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Attention Network

Jeroen Gielen, Wietse Wiels, Jeroen Van Schependom, Jorne Laton, Wim Van Hecke, Paul M Parizel, Marie Beatrice D'hooghe, Guy Nagels
INTRODUCTION: The paced serial addition test (PSAT) is regularly used to assess cognitive deficits in various neuropsychiatric conditions. Being a complex test, it reflects the status of multiple cognitive domains such as working memory, information processing speed and executive functioning. Two versions of the PSAT exist. One uses auditory stimuli through spoken numbers and is known as the PASAT, while the other one presents patients with visual stimuli and is called PVSAT. The PASAT is considered more frustrating by patients, and hence the visual version is usually preferred...
2018: PloS One
Chundong Wang, Likun Zhu, Liangyi Gong, Zhentang Zhao, Lei Yang, Zheli Liu, Xiaochun Cheng
With the development of the Internet-of-Things (IoT), wireless network security has more and more attention paid to it. The Sybil attack is one of the famous wireless attacks that can forge wireless devices to steal information from clients. These forged devices may constantly attack target access points to crush the wireless network. In this paper, we propose a novel Sybil attack detection based on Channel State Information (CSI). This detection algorithm can tell whether the static devices are Sybil attackers by combining a self-adaptive multiple signal classification algorithm with the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI)...
March 15, 2018: Sensors
Ondrej Bezdicek, Tommaso Ballarini, Filip Růžička, Jan Roth, Karsten Mueller, Robert Jech, Matthias L Schroeter
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) affects approximately one-third of non-demented Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients. We aimed at investigating the neural correlates of MCI in PD combining multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with large-scale data from the literature. We analyzed 31 PD patients and 30 matched controls. The standard neuropsychological assessment of PD-MCI covered memory, attention, executive functions, language and visuospatial abilities. Following validated criteria, 16 patients were classified as showing MCI...
March 11, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Martin Lamos, Radek Marecek, Tomáš Slavíček, Michal Mikl, Ivan Rektor, Jiri Jan
Growing interest in the examination of large-scale brain network functional connectivity dynamics is accompanied by an effort to find the electrophysiological correlates. The commonly used constraints applied to spatial and spectral domains during EEG data analysis may leave part of the neural activity unrecognized. We propose an approach that blindly reveals multimodal EEG spectral patterns that are related to the dynamics of the BOLD functional network connectivity.
 Approach. The blind decomposition of EEG spectrogram by Parallel Factor Analysis has been shown to be a useful technique for uncovering patterns of neural activity...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Valerio Santangelo
Higher-order cognitive processes were shown to rely on the interplay between large-scale neural networks. However, brain networks involved with the capability to split attentional resource over multiple spatial locations and multiple stimuli or sensory modalities have been largely unexplored to date. Here I re-analyzed data from Santangelo et al. (2010) to explore the causal interactions between large-scale brain networks during divided attention. During fMRI scanning, participants monitored streams of visual and/or auditory stimuli in one or two spatial locations for detection of occasional targets...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Xing Chen, Le-Yi Wang, Li Huang
In recent years, microRNAs (miRNAs) are attracting an increasing amount of researchers' attention, as accumulating studies show that miRNAs play important roles in various basic biological processes and that dysregulation of miRNAs is connected with diverse human diseases, particularly cancers. However, the experimental methods to identify associations between miRNAs and diseases remain costly and laborious. In this study, we developed a computational method named Network Distance Analysis for MiRNA-Disease Association prediction (NDAMDA) which could effectively predict potential miRNA-disease associations...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
John R Fedota, Xiaoyu Ding, Allison L Matous, Betty Jo Salmeron, Michael R McKenna, Hong Gu, Thomas J Ross, Elliot A Stein
BACKGROUND: Insular subdivisions show distinct patterns of resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) with specific brain regions, each with different functional significance. Seeds in these subdivisions are employed to characterize the effects of acute nicotine abstinence on rsFC between insula subdivisions and brain networks implicated in addiction and attentional control. METHODS: In a within-subjects design, resting-state blood oxygen level-dependent data were collected from treatment-seeking smokers (N= 20) following smoking satiety and again following 48 hours of nicotine abstinence...
February 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Noam Schneck, Tao Tu, Christina A Michel, George A Bonanno, Paul Sajda, J John Mann
BACKGROUND: Grieving individuals demonstrate attentional bias toward reminders of the deceased versus neutral stimuli. We sought to assess bias toward reminders of the deceased versus a living attachment figure and to evaluate similarities and differences in the neural correlates of deceased- and living-related attention. We also sought to identify grief process variables associated with deceased-related attentional bias. METHODS: Twenty-five subjects grieving the death of a first-degree relative or partner within 14 months performed an emotional Stroop task, using words related to a deceased or a living attachment figure, and a standard Stroop task, to identify general selective attention, during functional magnetic resonance imaging...
February 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Ryu-Ichiro Hashimoto, Takashi Itahashi, Rieko Okada, Sayaka Hasegawa, Masayuki Tani, Nobumasa Kato, Masaru Mimura
Abnormalities in functional brain networks in schizophrenia have been studied by examining intrinsic and extrinsic brain activity under various experimental paradigms. However, the identified patterns of abnormal functional connectivity (FC) vary depending on the adopted paradigms. Thus, it is unclear whether and how these patterns are inter-related. In order to assess relationships between abnormal patterns of FC during intrinsic activity and those during extrinsic activity, we adopted a data-fusion approach and applied partial least square (PLS) analyses to FC datasets from 25 patients with chronic schizophrenia and 25 age- and sex-matched normal controls...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Robert Marten, Richard D Smith
Shiffman recently summarized lessons for network effectiveness from an impressive collection of case-studies. However, in common with most global health governance analysis in recent years, Shiffman underplays the important role of states in these global networks. As the body which decides and signs international agreements, often provides the resourcing, and is responsible for implementing initiatives all contributing to the prioritization of certain issues over others, state recognition and support is a prerequisite to enabling and determining global health networks' success...
July 24, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
Matthew J Brookes, Madeleine J Groom, Lucrezia Liuzzi, Ryan M Hill, Helen J F Smith, Paul M Briley, Emma L Hall, Benjamin A E Hunt, Lauren E Gascoyne, Margot J Taylor, Peter F Liddle, Peter G Morris, Mark W Woolrich, Elizabeth B Liddle
Network connectivity is an integral feature of human brain function, and characterising its maturational trajectory is a critical step towards understanding healthy and atypical neurodevelopment. Here, we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate both stationary (i.e. time averaged) and rapidly modulating (dynamic) electrophysiological connectivity, in participants aged from mid-childhood to early adulthood (youngest participant 9 years old; oldest participant 25 years old). Stationary functional connectivity (measured via inter-regional coordination of neural oscillations) increased with age in the alpha and beta frequency bands, particularly in bilateral parietal and temporo-parietal connections...
March 7, 2018: NeuroImage
Alessio Basti, Vittorio Pizzella, Federico Chella, Gian Luca Romani, Guido Nolte, Laura Marzetti
The phase slope index (PSI) is a method to disclose the direction of frequency-specific neural interactions from magnetoencephalographic (MEG) time series. A fundamental property of PSI is that of vanishing for linear mixing of independent neural sources. This property allows PSI to cope with the artificial instantaneous connectivity among MEG sensors or brain sources induced by the field spread. Nevertheless, PSI is limited by being a bivariate estimator of directionality as opposite to the multidimensional nature of brain activity as revealed by MEG...
March 7, 2018: NeuroImage
Meirong Bai, Jing He, Liangfa Kang, Jun Nie, Ruixue Yin
Individual insulin therapy considering the heterogeneity of insulin resistance between patients may bring more benefits than conventional therapy. Therefore, in glucose-responsive insulin delivery systems, more attention should be paid on further regulation of insulin release to meet individual requirements. Our study shows the feasibility of using a photo-crosslinkable shell layer to regulate basal and bolus insulin release from glucose-responsive Con A-polysaccharides network. Core-shell microspheres were fabricated through a two-step high-speed shear-emulsification method...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Sietske M Grol, Gerard R M Molleman, Anne Kuijpers, Rob van der Sande, Gerdine A J Fransen, Willem J J Assendelft, Henk J Schers
BACKGROUND: In the western world, a growing number of the older people live at home. In the Netherlands, GPs are expected to play a pivotal role in the organization of integrated care for this patient group. However, little is known about how GPs can play this role best. Our aim for this study was to unravel how GPs can play a successful role in elderly care, in particular in multidisciplinary teams, and to define key concepts for success. METHODS: A mixed qualitative research model in four multidisciplinary teams for elderly care in the Netherlands was used...
March 10, 2018: BMC Family Practice
Francisco Muñoz-Leiva, Janet Hernández-Méndez, Diego Gómez-Carmona
The advent of Web 2.0 is changing tourists' behaviors, prompting them to take on a more active role in preparing their travel plans. It is also leading tourism companies to have to adapt their marketing strategies to different online social media. The present study analyzes advertising effectiveness in social media in terms of customers' visual attention and self-reported memory (recall). Data were collected through a within-subjects and between-groups design based on eye-tracking technology, followed by a self-administered questionnaire...
March 6, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Christian Beck, Henning Knoop, Ralf Steuer
Cyanobacteria are a monophyletic phylogenetic group of global importance and have received considerable attention as potential host organisms for the renewable synthesis of chemical bulk products from atmospheric CO2. The cyanobacterial phylum exhibits enormous metabolic diversity with respect to morphology, lifestyle and habitat. As yet, however, research has mostly focused on few model strains and cyanobacterial diversity is insufficiently understood. In this respect, the increasing availability of fully sequenced bacterial genomes opens new and unprecedented opportunities to investigate the genetic inventory of organisms in the context of their pan-genome...
March 9, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Jasmeer P Chhatwal, Aaron P Schultz, Keith A Johnson, Trey Hedden, Sehily Jaimes, Tammie L S Benzinger, Clifford Jack, Beau M Ances, John M Ringman, Daniel S Marcus, Bernardino Ghetti, Martin R Farlow, Adrian Danek, Johannes Levin, Igor Yakushev, Christoph Laske, Robert A Koeppe, Douglas R Galasko, Chengjie Xiong, Colin L Masters, Peter R Schofield, Kirsi M Kinnunen, Stephen Salloway, Ralph N Martins, Eric McDade, Nigel J Cairns, Virginia D Buckles, John C Morris, Randall Bateman, Reisa A Sperling
Converging evidence from structural, metabolic and functional connectivity MRI suggests that neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, target specific neural networks. However, age-related network changes commonly co-occur with neuropathological cascades, limiting efforts to disentangle disease-specific alterations in network function from those associated with normal ageing. Here we elucidate the differential effects of ageing and Alzheimer's disease pathology through simultaneous analyses of two functional connectivity MRI datasets: (i) young participants harbouring highly-penetrant mutations leading to autosomal-dominant Alzheimer's disease from the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer's Network (DIAN), an Alzheimer's disease cohort in which age-related comorbidities are minimal and likelihood of progression along an Alzheimer's disease trajectory is extremely high; and (ii) young and elderly participants from the Harvard Aging Brain Study, a cohort in which imaging biomarkers of amyloid burden and neurodegeneration can be used to disambiguate ageing alone from preclinical Alzheimer's disease...
March 7, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Brian C Stagg, HwaJung Choi, Maria A Woodward, Joshua R Ehrlich
Importance: Cataract-related vision impairment is an important public health issue that tends to affect older adults. Little is known about the association between older adults' social support networks and their likelihood of receiving cataract surgery. Objective: To determine if older adults with smaller social support networks are less likely to receive cataract surgery. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study. The National Health and Aging Trends Study, a nationally representative US survey, administered annually from 2011 to 2015 to a cohort of Medicare beneficiaries 65 years and older with no cataract surgery prior to the start of the study...
March 8, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
Minsoo Jung
Active discussions are underway on whether or not the absence or insufficiency of communication is a decisive factor affecting hesitancy with regard to vaccines. Low-quality services such as insufficient communication can lead to an increase in the population postponing vaccinations in countries without deficiencies in vaccine procurement. This study examines the strategies and tasks of health communication in relation to vaccinations. Social networking services (SNSs) are major channels of health communication in responding to infectious diseases...
March 8, 2018: Health Care Manager
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