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Spinal cord injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821567/chronic-spinal-cord-changes-in-a-high-fat-diet-fed-male-rat-model-of-thoracic-spinal-contusion
#1
Redin A Spann, William J Lawson, Raymond J Grill, Michael R Garrett, Bernadette E Grayson
Individuals that suffer injury to the spinal cord can result in long-term, debilitating sequelae. Spinal cord injured patients have increased risk for the development of metabolic disease which can further hinder the effectiveness of treatments to rehabilitate the cord and improve quality of life. In the present study, we sought to understand the impact of high-fat diet induced obesity on spinal cord injury (SCI) by examining transcriptome changes in the area of the injury and rostral and caudal to site of damage 12 weeks after injury...
August 18, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820864/diffusion-kurtosis-imaging-and-pathology-in-spinal-cord-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rabbits-a-case-control-study
#2
Daowei Li, Xiaoming Wang
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) in spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion (SCI/R) injury and to explore its association with pathology. MATERIAL AND METHODS Japanese male long-eared rabbits were chosen and divided into 7 groups (8 rabbits in each group): control group (C group), sham-operation control group (S group), and 5 experimental groups (E-2 h group, E-24 h group, E-48 h group, E-7 d group, and E-14 d group). Tarlov scoring and immunohistochemical staining were used to assess hindlimb motor function and observe the expression of glial fiber acidic protein (GFAP), respectively...
August 18, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820364/patterns-of-c-2-fracture-in-the-elderly-comparison-of-etiology-treatment-and-mortality-among-specific-fracture-types
#3
Ingrid Radovanovic, Jennifer C Urquhart, Parham Rasoulinejad, Kevin R Gurr, Fawaz Siddiqi, Christopher S Bailey
OBJECTIVE Previous studies have focused on Type II odontoid fractures and have failed to report on the effect of other C-2 fracture types on treatment and outcome. The purpose of this study was to compare patient characteristics, cause of injury, predisposing factors to fracture, treatments, and mortality rates among C-2 fracture types in a cohort of elderly patients 70 years of age and older. METHODS A retrospective cohort study design was used. Patients who sustained a C-2 fracture between 2002 and 2011 and who were admitted to the authors' Level 1 trauma center were identified using the Discharge Abstract Database and the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10) code S12...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820352/challenging-questions-regarding-the-international-standards
#4
Ryan Solinsky, Steven C Kirshblum
Objective/Context To highlight questions with regards to the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) and provide historical perspectives to help SCI professionals gain fuller insights into the classification system. Methods Frequently asked questions to the ISNCSCI were collected and a review of literature and personal communications with International Standards committee members and Chairs were undertaken. Results Background and explanations for nine questions, detailing decision processes and challenging classification rules are presented...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819194/hdac3-inhibition-ameliorates-spinal-cord-injury-by-immunomodulation
#5
Tomoharu Kuboyama, Shalaka Wahane, Yong Huang, Xiang Zhou, Jamie K Wong, Andrew Koemeter-Cox, Michael Martini, Roland H Friedel, Hongyan Zou
Following spinal cord injury (SCI), the innate immune response of microglia and infiltrating macrophages clears up cellular debris and promotes tissue repair, but it also inflicts secondary injury from inflammatory responses. Immunomodulation aimed at maximizing the beneficial effects while minimizing the detrimental roles of the innate immunity may aid functional recovery after SCI. However, intracellular drivers of global reprogramming of the inflammatory gene networks in the innate immune cells are poorly understood...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818826/test-retest-and-interreader-reproducibility-of-semiautomated-atlas-based-analysis-of-diffusion-tensor-imaging-data-in-acute-cervical-spine-trauma-in-adult-patients
#6
D J Peterson, A M Rutman, D S Hippe, J G Jarvik, F H Chokshi, M R Reyes, C H Bombardier, M Mossa-Basha
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: DTI is a tool for microstructural spinal cord injury evaluation. This study evaluated the reproducibility of a semiautomated segmentation algorithm of spinal cord DTI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-two consecutive patients undergoing acute trauma cervical spine MR imaging underwent 2 axial DTI scans in addition to their clinical scan. The datasets were put through a semiautomated probabilistic segmentation algorithm that selected white matter, gray matter, and 24 individual white matter tracts...
August 17, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818082/comparing-chronic-condition-rates-using-icd-9-and-icd-10-in-va-patients-fy2014-2016
#7
Jean Yoon, Adam Chow
BACKGROUND: Management of patients with chronic conditions relies on accurate measurement. It is unknown how transition to the ICD-10 coding system affected reporting of chronic condition rates over time. We measured chronic condition rates 2 years before and 1 year after the transition to ICD-10 to examine changes in prevalence rates and potential measurement issues in the Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system. METHODS: We developed definitions for 34 chronic conditions using ICD-9 and ICD-10 codes and compared the prevalence rates of these conditions from FY2014 to 2016 in a 20% random sample (1...
August 17, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817921/re-the-management-of-neurogenic-lower-urinary-tract-dysfunction-after-spinal-cord-injury
#8
Alan J Wein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817819/progressive-kyphosis-associated-with-tethered-cord-syndrome-treated-by-posterior-vertebral-column-resection-in-a-pediatric-patient
#9
Kadir Oktay, Kerem Mazhar Ozsoy, Yurdal Gezercan, Nuri Eralp Cetinalp, Tahsin Erman
Posterior vertebral column resection is a novel surgical approach for the treatment of progressive kyphosis associated with tethered cord syndrome that was first treated with untethering surgery. A patient with tethered cord syndrome associated with kyphosis first underwent untethering surgery, resulting in progressive kyphosis. Posterior vertebral column resection was performed to correct the kyphosis while shortening the spinal column to prevent the spinal cord from stretch injury. Good correction of kyphosis and reduction of tension on the neural elements were achieved without any neurological deficits...
August 18, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817801/a-sensitized-igf1-treatment-restores-corticospinal-axon-dependent-functions
#10
Yuanyuan Liu, Xuhua Wang, Wenlei Li, Qian Zhang, Yi Li, Zicong Zhang, Junjie Zhu, Bo Chen, Philip R Williams, Yiming Zhang, Bin Yu, Xiaosong Gu, Zhigang He
A major hurdle for functional recovery after both spinal cord injury and cortical stroke is the limited regrowth of the axons in the corticospinal tract (CST) that originate in the motor cortex and innervate the spinal cord. Despite recent advances in engaging the intrinsic mechanisms that control CST regrowth, it remains to be tested whether such methods can promote functional recovery in translatable settings. Here we show that post-lesional AAV-assisted co-expression of two soluble proteins, namely insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and osteopontin (OPN), in cortical neurons leads to robust CST regrowth and the recovery of CST-dependent behavioral performance after both T10 lateral spinal hemisection and a unilateral cortical stroke...
August 16, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817701/effect-of-exoskeletal-joint-constraint-and-passive-resistance-on-metabolic-energy-expenditure-implications-for-walking-in-paraplegia
#11
Sarah R Chang, Rudi Kobetic, Ronald J Triolo
An important consideration in the design of a practical system to restore walking in individuals with spinal cord injury is to minimize metabolic energy demand on the user. In this study, the effects of exoskeletal constraints on metabolic energy expenditure were evaluated in able-bodied volunteers to gain insight into the demands of walking with a hybrid neuroprosthesis after paralysis. The exoskeleton had a hydraulic mechanism to reciprocally couple hip flexion and extension, unlocked hydraulic stance controlled knee mechanisms, and ankles fixed at neutral by ankle-foot orthoses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817455/jak-kinase-3-signaling-in-microgliogenesis-from-the-spinal-nestin-progenitors-in-both-development-and-response-to-injury
#12
Sumit Barua, Jee-In Chung, A Young Kim, Soo-Yeon Lee, Soo Hwan Lee, Eun Joo Baik
During spinal cord development, endogenous progenitors expressing nestin can migrate into the target and differentiate into neurons and other glial cells. Microglial cells can also be derived from nestin progenitor cells, even in the adult brain. Knockdown of Jak kinase 3 (Jak3) signaling can increase neurogenesis with longer neurite outgrowth in cortical progenitor cells. This study investigated the effect of Jak3 signaling on differentiation from nestin progenitor cells using E13.5 spinal progenitor cell cultures...
August 16, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816990/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-botulinum-toxin-a-for-treating-neuropathic-pain-in-patients-with-spinal-cord-injury-retraction
#13
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816874/does-surgical-intervention-or-timing-of-surgery-have-an-effect-on-neurological-recovery-in-the-setting-of-a-thoracolumbar-burst-fracture
#14
So Kato, Jean-Christophe Murray, Brian K Kwon, Gregory D Schroeder, Alexander R Vaccaro, Michael G Fehlings
Traumatic thoracolumbar burst fractures are one of the most common forms of spinal trauma with the majority occurring at the junctional area where mechanical load is maximal (AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System Subtype A3 or A4). Burst fractures entail the involvement of the middle column, and therefore, they are typically associated with bone fragment in the spinal canal, which may cause compression of the spinal cord, conus medullaris, cauda equina, or a combination of these. Fortunately, approximately half of the patients with thoracolumbar burst fractures are neurologically intact due to the wide canal diameter...
September 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816870/spinal-cord-injury-what-are-the-controversies
#15
Christopher S Ahuja, Gregory D Schroeder, Alexander R Vaccaro, Michael G Fehlings
Traumatic spinal cord injuries have a tremendous impact on individuals, families, and society as a whole. Substantial heterogeneity in the patient population, their presentation and underlying pathophysiology has sparked debates along the care spectrum from initial assessment to definitive treatment. This article reviews spinal cord injury (SCI) management followed by a discussion of the salient controversies in the field. Current care practices modeled on the American Association of Neurological Surgeons/Congress of Neurological Surgeons joint section guidelines are highlighted including key recommendations regarding immobilization, avoidance of hypotension, early International Standards for Neurological Classification of SCI examination and intensive care unit treatment...
September 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816099/sex-differences-of-steroid-receptor-coactivator-1-expression-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-mice
#16
Jiayu Xiao, Jiqiang Zhang, Yangang Zhao, Wenjie Huang, Zhikai Guo, Bingyin Su, Qiang Guo
OBJECTIVE: The neural functional recovery of female is often better than that of male after spinal cord injury (SCI). Evidences show that estrogen can attenuate inflammation and promote the neural survival and regeneration after SCI. SRC-1 is an essential initiation factor for the estrogen-regulated target gene transcription and plays a key role in regulating estrogen activity. However, it is not known whether and how SRC-1 mediates the neural regeneration promoted by estrogen after SCI...
August 17, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816089/medusa-s-head-the-complement-system-in-traumatic-brain-and-spinal-cord-injury
#17
Francesco Roselli, Ebru Karasu, Clara Volpe, Markus Huber-Lang
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and Spinal cord injury (SCI) are critical medical conditions and public health problem for which limited therapeutic options are available. Complement cascade is activated after TBI and SCI and the resulting effects have been investigated in gene-knockout and pharmacological models. Multiple experimental studies support a net detrimental role of C3 and C5 activation in the early stages of TBI and SCI. Less firm experimental evidence suggests that, downstream of C3/C5, effector mechanisms including the generation of MAC and direct damage to membranes and neutrophils infiltration may bring about the direct damage of CNS tissue and the enhancement of neuroinflammation...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814632/intermittent-apnea-elicits-inactivity-induced-phrenic-motor-facilitation-via-a-retinoic-acid-and-protein-synthesis-dependent-pathway
#18
Nathan A Baertsch, Tracy L Baker
Respiratory motoneuron pools must provide rhythmic inspiratory drive that is robust and reliable, yet dynamic enough to respond to respiratory challenges. One form of plasticity that is hypothesized to contribute to motor output stability by sensing and responding to inadequate respiratory neural activity is inactivity-induced phrenic motor facilitation (iPMF), an increase in inspiratory output triggered by a reduction in phrenic synaptic inputs. Evidence suggests that mechanisms giving rise to iPMF differ depending on the pattern of reduced respiratory neural activity (i...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814499/therapeutic-stimulation-for-restoration-of-function-after-spinal-cord-injury
#19
REVIEW
Aiva Ievins, Chet T Moritz
Paralysis due to spinal cord injury can severely limit motor function and independence. This review summarizes different approaches to electrical stimulation of the spinal cord designed to restore motor function, with a brief discussion of their origins and the current understanding of their mechanisms of action. Spinal stimulation leads to impressive improvements in motor function along with some benefits to autonomic functions such as bladder control. Nonetheless, the precise mechanisms underlying these improvements and the optimal spinal stimulation approaches for restoration of motor function are largely unknown...
September 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814247/fluid-and-medication-considerations-in-the-traumatized-patient
#20
Amita Misir
This article reviews fluid therapy and medications in pediatric trauma. For resuscitation in the setting of hemorrhagic shock, isotonic crystalloid solution is the first-line agent of choice. Colloid solutions offer no additional benefit, introduce possible increased risks and cost more than crystalloids. Blood products, starting with pRBCs, should be introduced after 20-40 ml/kg of crystalloid has been administered if there is ongoing need for volume replacement. The use of a massive transfusion protocol of 1:1:1 (if >30 kg) or 30:20:20 (if <30 kg) of pRBCs:FFP:platelets is suggested after an initial 30 ml/kg of pRBcs have been administered...
August 14, 2017: Current Pediatric Reviews
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