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prostate cancer, breast cancer

Yuri N Clement, Varune Mahase, Annelise Jagroop, Kelly Kissoon, Aarti Maharaj, Prashant Mathura, Chrys Mc Quan, Divya Ramadhin, Cherrista Mohammed
BACKGROUND: Cancer is a major disease worldwide, and many patients use complementary and alternative treatments. The purpose of this study was to identify the herbal remedies and functional foods used as complementary medicine by prostate, breast and colorectal cancer patients at speciality care facilities in Trinidad. We also sought to determine how patients rated the efficacy of these modalities compared with conventional treatment. METHODS: A descriptive, cross-sectional survey was conducted using an interviewer-administered pilot-tested de novo questionnaire during the period June to August 2012 at two speciality treatment centres on the island...
October 21, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Raymond Chan, Patsy Yates, Alexandra L McCarthy
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To explore the fatigue self-management behaviors and factors associated with effectiveness of these behaviors in patients with advanced cancer.
. DESIGN: Prospective longitudinal interviewer-administered survey.
. SETTING: Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital in Queensland, Australia.
. SAMPLE: 152 outpatients with metastatic breast, lung, colorectal, and prostate cancer experiencing fatigue were recruited...
November 1, 2016: Oncology Nursing Forum
Hassan Mansouri-Torshizi, Elham Rezaei, Farzaneh Kamranfar, Mostafa Heidari Majd
Purpose: High solubility, low renal toxicity and apoptosis-inducing ability of palladium complexes are the reasons for their synthesis. Methods: In vitro cytotoxic study of previously synthesized [Pd(en)(8HQ)]NO3 , was carried out on breast cancer MCF-7 cell lines and prostate cancer DU145 cell lines. DNA fragmentation indicative of apoptotic was also evaluated by TUNEL assay on DU145 cell line. Results: FT-IR spectra of final complex confirmed the existence of chelating ligands. The DU145 cells unlike the MCF-7 cells, demonstrated the significant influence of the Pd (II) complex...
September 2016: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Francesca Salamanna, Veronica Borsari, Silvia Brogini, Gianluca Giavaresi, Annapaola Parrilli, Simona Cepollaro, Matteo Cadossi, Lucia Martini, Antonio Mazzotti, Milena Fini
One of the main limitations, when studying cancer-bone metastasis, is the complex nature of the native bone environment and the lack of reliable, simple, inexpensive models that closely mimic the biological processes occurring in patients and allowing the correct translation of results. To enhance the understanding of the mechanisms underlying human bone metastases and in order to find new therapies, we developed an in vitro three-dimensional (3D) cancer-bone metastasis model by culturing human breast or prostate cancer cells with human bone tissue isolated from female and male patients, respectively...
October 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Ion Cristobal, Blanca Torrejón, Manuel Pedregal, Federico G Rojo, Jesús García-Foncillas
Dear Editor, We have read with great interest the recent published manuscript by Caiazza et al. (2016), which provides novel exciting findings about the potential therapeutic value of enzalutamide in patients with androgen receptor (AR)-positive triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Some previous studies have shown promising antitumor effects of this drug in breast tumors. Thus, enzalutamide-mediated AR inhibition has been reported to reduce proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, migration, and invasion and increases apoptosis of TNBC cells in vitro and decrease viability of TNBC xenografts in vivo (Cochrane et al...
October 20, 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
Paul B Koller, Hagop M Kantarjian, Graciela M Nogueras-Gonzalez, Elias Jabbour, Srdan Verstovsek, Gautam Borthakur, Zeev Estrov, William G Wierda, Guillermo Garcia-Manero, Alessandra Ferrajoli, Farhad Ravandi, Susan M O'Brien, Jorge E Cortes
BACKGROUND: Some patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) have a history of previous malignancies. To the authors' knowledge, outcomes for CML diagnosed in these patients have not been well described. The current study was conducted to determine the outcome of patients with CML and a history of prior malignancies. METHODS: The current study included patients who were enrolled in clinical trials of tyrosine kinase inhibitors as initial therapy for CML in chronic phase from July 2000 to January 2014...
October 20, 2016: Cancer
Sofia Sousa, Jorma Määttä
This overview addresses the recent research developments in the role of tumour-associated macrophages (TAM) in bone metastasis biology and management of breast and prostate cancer as well as in primary and lung metastatic osteosarcoma. Immunosuppressive M2-type TAMs have been shown to associate with poor prognosis. Throughout their life cycle, macrophages (Macs) can adapt to environmental cues and influence the surroundings by secreting different cytokines and enzymes crucial to matrix remodelling, infection fighting, immune regulation and/or inflammation...
September 2016: Journal of Bone Oncology
Eugenio Zoni, Gabri van der Pluijm
The skeleton represents a common site of metastases for osteotropic cancers such as prostate and breast tumors and novel therapeutic targets and new markers for the monitoring of bone lesions are urgently needed. The formation of bone metastases is a complex process that starts at the level of the confined tumor and that is characterized by a dynamic crosstalk between the primary cancer and the future metastatic site, the bone. Factors released by the primary tumor contribute to prepare a fertile "soil", where a "pre-metastatic niche" is established prior to future colonization by cancer cells...
September 2016: Journal of Bone Oncology
C X Cong, J Y Lin, L H Wang
Objective: To observe the clinical and pathological features of uveal metastatic carcinoma. Methods: It was a retrospective case series study. The clinical manifestation, growth pattern, tumor types and relative pathological features of 13 patients visiting from January 1980 to December 2014 with uveal metastatic carcinoma in Tianjin Eye Hospital were analyzed retrospectively. Results: There were 13 cases, 6 cases of male and 7 of female. Age was from 37.0 to 66.0 years old. The mean age was 52.1 years old...
October 11, 2016: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
Myeongjee Lee, Marie Reilly, Linda Sofie Lindström, Kamila Czene
Family history of cancer is a well-known risk factor but the role of family history in survival is less clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between family history and cancer survival for the common cancers in Sweden. Using the Swedish population-based registers, patients diagnosed with the most common cancers were followed for cancer-specific death during 1991-2010. We used multivariate proportional hazards (Cox) regression models to contrast the survival of patients with a family history of cancer (individuals whose parent or sibling had a concordant cancer) to the survival of patients without a family history...
October 19, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Andrew Keller, Christian Gericke, Jennifer A Whitty, John Yaxley, Boon Kua, Geoff Coughlin, Troy Gianduzzo
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The Göteborg randomised population-based prostate cancer screening trial demonstrated that prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based screening reduces prostate cancer deaths compared with an age-matched control group. Utilising the prostate cancer detection rates from this study, we investigated the clinical and cost effectiveness of a similar PSA-based screening strategy for an Australian population of men aged 50-69 years. METHODS: A decision model that incorporated Markov processes was developed from a health system perspective...
October 18, 2016: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
Mandi M Hopkins, Kathryn E Meier
The effects of fatty acids on cancer cells have been studied for decades. The roles of dietary long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and of microbiome-generated short-chain butyric acid, have been of particular interest over the years. However, the roles of free fatty acid receptors (FFARs) in mediating effects of fatty acids in tumor cells have only recently been examined. In reviewing the literature, the data obtained to date indicate that the long-chain FFARs (FFA1 and FFA4) play different roles than the short-chain FFARs (FFA2 and FFA3)...
October 19, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Ruo-Kai Lin, Yuh-Feng Lin, Ming-Jen Hsu, Chang-Lin Hsieh, Chen-Yu Wang, Chih-Chiang Huang, Wei-Jan Huang
Some hydroxamate compounds induce cancer cell death by intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). This study introduced the hydroxamate core into lovastatin, a fungus metabolite clinically used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. The resulting compounds were evaluated for the activity for inducing ROS production. Most compounds exhibited higher activity than original lovastatin. Of these compounds, compound 3c had the most potent activity. Test of cytotoxicity in a panel of human cancer cell lines indicated compound 3c had activities superior to cisplatin in prostate cancer PC-3 cells and breast cancer T47D cells...
October 6, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Masahiro Ono, Atsumi Baden, Hiroyuki Okudaira, Masato Kobayashi, Keiichi Kawai, Shuntaro Oka, Hirokatsu Yoshimura
[(18)F]Fluciclovine (trans-1-amino-3-[(18)F]fluorocyclobutanecarboxylic acid; anti-[(18)F]FACBC), a positron emission tomography tracer used for the diagnosis of recurrent prostate cancer, is transported via amino acid transporters (AATs) with high affinity (Km: 97-230 μM). However, the mechanism underlying urinary excretion is unknown. In this study, we investigated the involvement of AATs and drug transporters in renal [(18)F]fluciclovine reuptake. [(14)C]Fluciclovine (trans-1-amino-3-fluoro[1-(14)C]cyclobutanecarboxylic acid) was used because of its long half-life...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Simon B Zeichner, Christine Stanislaw, Jane L Meisel
In recent years, we have learned a great deal about pathogenic mutations that increase the risk of breast and ovarian cancer, particularly mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Here we review current guidelines on breast and ovarian cancer screening, prophylactic surgery, and other risk-reduction strategies in patients with these mutations, and we detail the data that drive these recommendations. We also discuss guidelines on screening and management for other cancers associated with BRCA1 and BRCA2, such as male breast cancer, pancreatic cancer, and prostate cancer...
October 15, 2016: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
Michael Rehman, Sreeharsha Gurrapu, Gabriella Cagnoni, Lorena Capparuccia, Luca Tamagnone
The secreted semaphorin Sema3E controls cell migration and invasiveness in cancer cells. Sema3E-receptor, PlexinD1, is frequently upregulated in melanoma, breast, colon, ovarian and prostate cancers; however, the mechanisms underlying PlexinD1 upregulation and the downstream events elicited in tumor cells are still unclear. Here we show that the canonical RBPjk-dependent Notch signaling cascade controls PlexinD1 expression in primary endothelial and cancer cells. Transcriptional activation was studied by quantitative PCR and promoter activity reporter assays...
2016: PloS One
Sarah A Altınoğlu, Ming Wang, Kathleen Q Li, Yuyang Li, Qiaobing Xu
The phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is a tumor suppressor, mutated or inactive in a large percentage of human cancers. Restoring PTEN activity in cancer cells through gene therapy has shown to inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis, particularly in cells with a PTEN deficiency. Gene therapy, however, comes with some inherent risks such as triggering an immune response and permanent off target effects. Nanoparticle assisted protein delivery could mitigate these liabilities while maintaining therapeutic integrity...
October 17, 2016: Biomaterials Science
Maria Vadalà, Julio Cesar Morales-Medina, Annamaria Vallelunga, Beniamino Palmieri, Carmen Laurino, Tommaso Iannitti
Cancer is one of the most common causes of death worldwide. Available treatments are associated with numerous side effects and only a low percentage of patients achieve complete remission. Therefore, there is a strong need for new therapeutic strategies. In this regard, pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) therapy presents several potential advantages including non-invasiveness, safety, lack of toxicity for non-cancerous cells, and the possibility of being combined with other available therapies. Indeed, PEMF stimulation has already been used in the context of various cancer types including skin, breast, prostate, hepatocellular, lung, ovarian, pancreatic, bladder, thyroid, and colon cancer in vitro and in vivo...
October 17, 2016: Cancer Medicine
Alamgir A Dar, Nisar A Dangroo, Arun Raina, Arem Qayum, Shashank Singh, Anil Kumar, Payare L Sangwan
Five new xanthones, named coxanthones A-E (1-5), together with 21 known secondary metabolites (6-26) that include seven xanthones, five flavonoids, two steroids and seven triterpenoids were isolated from the chemically unexplored whole plant Codonopsis ovata. The structures of new metabolites were elucidated by HRMS, interpretation of NMR spectra and other spectroscopic techniques. The absolute configuration of the stereogenic centre of coxanthone B (2) was determined by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectroscopy...
October 10, 2016: Phytochemistry
Chris Carter, Kevin Crimmons, Sue Viveash
In the UK, there are an estimated 150,000 cases of sepsis per year, resulting in 44,000 deaths. This equates to more deaths than from bowel, breast and prostate cancer combined according to the Sepsis Trust.
September 14, 2016: Nursing Standard
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