learning (SDL). However, both ICA and SDL only build shallow models, and they are under the strong assumption that original fMRI signal could be linearly decomposed into time series components with their corresponding spatial maps...
June 15, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640804/boolean-analysis-reveals-systematic-interactions-among-low-abundance-species-in-the-human-gut-microbiome
#2
Jens Christian Claussen, Jurgita Skiecevičienė, Jun Wang, Philipp Rausch, Tom H Karlsen, Wolfgang Lieb, John F Baines, Andre Franke, Marc-Thorsten Hütt
The analysis of microbiome compositions in the human gut has gained increasing interest due to the broader availability of data and functional databases and substantial progress in data analysis methods, but also due to the high relevance of the microbiome in human health and disease. While most analyses infer interactions among highly abundant species, the large number of low-abundance species has received less attention. Here we present a novel analysis method based on Boolean operations applied to microbial co-occurrence patterns...
June 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636619/what-do-computer-scientists-tweet-analyzing-the-link-sharing-practice-on-twitter
#3
Marco Schmitt, Robert Jäschke
Twitter communication has permeated every sphere of society. To highlight and share small pieces of information with possibly vast audiences or small circles of the interested has some value in almost any aspect of social life. But what is the value exactly for a scientific field? We perform a comprehensive study of computer scientists using Twitter and their tweeting behavior concerning the sharing of web links. Discerning the domains, hosts and individual web pages being tweeted and the differences between computer scientists and a Twitter sample enables us to look in depth at the Twitter-based information sharing practices of a scientific community...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635972/experiences-and-concerns-of-lesbian-gay-or-bisexual-survivors-of-colorectal-cancer
#4
Allyson Baughman, Melissa A Clark, Ulrike Boehmer
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To identify the experiences and needs of lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) survivors of colorectal cancer (CRC) and to expand the current understanding of LGB survivorship by obtaining in-depth knowledge of survivorship among individuals with a cancer other than breast or prostate. 
. RESEARCH APPROACH: Qualitative, semistructured individual interviews via telephone.
. SETTING: Participants were recruited using social media, flyers, word of mouth, and contact with LGB and cancer organizations during a four-month period...
May 1, 2017: Oncology Nursing Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634467/brain-network-activation-technology-does-not-assist-with-concussion-diagnosis-and-return-to-play-in-football-athletes
#5
Steven P Broglio, Richelle Williams, Andrew Lapointe, Ashley Rettmann, Brandon Moore, Sean K Meehan, James T Eckner
BACKGROUND: Concussion diagnosis and management remains a largely subjective process. This investigation sought to evaluate the utility of a novel neuroelectric measure for concussion diagnosis and return to play decision-making. HYPOTHESIS: Brain Network Activation (BNA) scores obtained within 72-h of injury will be lower than the athlete's preseason evaluation and that of a matched control athlete; and the BNA will demonstrate ongoing declines at the return to play and post-season time points, while standard measures will have returned to pre-injury and control athlete levels...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634448/from-behavioral-facilitation-to-inhibition-the-neuronal-correlates-of-the-orienting-and-reorienting-of-auditory-attention
#6
Faith M Hanlon, Andrew B Dodd, Josef M Ling, Juan R Bustillo, Christopher C Abbott, Andrew R Mayer
Successful adaptive behavior relies on the ability to automatically (bottom-up) orient attention to different locations in the environment. This results in a biphasic pattern in which reaction times (RT) are faster for stimuli that occur in the same spatial location (valid) for the first few hundred milliseconds, which is termed facilitation. This is followed by faster RT for stimuli that appear in novel locations (invalid) after longer delays, termed inhibition of return. The neuronal areas and networks involved in the transition between states of facilitation and inhibition remain poorly understood, especially for auditory stimuli...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634266/30-years-of-the-mineralocorticoid-receptor-the-brain-mineralocorticoid-receptor-a-saga-in-three-episodes
#7
REVIEW
Marian Joëls, E Ronald de Kloet
In 1968, Bruce McEwen discovered that (3)H-corticosterone administered to adrenalectomised rats is retained in neurons of hippocampus rather than those of hypothalamus. This discovery signalled the expansion of endocrinology into the science of higher brain regions. With this in mind, our contribution highlights the saga of the brain mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in three episodes. First, the precloning era dominated by the conundrum of two types of corticosterone-binding receptors in the brain, which led to the identification of the high-affinity corticosterone receptor as the 'promiscuous' MR cloned in 1987 by Jeff Arriza and Ron Evans in addition to the classical glucocorticoid receptor (GR)...
July 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633986/gray-matter-abnormalities-in-non-comorbid-medication-naive-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder-or-social-anxiety-disorder
#8
Youjin Zhao, Lizhou Chen, Wenjing Zhang, Yuan Xiao, Chandan Shah, Hongru Zhu, Minlan Yuan, Huaiqiang Sun, Qiang Yue, Zhiyun Jia, Wei Zhang, Weihong Kuang, Qiyong Gong, Su Lui
BACKGROUND: An overlap of clinical symptoms between major depressive disorder (MDD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) suggests that the two disorders exhibit similar brain mechanisms. However, few studies have directly compared the brain structures of the two disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the gray matter volume (GMV) and cortical thickness alterations between non-comorbid medication-naive MDD patients and SAD patients. METHODS: High-resolution T1-weighted images were acquired from 37 non-comorbid MDD patients, 24 non-comorbid SAD patients and 41 healthy controls (HCs)...
June 15, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633299/structural-covariance-networks-in-children-with-autism-or-adhd
#9
R A I Bethlehem, R Romero-Garcia, E Mak, E T Bullmore, S Baron-Cohen
Background: While autism and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are considered distinct conditions from a diagnostic perspective, clinically they share some phenotypic features and have high comorbidity. Regardless, most studies have focused on only one condition, with considerable heterogeneity in their results. Taking a dual-condition approach might help elucidate shared and distinct neural characteristics. Method: Graph theory was used to analyse topological properties of structural covariance networks across both conditions and relative to a neurotypical (NT; n = 87) group using data from the ABIDE (autism; n = 62) and ADHD-200 datasets (ADHD; n = 69)...
June 13, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630457/how-impaired-efficacy-happened-between-gancao-and-yuanhua-compounds-targets-and-pathways
#10
Jin-Gao Yu, Jianming Guo, Kevin Yue Zhu, Weiwei Tao, Yanyan Chen, Pei Liu, Yongqing Hua, Yuping Tang, Jin-Ao Duan
As recorded in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) theory, Gancao (Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma) could weaken the pharmacological effect or increase the toxicity of Yuanhua (Genkwa Flos). However, the theory has been suspected due to lack of evidence. Here, we investigate whether Gancao could weaken Yuanhua's diuretic effect, if so, which chemicals and which targets may be involved. Results showed that Yuanhua exerted diuretic effect through down-regulating renal AQP 2, without electrolyte disturbances such as K(+) loss which has been observed as side-effect of most diuretics...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630376/functional-connectivity-disturbances-of-the-ascending-reticular-activating-system-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#11
Dario J Englot, Pierre-Francois D'Haese, Peter E Konrad, Monica L Jacobs, John C Gore, Bassel W Abou-Khalil, Victoria L Morgan
OBJECTIVE: Seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) disturb brain networks and lead to connectivity disturbances. We previously hypothesised that recurrent seizures in TLE may lead to abnormal connections involving subcortical activating structures including the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS), contributing to neocortical dysfunction and neurocognitive impairments. However, no studies of ARAS connectivity have been previously reported in patients with epilepsy. METHODS: We used resting-state functional MRI recordings in 27 patients with TLE (67% right sided) and 27 matched controls to examine functional connectivity (partial correlation) between eight brainstem ARAS structures and 105 cortical/subcortical regions...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627941/detecting-social-cognitive-deficits-after-traumatic-brain-injury-an-ale-meta-analysis-of-fmri-studies
#12
Hui Xiao, Andre Jacobsen, Ziqian Chen, Yang Wang
PURPOSE: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can result in significant social dysfunction, which is represented by impairment to social-cognitive abilities (i.e. social cognition, social attention/executive function and communication). This study is aimed to explore brain networks mediating the social dysfunction after TBI and its underlying mechanisms. METHODS: We performed a quantitative meta-analysis using the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) approach on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of social-cognitive abilities following TBI...
June 19, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627049/making-group-inferences-using-sparse-representation-of-resting-state-functional-mri-data-with-application-to-sleep-deprivation
#13
Hui Shen, Huaze Xu, Lubing Wang, Yu Lei, Liu Yang, Peng Zhang, Jian Qin, Ling-Li Zeng, Zongtan Zhou, Zheng Yang, Dewen Hu
Past studies on drawing group inferences for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data usually assume that a brain region is involved in only one functional brain network. However, recent evidence has demonstrated that some brain regions might simultaneously participate in multiple functional networks. Here, we presented a novel approach for making group inferences using sparse representation of resting-state fMRI data and its application to the identification of changes in functional networks in the brains of 37 healthy young adult participants after 36 h of sleep deprivation (SD) in contrast to the rested wakefulness (RW) stage...
June 19, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626845/temporally-factorized-network-modeling-for-evolutionary-network-analysis
#14
Wenchao Yu, Charu C Aggarwal, Wei Wang
The problem of evolutionary network analysis has gained increasing attention in recent years, because of an increasing number of networks, which are encountered in temporal settings. For example, social networks, communication networks, and information networks continuously evolve over time, and it is desirable to learn interesting trends about how the network structure evolves over time, and in terms of other interesting trends. One challenging aspect of networks is that they are inherently resistant to parametric modeling, which allows us to truly express the edges in the network as functions of time...
February 2017: Proceedings of the ... International Conference on Web Search & Data Mining. International Conference on Web Search & Data Mining
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624435/revisiting-the-flip-side-long-term-depression-of-synaptic-efficacy-in-the-hippocampus
#15
REVIEW
Cristina Pinar, Christine J Fontaine, Juan Triviño-Paredes, Carina P Lottenberg, Joana Gil-Mohapel, Brian R Christie
Synaptic plasticity is widely regarded as a putative biological substrate for learning and memory processes. While both decreases and increases in synaptic strength are seen as playing a role in learning and memory, long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic efficacy has received far less attention than its counterpart long-term potentiation (LTP). Never-the-less, LTD at synapses can play an important role in increasing computational flexibility in neural networks. In addition, like learning and memory processes, the magnitude of LTD can be modulated by factors that include stress and sex hormones, neurotrophic support, learning environments, and age...
June 14, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622681/a-mixed-representation-based-multiobjective-evolutionary-algorithm-for-overlapping-community-detection
#16
Lei Zhang, Hebin Pan, Yansen Su, Xingyi Zhang, Yunyun Niu
Designing multiobjective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) for community detection in complex networks has attracted much attention of researchers recently. However, most of the existing methods focus on addressing the task of nonoverlapping community detection, where each node must belong to one and only one community. In fact, communities are often overlapped with each other in many real-world networks, thus it is necessary to design overlapping community detection algorithms. To this end, this paper proposes a mixed representation-based MOEA (MR-MOEA) for overlapping community detection...
June 13, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622027/communicating-with-sensation-seekers-an-fmri-study-of-neural-responses-to-antidrug-public-service-announcements
#17
Lewis Donohew, Michelle DiBartolo, Xun Zhu, Chelsie Benca, Elizabeth Lorch, Seth M Noar, Thomas H Kelly, Jane E Joseph
This study examined the neural basis of processing high- and low-message sensation value (MSV) antidrug public service announcements (PSAs) in high (HSS) and low sensation seekers (LSS) using fMRI. HSS more strongly engaged the salience network when processing PSAs (versus LSS), suggesting that high-MSV PSAs attracted their attention. HSS and LSS participants who engaged higher level cognitive processing regions reported that the PSAs were more convincing and believable and recalled the PSAs better immediately after testing...
June 16, 2017: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615294/pituitary-stem-cell-regulation-who-is-pulling-the-strings
#18
Benoit Cox, Heleen Roose, Annelies Vennekens, Hugo Vankelecom
The pituitary gland plays a pivotal role in the endocrine system, steering fundamental processes of growth, metabolism, reproduction and coping with stress. The adult pituitary contains resident stem cells which are highly quiescent in homeostatic conditions. However, the cells show marked signs of activation during processes of increased cell remodeling in the gland, including maturation at neonatal age, adaptation to physiological demands, regeneration upon injury, and growth of local tumors. Although functions of pituitary stem cells are slowly but gradually uncovered, their regulation largely remains virgin territory...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614115/trafficking-and-regulation-of-the-nkcc2-cotransporter-in-the-thick-ascending-limb
#19
Kerim Mutig
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The kidney Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (NKCC2) is essential for urinary concentration and renal electrolyte handling. Loss of function mutations in the NKCC2 gene cause urinary salt and potassium wasting, whereas excessive NKCC2 function has been linked to high blood pressure. Loop diuretics, targeting the transporter, are instrumental for relieving edema or hypertension. This review focuses on intrinsic mechanisms regulating NKCC2 activity at the posttranslational level, namely its trafficking and phosphorylation...
June 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611614/functional-and-structural-network-recovery-after-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-a-1-year-longitudinal-study
#20
Patrizia Dall'Acqua, Sönke Johannes, Ladislav Mica, Hans-Peter Simmen, Richard Glaab, Javier Fandino, Markus Schwendinger, Christoph Meier, Erika J Ulbrich, Andreas Müller, Hansruedi Baetschmann, Lutz Jäncke, Jürgen Hänggi
Brain connectivity after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) has not been investigated longitudinally with respect to both functional and structural networks together within the same patients, crucial to capture the multifaceted neuropathology of the injury and to comprehensively monitor the course of recovery and compensatory reorganizations at macro-level. We performed a prospective study with 49 mTBI patients at an average of 5 days and 1 year post-injury and 49 healthy controls. Neuropsychological assessments as well as resting-state functional and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging were obtained...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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