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Sama Kalyana Chakravarthy, Rajagopalaboopathi Jayasudha, Konduri Ranjith, Anirban Dutta, Nishal Kumar Pinna, Sharmila S Mande, Savitri Sharma, Prashant Garg, Somasheila I Murthy, Sisinthy Shivaji
Dysbiosis in the gut microbiome has been implicated in several diseases including auto-immune diseases, inflammatory diseases, cancers and mental disorders. Keratitis is an inflammatory disease of the eye significantly contributing to corneal blindness in the developing world. It would be worthwhile to investigate the possibility of dysbiosis in the gut microbiome being associated with Keratitis. Here, we have analyzed fungal and bacterial populations in stool samples through high-throughput sequencing of the ITS2 region for fungi and V3-V4 region of 16S rRNA gene for bacteria in healthy controls (HC, n = 31) and patients with fungal keratitis (FK, n = 32)...
2018: PloS One
Yichen Wang, Priyha Mahesh, Yan Wang, Samuel G Novo, Mahbubul H Shihan, Brielle Hayward-Piatkovskyi, Melinda K Duncan
The appropriate spatial and temporal regulation of canonical Wnt signaling is vital for eye development. However, the literature often conflicts on the distribution of canonical Wnt signaling in the eye. Here, using a sensitive mouse transgenic reporter line, we report a detailed re-evaluation of the spatiotemporal dynamics of canonical Wnt signaling in the developing eye. Canonical Wnt activity was dynamic in the optic vesicle and later in the retina, while it was absent from the ectodermal precursors of the lens and corneal epithelium...
June 19, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Yang Liu, YingNan Zhang, Qingfeng Liang, Chao Yan, Li Wang, Jing Zhang, ZhiQiang Pan
BACKGROUND: In current non-human primate models, full-thickness porcine grafts could not achieve long-term survival without using potent systemic immunosuppressors. Moreover, the thickness disparity in xeno-PKP proved to be hard to manipulate and may cause several complications which also could prevent the grafts from long survival. Considering the advantages of Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) derived from its ultrathin graft and lower rejection rate, we hypothesize xeno-DSAEK may overcome these imperfections in xeno-PKP...
June 22, 2018: Xenotransplantation
Irfan Durukan
BACKGROUND: Although ageing is the main reason for cataract progression, pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PES) represents an independent additional hazard for the development of nuclear sclerosis and cataract progression. PES can also affect corneal properties. From this perspective, this study aimed to perform a comparison of the corneal and lens densitometry measurements in eyes with PES and age-matched healthy eyes. METHODS: This prospective cross-sectional study included 31 patients with unilateral PES and 40 control participants...
June 21, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
Rusheng Chew, Marion L Woods
IMPORTANCE: Fungal keratitis is a rare but sight-threatening ocular infection. The epidemiology varies with geography, in particular climate and demography. BACKGROUND: We present descriptive epidemiology of fungal keratitis in Queensland, a large, geographically heterogenous Australian state. DESIGN: Descriptive ecological study. PARTICIPANTS: Queensland residents in the period 1996 - January 2016. METHODS: We searched the statewide pathology database for positive fungal cultures from corneal scrapings, aqueous humour, vitreous humour or contact lens specimens...
June 21, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
Hazal Boral, Anne van Diepeningen, Elif Erdem, Meltem Yağmur, G Sybren de Hoog, Macit Ilkit, Jacques F Meis, Abdullah M S Al-Hatmi
Owing to a lack of appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for mycotic keratitis, approximately one million cases of preventable corneal blindness are reported each year. The number of keratitis cases due to infection with Fusarium is increasing significantly worldwide, many of which are not treated adequately and in a timely manner due to frequent misdiagnosis. In the current report, we describe three cases of keratitis caused by Fusarium solani sensu stricto (FSSC5) from Turkey and The Netherlands, following ocular trauma...
June 21, 2018: Mycopathologia
Ali Mahdavi Fard, Rana Daei Sorkhabi, Mojtaba Khazaei, Nader D Nader
PURPOSE: To compare the corneal density before and after accelerated versus conventional corneal cross-linking (CXL). METHODS: Pentacam densitometry and corneal mapping were performed before and 6 months following the randomly assigned intervention. Corneal density was measured over different zones and layers of the cornea by two independent ophthalmologists. Total corneal density was calculated. The patients were followed up for the occurrence of procedure-related and unrelated complication 1 week, 1 month and a final visit around 6 months (180 ± 10 days) after the procedure, during which the corneal density was remeasured and recorded...
June 21, 2018: International Ophthalmology
İrfan Akalın, Melek Tüfek, Mustafa Türkyılmaz, Faruk Öztürk
PURPOSE: To compare the preoperative and postoperative measurements of optical low-coherence reflectometry (OLCR) biometry and assessment of its refractive predictability. METHODS: A total of 114 eyes of 102 patients who underwent cataract treatment were prospectively examined. The axial length (AL), central corneal thickness (CCT), anterior chamber depth (ACD), lens thickness (LT), K (keratometry) 1, K2, K average (KAVE) and K astigmatic (KAST) values were recorded using Lenstar LS 900 (Haag-Streit, Koeniz, Switzerland) OLCR device...
June 21, 2018: International Ophthalmology
Jonathan Aboshiha, Mark N A Jones, Cathy L Hopkinson, Daniel F P Larkin
Importance: An increasing proportion of corneal transplant procedures are undertaken for replacement of a failed previous graft. The proportion of lamellar transplant procedures has significantly increased. There are limited large-scale reports on regraft procedures that may help guide surgeons and patients in their choice of surgery. Objective: To examine the corneal transplant replacement survival rates for the 3 main indications and types of regraft surgery. Design, Setting, and Participants: This national transplant registry study examined surgery and follow-up data on all corneal transplants performed in the United Kingdom from April 1, 1999, through March 31, 2016...
June 21, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
Jorge L Alio, Alfredo Vega-Estrada, Pablo Sanz, Amr A Osman, Ahmed M Kamal, Amr Mamoon, Hany Soliman
Importance: Literature suggests corneal morphologic characteristics compatible with keratoconus are present in a high percentage of patients with Down syndrome (DS), suggesting the need to perform a detailed examination of the anterior segment to try to avoid serious visual impairment in this group of patients. Objective: To characterize the abnormal features of the cornea in patients with DS and compare these with a control group. Design, Setting, and Participants: Multicenter case-control study at Vissum Alicante, Alicante, Spain, and the Ophthalmology and Pediatric Department, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt...
June 21, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
Angela Y Zhu, Vinod Jaskula-Ranga, Albert S Jun
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 21, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
Aditya Bansal, Pukhraj Rishi, Swakshyar Saumya Paul, Kumar Saurabh
Pseudomelanoma is a condition that mimics a uveal melanoma. Various methods are used to differentiate between uveal melanoma and mimicking conditions, but none is definitive. We report a case of localized hemorrhagic choroidal detachment in monocular middle-aged Asian lady of Indian origin with opaque media secondary to failed corneal graft. An ultrasound scan revealed a mass lesion suspected to be choroidal melanoma. After 10 weeks of observation and follow-up, lesion showed complete regression as seen with serial ultrasound scans...
May 2018: Oman Journal of Ophthalmology
M Buzzi, P Versura, B Grigolo, C Cavallo, A Terzi, M Pellegrini, G Giannaccare, V Randi, E C Campos
INTRODUCTION: Various blood-derived products have been proposed for the topical treatment of ocular surface diseases. The aim of the study was to compare the different content of Growth Factors (GFs) and Interleukins (ILs) in peripheral blood (PB-S) and Cord Blood (CB-S) sera. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sera were obtained from 105 healthy adult donors (PB-S) and 107 umbilical/placental veins at the time of delivery (CB-S). The levels of epithelial-GF (EGF), fibroblast-GF (FGF), platelet-derived-GF (PDGF), insulin-GF (IGF), transforming-GF alpha (TGF-α,) and beta 1-2-3 (TGF-β1-β2-β3), vascular endothelial-GF (VEGF), nerve-GF (NGF), Interleukin (IL)-1β,IL-4,IL-6,IL-10, and IL-13 were assessed by Bio-Plex Protein Array System (Bio-Rad Laboratories, CA, USA)...
June 13, 2018: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
Kazuya Yamashita, Emi Inagaki, Shin Hatou, Kazunari Higa, Akiko Ogawa, Hideyuki Miyashita, Kazuo Tsubota, Shigeto Shimmura
Corneal blindness is the third leading cause of blindness in the world, and one of the main etiologies is dysfunction of the corneal endothelium. Current treatment of corneal endothelial disease is allogenic corneal transplantation, which is limited by the global shortage of donor corneas and immunological rejection. The corneal endothelium consists of a monolayer of cells derived from the neural crest and mesoderm. Its main function is to prevent corneal edema by tight junctions formed by zonular occludens-1 (ZO-1) and Na, K-ATPase pump function...
June 21, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
Leopoldo Spadea, Emanuele Tonti, Andrea Spaterna, Andrea Marchegiani
Conjunctivitis, keratoconjunctivitis, and corneal ulcers are common eye disorders frequently diagnosed in both humans and animals, and are currently treated by topical administration of eye drops containing anti-inflammatory and antibacterial agents. The current molecules often lack efficacy because infections in hypoxic tissue contain methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ; thus, new products for the treatment of ocular pain and inflammation are needed. The use of ozone, a molecule stabilized for topical use as an ozonide, could be providential due to its anti-inflammatory and bactericidal activity in certain anterior segment pathologies, in addition to promoting tissue repair properties...
May 2018: Case Reports in Ophthalmology
Dan Fu, Lin Wang, Xingtao Zhou, Zhiqiang Yu
PURPOSE: To compare the functional optical zone (OZ) with different levels of myopia and different OZ groups after small-incision lenticule extraction. METHODS: This retrospective study included 249 patients (120 men) after small-incision lenticule extraction correction. We grouped participants according to attempted correction [low: spherical equivalent (SE) > -3.0 D; moderate: -6.0 D ≥ SE ≥ -3.0 D; high: SE ≥ -6.0 D] and planned functional optical zone (PFOZ) (OZ-1: PFOZ ≤ 6...
June 20, 2018: Cornea
Michelle Samuel, Sara M Thomasy, Allison S Calderon, Philip H Kass, Keith Collins, Christopher J Murphy
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of 5% sodium chloride ophthalmic ointment (5% NaCl) on thickness and morphology of the normal canine cornea using ultrasonic pachymetry (USP), in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM), and Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT). METHODS: Five healthy laboratory Beagles received ophthalmic examinations including USP, IVCM, and FD-OCT prior to and at fixed intervals following treatment. The right and left eyes were treated with 5% NaCl and artificial tears ophthalmic ointment (AT), respectively, every 2 hours for 4 treatments/d (days 2-9), and then hourly for 7 treatments/d (day 10)...
June 21, 2018: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Piyush Kohli, Sudesh Kumar Arya, Amit Raj, Uma Handa
AIM: To evaluate the signs and symptoms of dry eye after phacoemulsification; effects on the status of ocular surface using impression cytology; and associated risk factors. METHODS: Prospective study included 50 eyes (50 patients) with no dry eye signs or symptoms, who underwent clear corneal phacoemulsification for senile cataract. Dry eye indices used included Ocular Surface Disease Index scoring, Schirmer I test, tear break up time, tear meniscus height, corneal fluorescein staining, lissamine green staining and goblet cell density (GCD) with the help of impression cytology...
June 20, 2018: International Ophthalmology
Sotaro Mori, Mari Sakamoto, Takuji Kurimoto, Akiyasu Kanamori, Kaori Ueda, Yukako Inoue, Yuko Yamada, Makoto Nakamura
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surgical success of sulcus fixation of Baerveldt glaucoma implant (BGIs) in special reference to corneal damage. METHODS: This observational prospective cohort study included 24 patients who underwent a median of 3.0 previous intraocular surgeries and sulcus fixation of BGIs for the first time. The intraocular pressure (IOP), the number of ocular hypotensives used, corneal endothelial cell density (ECD), and logMAR-converted best-corrected visual acuity (VA) of each patient were measured preoperatively and postoperatively until 12 months after surgery...
June 20, 2018: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Daneeya Ekapopphan, Athicha Srisutthakarn, Walasinee Moonarmart, Ruangrat Buddhirongawatr, Norasuthi Bangphoomi
This study aims to determine the microbiological profile and risk factors associated with antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in canine severe corneal ulcers. Thirty-two corneal and conjunctival swabs were collected from dogs with diagnosed severe corneal ulcers that presented to Prasu-Arthorn veterinary teaching hospital in Nakhon Pathom, Thailand from June 2015 to June 2016. Microorganisms were identified by means of genotypic and phenotypic approaches. Of 32 ulcers sampled, 26 (81.3%) yielded culturable microorganisms with 24 bacterial isolates and 7 fungal isolates...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
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