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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430646/immunotherapeutic-target-expression-on-breast-tumors-can-be-amplified-by-hormone-receptor-antagonism-a-novel-strategy-for-enhancing-efficacy-of-targeted-immunotherapy
#1
Ritika Jaini, Matthew G Loya, Charis Eng
Immunotherapy has historically been successful in highly antigenic tumors but has shown limited therapeutic efficacy in non-antigenic tumors such as breast cancers. Our previous studies in autoimmunity have demonstrated that increased antigen load within a tissue enhances immune reactivity against it. We therefore hypothesized that enhancing expression of target proteins on breast tumors can increase efficacy of targeted immunotherapy. We hypothesized that antagonism of the estrogen receptor (ER) can increase expression of targets that are hormonally regulated and facilitate enhanced tumor recognition by targeted immunotherapy...
March 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428642/-technology-and-prevention-in-the-era-of-mobile-health-applications-for-cancer-screening-programs
#2
Fabrizio Bert, Maria Rosaria Gualano, Salvatore Clemente, Giulia Villa, Roberta Siliquini
The Italian national health system provides screening to detect breast, colorecatal and cervical cancers, however, population adherence is not as high as expected. Smartphones and their applications (apps) could be used as a tool to communicate with the population and to help improve adherence. The aim of this study was to analyze the features and functions of smartphone applications aimed at secondary prevention of oncological diseases. In February 2016, we reviewed online app stores, using specific key-words, to search for available apps for cancer screening...
January 2017: Igiene e Sanità Pubblica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428185/investments-in-cancer-research-awarded-to-uk-institutions-and-the-global-burden-of-cancer-2000-2013-a-systematic-analysis
#3
Mahiben Maruthappu, Michael G Head, Charlie D Zhou, Barnabas J Gilbert, Majd A El-Harasis, Rosalind Raine, Joseph R Fitchett, Rifat Atun
OBJECTIVES: To systematically categorise cancer research investment awarded to United Kingdom (UK) institutions in the period 2000-2013 and to estimate research investment relative to disease burden as measured by mortality, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and years lived with disability (YLDs). DESIGN: Systematic analysis of all open-access data. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Public and philanthropic funding to all UK cancer research institutions, 2000-2013...
April 20, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427155/update-of-igf-1-receptor-inhibitor-ganitumab-dalotuzumab-cixutumumab-teprotumumab-and-figitumumab-effects-on-cancer-therapy
#4
REVIEW
Xiao Qu, Zhinan Wu, Wei Dong, Tiehong Zhang, Liguang Wang, Zhaofei Pang, Wei Ma, Jiajun Du
BACKGROUND: Prognostic studies of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor(IGF-1R) inhibitors in cancer therapy had promising results in infratests, which exhibited that IGF-1R signalling was crucial in cancer cells growth. However, the conclusion of later clinical trials revealed a dim future for IGF-1R inhibitors to treat cancer. We conducted this analysis to figure out how IGF-1R inhibitors acted in clinical cancer therapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We searched up-to-date studies about the single agent of IGF-1R inhibitors or combination with other therapies in solid tumor...
February 25, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426539/the-effect-of-cancer-patients-and-their-family-caregivers-physical-and-emotional-symptoms-on-caregiver-burden
#5
Safora Johansen, Milada Cvancarova, Cornelia Ruland
BACKGROUND: Although there is significant evidence that the family caregivers (FCs) of cancer patients can experience significant caregiver burden and symptoms, less is known about the relationships between FCs and patient characteristics that influence caregiver burden. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of cancer patients' and FCs' symptoms and demographic characteristics on caregiver burden at initiation of the patients' radiation treatment...
April 20, 2017: Cancer Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426375/united-states-population-based-estimates-of-patient-reported-outcomes-measurement-information-system-symptom-and-functional-status-reference-values-for-individuals-with-cancer
#6
Roxanne E Jensen, Arnold L Potosky, Carol M Moinpour, Tania Lobo, David Cella, Elizabeth A Hahn, David Thissen, Ashley Wilder Smith, Jaeil Ahn, George Luta, Bryce B Reeve
Purpose To estimate cancer population-based reference values in the United States for eight PROMIS (Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System) domains by age and stage of disease. Patients and Methods For the Measuring Your Health (MY-Health) study, persons newly diagnosed with cancer (prostate, colorectal, non-small-cell lung, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, breast, uterine, or cervical) from 2010 to 2012 (N = 5,284) were recruited through the National Cancer Institute's SEER Program. Participants were mailed surveys 6 to 13 months after diagnosis...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425973/edim-tktl1-apo10-blood-test-an-innate-immune-system-based-liquid-biopsy-for-the-early-detection-characterization-and-targeted-treatment-of-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Johannes F Coy
Epitope detection in monocytes (EDIM) represents a liquid biopsy exploiting the innate immune system. Activated monocytes (macrophages) phagocytose unwanted cells/cell fragments from the whole body including solid tissues. As they return to the blood, macrophages can be used for a non-invasive detection of biomarkers, thereby providing high sensitivity and specificity, because the intracellular presence of biomarkers is due to an innate immune response. Flow cytometry analysis of blood enables the detection of macrophages and phagocytosed intracellular biomarkers...
April 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425241/incidence-of-cancer-in-the-turkish-republic-of-northern-cyprus
#8
Ruqiya Pervaiz, Pınar Tulay, Faisal Faisal, Nedime Serakinci
BACKGROUND/AIM: This study analyzed the incidence, trends, and common types of cancer in the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study is based on data collected from the office of the North Cyprus Cancer Registry, Ministry of Health, for 2007-2012. Data were arranged on the basis of age group, sex, and cancer site. Age standardized incidence rates (ASRs) were estimated with the world standard population. EVIEWS (version 9) software was used for statistical analysis...
April 18, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425064/a-pathway-to-personalizing-therapy-for-metastases-using-liver-on-a-chip-platforms
#9
A S Khazali, A M Clark, A Wells
Metastasis accounts for most cancer-related deaths. The majority of solid cancers, including those of the breast, colorectum, prostate and skin, metastasize at significant levels to the liver due to its hemodynamic as well as tumor permissive microenvironmental properties. As this occurs prior to detection and treatment of the primary tumor, we need to target liver metastases to improve patients' outcomes. Animal models, while proven to be useful in mechanistic studies, do not represent the heterogeneity of human population especially in drug metabolism lack proper human cell-cell interactions, and this gap between animals and humans results in costly and inefficient drug discovery...
April 19, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423659/targeting-hox-pbx-dimers-in-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Richard Morgan, Mohamed El-Tanani, Keith D Hunter, Kevin J Harrington, Hardev S Pandha
The HOX and PBX gene families encode transcription factors that have key roles in establishing the identity of cells and tissues in early development. Over the last 20 years it has become apparent that they are also dysregulated in a wide range of solid and haematological malignancies and have a predominantly pro-oncogenic function. A key mode of transcriptional regulation by HOX and PBX proteins is through their interaction as a heterodimer or larger complex that enhances their binding affinity and specificity for DNA, and there is growing evidence that this interaction is a potential therapeutic target in malignancies that include prostate, breast, renal, ovarian and lung cancer, melanoma, myeloma, and acute myeloid leukaemia...
March 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423577/the-cyclin-like-protein-spy1-regulates-the-er%C3%AE-and-erk1-2-pathways-promoting-tamoxifen-resistance
#11
Rosa-Maria Ferraiuolo, Janice Tubman, Indrajit Sinha, Caroline Hamm, Lisa Ann Porter
The Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway conveys growth factor and mitogen signalling to control the phosphorylation of a plethora of substrates regulating proliferation, survival, and migration. The Ras signalling pathway is frequently associated with poor prognosis and drug resistance in various cancers including those of the blood, breast and prostate. Activation of the downstream effector ERK does not always occur via a linear cascade of events; complicating the targeting of this pathway therapeutically. This work describes a novel positive feedback loop where the cell cycle regulatory factor Spy1 (RINGO; gene SPDYA) activates ERK1/2 in a MEK-independent fashion...
April 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423275/single-or-multiple-access-channels-to-the-cyp450s-active-site-an-answer-from-free-energy-simulations-of-the-human-aromatase-enzyme
#12
Alessandra Magistrato, Jacopo Sgrignani, Rolf Krause, Andrea Cavalli
Cytochromes P450 (CYP450), in particular CYP19A1 and CYP17A1, are key clinical targets of breast and prostate anticancer therapies, critical players in drug metabolism and their overexpression in tumours is associated with drug resistance. In these enzymes ligands (substrates, drugs) metabolism occurs in deeply buried active sites accessible only via several gruelling channels, whose exact biological role remains unclear. Gaining direct insights on the mechanism by which ligands travel in and out, is becoming increasingly important given that channels are involved in the modulation of binding/dissociation kinetics and the specificity of ligands toward a CYP450...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422740/involvement-of-mir-106b-in-tumorigenic-actions-of-both-prolactin-and-estradiol
#13
Kuan-Hui Ethan Chen, Karissa Bustamante, Vi Nguyen, Ameae M Walker
Prolactin promotes a variety of cancers by an array of different mechanisms. Here, we have investigated prolactin's inhibitory effect on expression of the cell cycle-regulating protein, p21. Using a miRNA array, we identified a number of miRNAs upregulated by prolactin treatment, but one in particular that was strongly induced by prolactin and predicted to bind to the 3'UTR of p21 mRNA, miR-106b. By creating a p21 mRNA 3'UTR-luciferase mRNA construct, we demonstrated degradation of the construct in response to prolactin in human breast, prostate and ovarian cancer cell lines...
March 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417057/evaluation-of-shla-g-levels-in-serum-of-patients-with-prostate-cancer-identify-as-a-potential-of-tumor-marker
#14
Mohammad Hassan Heidari, Abolfazl Movafagh, Mohammad-Amin Abdollahifar, Shabnam Abdi, Mohamadreza Mashhoudi Barez, Hadi Azimi, Afshin Moradi, Amin Bagheri, Matineh Heidari, Jafar Hessam Mohseni, Maryam Tadayon, Hoda Mirsafian, Mahdi Ghatrehsamani
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer type in men and is the second cause of death, due to cancer, in patients over 50, after lung cancer. Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is a widely used tumor marker for prostate cancer. Recently, PSA is discovered in non-prostatic cancer tissues in men and women raising doubts about its specificity for prostatic tissues. PSA exists in low serum level in healthy men and in higher levels in many prostate disorders, including prostatitis and prostate cancer. Thus, a supplementary tumor marker is needed to accurately diagnose the cancer and to observe the patient after treatment...
March 2017: Anatomy & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416823/-identification-of-a-new-pro-invasion-factor-in-tumor-microenvironment-progress-in-function-and-mechanism-of-extracellular-atp
#15
W G Fang, X X Tian
Up to 90% of all cancer related morbidity and mortality can be attributed to metastasis. In recent years the study of tumor microenvironment, its cellular and molecular components, and how they can affect neoplastic progression toward metastasis, has become a hot focus in cancer research. Accumulated evidence shows that the formation of metastasis is a multi-step sequential process, in which, the tumor cells continuously interact with the host microenvironment. Host derived factors, i.e. growth factors/inhibitors, angiogenic factors, chemokines, etc...
April 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416734/the-angiotensin-receptor-blocker-losartan-inhibits-mammary-tumor-development-and-progression-to-invasive-carcinoma
#16
Rhiannon Coulson, Seng H Liew, Angela A Connelly, Nicholas S Yee, Siddhartha Deb, Beena Kumar, Ana C Vargas, Sandra A O'Toole, Adam C Parslow, Ashleigh Poh, Tracy Putoczki, Riley J Morrow, Mariah Alorro, Kyren A Lazarus, Evie F W Yeap, Kelly L Walton, Craig A Harrison, Natalie J Hannan, Amee J George, Colin D Clyne, Matthias Ernst, Andrew M Allen, Ashwini L Chand
Drugs that target the Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) have recently come into focus for their potential utility as cancer treatments. The use of Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARBs) and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors (ACEIs) to manage hypertension in cancer patients is correlated with improved survival outcomes for renal, prostate, breast and small cell lung cancer. Previous studies demonstrate that the Angiotensin Receptor Type I (AT1R) is linked to breast cancer pathogenesis, with unbiased analysis of gene-expression studies identifying significant up-regulation of AGTR1, the gene encoding AT1R in ER+ve/HER2-ve tumors correlating with poor prognosis...
March 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416604/oncogenic-characterization-and-pharmacologic-sensitivity-of-activating-fibroblast-growth-factor-receptor-fgfr-genetic-alterations-to-the-selective-fgfr-inhibitor-erdafitinib
#17
Jayaprakash D Karkera, Gabriela Martinez Cardona, Katherine Bell, Dana Gaffney, Joseph C Portale, Ademi Santiago-Walker, Christopher Moy, Peter King, Michael Sharp, Rastilav Bahleda, Feng R Luo, John D Alvarez, Matthew V Lorenzi, Suso J Platero
Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) genetic alterations are frequently observed in cancer, suggesting that FGFR inhibition may be a promising therapy in patients harboring these lesions.  Identification of predictive and pharmacodynamic biomarkers to select and monitor patients most likely to respond to FGFR inhibition will be the key to clinical development of this class of agents.  Sensitivity to FGFR inhibition and correlation with FGFR pathway activation status were determined in molecularly annotated panels of cancer cell lines and xenograft models...
April 17, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415828/melatonin-for-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Ya Li, Sha Li, Yue Zhou, Xiao Meng, Jiao-Jiao Zhang, Dong-Ping Xu, Hua-Bin Li
The epidemiological studies have indicated a possible oncostatic property of melatonin on different types of tumors. Besides, experimental studies have documented that melatonin could exert growth inhibition on some human tumor cells in vitro and in animal models. The underlying mechanisms include antioxidant activity, modulation of melatonin receptors MT1 and MT2, stimulation of apoptosis, regulation of pro-survival signaling and tumor metabolism, inhibition on angiogenesis, metastasis, and induction of epigenetic alteration...
March 18, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414581/posttraumatic-growth-after-cancer-the-role-of-perceived-threat-and-cognitive-processing
#19
Jennifer Caspari, Trisha L Raque-Bogdan, Cynthia McRae, Teresa Simoneau, Susan Ash-Lee, Kristin Hultgren
This study examines the relation between perceived cognitive and physical threat after a cancer diagnosis and posttraumatic growth (PTG). One hundred sixty-nine breast, prostate and colorectal cancer survivors completed questionnaires. Hierarchical regression models found after controlling for demographic and medical variables, depression, anxiety, and perceived threat account for 41.8% of the variance of positive cognitive processing, and these variables along with positive cognitive processing accounted for 42...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Psychosocial Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414074/a-novel-chemotherapy-drug-free-delivery-system-composed-of-three-therapeutic-aptamers-for-the-treatment-of-prostate-and-breast-cancers-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#20
Khalil Abnous, Noor Mohammad Danesh, Mohammad Ramezani, Rezvan Yazdian-Robati, Mona Alibolandi, Seyed Mohammad Taghdisi
In this study, a novel chemotherapy drug-free DNA nanocomplex composed of three therapeutic aptamers (IDA, AS1411 and apMNK2F) was designed for treatment of cancer cells. For MTT assay, PC-3 and 4T1 cells (target cells) and CHO cells (nontarget cells) were treated with apMNK2F-AS1411-IDA complex (DNA nanocomplex), as well as AS1411, IDA and apMNK2F alone. Internalization of apMNK2F-AS1411-IDA complex was analyzed by fluorescence imaging and flow cytometry analysis. In the last step, the presented DNA nanocomplex was applied for prohibition of tumor growth in vivo...
April 13, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
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