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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053577/electrographic-changes-accompanying-recurrent-seizures-under-ketogenic-diet-treatment
#1
Chiara Lucchi, Maddalena Marchiò, Elisa Caramaschi, Carmela Giordano, Rocco Giordano, Azzurra Guerra, Giuseppe Biagini
The ketogenic diet (KD) is increasingly used to treat epilepsy refractory to antiepileptic drugs and other neurological disorders. In animal models, the KD was found to increase the threshold to seizures induced by different convulsive stimulations. However, in models in which suprathreshold stimuli were used, a paradoxical seizure worsening was consistently observed in KD-fed animals. To better define this phenomenon, we characterized the electrographic response to seizures induced in mice which were treated with the KD, and then corneally stimulated at 6-Hz in four different sessions...
October 20, 2017: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053564/gout-keratitis-a-case-of-peripheral-ulcerative-keratitis-secondary-to-gout-with-a-review-of-the-literature
#2
Amirfarbod Yazdanyar, Allison E Rizzuti, Elzbieta Mechel, Ksenia Denisova, Douglas R Lazzaro
PURPOSE: To report a case of peripheral ulcerative keratitis secondary to gout. METHODS: A 41-year-old man with a history of severe gout disease presented with pain and redness of the right eye. Physical examination revealed 2 areas of peripheral corneal thinning with overlying epithelial defects. Adjacent to these areas, reflective crystals were identified in the corneal stroma. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography demonstrated stromal corneal deposits...
October 17, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053562/predictive-factors-for-corneal-clearance-after-descemetorhexis-without-endothelial-keratoplasty
#3
Emma Davies, Ula Jurkunas, Roberto Pineda
PURPOSE: To study preoperative factors that possibly contribute to corneal clearance after Descemetorhexis without endothelial keratoplasty (DWEK) and to determine the most successful surgical technique for the procedure. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of 17 eyes of 13 patients with Fuchs corneal endothelial dystrophy that underwent central 4-mm DWEK. RESULTS: Baseline age, pachymetry, and endothelial cell count were not statistically significantly different between eyes that cleared 0 to 2 months, 3 to 5 months, 6 to 8 months, or that failed to clear...
October 17, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053561/recognizing-and-managing-bullous-descemet-detachment-secondary-to-accidental-hydroseparation-during-phacoemulsification-cataract-surgery-by-relaxing-descemetotomy
#4
Soosan Jacob, Amar Agarwal, Athiya Agarwal, Saijimol Ai
PURPOSE: To report a new technique called relaxing Descemetotomy for treatment of bullous Descemet detachment (BDD) secondary to accidental hydroseparation of Descemet membrane (DM) during stromal hydration in cataract surgery. METHODS: A clear corneal keratome entry was created close to the limbus extending inward to create a relaxing cut (ab externo relaxing Descemetotomy) on taut DM, thus creating an egress route for supra-Descemetic fluid (SDF). This was followed by pneumodescemetopexy to drain SDF internally...
October 17, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053560/evaluation-of-human-corneal-lenticule-quality-after-smile-with-different-cap-thicknesses-using-scanning-electron-microscopy
#5
Shengbei Weng, Manli Liu, Xiaonan Yang, Fang Liu, Yugui Zhou, Haiqin Lin, Quan Liu
PURPOSE: To evaluate the surface characteristics of lenticules created by small-incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) with different cap thicknesses. METHODS: This prospective study included 20 consecutive patients who underwent bilateral SMILE. Surface regularity of the extracted corneal lenticule was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with 2 methods: qualitative and quantitative regularity. Qualitative regularity of SEM images was graded by masked observers using an established scoring system...
October 17, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053558/in-vivo-confocal-microscopy-reveals-corneal-reinnervation-after-treatment-of-neurotrophic-keratopathy-with-corneal-neurotization
#6
Simon S M Fung, Joseph Catapano, Uri Elbaz, Ronald M Zuker, Gregory H Borschel, Asim Ali
PURPOSE: To document the presence and location of new sensory nerve fibers after corneal neurotization using in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) in 2 patients with neurotrophic keratopathy (NK). METHODS: Two patients with unilateral advanced NK received corneal neurotization to surgically reinnervate the cornea. IVCM was used to identify subbasal nerve fibers and document corneal reinnervation. In 1 patient (case 1), IVCM was performed before and after corneal neurotization; in the second patient (case 2), IVCM was performed after neurotization and corneal transplantation...
October 17, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053557/bacterial-keratitis-isolated-organisms-and-antibiotic-resistance-patterns-in-san-francisco
#7
Michelle Y Peng, Vicky Cevallos, Stephen D McLeod, Thomas M Lietman, Jennifer Rose-Nussbaumer
PURPOSE: Understanding the spectrum of pathogens in a given geographic region is important when deciding on empiric antibiotic therapy. In this study, we evaluate the spectrum of bacterial organisms cultured from corneal samples and their antibiotic sensitivities to guide initial treatment of keratitis. METHODS: We performed a retrospective case review of cultures from suspected infectious keratitis cases at the Francis I. Proctor Foundation, University of California, San Francisco, from 1996 through 2015...
October 17, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053556/epithelial-erosions-and-refractive-results-after-single-step-transepithelial-photorefractive-keratectomy-and-alcohol-assisted-photorefractive-keratectomy-in-myopic-eyes-a-comparative-evaluation-over-12-months
#8
Maamoun A Fattah, Rafic Antonios, Sam Arba Mosquera, Bachir Abiad, Shady T Awwad
PURPOSE: To evaluate the epithelial erosion incidence and refractive results in myopic eyes undergoing single-step transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy (TransPRK) compared with alcohol-assisted photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). METHODS: This was a retrospective nonrandomized comparative study conducted at the American University of Beirut Medical Center. A total of 189 eyes that had undergone single-step transepithelial PRK (TransPRK) were compared with 189 matched eyes that had undergone alcohol-assisted PRK over a follow-up of 1 year...
October 17, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053488/causes-of-childhood-vision-impairment-in-the-school-for-the-blind-in-eritrea
#9
Rajendra Gyawali, Vanessa R Moodley
SIGNIFICANCE: Our study provides the much-needed evidence on causes of childhood blindness in Eritrea. This will assist authorities to plan appropriate strategies and implement preventive, curative, and rehabilitative services to address these causes of vision loss in children in this resource-limited country. PURPOSE: This study aims to identify the causes of severe vision impairment and blindness in children attending the only school for the blind in Eritrea. METHODS: All children enrolled in the school were examined, and the World Health Organization form for the examination of visually impaired children was used to record the data...
October 19, 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053036/eyelid-syringocystadenoma-papilliferum-a-novel-presentation-with-major-review
#10
Michael C Tseng, Bijal Amin, Anne Barmettler
A major review of the literature of syringocystadenoma papilliferum's (SCAP's) presentation and management is presented. In addition, a case report of this unique diagnosis presenting as a corneal abrasion in a 66-year-old-male is included. This benign adnexal tumor of the apocrine glands is most commonly found in the face and neck. When found on the eyelids, these lesions are commonly misdiagnosed as basal cell carcinoma or cysts. Diagnosis is made based on histopathology. Treatment is complete excision of the lesion and this has a low recurrence rate...
October 20, 2017: Orbit
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051590/association-between-corneal-endothelial-cell-densities-and-elevated-cytokine-levels-in-the-aqueous-humor
#11
Yukari Yagi-Yaguchi, Takefumi Yamaguchi, Kazunari Higa, Terumasa Suzuki, Naohiko Aketa, Murat Dogru, Yoshiyuki Satake, Jun Shimazaki
Annual reduction rate of corneal endothelial cell density (ECD) varies among etiologies, however, the cause of chronic endothelial cell loss is still unknown. We recently reported the elevation of inflammatory cytokines in the aqueous humor (AqH) in eyes with bullous keratopathy and low ECD. To evaluate the association between ECD and aqueous cytokine levels, we collected a total of 157 AqH samples prospectively. The AqH levels of cytokines were measured and multivariate analyses were conducted to find the correlation between ECD, aqueous cytokine levels and clinical factors, such as number of previous intraocular surgeries and protein concentration in AqH...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051577/de-novo-mutations-of-tuba3d-are-associated-with-keratoconus
#12
Xiao-Dan Hao, Peng Chen, Yang-Yang Zhang, Su-Xia Li, Wei-Yun Shi, Hua Gao
Keratoconus (KC) is a common degenerative corneal disease, and heredity plays a key role in its development. Although few genes are known to cause KC, a large proportion of disease-causing genes remain to be revealed. Here, we report the identification of TUBA3D as a novel gene linked to KC. Using whole-exome sequencing of a twins pedigree, a novel de novo mutation (c.31 C > T, p.Gln11stop) in TUBA3D gene was identified. A screening performed in 200 additional unrelated patients with KC revealed another two mutations (c...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051516/stromal-striae-a-new-insight-into-corneal-physiology-and-mechanics
#13
Kate Grieve, Djida Ghoubay, Cristina Georgeon, Gael Latour, Amir Nahas, Karsten Plamann, Caroline Crotti, Romain Bocheux, Marie Borderie, Thu-Mai Nguyen, Felipe Andreiuolo, Marie-Claire Schanne-Klein, Vincent Borderie
We uncover the significance of a previously unappreciated structural feature in corneal stroma, important to its biomechanics. Vogt striae are a known clinical indicator of keratoconus, and consist of dark, vertical lines crossing the corneal depth. However we detected stromal striae in most corneas, not only keratoconus. We observed striae with multiple imaging modalities in 82% of 118 human corneas, with pathology-specific differences. Striae generally depart from anchor points at Descemet's membrane in the posterior stroma obliquely in a V-shape, whereas in keratoconus, striae depart vertically from posterior toward anterior stroma...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051324/corneal-complications-after-orbital-radiotherapy-for-primary-epithelial-malignancies-of-the-lacrimal-gland
#14
Sri K Gore, Nicholas P Plowman, Aruna Dharmasena, David H Verity, Geoffrey E Rose
PURPOSE: To review the long-term corneal complications after high-dose external beam orbital radiotherapy given to patients for lacrimal gland carcinomas. The impact of prophylactic measures to improve long-term ocular surface health is also assessed. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. PARTICIPANTS: Patients under the care of Moorfields Eye Hospital and receiving external beam radiotherapy for primary epithelial lacrimal gland carcinoma between 1975 and 2014...
October 19, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050928/central-corneal-thickness-assessment-after-phacoemulsification-subluxation-versus-divide-and-conquer
#15
A-L Jeancolas, L Lhuillier, L Renaudin, M Boiche, C Ghetemme, C Goetz, N Ouamara, J-M Perone
PURPOSE: To compare the impact of two phacoemulsification techniques (subluxation versus divide-and-conquer) on postoperative corneal edema at postoperative hour 1 and day 4. DESIGN: Comparative study. METHOD: Ninety-six consecutive patients (110 eyes; 43 men and 53 women, mean age 70.9±9.8 years) with equivalent cataract grades underwent cataract surgery and were followed up for 6 months. The presence of corneal edema was determined using central corneal thickness (CCT)...
October 16, 2017: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050189/-clinical-features-and-treatments-of-retrocorneal-fungal-infection
#16
J Cheng, H L Zhai, J Y Wang, L X Xie
Objective: To evaluate the clinical features of retrocorneal fungal infection and the therapeutic effects. Methods: This was a retrospective, noncomparative study of nine patients with retrocorneal fungal infection and an intact corneal epithelium treated at Qingdao Eye Hospital. The history, clinical features, diagnostic methods, pathogens and therapeutic effects were analyzed. Results: Five patients had a history of trauma by plant, two had a non-plant injury, and two had unidentified reasons. The duration between the initial onset and the first visit to our hospital was 7...
October 11, 2017: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050188/-sturge-weber-syndrome-in-port-wine-stain-patients-a-retrospective-study-on-the-clinical-features-and-screening-strategy
#17
Y Wu, R J Yu, X X Lin, W Y Guo
Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics of Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) in the patients with Port-wine stain (PWS). Methods: A total of 279 PWS patients, 164 males, 115 females with a median age of first visit 17.00 (4.75, 56.00) months. Most of the PWS patients were referred to the Ophthalmology Department for screening eye problems when the cutaneous angiomas involved the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve distribution. The intraocular pressure (IOP), cup to disk ratio (C/D), corneal condition and other essential measurements were examined to screen glaucoma or choroidal hemangioma...
October 11, 2017: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049370/rebamipide-protects-against-glaucoma-eyedrop-induced-ocular-surface-disorders-in-rabbits
#18
Ichiro Kawaguchi, Akira Kobayashi, Tomomi Higashide, Yasuhiro Takeji, Kazushi Sakurai, Chiaki Kawaguchi, Kazuhisa Sugiyama
PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine if rebamipide eyedrops can improve ocular surface damage caused by the use of glaucoma eyedrops. METHODS: Female Kbl:Dutch rabbits were used to evaluate glaucoma eyedrop-induced ocular surface damage; one eye of each rabbit was untreated and the other was administered glaucoma eyedrops for 30 days. To evaluate the effects of rebamipide on ocular surface damage, one eye of each rabbit was administered vehicle-treated glaucoma eyedrops and the other was administered rebamipide-treated glaucoma eyedrops for 30 days...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049238/age-and-sex-related-differences-in-corneal-epithelial-thickness-measured-with-spectral-domain-anterior-segment-optical-coherence-tomography-among-egyptians
#19
Magda Mahmoud Samy, Yasmine Maher Shaaban, Tamer Abdel Fattah Badran
Is to measure the corneal epithelial thickness (CET) in a group of healthy Egyptian population and to investigate its variation with age and sex using spectral domain-anterior segment optical coherence tomography (SD-AS-OCT).This cross-sectional observational study includes 240 eyes of 120 healthy individuals (60 men, 60 women). Each gender was divided into 4 equal groups according to age as follows (18-29 years), (30-44 years), (45-59 years), and (60-80 years). The CET in 17 points over a corneal diameter of 6...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047704/freeform-optical-design-for-a-nonscanning-corneal-imaging-system-with-a-convexly-curved-image
#20
Yunfeng Nie, Herbert Gross, Yi Zhong, Fabian Duerr
Most existing techniques that are typically used by specialists to image the cornea are based on point, slit, or annular scanning due to a narrow field of view. The difficulty in achieving a larger field of view comes from the convex shape of the human eyeball. Field curvature for a refractive imaging system with positive power is typically negative and thus a concave image surface. In order to view the full cornea and sclera with snapshot imaging, we calculate qualified two- and three-mirror solutions from Seidel aberration theory...
July 10, 2017: Applied Optics
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