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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750057/medical-issues-in-flight-and-updating-the-emergency-medical-kit
#1
REVIEW
Mohamud A Verjee, Robert Crone, Grigory Ostrovskiy
Airline travel is more affordable than ever and likely safer than ever too. Within half a day, a passenger can be on the other side of the world. However, medical care in-flight has been an issue for those with medical conditions and for those who fall sick during a journey. While airlines have the advice of multiple recognized organizations on needs and standards of care, in-flight emergencies occur at various levels. An emergency medical kit (EMK) together with trained cabin crew can be very effective at resolving the minor problems that arise and reducing the risk of escalation...
2018: Open Access Emergency Medicine: OAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719245/corticospinal-circuits-from-the-sensory-and-motor-cortices-differentially-regulate-skilled-movements-through-distinct-spinal-interneurons
#2
Masaki Ueno, Yuka Nakamura, Jie Li, Zirong Gu, Jesse Niehaus, Mari Maezawa, Steven A Crone, Martyn Goulding, Mark L Baccei, Yutaka Yoshida
Little is known about the organizational and functional connectivity of the corticospinal (CS) circuits that are essential for voluntary movement. Here, we map the connectivity between CS neurons in the forelimb motor and sensory cortices and various spinal interneurons, demonstrating that distinct CS-interneuron circuits control specific aspects of skilled movements. CS fibers originating in the mouse motor cortex directly synapse onto premotor interneurons, including those expressing Chx10. Lesions of the motor cortex or silencing of spinal Chx10+ interneurons produces deficits in skilled reaching...
May 1, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709440/the-2018-ishlt-apm-ast-iccac-stsw-recommendations-for-the-psychosocial-evaluation-of-adult-cardiothoracic-transplant-candidates-and-candidates-for-long-term-mechanical-circulatory-support
#3
EDITORIAL
Mary Amanda Dew, Andrea F DiMartini, Fabienne Dobbels, Kathleen L Grady, Sheila G Jowsey-Gregoire, Annemarie Kaan, Kay Kendall, Quincy-Robyn Young, Susan E Abbey, Zeeshan Butt, Catherine C Crone, Sabina De Geest, Christina T Doligalski, Christiane Kugler, Laurie McDonald, Linda Ohler, Liz Painter, Michael G Petty, Desiree Robson, Thomas Schlöglhofer, Terry D Schneekloth, Jonathan P Singer, Patrick J Smith, Heike Spaderna, Jeffrey J Teuteberg, Roger D Yusen, Paula C Zimbrean
The psychosocial evaluation is well-recognized as an important component of the multifaceted assessment process to determine candidacy for heart transplantation, lung transplantation, and long-term mechanical circulatory support (MCS). However, there is no consensus-based set of recommendations for either the full range of psychosocial domains to be assessed during the evaluation, or the set of processes and procedures to be used to conduct the evaluation, report its findings, and monitor patients' receipt of and response to interventions for any problems identified...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688551/making-a-move-in-exercise-referral-co-development-of-a-physical-activity-referral-scheme
#4
B J R Buckley, D H J Thijssen, R C Murphy, L E F Graves, G Whyte, F B Gillison, D Crone, P M Wilson, P M Watson
Background: Translational research is required to ensure exercise referral schemes (ERSs) are evidence-based and reflect local needs. This article reports process data from the co-development phase of an ERS, providing an insight into (i) factors that must be considered when translating evidence to practice in an ERS setting, and (ii) challenges and facilitators of conducting participatory research involving multiple stakeholders. Methods: An ERS was iteratively co-developed by a multidisciplinary stakeholder group (commissioners, managers, practitioners, patients and academics) via five participatory meetings and an online survey...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664997/opportunities-for-neurodevelopmental-plasticity-from-infancy-through-early-adulthood
#5
Amanda E Guyer, Koraly Pérez-Edgar, Eveline A Crone
Multiple and rapid changes in brain development occur in infancy and early childhood that undergird behavioral development in core domains. The period of adolescence also carries a second influx of growth and change in the brain to support the unique developmental tasks of adolescence. This special section documents two core conclusions from multiple studies. First, evidence for change in brain-based metrics that underlie cognitive and behavioral functions are not limited to narrow windows in development, but are evident from infancy into early adulthood...
April 17, 2018: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660644/scared-and-surrounded-by-clutter-the-influence-of-emotional-reactivity
#6
Cassandra Crone, Melissa M Norberg
BACKGROUND: Home visits can improve treatment outcomes for hoarding disorder, but factors influencing the success of home visits remain unknown. As home visits expose individuals to clutter and fear, the present study examined the effect that fear and emotional reactivity have on the relationship between clutter and discarding behaviour. METHODS: Participants with at least subclinical discarding problems (n = 143) were asked to save or discard personal possessions of varying value following an emotional induction that took place in either a tidy or cluttered context...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617405/social-network-cohesion-in-school-classes-promotes-prosocial-behavior
#7
Wouter van den Bos, Eveline A Crone, Rosa Meuwese, Berna Güroğlu
Adolescence is a key period of social development at the end of which individuals are expected to take on adult social roles. The school class, as the most salient peer group, becomes the prime environment that impacts social development during adolescence. Using social network analyses, we investigated how individual and group level features are related to prosocial behavior and social capital (generalized trust). We mapped the social networks within 22 classrooms of adolescents aged between 12 and 18 years (N = 611), and collected data on social behaviors towards peers...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614348/distinctive-heritability-patterns-of-subcortical-prefrontal-cortex-resting-state-connectivity-in-childhood-a-twin-study
#8
Michelle Achterberg, Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marinus H van Ijzendoorn, Mara van der Meulen, Nim Tottenham, Eveline A Crone
Connectivity between limbic/subcortical and prefrontal-cortical brain regions develops considerably across childhood, but less is known about the heritability of these networks at this age. We tested the heritability of limbic/subcortical-cortical and limbic/subcortical-subcortical functional brain connectivity in 7- to 9-year-old twins (N = 220), focusing on two key limbic/subcortical structures: the ventral striatum and the amygdala, given their combined influence on changing incentivied behavior during childhood and adolescence...
March 31, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607489/development-of-multifaceted-risk-taking-and-the-relations-to-sex-steroid-hormones-a-longitudinal-study
#9
Jiska S Peper, Barbara R Braams, Neeltje E Blankenstein, Marieke G N Bos, Eveline A Crone
Risk taking is a multidimensional construct. It is currently unclear which aspects of risk-taking change most during adolescence and if/how sex hormones contribute to risk-taking tendencies. This study applied a longitudinal design with three time-points, separated by 2 years, in participants aged 8-29 years (670 observations). The Balloon Analogue Risk Task, a delay discounting task, and various self-report questionnaires were administered, to measure aspects of risk taking. Longitudinal analyses demonstrated mostly nonlinear age-related patterns in risk-taking behavior and approach-related personality characteristics (peaking in late adolescence)...
April 1, 2018: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604050/common-data-elements-for-epilepsy-mobile-health-systems
#10
Daniel M Goldenholz, Robert Moss, David A Jost, Nathan E Crone, Gregory Krauss, Rosalind Picard, Chiara Caborni, Jose E Cavazos, John Hixson, Tobias Loddenkemper, Tracy Dixon Salazar, Laura Lubbers, Lauren C Harte-Hargrove, Vicky Whittemore, Jonas Duun-Henriksen, Eric Dolan, Nitish Kasturia, Mark Oberemk, Mark J Cook, Mark Lehmkuhle, Michael R Sperling, Patricia O Shafer
OBJECTIVE: Common data elements (CDEs) are currently unavailable for mobile health (mHealth) in epilepsy devices and related applications. As a result, despite expansive growth of new digital services for people with epilepsy, information collected is often not interoperable or directly comparable. We aim to correct this problem through development of industry-wide standards for mHealth epilepsy data. METHODS: Using a group of stakeholders from industry, academia, and patient advocacy organizations, we offer a consensus statement for the elements that may facilitate communication among different systems...
March 31, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597156/longitudinal-development-of-hippocampal-subregions-from-childhood-to-adulthood
#11
Christian K Tamnes, Marieke G N Bos, Ferdi C van de Kamp, Sabine Peters, Eveline A Crone
Detailed descriptions of the development of the hippocampus promise to shed light on the neural foundation of development of memory and other cognitive functions, as well as the emergence of major mental disorders. Hippocampus is a heterogeneous structure with a well characterized internal complexity, but development of its distinct subregions in humans has remained poorly described. We analyzed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data from a large longitudinal sample (270 participants, 678 scans) using an automated segmentation tool and mixed models to delineate the development of hippocampal subregion volumes from childhood to adulthood...
March 22, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577320/correlated-seed-failure-as-an-environmental-veto-to-synchronize-reproduction-of-masting-plants
#12
Michał Bogdziewicz, Michael A Steele, Shealyn Marino, Elizabeth E Crone
Variable, synchronized seed production, called masting, is a widespread reproductive strategy in plants. Resource dynamics, pollination success, and, as described here, environmental veto are possible proximate mechanisms driving masting. We explored the environmental veto hypothesis, which assumes that reproductive synchrony is driven by external factors preventing reproduction in some years, by extending the resource budget model of masting with correlated reproductive failure. We ran this model across its parameter space to explore how key parameters interact to drive seeding dynamics...
March 26, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577280/emerging-depression-in-adolescence-coincides-with-accelerated-frontal-cortical-thinning
#13
Marieke G N Bos, Sabine Peters, Ferdi C van de Kamp, Eveline A Crone, Christian K Tamnes
BACKGROUND: Adolescence is a transition period characterized by heightened emotional reactivity, which for some sets the stage for emerging depressive symptoms. Prior studies suggest that adolescent depression is associated with deviant cortical and subcortical brain structure. Longitudinal studies are, however, currently scarce, but critical to detect which adolescents are at risk for developing depressive symptoms. METHODS: In this longitudinal study, a community sample of 205 participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in three biennial waves (522 scans) spanning 5 years across ages 8-25 years...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572926/regional-brain-volumetry-and-brain-function-in-severely-brain-injured-patients
#14
Jitka Annen, Gianluca Frasso, Julia Sophia Crone, Lizette Heine, Carol Di Perri, Charlotte Martial, Helena Cassol, Athena Demertzi, Lionel Naccache, Steven Laureys
OBJECTIVE: The relationship between residual brain tissue in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) and the clinical condition is unclear. This observational study aimed to quantify gray (GM) and white matter (WM) atrophy in states of (altered) consciousness. METHODS: Structural T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were processed for 102 severely brain-injured and 52 healthy subjects. Regional brain volume was quantified for 158 (sub)cortical regions using Freesurfer...
April 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547741/unraveling-age-puberty-and-testosterone-effects-on-subcortical-brain-development-across-adolescence
#15
Lara M Wierenga, Marieke G N Bos, Elisabeth Schreuders, Ferdi Vd Kamp, Jiska S Peper, Christian K Tamnes, Eveline A Crone
The onset of adolescence in humans is marked by hormonal changes that give rise to secondary sexual characteristics, noted as puberty. It has, however, proven challenging to unravel to what extent pubertal changes may have organizing effects on the brain beyond chronological age, as reported in animal studies. The present longitudinal study aimed to characterize the unique effects of age and puberty on subcortical brain volumes and included three waves of data collection at two-year intervals and 680 T1-weighted MRI scans of 271 participants (54% females) aged between 8 and 29 years old...
May 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536503/contributions-of-reward-sensitivity-to-ventral-striatum-activity-across-adolescence-and-early-adulthood
#16
Elisabeth Schreuders, Barbara R Braams, Neeltje E Blankenstein, Jiska S Peper, Berna Güroğlu, Eveline A Crone
It was examined how ventral striatum responses to rewards develop across adolescence and early adulthood and how individual differences in state- and trait-level reward sensitivity are related to these changes. Participants (aged 8-29 years) were tested across three waves separated by 2 years (693 functional MRI scans) in an accelerated longitudinal design. The results confirmed an adolescent peak in reward-related ventral striatum, specifically nucleus accumbens, activity. In early to mid-adolescence, increases in reward activation were related to trait-level reward drive...
May 2018: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536000/perceived-and-personal-mental-health-stigma-in-latino-and-african-american-college-students
#17
Stacie Craft DeFreitas, Travis Crone, Martha DeLeon, Anna Ajayi
Mental health stigma occurs when people have negative thoughts and beliefs of those with mental health illnesses or mental health treatment. Mental health stigma is related to an assortment of negative outcomes including discrimination in housing and employment, reduced usage of mental health services, and poor mental health outcomes. These implications may be particularly salient for ethnic minorities such as African Americans and Latinos who already suffer from other types of discrimination. This study examines perceived and personal mental health stigma in African American and Latino college students from a nontraditional university to help elucidate factors related to the development of mental health stigma...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528161/heritability-of-aggression-following-social-evaluation-in-middle-childhood-an-fmri-study
#18
Michelle Achterberg, Anna C K van Duijvenvoorde, Mara van der Meulen, Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg, Eveline A Crone
Middle childhood marks an important phase for developing and maintaining social relations. At the same time, this phase is marked by a gap in our knowledge of the genetic and environmental influences on brain responses to social feedback and their relation to behavioral aggression. In a large developmental twin sample (509 7- to 9-year-olds), the heritability and neural underpinnings of behavioral aggression following social evaluation were investigated, using the Social Network Aggression Task (SNAT). Participants viewed pictures of peers that gave positive, neutral, or negative feedback to the participant's profile...
March 12, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516472/goal-directed-correlates-and-neurobiological-underpinnings-of-adolescent-identity-a-multimethod-multisample-longitudinal-approach
#19
Andrik I Becht, Marieke G N Bos, Stefanie A Nelemans, Sabine Peters, Wilma A M Vollebergh, Susan J T Branje, Wim H J Meeus, Eveline A Crone
This multimethod multisample longitudinal study examined how neurological substrates associated with goal directedness and information seeking are related to adolescents' identity. Self-reported data on goal-directedness were collected across three biannual waves in Study 1. Identity was measured one wave later. Study 1 design and measurements were repeated in Study 2 and extended with structural brain data (nucleus accumbens [NAcc] and prefrontal cortex gray matter volume [PFC]), collected across three biannual waves...
May 2018: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467362/media-use-and-brain-development-during-adolescence
#20
REVIEW
Eveline A Crone, Elly A Konijn
The current generation of adolescents grows up in a media-saturated world. However, it is unclear how media influences the maturational trajectories of brain regions involved in social interactions. Here we review the neural development in adolescence and show how neuroscience can provide a deeper understanding of developmental sensitivities related to adolescents' media use. We argue that adolescents are highly sensitive to acceptance and rejection through social media, and that their heightened emotional sensitivity and protracted development of reflective processing and cognitive control may make them specifically reactive to emotion-arousing media...
February 21, 2018: Nature Communications
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