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Spinal cord injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054772/through-clinical-observation-the-history-of-priapism-after-spinal-cord-injuries
#1
REVIEW
Mihaela Dana Turliuc, Serban Turliuc, Andrei Ionut Cucu, Camelia Tamas, Alexandru Carauleanu, Catalin Buzduga, Anca Sava, Gabriela Florenta Dumitrescu, Claudia Florida Costea
Since ancient times, the physicians of Antiquity noted the occurrence of priapism in some spinal cord injuries. Although priests saw it as a consequence of curses and witchcraft, after clinical observations of the Middle Ages and Renaissance, first medical hypotheses emerged in the 17(th)-19(th) centuries completed and argued by neuroscience and neurology developed in the European laboratories and hospitals. This study aims to present a short overview of the history of clinical observations of posttraumatic male priapism after spinal cord injuries since Antiquity until the beginning of the 20(th) century...
October 17, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054697/a-novel-method-for-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-model-in-organotypic-spinal-cord-slices
#2
Jing-Jie Liu, Xiao-Yan Ding, Li Xiang, Feng Zhao, Sheng-Li Huang
This study aimed to establish a model to closely mimic spinal cord hypoxic-ischemic injury with high production and high reproducibility. Fourteen-day cultured organotypic spinal cord slices were divided into 4 groups: control (Ctrl), oxygen glucose deprived for 30min (OGD 30min), OGD 60min, and OGD 120min. The Ctrl slices were incubated with 1ml propidium iodide (PI) solution (5μg/ml) for 30minutes. The OGD groups were incubated with 1ml glucose-free DMEM/F12 medium and 5μl PI solution (1mg/ml) for 30min, 60min and 120min, respectively...
October 17, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054466/astrocyte-reactivity-and-astrogliosis-after-spinal-cord-injury
#3
REVIEW
Seiji Okada, Masamitsu Hara, Kazu Kobayakawa, Yoshihiro Matsumoto, Yasuharu Nakashima
After traumatic injuries of the central nervous system (CNS), including spinal cord injury (SCI), astrocytes surrounding the lesion become reactive and typically undergo hypertrophy and process extension. These reactive astrocytes migrate centripetally to the lesion epicenter and aid in the tissue repair process, however, they eventually become scar-forming astrocytes and form a glial scar which produces axonal growth inhibitors and prevents axonal regeneration. This sequential phenotypic change has long been considered to be unidirectional and irreversible; thus glial scarring is one of the main causes of the limited regenerative capability of the CNS...
October 17, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054367/monoamine-oxidase-b-inhibitor-protects-degenerating-spinal-neurons-enhances-nerve-regeneration-and-functional-recovery-in-sciatic-nerve-crush-injury-model
#4
Al-Shimali M Hussain, Waleed M Renno, Hanaa L Sadek, Noura M Kayali, Aseel Al Salem, Muddanna S Rao, Khalid M Khan
Monoamine oxidase-B (MAOB), a flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), is an enzyme which catalyzes the oxidation of amines. MAOB is proposed to play a major role in the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and neurotoxins. The present study was designed to outline the effects of the MAOB inhibitor (MAOB-I) on neuroprotection of spinal neurons, regeneration of sciatic nerve fibers, and recovery of sensory-motor functions in the sciatic nerve crush injury model...
October 17, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054315/cord-topographical-anatomy-and-its-role-in-evaluating-intramedullary-lesions
#5
REVIEW
James Andrew Spain, Scott Cressman, Horia Marin, Suresh C Patel, John J Corrigan, Brent Griffith
Intramedullary spinal lesions present a wide differential diagnosis including infectious, inflammatory, traumatic, ischemic, benign, or malignant neoplastic etiologies. Using knowledge of anatomy and physiology within the spinal cord, many similar appearing entities can be parsed into a prioritized differential. The purpose of this article is to review anatomy and pathophysiology of the spinal cord, with subsequent discussion of how this knowledge can be used to differentiate several similar appearing intramedullary pathologic processes...
September 18, 2017: Current Problems in Diagnostic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054133/effects-of-intrathecal-injection-of-the-conditioned-medium-of-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-on-spinal-cord-injury-of-rats
#6
Kenji Kanekiyo, Tamami Wakabayashi, Norihiko Nakano, Yoshihiro Yamada, Masahiro Tamachi, Yoshihisa Suzuki, Masanori Fukushima, Fukuki Saito, Seiya Abe, Chihiro Tsukagoshi, Chimi Miyamoto, Chizuka Ide
Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) have been studied for the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). In previous studies, we showed that the transplantation of BMSCs, even though they disappeared from the host spinal cord within 1-3 weeks after transplantation, improved locomotor behaviors and promoted axonal regeneration. This result led to the hypothesis that BMSCs might release some neurotrophic factors effective for the treatment of SCI. The present study examined this by injecting the conditioned medium (CM) of BMSCs to treat SCI in rats...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053084/intubation-biomechanics-validation-of-a-finite-element-model-of-cervical-spine-motion-during-endotracheal-intubation-in-intact-and-injured-conditions
#7
Benjamin C Gadomski, Snehal S Shetye, Bradley J Hindman, Franklin Dexter, Brandon G Santoni, Michael M Todd, Vincent C Traynelis, Robert P From, Ricardo B Fontes, Christian M Puttlitz
OBJECTIVE Because of limitations inherent to cadaver models of endotracheal intubation, the authors' group developed a finite element (FE) model of the human cervical spine and spinal cord. Their aims were to 1) compare FE model predictions of intervertebral motion during intubation with intervertebral motion measured in patients with intact cervical spines and in cadavers with spine injuries at C-2 and C3-4 and 2) estimate spinal cord strains during intubation under these conditions. METHODS The FE model was designed to replicate the properties of an intact (stable) spine in patients, C-2 injury (Type II odontoid fracture), and a severe C3-4 distractive-flexion injury from prior cadaver studies...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053083/surgical-management-of-penetrating-spinal-cord-injury-primarily-due-to-shrapnel-and-its-effect-on-neurological-outcome-a-literature-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Michael H Lawless, Evan J Lytle, Andrea F McGlynn, John A Engler
OBJECTIVE This study was performed to determine whether decompression of penetrating spinal cord injury (SCI) due to explosive shrapnel leads to greater neurological recovery than conservative management. METHODS In accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, a comprehensive literature search using PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and the Defense Technical Information Center public site was conducted on May 2, 2016. Studies that described penetrating SCI with shrapnel as an etiology, included surgical and/or conservative management, and demonstrated admission and follow-up neurological status were eligible for inclusion in this study...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053055/successful-surgical-repair-and-recovery-in-a-2-week-old-infant-after-birth-related-cervical-fracture-dislocation
#9
Sara Saleh, Kyle I Swanson, Taryn Bragg
Cervical spine injuries are the most common spine injuries in the pediatric population. The authors present the youngest known patient who underwent cervical spine fusion to repair birth trauma-induced cervical fracture dislocation, resulting in spondyloptosis and spinal cord injury. A 2-week-old boy was found to have spondyloptosis and spinal cord injury after concerns arose from reduced movement of the extremities. The patient's birth was complicated by undiagnosed abdominal dystocia, which led to cervical distraction injury...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052467/the-effect-of-level-of-injury-and-physical-activity-on-heart-rate-variability-following-spinal-cord-injury
#10
Athanasios Kyriakides, Dimitrios Poulikakos, Angeliki Galata, Dimitrios Konstantinou, Elias Panagiotopoulos, Elisabeth Chroni
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: To assess frequency domain heart rate variability (HRV) parameters at rest and in response to postural autonomic provocations in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) and investigate the autonomic influences on the heart of different physical activities. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: Ten subjects with complete cervical SCI and fourteen subjects with complete low thoracic SCI were prospectively recruited from the community and further divided in sedentary and physically active groups, the latter defined as regular weekly 4 hour physical activity for the preceding 3 months...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052088/fascin-1-contributes-to-neuropathic-pain-by-promoting-inflammation-in-rat-spinal-cord
#11
Binbin Wang, Bingbing Fan, Qijun Dai, Xingguo Xu, Peipei Jiang, Lin Zhu, Haifeng Dai, Zhigang Yao, Zhongling Xu, Xiaojuan Liu
Neuropathic pain is a complicated clinical syndrome caused by heterogeneous etiology. Despite the fact that the underlying mechanisms remain elusive, it is well accepted that neuroinflammation plays a critical role in the development of neuropathic pain. Fascin-1, an actin-bundling protein, has been proved to be involved in the processing of diverse biological events including cellular development, immunity, and tumor invasion etc. Recent studies have shown that Fascin-1 participates in antigen presentation and the regulation of pro-inflammatory agents...
October 19, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051850/functional-recovery-of-contused-spinal-cord-in-rat-with-the-injection-of-optimal-dosed-cerium-oxide-nanoparticles
#12
Jong-Wan Kim, Chinmaya Mahapatra, Jin-Young Hong, Min Soo Kim, Kam W Leong, Hae-Won Kim, Jung Keun Hyun
Spinal cord injury (SCI) produces excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can exacerbate secondary injury and lead to permanent functional impairment. Hypothesizing that cerium oxide nanoparticles (CONPs) as an effective ROS scavenger may offset this damaging effect, it is first demonstrated in vitro that CONPs suppressed inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) generation and enhanced cell viability of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-insulted cortical neurons. Next, CONPs are administered at various does (50-4000 µg mL(-1)) to a contused spinal cord rat model and monitored the disease progression for up to eight weeks...
October 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051134/a-telerehabilitation-approach-to-enhance-quality-of-life-through-exercise-among-adults-with-paraplegia-study-protocol
#13
Shane Norman Sweet, Meredith Rocchi, Kelly Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Dahlia Kairy, Brigitte Fillion
BACKGROUND: Despite compelling evidence linking physical activity and quality of life among adults with spinal cord injury (SCI), exercise participation rates are extremely low in this population. Unfortunately, a lack of behavioral exercise interventions, in particular theory-based randomized controlled trials (RCT), exists within the SCI literature. A pilot RCT is needed to first examine the feasibility to conduct such interventions and determine the appropriate effect size to inform future full-scale interventions...
October 19, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050000/spinal-cord-injury-following-antegrade-scrotal-sclerotherapy-for-varcicocele-a-case-report
#14
Maxime Rossi, Daniel Jacobs, Eric Wespes, Thierry Roumeguère, Pierre Raynal
Varicocele is one of the causes of male infertility. Treatment aims to improve the chance of conception despite lasting controversies about benefits of varicocele repair on fertility. Many techniques have been described for varicocele management including the antegrade scrotal sclerotherapy (ASS). Interestingly, ASS is often presented as a safe, easy, and cost-effective procedure with low recurrence and complication rates. However, we report the first case of spinal cord paralysis following ASS probably due to embolization of venous anastomoses between left spermatic and ascending lumbar veins, which were undetected at preoperative phlebography...
October 19, 2017: Urologia Internationalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049608/acute-administration-of-oestradiol-or-progesterone-in-a-spinal-cord-ischaemia-reperfusion-model-in-rats
#15
Leonardo Pessoa Cavalcante, Sueli Gomes Ferreira, Daniel Romano Pereira, Sergio Rodrigues de Moraes, Rafael Simas, Paulina Sannomiya, Ana Cristina Breithaupt-Faloppa, Luiz Felipe Pinho Moreira
OBJECTIVES: Despite research into protective pharmacological adjuncts, paraplegia persists as a dreaded complication after thoracic and thoracoabdominal aortic interventions. Reports on gender-related neurological outcomes after ischaemic and traumatic brain injuries have led to increased interest in hormonal neuroprotective effects and have generated other studies seeking to prove the neuroprotective effects of the therapeutic administration of 17β-oestradiol and of progesterone. We hypothesised that acute administration of oestradiol or progesterone would prevent or attenuate spinal cord ischaemic injury induced by occlusion of the descending thoracic aorta...
September 26, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049317/identification-of-genome-wide-targets-of-olig2-in-the-adult-mouse-spinal-cord-using-chip-seq
#16
Andrew J Darr, Matt C Danzi, Lee Brady, Dorothea Emig-Agius, Amber Hackett, Roozbeh Golshani, Nikita Warner, Jae Lee, Vance P Lemmon, Pantelis Tsoulfas
In jawed vertebrates, oligodendrocytes (OLs) are the myelin-producing glial cells responsible for ensheathment of axons within the central nervous system and are also crucial for remyelination following injury or disease. Olig2 is a crucial factor in the specification and differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) that give rise to mature, myelin-producing OLs in the developing and postnatal CNS; however, its role in adulthood is less well understood. To investigate the role Olig2 plays in regulating gene expression in the adult OL lineage in a physiologically-relevant context, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by next generation sequencing analysis (ChIP-Seq) using whole spinal cord tissue harvested from adult mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049229/neck-to-shoulder-pain-as-an-unusual-presentation-of-pulmonary-embolism-in-a-patient-with-cervical-spinal-cord-injury-a-case-report
#17
Dong Gyu Lee, Min Cheol Chang
RATIONALE: Information on referred pain can be helpful for diagnosing diseases of the visceral organs. Here, the authors report a patient with cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) who had referred pain at the right side from the neck to shoulder, as a presentation of pulmonary embolism (PE). PATIENT CONCERNS: A 55-year-old man with complete tetraplegia, due to cervical SCI after C5 and C6 vertebral body fracture, complained of right neck-to-shoulder pain (numerical scale rating: 6)...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048243/mithramycin-a-improves-functional-recovery-by-inhibiting-bscb-disruption-and-hemorrhage-after-spinal-cord-injury
#18
Jee Youn Lee, Hye Y Choi, Chan S Park, Bong G Ju, Tae Y Yune
After spinal cord injury (SCI), blood spinal cord barrier (BSCB) disruption and progressive hemorrhage lead to secondary injury, subsequent apoptosis and/or necrosis of neuron and glia, causing permanent neurological deficits. Growing evidences indicate that mithramycin A (MA), an anticancer drug, has neuroprotective effects in ischemic brain injury and Huntington's disease. However, the precise mechanism underlying its protective effects is largely unknown. Here, we examined the effect of MA on BSCB breakdown and hemorrhage as well as subsequent inflammation after SCI...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045834/a-latent-propriospinal-network-can-restore-diaphragm-function-after-high-cervical-spinal-cord-injury
#19
Jared M Cregg, Kevin A Chu, Lydia E Hager, Rachel S J Maggard, Daimen R Stoltz, Michaela Edmond, Warren J Alilain, Polyxeni Philippidou, Lynn T Landmesser, Jerry Silver
Spinal cord injury (SCI) above cervical level 4 disrupts descending axons from the medulla that innervate phrenic motor neurons, causing permanent paralysis of the diaphragm. Using an ex vivo preparation in neonatal mice, we have identified an excitatory spinal network that can direct phrenic motor bursting in the absence of medullary input. After complete cervical SCI, blockade of fast inhibitory synaptic transmission caused spontaneous, bilaterally coordinated phrenic bursting. Here, spinal cord glutamatergic neurons were both sufficient and necessary for the induction of phrenic bursts...
October 17, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045569/altered-expression-of-reorganized-inputs-as-they-ascend-from-the-cuneate-nucleus-to-cortical-area-3b-in-monkeys-with-long-term-spinal-cord-injuries
#20
Priyabrata Halder, Niranjan Kambi, Prem Chand, Neeraj Jain
Chronic deafferentations in adult mammals result in reorganization of the brain. Lesions of the dorsal columns of the spinal cord at cervical levels in monkeys result in expansion of the intact chin inputs into the deafferented hand representation in area 3b, second somatosensory (S2) and parietal ventral (PV) areas of the somatosensory cortex, ventroposterior lateral nucleus (VPL) of the thalamus, and cuneate nucleus of the brainstem. Here, we describe the extent and nature of reorganization of the cuneate and gracile nuclei of adult macaque monkeys with chronic unilateral lesions of the dorsal columns, and compare it with the reorganization of area 3b in the same monkeys...
October 13, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
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