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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446874/age-related-differences-in-reorganization-of-functional-connectivity-for-a-dual-task-with-increasing-postural-destabilization
#1
Cheng-Ya Huang, Linda L Lin, Ing-Shiou Hwang
The aged brain may not make good use of central resources, so dual task performance may be degraded. From the brain connectome perspective, this study investigated dual task deficits of older adults that lead to task failure of a suprapostural motor task with increasing postural destabilization. Twelve younger (mean age: 25.3 years) and 12 older (mean age: 65.8 years) adults executed a designated force-matching task from a level-surface or a stabilometer board. Force-matching error, stance sway, and event-related potential (ERP) in the preparatory period were measured...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446682/smartphone-controlled-optogenetically-engineered-cells-enable-semiautomatic-glucose-homeostasis-in-diabetic-mice
#2
REVIEW
Jiawei Shao, Shuai Xue, Guiling Yu, Yuanhuan Yu, Xueping Yang, Yu Bai, Sucheng Zhu, Linfeng Yang, Jianli Yin, Yidan Wang, Shuyong Liao, Sanwei Guo, Mingqi Xie, Martin Fussenegger, Haifeng Ye
With the increasingly dominant role of smartphones in our lives, mobile health care systems integrating advanced point-of-care technologies to manage chronic diseases are gaining attention. Using a multidisciplinary design principle coupling electrical engineering, software development, and synthetic biology, we have engineered a technological infrastructure enabling the smartphone-assisted semiautomatic treatment of diabetes in mice. A custom-designed home server SmartController was programmed to process wireless signals, enabling a smartphone to regulate hormone production by optically engineered cells implanted in diabetic mice via a far-red light (FRL)-responsive optogenetic interface...
April 26, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445397/radiation-and-thyroid-cancer
#3
REVIEW
Elisabetta Albi, Samuela Cataldi, Andrea Lazzarini, Michela Codini, Tommaso Beccari, Francesco Saverio Ambesi-Impiombato, Francesco Curcio
Radiation-induced damage is a complex network of interlinked signaling pathways, which may result in apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, and cancer. The development of thyroid cancer in response to radiation, from nuclear catastrophes to chemotherapy, has long been an object of study. A basic overview of the ionizing and non-ionizing radiation effects of the sensitivity of the thyroid gland on radiation and cancer development has been provided. In this review, we focus our attention on experiments in cell cultures exposed to ionizing radiation, ultraviolet light, and proton beams...
April 26, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445261/behavior-characteristics-of-the-attention-network-of-military-personnel-with-high-and-low-trait-anxiety
#4
Yu Pan, Wenpeng Cai, Wei Dong, Jie Xiao, Jin Yan, Qi Cheng
Converging evidence reveals significant increase in both state anxiety and trait anxiety during the past 2 decades among military servicemen and servicewomen in China. In the present study, we employed the Chinese version of the State-trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) to examine trait and state anxiety in Chinese military servicemen and servicewomen. We further evaluated orienting, alerting and execution inhibition using the attention network test.Healthy military servicemen and servicewomen were recruited for the present study...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444373/plasticity-of-the-right-lateralized-cognitive-reserve-network-in-ageing
#5
Méadhbh B Brosnan, Giorgia Demaria, Anders Petersen, Paul M Dockree, Ian H Robertson, Iris Wiegand
Cognitive reserve (CR) is the phenomenon where older adults with more cognitively stimulating environments show less age-related cognitive decline. The right-lateralized fronto-parietal network has been proposed to significantly contribute to CR and visual attention in ageing. In this study we tested whether plasticity of this network may be harnessed in ageing.We assessed CR and parameters of visual attention capacity in older adults. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) was employed to increase right fronto-parietal activity during a lateralized whole-report task...
April 24, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444321/evidence-of-altered-brain-responses-to-nicotine-in-an-animal-model-of-adhd
#6
Guillaume L Poirier, Wei Huang, Kelly Tam, Joseph R DiFranza, Jean A King
Introduction: Individuals with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are susceptible to earlier and more severe nicotine addiction. To shed light on the relationship between nicotine and ADHD, we examined nicotine's effects on functional brain networks in an animal model of ADHD. Methods: Awake magnetic resonance imaging was used to compare functional connectivity in adolescent (postnatal day 44±2) males of the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR) strain and two control strains, Wistar Kyoto and Sprague Dawley (n = 16 each)...
April 22, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444137/effects-of-serotonin-transporter-gene-variation-on-impulsivity-mediated-by-default-mode-network-a-family-study-of-depression
#7
Jiook Cha, Guia Guffanti, Jay Gingrich, Ardesheer Talati, Priya Wickramaratne, Myrna Weissman, Jonathan Posner
Serotonergic neurotransmission, potentially through effects on the brain's default mode network (DMN), may regulate aspects of attention including impulse control. Indeed, genetic variants of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) have been implicated in impulsivity and related psychopathology. Yet it remains unclear the mechanism by which the 5-HTT genetic variants contribute to individual variability in impulse control. Here, we tested whether DMN connectivity mediates an association between the 5-HTT genetic variants and impulsivity...
April 21, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442276/investigating-the-effects-of-nitrous-oxide-sedation-on-frontal-parietal-interactions
#8
Ryu Ji-Ho, Pil-Jong Kim, Hong-Gee Kim, Yong-Seo Koo, Teo Jeon Shin
Although functional connectivity has received considerable attention in the study of consciousness, few studies have investigated functional connectivity limited to the sedated state where consciousness is maintained but impaired. The aim of the present study was to investigate changes in functional connectivity of the parietal-frontal network resulting from nitrous oxide-induced sedation, and to determine the neural correlates of cognitive impairment during consciousness transition states. Electroencephalography was acquired from healthy adult patients who underwent nitrous oxide inhalation to induce cognitive impairment, and was analyzed using Granger causality (GC)...
April 22, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441776/gold-nanoparticles-for-modulating-neuronal-behavior
#9
REVIEW
Chiara Paviolo, Paul R Stoddart
Understanding the detailed functioning and pathophysiology of the brain and the nervous system continues to challenge the scientific community, particularly in terms of scaling up techniques for monitoring and interfacing with complex 3D networks. Nanotechnology has the potential to support this scaling up, where the eventual goal would be to address individual nerve cells within functional units of both the central and peripheral nervous system. Gold nanoparticles provide a variety of physical and chemical properties that have attracted attention as a light-activated nanoscale neuronal interface...
April 24, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441672/how-to-lead-the-way-through-complexity-constraint-and-uncertainty-in-academic-health-science-centers
#10
Susan J Lieff, Francis J Yammarino
Academic medicine is in an era of unprecedented and constant change due to fluctuating economies, globalization, emerging technologies, research, and professional and educational mandates. Consequently, academic health science centers (AHSCs) are facing new levels of complexity, constraint, and uncertainty. Currently, AHSC leaders work with competing academic and health service demands and are required to work with and are accountable to a diversity of stakeholders. Given the new challenges and emerging needs, the authors believe the leadership methods and approaches AHSCs have used in the past that led to successes will be insufficient...
May 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441041/the-child-network-for-parents-to-track-their-child-s-mood-and-behavior
#11
Robert M Post, Michael Rowe, Dana Kaplan, Robert Findling
INTRODUCTION: A wide range of psychiatric disorders are common in young children, especially in those at high risk because of a parent with a unipolar or bipolar mood disorder in the United States. Yet in part because most children are seen in primary care, these illnesses are often not recognized or treated in a timely fashion. To begin to address this problem, we started the Child Network. METHODS: The Child Network is for parents of children age 2-12 with mood or behavioral symptoms or at high risk for them...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440252/adjustment-to-acquired-vision-loss-in-adults-presenting-for-visual-disability-certification
#12
Aditya Nakade, Jolly Rohatgi, Manjeet S Bhatia, Upreet Dhaliwal
CONTEXT: Rehabilitation of the visually disabled depends on how they adjust to loss; understanding contributing factors may help in effective rehabilitation. AIM: The aim of this study is to assess adjustment to acquired vision loss in adults. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This observational study, conducted in the Department of Ophthalmology at a tertiary-level teaching hospital, included thirty persons (25-65 years) with <6/60 in the better eye, and vision loss since ≥6-months...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439100/ventral-striatal-regulation-of-crem-mediates-impulsive-action-and-drug-addiction-vulnerability
#13
M L Miller, Y Ren, H Szutorisz, N A Warren, C Tessereau, G Egervari, A Mlodnicka, M Kapoor, B Chaarani, C V Morris, G Schumann, H Garavan, A M Goate, M J Bannon, J M Halperin, Y L Hurd
Impulsivity, a multifaceted behavioral hallmark of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), strongly influences addiction vulnerability and other psychiatric disorders that incur enormous medical and societal burdens yet the neurobiological underpinnings linking impulsivity to disease remain poorly understood. Here we report the critical role of ventral striatal cAMP-response element modulator (CREM) in mediating impulsivity relevant to drug abuse vulnerability. Using an ADHD rat model, we demonstrate that impulsive animals are neurochemically and behaviorally more sensitive to heroin and exhibit reduced Crem expression in the nucleus accumbens core...
April 25, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438707/contributions-of-the-parietal-cortex-to-increased-efficiency-of-planning-based-action-selection
#14
Jennifer Randerath, Kenneth Valyear, Benjamin A Philip, Scott H Frey
Response selection is foundational to adaptive behavior, and considerable attention has been devoted to investigating this behavior under conditions in which the mapping between stimuli and responses is fixed. Results from prior studies implicate the left supramarginal gyrus (SMg), premotor and prefrontal cortices, as well as the cerebellum in this essential function. Yet, many goal-directed motor behaviors have multiple solutions with flexible mappings between stimuli and responses whose solutions are believed to involve prospective planning...
April 21, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437664/upscaling-of-fungal-bacterial-interactions-from-the-lab-to-the-field
#15
REVIEW
Wietse de Boer
Fungal-bacterial interactions (FBI) are an integral component of microbial community networks in terrestrial ecosystems. During the last decade, the attention for FBI has increased tremendously. For a wide variety of FBI, information has become available on the mechanisms and functional responses. Yet, most studies have focused on pairwise interactions under controlled conditions. The question to what extent such studies are relevant to assess the importance of FBI for functioning of natural microbial communities in real ecosystems remains largely unanswered...
April 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436484/how-voluntary-orienting-of-attention-and-alerting-modulate-costs-of-conflict-processing
#16
Alberto Zani, Alice Mado Proverbio
There is evidence that pre-cued valid orienting of attention to competing information diminishes costs of brain processing of conflict. Still unclear, because scantily addressed by neuroimaging studies and mostly analyzed by means of behavioral indexing, it is whether conflict undergoes an equivalent modulation by tonic and pre-cued phasic alerting. Here, we investigated the functional relationships between attention orienting, alerting and executive systems using the Attention Network Test (ANT). Both reaction times (RTs) and ERPs were recorded...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436468/higher-risk-of-colorectal-cancer-in-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-diabetes-mellitus-before-the-age-of-colorectal-cancer-screening-initiation
#17
Sander de Kort, Ad A M Masclee, Silvia Sanduleanu, Matty P Weijenberg, Myrthe P P van Herk-Sukel, Nico J J Oldenhof, Joop P W van den Bergh, Harm R Haak, Maryska L Janssen-Heijnen
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with greater risk for colorectal cancer (CRC). The age of onset of T2DM is decreasing worldwide. An increased CRC risk in young T2DM patients could be relevant for the age at which to initiate CRC screening. We report on CRC risk in T2DM patients with attention to age of diagnosis. We used pharmacy data (from 1998 to 2010) from the PHARMO Database Network linked to the Eindhoven Cancer Registry. Multivariable time-dependent Cox regression analyses were conducted to calculate hazard ratios (HR) for developing CRC comparing T2DM with non-T2DM...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433446/functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-to-assess-the-neurobehavioral-impact-of-dysphotopsia-with-multifocal-intraocular-lenses
#18
Andreia M Rosa, Ângela C Miranda, Miguel Patrício, Colm McAlinden, Fátima L Silva, Joaquim N Murta, Miguel Castelo-Branco
PURPOSE: To investigate the association between dysphotopsia and neural responses in visual and higher-level cortical regions in patients who recently received multifocal intraocular lens (IOL) implants. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty patients 3 to 4 weeks after bilateral cataract surgery with diffractive IOL implantation and 15 age- and gender-matched control subjects. METHODS: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed when participants viewed low-contrast grating stimuli...
April 19, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433205/federal-research-priorities-in-child-abuse-and-neglect-research-a-commentary-on-multi-site-research-networks
#19
Valerie Maholmes
The National Institutes of Health has a long history of supporting investigator initiated child abuse research, including risk-factor studies on prevalence, course and consequences of child abuse and neglect. These studies laid the ground work for prevention research as well as the development and testing of therapeutic interventions. The newly established Pediatric Trauma and Critical Illness Branch at the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development represents a new opportunity to call attention to the need for greater collaboration among researchers to build on prior work, pursue complex lines of inquiry, address more medically focused research and new clinical questions that will heighten the awareness of the unique needs for treatment and care of abused children...
April 19, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432959/molecular-dynamics-simulation-studies-of-novel-%C3%AE-lactamase-inhibitor
#20
Farhan Ul Haq, Asma Abro, Saad Raza, Klaus R Liedl, Syed Sikander Azam
New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase-1 (NDM-1) has drawn great attention due to its diverse antibiotic resistant activity. It can hydrolyze almost all clinically available β-lactam antibiotics. To inhibit the activity of NDM-1 a new strategy is proposed using computational methods. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to analyze the molecular interactions between selected inhibitor candidates and NDM-1 structure. The enzyme-ligand complex is subject to binding free energy calculations using MM(PB/GB)SA methods...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
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