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Jose Francisco Rodríguez-Vázquez, Yohei Honkura, Yukio Katori, Gen Murakami, Hiroshi Abe
The existence of hard tissue pulleys that act to change the direction of a muscle insertion tendon is well known in the human body. These include (1) the trochlea for the extraocular obliquus superior muscle, (2) the pterygoid hamulus for the tensor veli palatini muscle, (3) the deep sulcus on the plantar aspect of the cuboid bone for the peroneus longus tendon, (4) the lesser sciatic notch for the obturator internus muscle, and (5) the bony trochleariformis process for the tensor tympani muscle tendon. In addition, (6) the stapedius muscle tendon shows a lesser or greater angulation at the pyramidal eminence of the temporal bone...
September 29, 2016: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
Joanna Smeeton, Amjad Askary, J Gage Crump
We owe the flexibility of our bodies to sophisticated articulations between bones. Establishment of these joints requires the integration of multiple tissue types: permanent cartilage that cushions the articulating bones, synovial membranes that enclose a lubricating fluid-filled cavity, and a fibrous capsule and ligaments that provide structural support. Positioning the prospective joint region involves establishment of an "interzone" region of joint progenitor cells within a nascent cartilage condensation, which is achieved through the interplay of activators and inhibitors of multiple developmental signaling pathways...
September 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
Yulia Shwartz, Sergey Viukov, Sharon Krief, Elazar Zelzer
Synovial joints comprise several tissue types, including articular cartilage, the capsule, and ligaments. All of these compartments are commonly assumed to originate from an early set of Gdf5-expressing progenitors populating the interzone domain. Here, we provide evidence that joints develop through a continuous influx of cells into the interzone, where they contribute differentially to forming joint tissues. Using a knockin Gdf5-CreER(T2) mouse, we show that early labeling of Gdf5-positive interzone cells failed to mark the entire organ...
June 21, 2016: Cell Reports
W Stuart Dols, Steven J Emmerich, Brian J Polidoro
Building modelers need simulation tools capable of simultaneously considering building energy use, airflow and indoor air quality (IAQ) to design and evaluate the ability of buildings and their systems to meet today's demanding energy efficiency and IAQ performance requirements. CONTAM is a widely-used multizone building airflow and contaminant transport simulation tool that requires indoor temperatures as input values. EnergyPlus is a prominent whole-building energy simulation program capable of performing heat transfer calculations that require interzone and infiltration airflows as input values...
August 2016: Building Simulation
Jason S Rockel, Chunying Yu, Heather Whetstone, April M Craft, Katherine Reilly, Henry Ma, Hidetoshi Tsushima, Vijitha Puviindran, Mushriq Al-Jazrawe, Gordon M Keller, Benjamin A Alman
Both the WNT/β-catenin and hedgehog signaling pathways are important in the regulation of limb development, chondrocyte differentiation, and degeneration of articular cartilage in osteoarthritis (OA). It is not clear how these signaling pathways interact in interzone cell differentiation and synovial joint morphogenesis. Here, we determined that constitutive activation of hedgehog signaling specifically within interzone cells induces joint morphological changes by selectively inhibiting β-catenin-induced Fgf18 expression...
May 2, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Minsoo Kim, Yuhui Chen, Jiejun Xi, Christopher Waters, Rujin Chen, Dong Wang
In the nitrogen-fixing symbiosis between legume hosts and rhizobia, the bacteria are engulfed by a plant cell membrane to become intracellular organelles. In the model legume Medicago truncatula, internalization and differentiation of Sinorhizobium (also known as Ensifer) meliloti is a prerequisite for nitrogen fixation. The host mechanisms that ensure the long-term survival of differentiating intracellular bacteria (bacteroids) in this unusual association are unclear. The M. truncatula defective nitrogen fixation4 (dnf4) mutant is unable to form a productive symbiosis, even though late symbiotic marker genes are expressed in mutant nodules...
December 8, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Pratik Narendra Pratap Singh, Ayan Ray, Kimi Azad, Amitabha Bandyopadhyay
Articular cartilage present at the ends of appendicular skeletal elements provides friction-less movement to the synovial joints and any damage to this tissue can lead to a degenerative disease of joint called osteoarthritis. During past two decades although many genes e.g.,Gdf5, Wnt9a, Noggin etc. have been identified and characterized in joint development, still a comprehensive understanding of molecular network(s) operational in articular cartilage morphogenesis is far from being drawn. Here we report identification of 36 genes (19 from literature survey and 17 from microarray analysis) that are expressed in developing chicken phalangeal joints in a spatiotemporally dynamic manner...
January 2016: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
Mark Howard, Rocky S Tuan, Gillian A Wallis
Joint formation begins with the establishment of an interzone within the cartilaginous anlagen of the future skeleton. Both GDF5 and ERG are proposed as regulators of chondrocyte differentiation during and post interzone formation. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between Gdf5 and Erg expression and downstream effects on chondrocyte gene expression. Erg expression was identified in mouse knee joints at E13.5. Expression analyses were performed using micromass cultures of murine C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal cells undergoing induced chondrogenesis in the presence and absence of GDF5 and ERG...
February 2016: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
Sabine Müller, Gerd Jürgens
Plants have evolved a unique way of partitioning the cytoplasm of dividing cells: Instead of forming a contractile ring that constricts the plasma membrane, plant cells target membrane vesicles to the plane of division where the vesicles fuse with one another to form the partitioning membrane. Plant cytokinesis starts in the centre and progresses towards the periphery, culminating in the fusion of the partitioning membrane with the parental plasma membrane. This membrane dynamics is orchestrated by a specific cytoskeletal array named phragmoplast that originates from interzone spindle remnants...
May 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Lucy H Brunt, Joanna L Norton, Jen A Bright, Emily J Rayfield, Chrissy L Hammond
Abnormal joint morphogenesis is linked to clinical conditions such as Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip (DDH) and to osteoarthritis (OA). Muscle activity is known to be important during the developmental process of joint morphogenesis. However, less is known about how this mechanical stimulus affects the behaviour of joint cells to generate altered morphology. Using zebrafish, in which we can image all joint musculoskeletal tissues at high resolution, we show that removal of muscle activity through anaesthetisation or genetic manipulation causes a change to the shape of the joint between the Meckel's cartilage and Palatoquadrate (the jaw joint), such that the joint develops asymmetrically leading to an overlap of the cartilage elements on the medial side which inhibits normal joint function...
September 18, 2015: Journal of Biomechanics
KyungHee Kim, Ji-Su Kim
This study examined the relationship between alcohol consumption and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a nationally representative sample of middle-aged to older South Koreans. Data collected from 3,408 men and 3,361 women aged ≥ 40 years were obtained from the 2010 and 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Based on the World Health Organization guidelines, the participants were categorized into zones I (0-7), II (8-15), III (16-19), or IV (20-40) according to their Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores, with a higher zone indicating a higher level of alcohol consumption...
2015: PloS One
Ayan Ray, Pratik Narendra Pratap Singh, Michael L Sohaskey, Richard M Harland, Amitabha Bandyopadhyay
The articular cartilage, which lines the joints of the limb skeleton, is distinct from the adjoining transient cartilage, and yet, it differentiates as a unique population within a contiguous cartilage element. Current literature suggests that articular cartilage and transient cartilage originate from different cell populations. Using a combination of lineage tracing and pulse-chase of actively proliferating chondrocytes, we here demonstrate that, similar to transient cartilage, embryonic articular cartilage cells also originate from the proliferating chondrocytes situated near the distal ends of skeletal anlagen...
March 15, 2015: Development
L Du, S Batterman, C Godwin, Z Rowe, J-Y Chin
UNLABELLED: Basements can influence indoor air quality by affecting air exchange rates (AERs) and by the presence of emission sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other pollutants. We characterized VOC levels, AERs, and interzonal flows between basements and occupied spaces in 74 residences in Detroit, Michigan. Flows were measured using a steady-state multitracer system, and 7-day VOC measurements were collected using passive samplers in both living areas and basements. A walk-through survey/inspection was conducted in each residence...
December 2015: Indoor Air
Lara Longobardi, Tieshi Li, Lidia Tagliafierro, Joseph D Temple, Helen H Willcockson, Ping Ye, Alessandra Esposito, Fuhua Xu, Anna Spagnoli
Synovial joint morphogenesis occurs through the condensation of mesenchymal cells into a non-cartilaginous region known as the interzone and the specification of progenitor cells that commit to the articular fate. Although several signaling molecules are expressed by the interzone, the mechanism is poorly understood. For treatments of cartilage injuries, it is critical to discover the presence of joint progenitor cells in adult tissues and their expression gene pattern. Potential stem cell niches have been found in different joint regions, such as the surface zone of articular cartilage, synovium, and groove of Ranvier...
February 2015: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Alexander L Vereshchaka, Jørgen Olesen, Anastasia A Lunina
We revise the global diversity of the former genera Sergia and Sergestes which include 71 valid species. The revision is based on examination of more than 37,000 specimens from collections in the Natural History Museum of Denmark and the Museum of Natural History, Paris. We used 72 morphological characters (61 binary, 11 multistate) and Sicyonella antennata as an outgroup for cladistic analysis. There is no support for the genera Sergia and Sergestes as they have been defined until now. We define and diagnose eight genera of the former genus Sergia (Sergia and new genera Gardinerosergia, Phorcosergia, Prehensilosergia, Robustosergia, Scintillosergia, Challengerosergia, and Lucensosergia) and seven genera of the former genus Sergestes (Sergestes, Deosergestes, Eusergestes, Allosergestes, Parasergestes, Neosergestes, and a new genus Cornutosergestes)...
2014: PloS One
Thongchai Nuntanaranont, Srisurang Suttapreyasri, Surapong Vongvatcharanon
AIM: The aim of the present study was to investigate the temporal and spatial gene expression of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP)-2, -4, and -7, and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), during the distraction process of the rabbit mandible. METHODS: Twenty rabbits each had an osteotomy on the left mandibular body, and distraction devices were fixed. After a delay of 3 days, distraction was started at a rate of 0.5 mm/12 h for 10 days, followed by a 3-week consolidation phase...
November 2014: Journal of Investigative and Clinical Dentistry
Rebekah S Decker, Eiki Koyama, Motomi Enomoto-Iwamoto, Peter Maye, David Rowe, Shoutian Zhu, Peter G Schultz, Maurizio Pacifici
Limb development requires the coordinated growth of several tissues and structures including long bones, joints and tendons, but the underlying mechanisms are not wholly clear. Recently, we identified a small drug-like molecule - we named Kartogenin (KGN) - that greatly stimulates chondrogenesis in marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and enhances cartilage repair in mouse osteoarthritis (OA) models. To determine whether limb developmental processes are regulated by KGN, we tested its activity on committed preskeletal mesenchymal cells from mouse embryo limb buds and whole limb explants...
November 15, 2014: Developmental Biology
Rebekah S Decker, Eiki Koyama, Maurizio Pacifici
Limb synovial joints are intricate structures composed of articular cartilage, synovial membranes, ligaments and an articular capsule. Together, these tissues give each joint its unique shape, organization and biomechanical function. Articular cartilage itself is rather complex and organized in distinct zones, including the superficial zone that produces lubricants and contains stem/progenitor cells. For many years there has been great interest in deciphering the mechanisms by which the joints form and come to acquire such unique structural features and diversity...
October 2014: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
Shuping Gu, Weijie Wu, Chao Liu, Ling Yang, Cheng Sun, Wenduo Ye, Xihai Li, Jianquan Chen, Fanxin Long, YiPing Chen
The central importance of BMP signaling in the development and homeostasis of synovial joint of appendicular skeleton has been well documented, but its role in the development of temporomandibular joint (TMJ), also classified as a synovial joint, remains completely unknown. In this study, we investigated the function of BMPRIA mediated signaling in TMJ development in mice by transgenic loss-of- and gain-of-function approaches. We found that BMPRIA is expressed in the cranial neural crest (CNC)-derived developing condyle and glenoid fossa, major components of TMJ, as well as the interzone mesenchymal cells...
2014: PloS One
F Jenner, G J V M van Osch, W Weninger, S Geyer, T Stout, R van Weeren, P Brama
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Articular cartilage regeneration is the focus and goal of considerable research effort. Since articular chondrocytes descend from a distinct cohort of progenitor cells located in embryonic nascent joints (interzones), establishing the timing of equine interzone formation is an essential first step towards understanding equine joint and articular cartilage development. OBJECTIVES: To establish the time frame during which the equine femorotibial interzone forms...
September 2015: Equine Veterinary Journal
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