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Yuriy Vladimirovich Sidorchuk, Elena Victorovna Deineko
Microsporogenesis patterns of the polyploid (2n = 4x = 96) and diploid (2n = 2x = 48) Nicotiana tabacum L. (cv. Havana Petit line SR1) plants have been analyzed and compared. Four types of abnormal positions of the second division spindles-tripolar, parallel, proximal, and fused-have been observed. Of these abnormalities, only tripolar (2.4%) and parallel (1.4%) spindles are observable in diploid plants. As for polyploids, the increased ploidy is accompanied by an increase in the incidence of tripolar (22.8%) and parallel (8...
April 7, 2017: Cell Biology International
Michael N Marsh, Calvin J Heal
The evolving history of the small intestinal biopsy and its interpretation-and misinterpretations-are described in this paper. Certain interpretative errors in the technical approaches to histological assessment are highlighted-even though we may never be rid of them. For example, mucosal "flattening" does not reduce individual villi to their cores, as still seems to be widely believed. Neither is the mucosa undergoing an atrophic process-since it can recover structurally. Rather, the intestinal mucosa manifests a vast hypertrophic response resulting in the formation of large plateaus formed from partially reduced villi and their amalgamation with the now increased height and width of the inter-villous ridges: this is associated with considerable increases in crypt volumes...
February 28, 2017: Nutrients
Crótida de la Cuadra-Blanco, Luis A Arráez-Aybar, Jorge A Murillo-González, Manuel E Herrera-Lara, Juan A Mérida-Velasco, José R Mérida-Velasco
The goal of this study is to clarify the development of the long head of the biceps brachii tendon (LHBT) and to verify the existence and development of the coracoglenoid ligament. Histological preparations of 22 human embryos (7-8 weeks of development) and 43 human fetuses (9-12 weeks of development) were studied bilaterally using a conventional optical microscope. The articular interzone gives rise to the LHBT, glenoid labrum, and articular capsule. During the fetal period, it was observed that in 50 cases (58%), the LHBT originated from both the glenoid labrum and the scapula, while in 36 cases (42%), it originated only from the glenoid labrum...
February 10, 2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Lingyun Tang, Xiaolin Wu, Hongxin Zhang, Shunyuan Lu, Min Wu, Chunling Shen, Xuejiao Chen, Yicheng Wang, Weigang Wang, Yan Shen, Mingmin Gu, Xiaoyi Ding, Xiaolong Jin, Jian Fei, Zhugang Wang
Human multiple synostoses syndrome (SYNS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by multiple joint fusions. We previously identified a point mutation (S99N) in FGF9 that causes human SYNS3. However, the physiological function of FGF9 during joint development and comprehensive molecular portraits of SYNS3 remain elusive. Here, we report that mice harboring the S99N mutation in Fgf9 develop the curly tail phenotype and partially or fully fused caudal vertebrae and limb joints, which mimic the major phenotypes of SYNS3 patients...
April 1, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
Ana M Togneri, Laura B Podestá, Marcela P Pérez, Gabriela M Santiso
A twelve-year retrospective review of Staphylococcus aureus infections in adult and pediatric patients (AP and PP respectively) assisted in the Hospital Interzonal General de Agudos Evita in Lanús was performed to determine the incidence, foci of infection, the source of infection and to analyze the profile of antimicrobial resistance. An amount of 2125 cases of infection in AP and 361 in PP were documented. The incidence in AP decreased significantly in the last three years (χi(2); p<0.05); in PP it increased significantly during the last five years (χ(2); p<0...
January 23, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
Wen Zhang, Thushara D Abhayapala, Terence Betlehem, Filippo Maria Fazi
Multi-zone sound control aims to reproduce multiple sound fields independently and simultaneously over different spatial regions within the same space. This paper investigates the multi-zone sound control problem formulated in the modal domain using the Lagrange cost function and provides a modal-domain analysis of the problem. The Lagrange cost function is formulated to represent a quadratic objective of reproducing a desired sound field within the bright zone and with constraints on sound energy in the dark zone and global region...
September 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Jose Francisco Rodríguez-Vázquez, Yohei Honkura, Yukio Katori, Gen Murakami, Hiroshi Abe
The existence of hard tissue pulleys that act to change the direction of a muscle insertion tendon is well known in the human body. These include (1) the trochlea for the extraocular obliquus superior muscle, (2) the pterygoid hamulus for the tensor veli palatini muscle, (3) the deep sulcus on the plantar aspect of the cuboid bone for the peroneus longus tendon, (4) the lesser sciatic notch for the obturator internus muscle, and (5) the bony trochleariformis process for the tensor tympani muscle tendon. In addition, (6) the stapedius muscle tendon shows a lesser or greater angulation at the pyramidal eminence of the temporal bone...
January 2017: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
Joanna Smeeton, Amjad Askary, J Gage Crump
We owe the flexibility of our bodies to sophisticated articulations between bones. Establishment of these joints requires the integration of multiple tissue types: permanent cartilage that cushions the articulating bones, synovial membranes that enclose a lubricating fluid-filled cavity, and a fibrous capsule and ligaments that provide structural support. Positioning the prospective joint region involves establishment of an "interzone" region of joint progenitor cells within a nascent cartilage condensation, which is achieved through the interplay of activators and inhibitors of multiple developmental signaling pathways...
January 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
Yulia Shwartz, Sergey Viukov, Sharon Krief, Elazar Zelzer
Synovial joints comprise several tissue types, including articular cartilage, the capsule, and ligaments. All of these compartments are commonly assumed to originate from an early set of Gdf5-expressing progenitors populating the interzone domain. Here, we provide evidence that joints develop through a continuous influx of cells into the interzone, where they contribute differentially to forming joint tissues. Using a knockin Gdf5-CreER(T2) mouse, we show that early labeling of Gdf5-positive interzone cells failed to mark the entire organ...
June 21, 2016: Cell Reports
W Stuart Dols, Steven J Emmerich, Brian J Polidoro
Building modelers need simulation tools capable of simultaneously considering building energy use, airflow and indoor air quality (IAQ) to design and evaluate the ability of buildings and their systems to meet today's demanding energy efficiency and IAQ performance requirements. CONTAM is a widely-used multizone building airflow and contaminant transport simulation tool that requires indoor temperatures as input values. EnergyPlus is a prominent whole-building energy simulation program capable of performing heat transfer calculations that require interzone and infiltration airflows as input values...
August 2016: Building Simulation
Jason S Rockel, Chunying Yu, Heather Whetstone, April M Craft, Katherine Reilly, Henry Ma, Hidetoshi Tsushima, Vijitha Puviindran, Mushriq Al-Jazrawe, Gordon M Keller, Benjamin A Alman
Both the WNT/β-catenin and hedgehog signaling pathways are important in the regulation of limb development, chondrocyte differentiation, and degeneration of articular cartilage in osteoarthritis (OA). It is not clear how these signaling pathways interact in interzone cell differentiation and synovial joint morphogenesis. Here, we determined that constitutive activation of hedgehog signaling specifically within interzone cells induces joint morphological changes by selectively inhibiting β-catenin-induced Fgf18 expression...
May 2, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Minsoo Kim, Yuhui Chen, Jiejun Xi, Christopher Waters, Rujin Chen, Dong Wang
In the nitrogen-fixing symbiosis between legume hosts and rhizobia, the bacteria are engulfed by a plant cell membrane to become intracellular organelles. In the model legume Medicago truncatula, internalization and differentiation of Sinorhizobium (also known as Ensifer) meliloti is a prerequisite for nitrogen fixation. The host mechanisms that ensure the long-term survival of differentiating intracellular bacteria (bacteroids) in this unusual association are unclear. The M. truncatula defective nitrogen fixation4 (dnf4) mutant is unable to form a productive symbiosis, even though late symbiotic marker genes are expressed in mutant nodules...
December 8, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Pratik Narendra Pratap Singh, Ayan Ray, Kimi Azad, Amitabha Bandyopadhyay
Articular cartilage present at the ends of appendicular skeletal elements provides friction-less movement to the synovial joints and any damage to this tissue can lead to a degenerative disease of joint called osteoarthritis. During past two decades although many genes e.g.,Gdf5, Wnt9a, Noggin etc. have been identified and characterized in joint development, still a comprehensive understanding of molecular network(s) operational in articular cartilage morphogenesis is far from being drawn. Here we report identification of 36 genes (19 from literature survey and 17 from microarray analysis) that are expressed in developing chicken phalangeal joints in a spatiotemporally dynamic manner...
January 2016: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
Mark Howard, Rocky S Tuan, Gillian A Wallis
Joint formation begins with the establishment of an interzone within the cartilaginous anlagen of the future skeleton. Both GDF5 and ERG are proposed as regulators of chondrocyte differentiation during and post interzone formation. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between Gdf5 and Erg expression and downstream effects on chondrocyte gene expression. Erg expression was identified in mouse knee joints at E13.5. Expression analyses were performed using micromass cultures of murine C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal cells undergoing induced chondrogenesis in the presence and absence of GDF5 and ERG...
February 2016: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
Sabine Müller, Gerd Jürgens
Plants have evolved a unique way of partitioning the cytoplasm of dividing cells: Instead of forming a contractile ring that constricts the plasma membrane, plant cells target membrane vesicles to the plane of division where the vesicles fuse with one another to form the partitioning membrane. Plant cytokinesis starts in the centre and progresses towards the periphery, culminating in the fusion of the partitioning membrane with the parental plasma membrane. This membrane dynamics is orchestrated by a specific cytoskeletal array named phragmoplast that originates from interzone spindle remnants...
May 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Lucy H Brunt, Joanna L Norton, Jen A Bright, Emily J Rayfield, Chrissy L Hammond
Abnormal joint morphogenesis is linked to clinical conditions such as Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip (DDH) and to osteoarthritis (OA). Muscle activity is known to be important during the developmental process of joint morphogenesis. However, less is known about how this mechanical stimulus affects the behaviour of joint cells to generate altered morphology. Using zebrafish, in which we can image all joint musculoskeletal tissues at high resolution, we show that removal of muscle activity through anaesthetisation or genetic manipulation causes a change to the shape of the joint between the Meckel's cartilage and Palatoquadrate (the jaw joint), such that the joint develops asymmetrically leading to an overlap of the cartilage elements on the medial side which inhibits normal joint function...
September 18, 2015: Journal of Biomechanics
KyungHee Kim, Ji-Su Kim
This study examined the relationship between alcohol consumption and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a nationally representative sample of middle-aged to older South Koreans. Data collected from 3,408 men and 3,361 women aged ≥ 40 years were obtained from the 2010 and 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Based on the World Health Organization guidelines, the participants were categorized into zones I (0-7), II (8-15), III (16-19), or IV (20-40) according to their Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores, with a higher zone indicating a higher level of alcohol consumption...
2015: PloS One
Ayan Ray, Pratik Narendra Pratap Singh, Michael L Sohaskey, Richard M Harland, Amitabha Bandyopadhyay
The articular cartilage, which lines the joints of the limb skeleton, is distinct from the adjoining transient cartilage, and yet, it differentiates as a unique population within a contiguous cartilage element. Current literature suggests that articular cartilage and transient cartilage originate from different cell populations. Using a combination of lineage tracing and pulse-chase of actively proliferating chondrocytes, we here demonstrate that, similar to transient cartilage, embryonic articular cartilage cells also originate from the proliferating chondrocytes situated near the distal ends of skeletal anlagen...
March 15, 2015: Development
L Du, S Batterman, C Godwin, Z Rowe, J-Y Chin
UNLABELLED: Basements can influence indoor air quality by affecting air exchange rates (AERs) and by the presence of emission sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other pollutants. We characterized VOC levels, AERs, and interzonal flows between basements and occupied spaces in 74 residences in Detroit, Michigan. Flows were measured using a steady-state multitracer system, and 7-day VOC measurements were collected using passive samplers in both living areas and basements. A walk-through survey/inspection was conducted in each residence...
December 2015: Indoor Air
Lara Longobardi, Tieshi Li, Lidia Tagliafierro, Joseph D Temple, Helen H Willcockson, Ping Ye, Alessandra Esposito, Fuhua Xu, Anna Spagnoli
Synovial joint morphogenesis occurs through the condensation of mesenchymal cells into a non-cartilaginous region known as the interzone and the specification of progenitor cells that commit to the articular fate. Although several signaling molecules are expressed by the interzone, the mechanism is poorly understood. For treatments of cartilage injuries, it is critical to discover the presence of joint progenitor cells in adult tissues and their expression gene pattern. Potential stem cell niches have been found in different joint regions, such as the surface zone of articular cartilage, synovium, and groove of Ranvier...
February 2015: Current Osteoporosis Reports
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