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prostate cancer, breast cancer

Thomas J Walsh, Molly M Shores, Chloe A Krakauer, Christopher W Forsberg, Alexandra E Fox, Kathryn P Moore, Anna Korpak, Susan R Heckbert, Steven B Zeliadt, Chloe E Kinsey, Mary Lou Thompson, Nicholas L Smith, Alvin M Matsumoto
PURPOSE: Testosterone treatment of men with low testosterone is common and, although relatively short-term, has raised concern regarding an increased risk of prostate cancer (CaP). We investigated the association between modest-duration testosterone treatment and incident aggressive CaP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective inception cohort study of male Veterans aged 40 to 89 years with a laboratory-defined low testosterone measurement from 2002 to 2011 and recent prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing; excluding those with recent testosterone treatment, prostate or breast cancer, high PSA or prior prostate biopsy...
2018: PloS One
Shinichiro Takahashi
Signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα), also known as cluster of differentiation (CD)172a or Src homology 2 domain-containing phosphatase substrate-1, is a cell surface receptor expressed on myeloid and hematopoietic stem cells and neurons. Accumulating data suggests an important role of SIRPα in cell signaling as a negative regulator of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. In various cancers, including prostate, breast and liver, as well as astrocytoma and myeloid malignancies, downregulation of SIRPα is frequently observed, resulting in activation of these downstream signaling pathways...
July 2018: Biomedical Reports
Salvatore J Coniglio
Metastasis is the primary cause of mortality and morbidity in cancer patients. The bone marrow is a common destination for many malignant cancers, including breast carcinoma (BC), prostate carcinoma, multiple myeloma, lung carcinoma, uterine cancer, thyroid cancer, bladder cancer, and neuroblastoma. The molecular mechanism by which metastatic cancer are able to recognize, infiltrate, and colonize bone are still unclear. Chemokines are small soluble proteins which under normal physiological conditions mediate chemotactic trafficking of leukocytes to specific tissues in the body...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
C Grégoire, H Nicolas, I Bragard, F Delevallez, I Merckaert, D Razavi, D Waltregny, M-E Faymonville, A Vanhaudenhuyse
BACKGROUND: Prostate and breast cancer can have a lot of negative consequences such as fatigue, sleep difficulties and emotional distress, which decrease quality of life. Group interventions showed benefits to emotional distress and fatigue, but most of these studies focus on breast cancer patients. However, it is important to test if an effective intervention for breast cancer patients could also have benefits for prostate cancer patients. METHODS: Our controlled study aimed to compare the efficacy of a self-hypnosis/self-care group intervention to improve emotional distress, sleep difficulties, fatigue and quality of life of breast and prostate cancer patients...
June 22, 2018: BMC Cancer
Todd K Parsons, Rachel N Pratt, Li Tang, Yue Wu
Steroid hormones play important roles in normal physiological functions and diseases. Sex steroids hormones are important in the biology and treatment of sex hormone-related cancer such as prostate cancer and breast cancer. Cells may take up steroids using multiple mechanisms. The conventionally accepted hypothesis that steroids cross cell membrane through passive diffusion has not been tested rigorously. Experimental data suggested that cells may take up sex steroid using an active uptake mechanism. 3 H-testosterone uptake by prostate cancer cells showed typical transporter-mediated uptake kinetic...
June 18, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Gagandeep Kaur, Caiyun Grace Li, Andrew Chantry, Cherie Stayner, Julia Horsfield, Michael R Eccles
Canonical TGF-β1 signalling promotes tumor progression by facilitating invasion and metastasis, whereby release of TGF-β1, by (for example) infiltrating immune cells, induces epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). PAX2, a member of the Paired box family of transcriptional regulators, is normally expressed during embryonic development, including in the kidney, where it promotes mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET). PAX2 expression is silenced in many normal adult tissues. However, in contrast, PAX2 is expressed in several cancer types, including kidney, prostate, breast, and ovarian cancer...
June 1, 2018: Oncotarget
Juan Yao, Shutao Zheng, Baiyan Li, Xinxin Li, Wenya Liu
Lysine demethylase 3A (KDM3A), also known as JMJD1A, has been associated with metastasis and poor prognosis in several cancer types, including renal cell carcinoma, prostate cancer and Ewing sarcoma. However, little is known regarding the clinicopathological significance of KDM3A expression in breast cancer (BCa). To investigate the clinical relevance of KDM3A expression in the setting of BCa, immunohistochemistry was performed on a tissue microarray consisting of 150 commercially available BCa samples. No significant correlation was identified between KDM3A expression and various clinicopathological variables, including clinical stage, pathological grade, tumor size and the expression statuses of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, estrogen receptor, and progesterone receptor...
June 2018: Oncology Letters
Mirja E Graf, Disorn Sookthai, Theron Johnson, Ruth Schübel, Sandra González Maldonado, Laura Pletsch-Borba, Verena Katzke, Peter Bugert, Michael Hoffmeister, Rudolf Kaaks, Tilman Kühn
While enhanced platelet activation may drive cancer progression and metastases, less is known about its role in early cancer development. Thus, we evaluated whether pre-diagnostic biomarkers of platelet activation and coagulation are related to the risks of common cancers in the prospective EPIC-Heidelberg Study using a case-cohort design. Levels of fibrinogen, soluble glycoprotein (sGP) IIb/IIIa, soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin), soluble thrombomodulin (sTM), and thrombopoietin (TPO) were measured in baseline plasma samples of a random subcohort (n=2,480) and incident cases of breast (n=605), prostate (n=543), and colorectal cancer (n=249)...
June 19, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Louis J Gooren, Guy T'Sjoen
High quality empirical data assessing morbidity and mortality and cancer incidence among transgender people are almost non-existent. Sex hormone treatment of conditions in older non-transgender people might as yet be taken as the best available analogy to hormone administration to aging transgender persons. Testosterone administration to transgender men carries little risk with regard to cardiovascular disease and cancer. A dose adaptation may be needed in men with a high hematocrit or cardiac insufficiency...
June 19, 2018: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Alyssa M Wield, Christine S Walsh, B J Rimel, Ilana Cass, Beth Y Karlan, Andrew J Li
Data from colon, breast and prostate cancers suggest that aspirin users have reduced mortality. While the direct mechanism remains uncertain, aspirin can suppress the COX-dependent and independent pathways involved in tumor progression. We hypothesized that aspirin users with clear cell ovarian cancer would have improved survival outcomes. We performed a retrospective review of patients with clear cell ovarian cancer diagnosed between 1995 and 2010, and followed outcomes through 2016. Patients underwent primary cytoreductive surgery followed by platinum-based chemotherapy...
August 2018: Gynecologic Oncology Reports
Veysel T Yilmaz, Ceyda Icsel, Omer R Turgut, Muhittin Aygun, Merve Erkisa, Mehmet H Turkdemir, Engin Ulukaya
A series of new Pt(II) saccharinate complexes containing PR3 ligands (PPh3 , PPh2 Cy, PPhCy2 and PCy3 ) with progressive phenyl (Ph) replacement by cyclohexyl (Cy) were synthesized and structurally characterized by IR, NMR, ESI-MS and X-ray diffraction. The anticancer activity of the complexes was tested against human breast (MCF-7), lung (A549), colon (HCT116), and prostate (DU145) cancer cell lines as well as against normal bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells. Trans-configured complexes 1, 3 and 5 emerged as potential anticancer drug candidates...
June 16, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Ganesan Padmavathi, Kishore Banik, Javadi Monisha, Devivasha Bordoloi, Shabnam Bano, Frank Arfuso, Gautam Sethi, Fan Lu, Ajaikumar B Kunnumakkara
The tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α- induced protein 8 (TNFAIP8/TIPE) family is a death effector domain (DED)-containing protein family with four identified members: TNFAIP8 (TIPE), TNFAIP8L1 (TIPE1), TNFAIP8L2 (TIPE2), and TNFAIP8L3 (TIPE3). These proteins were found to play crucial roles in the regulation of immune homeostasis, inflammation, and cancer development. Intensive research in the past two decades revealed a strong correlation of TIPE proteins with development of various cancers including cancers of the bladder, blood, bone, breast, cervix, colon, esophagus, endometrium, stomach, liver, lung, ovary, pancreas, prostate, and thyroid gland...
June 16, 2018: Cancer Letters
Joana P Guedes, Cátia S Pereira, Lígia R Rodrigues, Manuela Côrte-Real
Prostate cancer and osteosarcoma are the second most common type of cancer affecting men and the fifth most common malignancy among adolescents, respectively. The use of non-toxic natural or natural-derived products has been one of the current strategies for cancer therapy, owing to the reduced risks of induced-chemoresistance development and the absence of secondary effects. In this perspective, lactoferrin (Lf), a natural protein derived from milk, emerges as a promising anticancer agent due to its well-recognized cytotoxicity and anti-metastatic activity...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Jack W O'Sullivan, Tim Muntinga, Sam Grigg, John P A Ioannidis
OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of the evidence on prevalence and outcomes of incidental imaging findings. DESIGN: Umbrella review of systematic reviews. DATA SOURCES: Searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE up to August 2017; screening of references in included papers. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Criteria included systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies that gave a prevalence of incidental abnormalities ("incidentalomas")...
June 18, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Federica Laudisi, Fabio Cherubini, Giovanni Monteleone, Carmine Stolfi
Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) mediate essential signaling pathways in different biological processes, including immune responses, hematopoiesis, and neurogenesis. Among the STAT members, STAT3 plays crucial roles in cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation. While STAT3 activation is transient in physiological conditions, STAT3 becomes persistently activated in a high percentage of solid and hematopoietic malignancies (e.g., melanoma, multiple myeloma, breast, prostate, ovarian, and colon cancers), thus contributing to malignant transformation and progression...
June 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Tomas Zimmermann, Søren Brøgger Christensen, Henrik Franzyk
Since cells in solid tumors divide less rapidly than cells in the bone marrow or cells of the immune system, mitotic inhibitors often cause severe side effects when used for treatment of diseases like prostate cancer and breast cancer. One approach to overcome this problem involves attempts at developing drugs based on general cytotoxins, like calicheamicin and thapsigargin, which kill cells at all phases of the cell cycle. However, such toxins can only be used when efficient targeting to the malignant tissue is possible...
June 15, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Shogo Senga, Narumi Kobayashi, Koichiro Kawaguchi, Akira Ando, Hiroshi Fujii
Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) are involved in binding and storing hydrophobic ligands such as long-chain fatty acids, as well as transporting them to the appropriate compartments in the cell. Epidermal fatty acid-binding protein (FABP5) is an intracellular lipid-binding protein that is abundantly expressed in adipocytes and macrophages. Previous studies have revealed that the FABP5 expression level is closely related to malignancy in various types of cancer. However, its precise functions in the metabolisms of cancer cells remain unclear...
June 12, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Shearwood McClelland, Carmen A Perez
Purpose: Health disparities have profoundly affected underrepresented minorities throughout the United States, particularly with regard to access to evidence-based interventions such as surgery or medication. The degree of disparity in access to radiation therapy (RT) for Hispanic-American patients with cancer has not been previously examined in an extensive manner. Methods and materials: An extensive literature search was performed using the PubMed database to examine studies investigating disparities in RT access for Hispanic-Americans...
April 2018: Advances in Radiation Oncology
Ivan M Petyaev, Naylia A Zigangirova, Dmitry Pristensky, Marina Chernyshova, Valeriy V Tsibezov, Natalya E Chalyk, Elena Y Morgunova, Nigel H Kyle, Yuriy K Bashmakov
Circulating lycopene level is negatively associated with the prevalence of cardiovascular disease, cancers (prostate and breast), type 2 diabetes mellitus, and aging. Traditionally, lycopene is measured in biological specimens by a combination of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry methods. Moreover, as we recently reported, tissue/cell lycopene depositions can be observed by the immunohistochemistry method with a newly developed monoclonal antibody (mAb) against lycopene. A main objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of a new noninvasive immunofluorescence (IF) lycopene quantification skin test with mAbs against lycopene versus HPLC lycopene assay of serum lycopene in volunteers subjected to lycopene supplementation and represents its novelty...
June 14, 2018: Monoclonal Antibodies in Immunodiagnosis and Immunotherapy
Tianpeng Jiang, Zhi Huang, Shuai Zhang, Weijie Zou, Lei Xiang, Xiaowen Wu, Yaping Shen, Weixin Liu, Zhu Zeng, Ansu Zhao, Shi Zhou, Qingfan Zeng
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer‑associated mortality in the 21st century. microRNA (miR)‑23b has been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of many cancers, including breast and prostate cancer. However, the role of miR‑23b in HCC remains unclear. The present study revealed a negative correlation between miR‑23b expression in HCC tissues and progression of carcinomas. Compared to normal tissues, miR‑23b expression was significantly downregulated in HCC tissues, whereas the expression of interleukin (IL)‑11 and IL‑11 receptor α (IL‑11Rα) was significantly upregulated, indicating that miR‑23b expression is negatively correlated with IL‑11 and IL‑11Rα expression...
June 11, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
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