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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918907/prevalence-and-characteristics-of-cancer-patients-receiving-care-from-single-vs-multiple-institutions
#1
Christina A Clarke, Sally L Glaser, Rita Leung, Kathleen Davidson-Allen, Scarlett L Gomez, Theresa H M Keegan
INTRODUCTION: Patients may receive cancer care from multiple institutions. However, at the population level, such patterns of cancer care are poorly described, complicating clinical research. To determine the population-based prevalence and characteristics of patients seen by multiple institutions, we used operations data from a state-mandated cancer registry. METHODS AND MATERIALS: 59,672 invasive cancers diagnosed in 1/1/2010-12/31/2011 in the Greater Bay Area of northern California were categorized as having been reported to the cancer registry within 365days of diagnosis by: 1) ≥1 institution within an integrated health system (IHS); 2) IHS institution(s) and ≥1 non-IHS institution (e...
December 2, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918854/randomized-trial-testing-the-effects-of-eating-frequency-on-two-hormonal-biomarkers-of-metabolism-and-energy-balance
#2
Martine M Perrigue, Adam Drewnowski, Ching-Yun Wang, Xiaoling Song, Mario Kratz, Marian L Neuhouser
BACKGROUND: Eating frequency (EF) may influence obesity-related disease risk by attenuating postprandial fluctuations in hormones involved in metabolism, appetite regulation, and inflammation. MATERIALS/METHODS: This randomized crossover intervention trial tested the effects of EF on fasting plasma insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-1) and leptin. Fifteen subjects (4 males, 11 females) completed two eucaloric intervention phases lasting 21 days each: low EF ("low-EF"; 3 eating occasions/day) and high EF ("high-EF"; 8 eating occasions/day)...
December 5, 2016: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918777/global-regional-and-national-cancer-incidence-mortality-years-of-life-lost-years-lived-with-disability-and-disability-adjusted-life-years-for-32-cancer-groups-1990-to-2015-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study
#3
Christina Fitzmaurice, Christine Allen, Ryan M Barber, Lars Barregard, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Hermann Brenner, Daniel J Dicker, Odgerel Chimed-Orchir, Rakhi Dandona, Lalit Dandona, Tom Fleming, Mohammad H Forouzanfar, Jamie Hancock, Roderick J Hay, Rachel Hunter-Merrill, Chantal Huynh, H Dean Hosgood, Catherine O Johnson, Jost B Jonas, Jagdish Khubchandani, G Anil Kumar, Michael Kutz, Qing Lan, Heidi J Larson, Xiaofeng Liang, Stephen S Lim, Alan D Lopez, Michael F MacIntyre, Laurie Marczak, Neal Marquez, Ali H Mokdad, Christine Pinho, Farshad Pourmalek, Joshua A Salomon, Juan Ramon Sanabria, Logan Sandar, Benn Sartorius, Stephen M Schwartz, Katya A Shackelford, Kenji Shibuya, Jeff Stanaway, Caitlyn Steiner, Jiandong Sun, Ken Takahashi, Stein Emil Vollset, Theo Vos, Joseph A Wagner, Haidong Wang, Ronny Westerman, Hajo Zeeb, Leo Zoeckler, Foad Abd-Allah, Muktar Beshir Ahmed, Samer Alabed, Noore K Alam, Saleh Fahed Aldhahri, Girma Alem, Mulubirhan Assefa Alemayohu, Raghib Ali, Rajaa Al-Raddadi, Azmeraw Amare, Yaw Amoako, Al Artaman, Hamid Asayesh, Niguse Atnafu, Ashish Awasthi, Huda Ba Saleem, Aleksandra Barac, Neeraj Bedi, Isabela Bensenor, Adugnaw Berhane, Eduardo Bernabé, Balem Betsu, Agnes Binagwaho, Dube Boneya, Ismael Campos-Nonato, Carlos Castañeda-Orjuela, Ferrán Catalá-López, Peggy Chiang, Chioma Chibueze, Abdulaal Chitheer, Jee-Young Choi, Benjamin Cowie, Solomon Damtew, José das Neves, Suhojit Dey, Samath Dharmaratne, Preet Dhillon, Eric Ding, Tim Driscoll, Donatus Ekwueme, Aman Yesuf Endries, Maryam Farvid, Farshad Farzadfar, Joao Fernandes, Florian Fischer, Tsegaye Tewelde G/Hiwot, Alemseged Gebru, Sameer Gopalani, Alemayehu Hailu, Masako Horino, Nobuyuki Horita, Abdullatif Husseini, Inge Huybrechts, Manami Inoue, Farhad Islami, Mihajlo Jakovljevic, Spencer James, Mehdi Javanbakht, Sun Ha Jee, Amir Kasaeian, Muktar Sano Kedir, Yousef S Khader, Young-Ho Khang, Daniel Kim, James Leigh, Shai Linn, Raimundas Lunevicius, Hassan Magdy Abd El Razek, Reza Malekzadeh, Deborah Carvalho Malta, Wagner Marcenes, Desalegn Markos, Yohannes A Melaku, Kidanu G Meles, Walter Mendoza, Desalegn Tadese Mengiste, Tuomo J Meretoja, Ted R Miller, Karzan Abdulmuhsin Mohammad, Alireza Mohammadi, Shafiu Mohammed, Maziar Moradi-Lakeh, Gabriele Nagel, Devina Nand, Quyen Le Nguyen, Sandra Nolte, Felix A Ogbo, Kelechi E Oladimeji, Eyal Oren, Mahesh Pa, Eun-Kee Park, David M Pereira, Dietrich Plass, Mostafa Qorbani, Amir Radfar, Anwar Rafay, Mahfuzar Rahman, Saleem M Rana, Kjetil Søreide, Maheswar Satpathy, Monika Sawhney, Sadaf G Sepanlou, Masood Ali Shaikh, Jun She, Ivy Shiue, Hirbo Roba Shore, Mark G Shrime, Samuel So, Samir Soneji, Vasiliki Stathopoulou, Konstantinos Stroumpoulis, Muawiyyah Babale Sufiyan, Bryan L Sykes, Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos, Fentaw Tadese, Bemnet Amare Tedla, Gizachew Assefa Tessema, J S Thakur, Bach Xuan Tran, Kingsley Nnanna Ukwaja, Benjamin S Chudi Uzochukwu, Vasiliy Victorovich Vlassov, Elisabete Weiderpass, Mamo Wubshet Terefe, Henock Gebremedhin Yebyo, Hassen Hamid Yimam, Naohiro Yonemoto, Mustafa Z Younis, Chuanhua Yu, Zoubida Zaidi, Maysaa El Sayed Zaki, Zerihun Menlkalew Zenebe, Christopher J L Murray, Mohsen Naghavi
Importance: Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Current estimates on the burden of cancer are needed for cancer control planning. Objective: To estimate mortality, incidence, years lived with disability (YLDs), years of life lost (YLLs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 32 cancers in 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2015. Evidence Review: Cancer mortality was estimated using vital registration system data, cancer registry incidence data (transformed to mortality estimates using separately estimated mortality to incidence [MI] ratios), and verbal autopsy data...
December 3, 2016: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918312/physician-patient-communication-is-associated-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma-screening-in-chronic-liver-disease-patients
#4
Deborah J Li, Yikyung Park, Neeta Vachharajani, Wint Yan Aung, Jacqueline Garonzik-Wang, William C Chapman
BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic liver disease are at high risk for developing liver cancer. Factors associated with screening awareness and doctor-patient communication regarding liver cancer were examined. STUDY: Four hundred sixty-seven patients with chronic liver disease at a tertiary-care clinic participated in a phone survey regarding awareness of cancer screening, doctor-patient communication, and health behaviors. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed for data on liver disease etiology and dates of liver imaging tests...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916515/oestrogen-and-anti-androgen-therapy-for-transgender-women
#5
REVIEW
Vin Tangpricha, Martin den Heijer
Transgender women experience lifelong gender dysphoria due to a gender assignment at birth that is incongruent with their gender identity. They often seek hormone therapy, with or without surgery, to improve their gender dysphoria and to better align their physical and psychological features with a more feminine gender role. Some of the desired physical changes from oestrogen and anti-androgen therapy include decreased body and facial hair, decreased muscle mass, breast growth, and redistribution of fat. Overall the risks of treatment are low, but include thromboembolism, the risk of which depends on the dose and route of oestrogen administration...
December 1, 2016: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915154/lipopolysaccharides-stimulated-macrophage-products-enhance-withaferin-a-induced-apoptosis-via-activation-of-caspases-and-inhibition-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-in-human-cancer-cells
#6
Liang Piao, Zhao Canguo, Lu Wenjie, Cheng Xiaoli, Shi Wenli, Lu Li
Macrophages, as a major cellular component in tumor microenvironment, play an important role in tumor progression. However, their roles in modulation of cytotoxic chemotherapy are still not fully understood. Here, we investigated the influence of Lipoplysaccharides (LPS)-stimulated macrophage products (LSMP) on Withaferin A (WA), a natural compound that derived from the medicinal plant Withania somnifera, as an antitumor agent in human breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 and prostate cancer cells PC-3. Our results revealed that LSMP may enhance WA-induced apoptosis in both cell lines, the underlying mechanisms of which are closely associated with activation of caspase-8, -9 and -3, cleavage of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP), as well as specifically inhibiting the translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and down-regulation of anti-apoptotic proteins X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) and inhibitor of apoptosis protein (cIAP1/2)...
December 1, 2016: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913313/the-role-of-vitamin-d-and-vdr-in-carcinogenesis-through-epidemiology-and-basic-sciences
#7
REVIEW
Borja Bandera Merchan, Sonsoles Morcillo, Gracias Martin-Nuñez, Francisco José Tinahones, Manuel Macías-González
In the last two decades vitamin D (VD) research has demonstrated new extraskeletal actions of this pre-hormone, suggesting a protective role of this secosteroid in the onset, progression and prognosis of several chronic noncommunicable diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus or cancer. Regarding carcinogenesis, both preclinical and epidemiological evidence available show oncoprotective actions of VD and its receptor, the VDR. However, in late neoplastic stages the VD system (VDS) seems to be less functional, which appears to be due to an epigenetic silencing of the system...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911711/diaphanous-related-formin-1-as-a-target-for-tumor-therapy
#8
REVIEW
Yuan-Na Lin, Sabine Windhorst
Formins nucleate actin and stabilize microtubules (MTs). Expression of the formin Diaphanous homolog 1 (DIAPH1) is increased in malignant colon carcinoma cells, while expression of DIAPH3 is up-regulated in breast and prostate carcinoma cells. Both DIAPH1 isoforms are required to stabilize interphase MTs of cancer cells, and it has been shown that loss of this function decreases the metastatic potential of these cells. Moreover, depletion of DIAPH3 increases the sensitivity of breast and prostate carcinoma cells to taxanes...
October 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910200/percutaneous-sacroplasty-for-painful-bone-metastases-a-case-report
#9
Jaclyn Yoong, Ronil Vikesh Chandra, Leeroy William, Michael Franco, Tony Goldschlager, Fiona Runacres, Peter Poon
The occurrence of bone metastases is common in patients with advanced cancer. Metastatic bone disease occurs across a range of tumor types, with prostate and breast cancers having the highest incidence. Bone metastases, and associated skeletal-related events, are the most common cause of cancer-related pain. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
December 2, 2016: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909909/obesity-biomarkers-metabolism-and-risk-of-cancer-an-epidemiological-perspective
#10
Katharina Nimptsch, Tobias Pischon
Obesity is associated with metabolic alterations that may pose a biological link between body fatness and risk of cancer. Elucidating the role of obesity-related biomarkers in cancer development is essential for developing targeted strategies aiming at obesity-associated cancer prevention. Molecular epidemiological studies of the past decades have provided evidence that major hormonal pathways linking obesity and cancer risk include the insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis, sex-steroid hormones, adipokines and chronic low-grade inflammation...
2016: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909899/obesity-and-risk-of-cancer-an-introductory-overview
#11
Tobias Pischon, Katharina Nimptsch
The prevalence of obesity has increased substantially in the past in almost all countries of the world, and a further increase is expected for the future. Besides the well-established effects on type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, there is convincing evidence today that obesity also increases the risk of several types of cancer, including colorectal cancer, postmenopausal breast cancer, endometrial cancer, renal cell carcinoma, esophageal adenocarcinoma, pancreatic cancer, and liver cancer. Obesity probably also increases the risk of ovarian cancer, advanced prostate cancer, gallbladder cancer, and gastric cardia cancer...
2016: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903863/internalization-of-secreted-antigen-targeted-antibodies-by-the-neonatal-fc-receptor-for-precision-imaging-of-the-androgen-receptor-axis
#12
Daniel L J Thorek, Philip A Watson, Sang-Gyu Lee, Anson T Ku, Stylianos Bournazos, Katharina Braun, Kwanghee Kim, Kjell Sjöström, Michael G Doran, Urpo Lamminmäki, Elmer Santos, Darren Veach, Mesruh Turkekul, Emily Casey, Jason S Lewis, Diane S Abou, Marise R H van Voss, Peter T Scardino, Sven-Erik Strand, Mary L Alpaugh, Howard I Scher, Hans Lilja, Steven M Larson, David Ulmert
Targeting the androgen receptor (AR) pathway prolongs survival in patients with prostate cancer, but resistance rapidly develops. Understanding this resistance is confounded by a lack of noninvasive means to assess AR activity in vivo. We report intracellular accumulation of a secreted antigen-targeted antibody (SATA) that can be used to characterize disease, guide therapy, and monitor response. AR-regulated human kallikrein-related peptidase 2 (free hK2) is a prostate tissue-specific antigen produced in prostate cancer and androgen-stimulated breast cancer cells...
November 30, 2016: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902695/text-mining-genotype-phenotype-relationships-from-biomedical-literature-for-database-curation-and-precision-medicine
#13
Ayush Singhal, Michael Simmons, Zhiyong Lu
The practice of precision medicine will ultimately require databases of genes and mutations for healthcare providers to reference in order to understand the clinical implications of each patient's genetic makeup. Although the highest quality databases require manual curation, text mining tools can facilitate the curation process, increasing accuracy, coverage, and productivity. However, to date there are no available text mining tools that offer high-accuracy performance for extracting such triplets from biomedical literature...
November 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900359/homozygous-inactivation-of-chek2-is-linked-to-a-familial-case-of-multiple-primary-lung-cancer-with-accompanying-cancers-in-other-organs
#14
Yoji Kukita, Jiro Okami, Noriko Yoneda-Kato, Ikuko Nakamae, Takeshi Kawabata, Masahiko Higashiyama, Junya Kato, Ken Kodama, Kikuya Kato
In clinical practice, there are a number of cancer patients with clear family histories, but the patients lack mutations in known familial cancer syndrome genes. Recent advances in genomic technologies have enhanced the possibility of identifying causative genes in such cases. Two siblings, an elder sister and a younger brother, were found to have multiple primary lung cancers at the age of 60. The former subsequently developed breast cancer and had a history of uterine myoma. The latter had initially developed prostate cancer at the age of 59 and had a history of colon cancer...
November 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Molecular Case Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900057/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-inhibition-of-tumor-cell-viability-by-combined-dihydroartemisinin-and-doxorubicin-treatment-and-the-underlying-mechanism
#15
Xiang Tai, Xiao-Bei Cai, Zhang Zhang, Rui Wei
The natural extract artemisinin and its derivatives have good anticancer activity. The present study aimed to investigate the in vitro inhibitory effects of combined dihydroartemisinin (DHA) and doxorubicin (DOX) treatment on a variety of tumor cell lines (HeLa, OVCAR-3, MCF-7, PC-3 and A549), as well as the underlying mechanisms. In addition, the in vivo effects of DHA and DOX were evaluated using a mouse HeLa tumor model. The HeLa, OVCAR-3, MCF-7, PC-3 and A549 cells were treated with a combination of DHA and DOX, and the effect on cell viability was detected by Cell Counting kit-8...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899188/familial-prostate-cancer
#16
Veda N Giri, Jennifer L Beebe-Dimmer
Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among men in the United States as well as most Western countries. A significant proportion of men report having a positive family history of prostate cancer in a first-degree relative (father, brother, son), which is important in that family history is one of the only established risk factors for the disease and plays a role in decision-making for prostate cancer screening. Familial aggregation of prostate cancer is considered a surrogate marker of genetic susceptibility to developing the disease, but shared environment cannot be excluded as an explanation for clustering of cases among family members...
October 2016: Seminars in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896639/seom-clinical-guideline-for-bone-metastases-from-solid-tumours-2016
#17
C Grávalos, C Rodríguez, A Sabino, M Á Seguí, J A Virizuela, A Carmona, J Cassinello, D Isla, C Jara, M Martín
Bone metastases are common in many advanced solid tumours, being breast, prostate, thyroid, lung, and renal cancer the most prevalent. Bone metastases can produce skeletal-related events (SREs), defined as pathological fracture, spinal cord compression, need of bone irradiation or need of bone surgery, and hypercalcaemia. Patients with bone metastases experience pain, functional impairment and have a negative impact on their quality of life. Several imaging techniques are available for diagnosis of this disease...
December 2016: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896021/lithocholic-acid-induces-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-autophagy-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-human-prostate-cancer-cells
#18
Ahmed A Gafar, Hossam M Draz, Alexander A Goldberg, Mohamed A Bashandy, Sayed Bakry, Mahmoud A Khalifa, Walid AbuShair, Vladimir I Titorenko, J Thomas Sanderson
Lithocholic acid (LCA) is a secondary bile acid that is selectively toxic to human neuroblastoma, breast and prostate cancer cells, whilst sparing normal cells. We previously reported that LCA inhibited cell viability and proliferation and induced apoptosis and necrosis of androgen-dependent LNCaP and androgen-independent PC-3 human prostate cancer cells. In the present study, we investigated the roles of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, autophagy and mitochondrial dysfunction in the toxicity of LCA in PC-3 and autophagy deficient, androgen-independent DU-145 cells...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893988/endothelin-signaling-in-bone
#19
REVIEW
Jasmin Kristianto, Michael G Johnson, Rafia Afzal, Robert D Blank
The endothelin (ET) system includes 3 small peptide hormones and a pair of G protein-coupled receptors. All 3 ETs are secreted as biologically inert precursors that must be activated by proteolytic cleavage after secretion. This reaction can be catalyzed by a pair of specific, membrane-bound extracellular ET converting enzymes or by nonspecific tissue proteases. The ET1/EDNRA axis is essential in development, with knockout mice for either displaying a similar phenotype featuring multiple defects of the craniofacial skeleton and cardiac outflow tract...
November 11, 2016: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893426/sublethal-exposure-to-alpha-radiation-223ra-dichloride-enhances-various-carcinomas-sensitivity-to-lysis-by-antigen-specific-cytotoxic-t-lymphocytes-through-calreticulin-mediated-immunogenic-modulation
#20
Anthony S Malamas, Sofia R Gameiro, Karin M Knudson, James W Hodge
Radium-223 dichloride (Xofigo®; 223Ra) is an alpha-emitting radiopharmaceutical FDA-approved for the treatment of bone metastases in patients with advanced castration-resistant prostate cancer. It is also being examined clinically in patients with breast and lung carcinoma and patients with multiple myeloma. As with other forms of radiation, the aim of 223Ra is to reduce tumor burden by directly killing tumor cells. External beam (photon) and proton radiation have been shown to augment tumor sensitivity to antigen-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs)...
November 23, 2016: Oncotarget
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